WorldWideScience

Sample records for uncooled two-stroke gas

  1. The Tracer Gas Method of Determining the Charging Efficiency of Two-stroke-cycle Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, P H; Deluca, Frank, Jr

    1942-01-01

    A convenient method has been developed for determining the scavenging efficiency or the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle engines. The method consists of introducing a suitable tracer gas into the inlet air of the running engine and measuring chemically its concentration both in the inlet and exhaust gas. Monomethylamine CH(sub 3)NH(sub 2) was found suitable for the purpose as it burns almost completely during combustion, whereas the "short-circuited" portion does not burn at all and can be determined quantitatively in the exhaust. The method was tested both on four-stroke and on two-stroke engines and is considered accurate within 1 percent.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown ignition in a gas fed two-stroke engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, E. Y.; Pasechnikov, N. A.; Telekh, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced ignition for internal combustion engines is investigated intensively after demonstration of a compact ‘laser plug’ possibility. Laser spark benefits as compared to traditional spark plugs are higher compression rate, and possibility of almost any fuel ignition, so lean mixtures burning with lower temperatures could reduce harmful exhausts (NO x , CH, etc). No need in electrode and possibility for multi-point, linear or circular ignition can make combustion even more effective. Laser induced combustion wave appears faster and is more stable in time, than electric one, so can be used for ramjets, chemical thrusters, and gas turbines. To the best of our knowledge, we have performed laser spark ignition of a gas fed two-stroke engine for the first time. Combustion temperature and pressure, exhaust composition, ignition timing were investigated at laser and compared to a regular electric spark ignition in a two-stroke model engine. Presented results show possibility for improvement of two-stroke engines performance, in terms of rotation rate increase and NO x emission reduction. Such compact engines using locally mined fuel could be highly demanded in remote Arctic areas.

  3. Comparative evaluation of a two stroke compressed natural gas mixer design using simulation and experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, D.; Bakar, R.A.; Rahim, M.F.; Noor, M.M. [Malaysia Pahang Univ., Pahang (Malaysia). Automotive Focus Group

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which a two-stroke engine was converted for use with bi-fuel, notably compressed natural gas and gasoline. The excessive by-products generated by two-stroke engine combustion can be attributed to the inefficient combustion process. This prototype uniflow-type single-cylinder engine was equipped with a bi-fuel conversion system. A dedicated mixer was also developed to meter the gaseous fuel through the engine intake system. It was designed to meet air and fuel requirement similar to its gasoline counterpart. The mixer was modeled to obtain optimum orifice diameter using three different sizes of 14, 16 and 18 mm respectively. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate the flow. A pressure reading was obtained during the prototype test. The drop in pressure across the venturi was shown to be an important parameter as it determined the actual fuel-air ratio in the actual engine. A good agreement of CFD outputs with that of the experimental outputs was recorded. The experimental technique validated the pressure distribution predicted by CFD means on the effects of the three insert rings in the CNG mixer. The simulation exercise can be used to predict the amount of CNG consumed by the engine. It was concluded that the 14 mm throat ring was best suited for the CNG mixer because it provided the best suction. Once the mixer is tested on a real engine, it will clear any doubts as to whether the throat can function at high engine speeds. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas, Xavier; Eriksson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-orien...

  5. ESTIMATION OF GAS EXCHANGE INDICATORS AT 3-D MODELING OF THE WORKING PROCESS OF THE TWO-STROKE PETROL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Korohodskyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the help of 3-D modeling of the workflow of a two-stroke engine with spark ignition, crank-chamber scavenging and a carburetor feeding system in the modes of external speed characteristic the indices of gas exchange were evaluated. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental data and 3D simulation results in the AVL FIRE and MTFS® software complexes. The model allows performing optimized calculations of multiphase flow in ICE during experimental design work.

  6. Effects of valve timing, valve lift and exhaust backpressure on performance and gas exchanging of a two-stroke GDI engine with overhead valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Nora, Macklini; Lanzanova, Thompson Diórdinis Metzka; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stroke operation was achieved in a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine. • Shorter valve opening durations improved torque at lower engine speeds. • The longer the valve opening duration, the lower was the air trapping efficiency. • Higher exhaust backpressure and lower valve lift reduced the compressor work. - Abstract: The current demand for fuel efficient and lightweight powertrains, particularly for application in downsized and hybrid electric vehicles, has renewed the interest in two-stroke engines. In this framework, an overhead four-valve spark-ignition gasoline engine was modified to run in the two-stroke cycle. The scavenging process took place during a long valve overlap period around bottom dead centre at each crankshaft revolution. Boosted intake air was externally supplied at a constant pressure and gasoline was directly injected into the cylinder after valve closure. Intake and exhaust valve timings and lifts were independently varied through an electrohydraulic valve train, so their effects on engine performance and gas exchanging were investigated at 800 rpm and 2000 rpm. Different exhaust backpressures were also evaluated by means of exhaust throttling. Air trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenge ratio were calculated based on air and fuel flow rates, and exhaust oxygen concentration at fuel rich conditions. The results indicated that longer intake and exhaust valve opening durations increased the charge purity and hence torque at higher engine speeds. At lower speeds, although, shorter valve opening durations increased air trapping efficiency and reduced the estimated supercharger power consumption due to lower air short-circuiting. A strong correlation was found between torque and charging efficiency, while air trapping efficiency was more associated to exhaust valve opening duration. The application of exhaust backpressure, as well as lower intake/exhaust valve lifts, made it possible to increase

  7. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  8. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  9. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed work, we will perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. We will define the science and...

  10. Carbonaceous species emitted from handheld two-stroke engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckens, John; Olson, David A.; Hays, Michael D.

    Small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work (e.g., string trimmers, leaf blowers, etc.) can emit a variety of potentially toxic carbonaceous air pollutants. Yet, the emissions effluents from these machines go largely uncharacterized, constraining the proper development of human exposure estimates, emissions inventories, and climate and air quality models. This study samples and evaluates chemical pollutant emissions from the dynamometer testing of six small, handheld spark-ignition engines—model years 1998-2002. Four oil-gas blends were tested in each engine in duplicate. Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and gas-phase hydrocarbons were predominant, and the PM emitted was organic matter primarily. An ANOVA model determined that engine type and control tier contributed significantly to emissions variations across all identified compound classes; whereas fuel blend was an insignificant variable accounting for engines were generally intermediate in magnitude compared with other gasoline-powered engines, numerous compounds traditionally viewed as motor vehicle markers are also present in small engine emissions in similar relative proportions. Given that small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work account for 5-10% of total US emissions of CO, CO 2, NO x, HC, and PM 2.5, source apportionment models and human exposure studies need to consider the effect of these small engines on ambient concentrations in air polluted environments.

  11. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  12. Heat Transfer in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent

    Heat transfer between the cylinder gas and the piston surface during combustion in large two-stroke uniflow scavenged marine diesel engines has been investigated in the present work. The piston surface experiences a severe thermal load during combustion due to the close proximity of the combustion...... zone to the surface. At the same time, cooling of the piston crown is relatively complicated. This can cause large thermal stresses in the piston crown and weakening of the material strength, which may be critical as it can lead to formation of cracks. Information about the piston surface heat transfer...... is thus important for the engine manufactures. The piston surface heat transfer was studied in the event of impingement of hot combustion products on the piston during combustion, and an estimate was obtained of the peak heat flux level experienced on the piston surface. The investigation was carried out...

  13. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  14. Overview of DRS uncooled VOx infrared detector development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George

    2011-06-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past decade on uncooled focal plane array technologies and production capabilities. The detector pixel dimensions have continually decreased with an increase in pixel performance making large format, high-density array products affordable. In turn, this has resulted in the proliferation of uncooled IR detectors in commercial and military markets. Presently, uncooled detectors are widely used in firefighting, surveillance, industrial process monitoring, machine vision, and medical applications. Within the military arena, uncooled detectors are ubiquitous in Army soldier systems such as weapon sights, driver's viewers, and helmet-mounted sights. Uncooled detectors are also employed in airborne and ground surveillance sensors including unmanned aerial vehicles and robot vehicles.

  15. MODELING OF ELECTRONIC GASOLINE INJECTION PROCESSES IN TWO STROKE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraivoronskyi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic provision of the processes developed mode, occurring in ignition fuel system with electronically controlled two stroke engine with positive ignition are given. Fuel injection process’ calculation results for the case of placing fuel injector into intake system presented.

  16. Swirling flow in a two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are performed for the turbulent swirling flow in a scale model of a low-speed two-stroke diesel engine with a moving piston. The purpose of the work is to investigate the accuracy of different turbulence models including two-equation Reynolds- Averaged Navier...

  17. Application of military uncooled infrared sensors to homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Chris

    2002-08-01

    During the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging technology began a journey from Government and corporate laboratories to practical application in addressing military, Government, and commercial customer needs. Today, that transition could arguably be considered complete, punctuated by BAE SYSTEMS' delivery of the 10,000th microbolometer camera on 12 February 2002. While microbolometer developmental research continues to advance the state-of-the-art at an ever increasing pace, uncooled infrared cameras are widely deployed serving society in meaningful ways; from preventative maintenance and process inspection to law enforcement and rescue operations. Following last years terrorist attacks in New York and Virginia, President Bush appointed Governor Ridge to lead federal coordination efforts for defense of the homeland. While uncooled microbolometer sensors served in Homeland Security long before September 2001, it is certain that new applications will be identified for surveillance, security, law enforcement and protection needs. In this paper we will describe advances in military uncooled infrared sensor technology and how these sensors can serve in the role of Homeland Defense. Developments in uncooled sensors that will be described include the rugged performance validation of a thermal weapon sight and head-mounted imager. We will look at those areas of Homeland Defense that are most likely to benefit from the application of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology. These include: a) search & rescue camera systems, b) handheld surveillance systems and c) hands-free camera systems.

  18. Swirling flow in model of large two-stroke diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Schnipper, Teis

    2012-01-01

    A scale model of a simplified cylinder in a uniflow scavenged large two-stroke marine diesel engine is constructed to investigate the scavenging process. Angled ports near the bottom of the cylinder liner are uncovered as the piston reaches the bottom dead center. Fresh air enters through the ports...... forcing the gas in the cylinder to leave through an exhaust valve located in the cylinder head. The scavenging flow is a transient (opening/closing ports) confined port-generated turbulent swirl flow, with complex phenomena such as central recirculation zones, vortex breakdown and vortex precession...

  19. A Thermal Imaging Instrument with Uncooled Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Barrentine, E. M.; Brown, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we perform an instrument concept study for sustainable thermal imaging over land with uncooled detectors. The National Research Council's Committee on Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program has identified the inclusion of a thermal imager as critical for both current and future land imaging missions. Such an imaging instrument operating in two bands located at approximately 11 and 12 microns (for example, in Landsat 8, and also Landsat 9 when launched) will provide essential information for furthering our hydrologic understanding at scales of human influence, and produce field-scale moisture information through accurate retrievals of evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 9 is slated to recycle the TIRS-2 instrument launched with Landsat 8 that uses cooled quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), hence requiring expensive and massive cryocooler technology to achieve its required spectral and spatial accuracies. Our goal is to conceptualize and develop a thermal imaging instrument which leverages recent and imminent technology advances in uncooled detectors. Such detector technology will offer the benefit of greatly reduced instrument cost, mass, and power at the expense of some acceptable loss in detector sensitivity. It would also allow a thermal imaging instrument to be fielded on board a low-cost platform, e.g., a CubeSat. Sustained and enhanced land imaging is crucial for providing high-quality science data on change in land use, forest health, crop status, environment, and climate. Accurate satellite mapping of ET at the agricultural field scale (the finest spatial scale of the environmental processes of interest) requires high-quality thermal data to produce the corresponding accurate land surface temperature (LST) retrievals used to drive an ET model. Such an imaging instrument would provide important information on the following: 1) the relationship between land-use and land/water management practices and water use dynamics; 2) the

  20. Perspective of Australian uncooled IR sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development in Australia of resistance bolometer technology and associated uncooled infrared sensors. A summary is given of research achievements, with the aim of placing in historic perspective Australian work in comparison with overseas research and development. Extensive research in this field was carried out at the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), Salisbury, South Australia, in collaboration with the Australian microelectronic and electro-optic industries, with supporting research in Australian universities. The DSTO research has a history covering five decades, commencing with simple thin film bolometers employed in radiometric sensors, followed by protracted R&D culminating in development of micromachined focal plane detector arrays for non-imaging sensors and lightweight thermal imagers. DSTO currently maintains a microbolometer processing capability for the purposes of research collaboration and support for commercial initiatives based on patented technology. Expertise in microbolometer design, performance and processing technology has transferred to Electro-optic Sensor Design (EOSD) through a licensing agreement. Contemporary development will be described.

  1. Stability analysis of an uncooled segment of superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, S. Y. [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    If the part of the HTS magnet is exposed to the outside of the cryogenic coolant due to the fluctuation of the height of the cooling liquid or the vapor generation, the uncooled part becomes very unstable. In this paper, the unstable equilibrium temperature distribution of the uncooled part of a superconductor is obtained, and the maximum temperature and energy are calculated as a function of the uncooled length. Similar to the superconductor stability problem, the current sharing model was applied to derive the theoretical formula and calculated by numerical integration. We also applied a jump model, which assumes that joule heat is generated in all of the uncooled segment, and compares it with the current sharing model results. As a result of the analysis, the stable equilibrium state and the critical uncooled length in the jump model are not shown in the current sharing model. The stability of the conductors to external disturbances was discussed based on the obtained temperature distribution, maximum temperature, and energy.

  2. Two-stroke engine with gaseous and liquid fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, Rene Sejer [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The need to lower emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates as well as rising oil prices have increased engine operators' interest in alternative fuels and fuel flexibility. The low speed two-stroke ME-GI and ME-LGI dual-fuel engines with diesel pilot injection from MAN Diesel and Turbo offer the opportunity of utilising fuels such as LNG, LPG, and methanol in a wide range of liquid to gaseous fuel ratios. (orig.)

  3. Two Stroke Diesel Engines for Large Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Sajjad

    In low speed large two-stroke marine diesel engines, uniflow scavenging is used to remove the exhaust gases from the cylinder and fill the cylinder with fresh air charge for the next cycle. The swirl enhances the mixing of fuel with air and improves combustion efficiency. The thesis focuses...... downstream. As the port closes, the mixing of smoke particles in the core with surrounding regions is enhanced. The hollow conical smoke pattern disappears and resembles to a jet. Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements are conducted in the swirl generator and at the entrance to the test cylinder. The results...

  4. Exhaust Recirculation Control for Reduction of NOx from Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder

    Increased awareness of the detrimental effects on climate, ecosystems and human health have led to numerous restrictions of the emissions from internal combustion engines. Recently the International Maritime Organization has introduced the Tier III standard, which includes a significantly stricter...... the automotive industry, but have only recently been introduced commercially to large two-stroke diesel engines. Recirculation of exhaust gas to the cylinders lowers the oxygen availability and increases the heat capacity during combustion, which in turn leads to less formation of NOx. Experience shows...... of the Tier III standard, while still maintaining maneuverability performance without smoke formation. The design methods acknowledge that engine specific parameter tuning is a scarce resource in the industry and controller complexity is kept to a minimum. An existing dynamic model of the engine and EGR...

  5. Direct Fuel Injection of LPG in Small Two-Stroke Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yew Heng Teoh; Horizon Gitano-Briggs

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used carburetted two-stroke engines in developing countries have high exhaust emission and poor fuel efficiency. To meet more rigid emissions requirements, two-stroke vehicles are typically phase out in favour of four-stroke engines. The problems of ubiquitous legacy two-stroke vehicles remain unsolved by these measures and they are likely to be a major source of transport for many years to come. A number of technologies are available for solving the problems associated with two-...

  6. Numerical Modelling of the Operation of a Novel Two Stroke V4 Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents simulations of the operation of a novel two-stroke engine for road Super Sport motorcycles. Two-stroke engines were preferred to four-stroke engines in Grand Prix motorcycle racing until the start of the Moto GP era when new rules phased out the two-stroke engines. Reasons for the change were the poor fuel economy and significant pollutant emissions. The paper discusses the opportunity of a came back at least in road Super Sport motorcycles thanks to the recent advantages in direct injection and precise lubrication for two-stroke engines, plus the opportunity to use jet ignition, based on performance simulations.

  7. Advanced uncooled infrared focal plane development at CEA/LETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Jean-Luc; Mottin, Eric; Martin, Jean-Luc; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Vilain, Michel

    2017-11-01

    LETI/LIR has been involved for a few year in the field of uncooled detectors and has chosen amorphous silicon for its microbolometer technology development. Uncooled IR detectors pave the way to reduced weight systems aboard satellites. The silicon compatibility of our thermometer is a key parameter which has enabled a very fast technology development and transfer to industry. This competitive technology is now able to provide a new approach for IR detectors for space applications. This paper presents the main characteristics of the CEA / LETI technology which is based on a monolithically integrated structure over a fully completed readout circuit from a commercially available 0.5 μm design rules CMOS line. The technology maturity will be illustrated by the results obtained at LETI/LIR and SOFRADIR on a 320 x 240 with a pitch of 45 μm. First improvement on device reliability and characterization results will be presented.

  8. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  9. Uncooled infrared sensors: rapid growth and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Raymond S.

    2000-07-01

    The uncooled infrared cameras are now available for both the military and commercial markets. The current camera technology incorporates the fruits of many years of development, focusing on the details of pixel design, novel material processing, and low noise read-out electronics. The rapid insertion of cameras into systems is testimony to the successful completion of this 'first phase' of development. In the military market, the first uncooled infrared cameras will be used for weapon sights, driver's viewers and helmet mounted cameras. Major commercial applications include night driving, security, police and fire fighting, and thermography, primarily for preventive maintenance and process control. The technology for the next generation of cameras is even more demanding, but within reach. The paper outlines the technology program planned for the next generation of cameras, and the approaches to further enhance performance, even to the radiation limit of thermal detectors.

  10. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  11. Numerical Modelling of the Operation of a Novel Two Stroke V4 Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Boretti

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents simulations of the operation of a novel two-stroke engine for road Super Sport motorcycles. Two-stroke engines were preferred to four-stroke engines in Grand Prix motorcycle racing until the start of the Moto GP era when new rules phased out the two-stroke engines. Reasons for the change were the poor fuel economy and significant pollutant emissions. The paper discusses the opportunity of a came back at least in road Super Sport motorcycles thanks to the recent advantages i...

  12. Measurement and Calculation of Frictional Loss in Large Two-Stroke Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The total frictional loss in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is rather well determined. However, the contribution (size and distribution) from the different machine elements are not well known. The aim of this study is to establish methods to measure and calculate friction in the piston...... assembly and guide shoe system for a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. These components are the two major contributors to the total friction in a two-stroke marine diesel engine. The piston pack represents approximately 60% of the total mechanical loss at full load and the guide shoe system 23...

  13. High-speed uncooled MWIR hostile fire indication sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Pantuso, F. P.; Jin, G.; Mazurenko, A.; Erdtmann, M.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Salerno, J.

    2011-06-01

    Hostile fire indication (HFI) systems require high-resolution sensor operation at extremely high speeds to capture hostile fire events, including rocket-propelled grenades, anti-aircraft artillery, heavy machine guns, anti-tank guided missiles and small arms. HFI must also be conducted in a waveband with large available signal and low background clutter, in particular the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR). The shortcoming of current HFI sensors in the MWIR is the bandwidth of the sensor is not sufficient to achieve the required frame rate at the high sensor resolution. Furthermore, current HFI sensors require cryogenic cooling that contributes to size, weight, and power (SWAP) in aircraft-mounted applications where these factors are at a premium. Based on its uncooled photomechanical infrared imaging technology, Agiltron has developed a low-SWAP, high-speed MWIR HFI sensor that breaks the bandwidth bottleneck typical of current infrared sensors. This accomplishment is made possible by using a commercial-off-the-shelf, high-performance visible imager as the readout integrated circuit and physically separating this visible imager from the MWIR-optimized photomechanical sensor chip. With this approach, we have achieved high-resolution operation of our MWIR HFI sensor at 1000 fps, which is unprecedented for an uncooled infrared sensor. We have field tested our MWIR HFI sensor for detecting all hostile fire events mentioned above at several test ranges under a wide range of environmental conditions. The field testing results will be presented.

  14. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  15. Modular uncooled video engines based on a DSP processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, F.; Milstain, Y.; Aharon, A.; Neboshchik, A.; Ben-Simon, Y.; Kogan, I.; Lerman, I.; Mizrahi, U.; Maayani, S.; Amsterdam, A.; Vaserman, I.; Duman, O.; Gazit, R.

    2011-06-01

    The market demand for low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) uncooled engines keeps growing. Low SWaP is especially critical in battery-operated applications such as goggles and Thermal Weapon Sights. A new approach for the design of the engines was implemented by SCD to optimize size and power consumption at system level. The new approach described in the paper, consists of: 1. A modular hardware design that allows the user to define the exact level of integration needed for his system 2. An "open architecture" based on the OMAPTM530 DSP that allows the integrator to take advantage of unused hardware (FPGA) and software (DSP) resources, for implementation of additional algorithms or functionality. The approach was successfully implemented on the first generation of 25μm pitch BIRD detectors, and more recently on the new, 640 x480, 17 μm pitch detector.

  16. Direct injection of gaseous LPG in a two-stroke SI engine for improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.; Bakshi, Shamit; Ramesh, A.

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in a two-stroke, spark-ignition (2S–SI) engine can be realized by curtailing short-circuiting losses effectively through direct injection of the fuel. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an alternative transportation fuel that is used in several countries. However, limited information is available on LPG fuelled direct injected engines. Hence, there is a need to study these systems as applied to 2S–SI engines in order to bring out their potential benefits. A manifold injected 2S–SI engine is modified for direct injection of LPG, in gaseous form, from the cylinder head. This engine is evaluated for performance, emission and combustion. Evaluation at various throttle positions and constant speed showed that this system can significantly improve the thermal efficiency and lower the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Up to 93% reduction in HC emissions and improved combustion rates are observed compared to the conventional manifold injection system with LPG. CO emissions are higher and peak NO emissions are lower with this system due to the presence of richer in–cylinder trapped mixtures and charge stratification. This system can operate with similar injection timings at different throttle positions which make electronic control simpler. It can work with low injection pressures in the range of 4–5 bars. All these advantages are attractive for commercial viability of this engine. - Highlights: • Energy saving, low pressure, direct gaseous LPG injection in engine. • Significant reduction in HC emissions at all operating conditions. • No significant changes in injection timings for different throttle positions.

  17. Uncooled Radiation Hard SiC Schottky VUV Detectors Capable of Single Photon Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize very large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC VUV detectors capable of near single...

  18. Experimental investigation of the influence of internal and external EGR on the combustion characteristics of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andwari, Amin Mahmoudzadeh; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigate the effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on a CAI 2-stroke engine. • Effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on combustion phasing of the engine. • Effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on cyclic variability of the engine. • Identify the CAI combustion upper and lower boundary for operating regions. - Abstract: A two-stroke cycle engine incorporated with a controlled auto-ignition combustion approach presents a high thermodynamic efficiency, ultra-low exhaust emissions and high power-to-weight ratio features for future demand of prime movers. The start of auto-ignition, control of the auto-ignition and its cyclic variability, are major concerns that should be addressed in the combustion timing control of controlled auto-ignition engines. Several studies have been performed to examine the effect of internal exhaust gas recirculation utilization on auto-ignited two-stroke cycle engines. However, far too little attention has been devoted to study on the influence of external exhaust gas recirculation on the cyclic variation and the combustion characteristics of controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engines. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of external exhaust gas recirculation in combination with internal exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion characteristics and the cyclic variability of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke engine using fuel with different octane numbers. In a detailed experimental investigation, the combustion-related and pressure-related parameters of the engine are examined and statistically associated with the coefficient of variation and the standard deviation. The outcomes of the investigation indicates that the most influential controlled auto-ignition combustion phasing parameters can be managed appropriately via regulating the internal and external exhaust gas recirculation and fuel octane number. In general, start of auto-ignition and its cyclic variability are

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Scavenging Process in Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine cycle whether it is spark ignited or compression ignited. The scavenging process is responsible for transporting the burned gases from the previous working stroke out of the combustion chamber to allow...... for the fresh charge or fresh air to enter for the next combustion/working stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is responsible for setting the initial condition for the combustion process, consequently affecting fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines...

  20. Two Strokes Diesel Engine - Promising Solution to Reduce CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Tribotte, Pascal; Ravet, Frederic; Dugue, Vincent; Obernesser, Philippe; Quechon, Nicolas; Benajes, Jesus; Novella, Ricardo; De Lima, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Two-stroke engines have dropped out of the automobile market for a long time due to severe drawbacks. Unfortunately, the comparison with the performances of four-stroke engines was not in favour of two-stroke ones. Nevertheless, the needs of a more compact engine with a better ratio of the mass and size versus power motivated research efforts at the beginning of the 90's. Regrettably, these efforts did not result in commercial success and automobile manufacturers kept four-stroke engine archi...

  1. Novel Tribotester for Cylinder Liner/Piston Ring Contacts of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    A good tribological description for the cylinder liner and piston ring materials is always desired in order to achieve an improved combination of the materials. The piston ring package in a two-stroke-diesel engine operates in three lubrication regimes and the materials must be characterized...... in relation to this before a final selection is made. A tribo-test-apparatus is developed to study the tribological performance and to rank the different combinations of cylinder liner and piston ring materials of two stroke marine diesel engines. The test apparatus is based on the block-on-ring principle...

  2. Reaction of Sulfuric Acid in Lube Oil: Implications for Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejre, Kasper Hartvig; Kiil, Søren; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Slow-steaming operation and an increased pressure in the combustion chamber have contributed to increased sulfuric acid (H2SO4) condensation on the cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines, thus causing increased corrosion wear. To cope with this, lube oils are formulated...... of CaCO3 compared to the condensed H2SO4. The observed corrosion wear in large two-stroke marine diesel engines could consequently be attributed to local molar excess of H2SO4 compared to CaCO3 reverse micelles on the cylinder liners....

  3. Particulate matter regulation for two-stroke two wheelers: necessity or haphazard legislation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Samaras, Z.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although interest in particulate emissions has increased considerably during recent years, the subject of particulate matter (PM) emissions from small two-stroke engines used in road vehicles is still largely unexplored. This paper presents the results of an investigation, which examined the typical

  4. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    /charge before the subsequent compression stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is integral to engine performance as it influence the initial condition for the combustion process, thus affecting the fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines for marine...

  5. A 50 cc Two-Stroke DI Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled by DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene; Nielsen, Claus Suldrup; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2008-01-01

    efficiency to even the smallest engines. A 50cc crankcase scavenged two-stroke CI engine was built based on moped parts. The major alterations were a new cylinder head and a 100 bar DI system using a GDItype injector. Power is limited by carbon monoxide emission but smoke-free operation and NOx less than 200...

  6. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  7. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D [Laramie, WY

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  8. Influence of piston displacement on the scavenging and swirling flow in two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas; Haider, Sajjad; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark

    We study the effect of piston motion on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a low speed, large two-stroke marine diesel engine. The work involves experimental, and numerical simulation using OpenFOAM platform, Large Eddy Simulation was used with three different models, One equation Eddy, Dynamic One...

  9. Turbulent swirling flow in a model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    The turbulent and swirling flow of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine cylinder is investigated using a scale model with a static geometry and a transparent cylinder. The swirl is generated by 30 equally spaced ports with angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. A detailed characterization of the flow...

  10. New solutions and technologies for uncooled infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Joël.; Diaz, Frédéric; Fontaine, Christophe; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Clienti, Christophe; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Zhang, Xianghua; Calvez, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    The military uncooled infrared market is driven by the continued cost reduction of the focal plane arrays whilst maintaining high standards of sensitivity and steering towards smaller pixel sizes. As a consequence, new optical solutions are called for. Two approaches can come into play: the bottom up option consists in allocating improvements to each contributor and the top down process rather relies on an overall optimization of the complete image channel. The University of Rennes I with Thales Angénieux alongside has been working over the past decade through French MOD funding's, on low cost alternatives of infrared materials based upon chalcogenide glasses. A special care has been laid on the enhancement of their mechanical properties and their ability to be moulded according to complex shapes. New manufacturing means developments capable of better yields for the raw materials will be addressed, too. Beyond the mere lenses budget cuts, a wave front coding process can ease a global optimization. This technic gives a way of relaxing optical constraints or upgrading thermal device performances through an increase of the focus depths and desensitization against temperature drifts: it combines image processing and the use of smart optical components. Thales achievements in such topics will be enlightened and the trade-off between image quality correction levels and low consumption/ real time processing, as might be required in hand-free night vision devices, will be emphasized. It is worth mentioning that both approaches are deeply leaning on each other.

  11. Pyroelectric Materials for Uncooled Infrared Detectors: Processing, Properties, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, A. K.; Guggilla, P.; Edwards, M. E.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric detectors find applications in diverse and wide areas such as industrial production; automotive; aerospace applications for satellite-borne ozone sensors assembled with an infrared spectrometer; health care; space exploration; imaging systems for ships, cars, and aircraft; and military and security surveillance systems. These detectors are the prime candidates for NASA s thermal infrared detector requirements. In this Technical Memorandum, the physical phenomena underlying the operation and advantages of pyroelectric infrared detectors is introduced. A list and applications of important ferroelectrics is given, which is a subclass of pyroelectrics. The basic concepts of processing of important pyroelectrics in various forms are described: single crystal growth, ceramic processing, polymer-composites preparation, and thin- and thick-film fabrications. The present status of materials and their characteristics and detectors figures-of-merit are presented in detail. In the end, the unique techniques demonstrated for improving/enhancing the performance of pyroelectric detectors are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on recent advances and emerging technologies such as thin-film array devices and novel single crystal sensors.

  12. A method of controlling a large two-stroke turbocharged internal combustion engine and an engine for use in this method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjemtrup, N; Grone, O S

    1994-03-03

    A large two-stroke turbocharged internal combusted engine has a reactor for reduction of the NO[sub x]-content in the exhaust gas connected upstream of the turbocharger. At least one sensor measures at least one engine parameter and in a control unit it is determined whether the reactor is heated by the exhaust gas, which heating may cause reduced energy supply to the turbocharger. When this is the case the control unit opens for supply of supplementary air or gas to the engine which may be effected by starting an auxiliary blower and/or by actuating a control means in a bypass conduit so that a large amount of exhaust gas with a corresponding increase in the power is delivered to the turbocharger turbine. (author) figs.

  13. Integrated Analysis of the Scavenging Process in Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland

    Large commercial ships such as container vessels and bulk carriers are propelledby low-speed, uniow scavenged two-stroke diesel engines. An integralin-cylinder process in this type of engine is the scavenging process, where the burned gases from the combustion process are evacuated through...... receiver fora two-stroke diesel engine. Time resolved boundary conditions corresponding to measurements obtained from an operating engine as well as realistic initial conditions are used in the simulations. The CFD model provides a detailed description of the in-cylinder ow from exhaust valve opening (EVO...... in the scavenge and exhaust receivers increase while the scavenge port exposure time, tscav, decrease. Further the scavenging pressure is varied while the engine speed is kept constant. From the perspective of the scavenging process this will resemble a load sweep following a generator curve. The scavenge port...

  14. A discussion of the several types of two-stroke-cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediger, Herbert J

    1935-01-01

    This report discusses different types of two-stroke engines as well as the three most important design factors: volume of scavenge and charge delivery, scavenging process (scavenging result), and result of charge. Some of the types of engines discussed include: single cylinder with crank-chamber scavenge pump and auxiliary suction piston linked to working connecting rod; and two cylinder engines with a rotary scavenge pump arrangement. Three and four cylinder engines are also discussed in various designs.

  15. Four-Stroke and Two-Stroke Marine Engines Comparison and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Eng. Waleed Alturki

    2017-01-01

    Marine engines have evolved a lot through time. From the earliest instances of rowing equipment to the advanced machinery, propulsion engines have become a critical part in the efficiency of marine vessels. These engines can be classified and selected using various characteristics and types, such as its operating cycle. Engines can come in either the four-stroke or the two-stroke version. Four-stroke engines are primarily used in cars, buses, and trucks due to their lower noise production and...

  16. Heat transfer modeling in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lujan Martinez, José Manuel; Climent Puchades, Héctor; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer from the hot gases to the wall in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines is underestimated using steady state with fully developed flow empirical correlations. This fact is detected when comparing measured and modeled pressure pulses in different positions in the exhaust system. This can be explained taking into account that classical expressions have been validated for fully developed flows, a situation that is far from the flow behavior in reciprocating interna...

  17. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  18. Dynamic and Thermodynamic Examination of a Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    İPCİ, Duygu; KARABULUT, Halit

    2016-01-01

    In this study the combined dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of a two-stroke internal combustion engine was carried out. The variation of the heat, given to the working fluid during the heating process of the thermodynamic cycle, was modeled with the Gaussian function. The dynamic model of the piston driving mechanism was established by means of nine equations, five of them are motion equations and four of them are kinematic relations. Equations are solved by using a numerical method based o...

  19. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Lu; Changlu Zhao; Zhe Zuo; Fujun Zhang; Shuanlu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed stat...

  20. TOPSIS Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling Approach for Biolubricant Selection for Two-Stroke Petrol Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Dehghani Soufi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust pollutants from two-stroke petrol engines are a problem for the environment. Biolubricants are a new generation of renewable and eco-friendly vegetable-based lubricants, which have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In this paper, the applicability of the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to support the process of building the scoring system for selecting an appropriate two-stroke lubricant has been analyzed. For this purpose, biolubricants (TMP-triesters based on castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil were produced and then utilized in a 200 cc two-stroke gasoline engine to investigate their effects on its performance and exhaust emissions. The results obtained from the use of the entropy technique in the TOPSIS algorithm showed that palm oil-based lubricant took up the greatest distance from the Negative Ideal Solution (NIS and was selected as the most optimal lubricant for these types of engines.

  1. Recent Development of the Two-Stroke Engine. II - Design Features. 2; Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, J.

    1945-01-01

    Completing the first paper dealing with charging methods and arrangements, the present paper discusses the design forms of two-stroke engines. Features which largely influence piston running are: (a) The shape and surface condition of the sliding parts. (b) The cylinder and piston materials. (c) Heat conditions in the piston, and lubrication. There is little essential difference between four-stroke and two-stroke engines with ordinary pistons. In large engines, for example, are always found separately cast or welded frames in which the stresses are taken up by tie rods. Twin piston and timing piston engines often differ from this design. Examples can be found in many engines of German or foreign make. Their methods of operation will be dealt with in the third part of the present paper, which also includes the bibliography. The development of two-stroke engine design is, of course, mainly concerned with such features as are inherently difficult to master; that is, the piston barrel and the design of the gudgeon pin bearing. Designers of four-stroke engines now-a-days experience approximately the same difficulties, since heat stresses have increased to the point of influencing conditions in the piston barrel. Features which notably affect this are: (a) The material. (b) Prevailing heat conditions.

  2. Aerodynamic efficiency of flapping flight: analysis of a two-stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Jane

    2008-01-01

    To seek the simplest efficient flapping wing motions and understand their relation to steady flight, a two-stroke model in the quasi-steady limit was analyzed. It was found that a family of two-stroke flapping motions have aerodynamic efficiency close to, but slightly lower than, the optimal steady flight. These two-stroke motions share two common features: the downstroke is a gliding motion and the upstroke has an angle of attack close to the optimal of the steady flight of the same wing. With the reduced number of parameters, the aerodynamic cost function in the parameter space can be visualized. This was examined for wings of different lift and drag characteristics at Reynolds numbers between 10(2) and 10(6). The iso-surfaces of the cost function have a tube-like structure, implying that the solution is insensitive to a specific direction in the parameter space. Related questions in insect flight that motivated this work are discussed.

  3. Comparison of parameters of modern cooled and uncooled thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareła, Jarosław; Kastek, Mariusz; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Krupiński, Michał

    2017-10-01

    During the design of a system employing thermal cameras one always faces a problem of choosing the camera types best suited for the task. In many cases such a choice is far from optimal one, and there are several reasons for that. System designers often favor tried and tested solution they are used to. They do not follow the latest developments in the field of infrared technology and sometimes their choices are based on prejudice and not on facts. The paper presents the results of measurements of basic parameters of MWIR and LWIR thermal cameras, carried out in a specialized testing laboratory. The measured parameters are decisive in terms of image quality generated by thermal cameras. All measurements were conducted according to current procedures and standards. However the camera settings were not optimized for a specific test conditions or parameter measurements. Instead the real settings used in normal camera operations were applied to obtain realistic camera performance figures. For example there were significant differences between measured values of noise parameters and catalogue data provided by manufacturers, due to the application of edge detection filters to increase detection and recognition ranges. The purpose of this paper is to provide help in choosing the optimal thermal camera for particular application, answering the question whether to opt for cheaper microbolometer device or apply slightly better (in terms of specifications) yet more expensive cooled unit. Measurements and analysis were performed by qualified personnel with several dozen years of experience in both designing and testing of thermal camera systems with both cooled and uncooled focal plane arrays. Cameras of similar array sizes and optics were compared, and for each tested group the best performing devices were selected.

  4. Development and validation of a new turbocharger simulation methodology for marine two stroke diesel engine modelling and diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakellaridis, Nikolaos F.; Raptotasios, Spyridon I.; Antonopoulos, Antonis K.; Mavropoulos, Georgios C.; Hountalas, Dimitrios T.

    2015-01-01

    Engine cycle simulation models are increasingly used in diesel engine simulation and diagnostic applications, reducing experimental effort. Turbocharger simulation plays an important role in model's ability to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The present work describes the development of a complete engine simulation model for marine Diesel engines based on a new methodology for turbocharger modelling utilizing physically based meanline models for compressor and turbine. Simulation accuracy is evaluated against engine bench measurements. The methodology was developed to overcome the problem of limited experimental maps availability for compressor and turbine, often encountered in large marine diesel engine simulation and diagnostic studies. Data from the engine bench are used to calibrate the models, as well as to estimate turbocharger shaft mechanical efficiency. Closed cycle and gas exchange are modelled using an existing multizone thermodynamic model. The proposed methodology is applied on a 2-stroke marine diesel engine and its evaluation is based on the comparison of predictions against measured engine data. It is demonstrated model's ability to predict engine response with load variation regarding both turbocharger performance and closed cycle parameters, as well as NOx emission trends, making it an effective tool for both engine diagnostic and optimization studies. - Highlights: • Marine two stroke diesel engine simulation model. • Turbine and compressor simulation using physical meanline models. • Methodology to derive T/C component efficiency and T/C shaft mechanical efficiency. • Extensive validation of predictions against experimental data.

  5. Charging process analysis of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results on a 1D model of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine. The research aimed at creating a model of the engine in question to investigate how engine performance is affected by the compressor gear ratio. The power was constant at all the operating points. The research results are presented as graphs of power consumed by the compressor, compressor efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The optimal range of compressor gear ratio in terms of engine efficiency was defined from the research results.

  6. Testing of Bearing Materials for Large Two-stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Persson, Sebastian; Vølund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In large two-stroke marine diesel engines bearings are designed with the intention that these need not be replaced during the life of the engine. The design has shown very good service experiences. The design parameters of the main bearings are, among others, based on the average maximum specific...... load which the bearing should operate under. In general, the frictional loss is less than 1% of the nominal power of the engine but is still a target for optimization. Fatigue mechanisms of bearing lining material are not fully understood and the design limits with regards to minimum oil film thickness...

  7. Testing of bearing materials for large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders; Klit, Peder; Persson, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In large two-stroke marine diesel engines, bearings are designed to last the lifetime of the engine. The design has shown very good service experiences. The design parameters of the main bearings are, among others, based on the average maximum specific load which the bearing should operate under....... In general, the frictional loss is less than 1% of the nominal power of the engine but is still a target for optimization. Fatigue mechanisms of bearing lining material are not fully understood and the design limits with regards to minimum oil film thickness, max oil film pressure and oil film pressure...

  8. Combustion Heat Release Rate Comparison of Algae Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel to F-76 in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was recorded. Figure 14 shows the gauge on the rocker arm during calibration . Figure 14. Mechanical Injector Rocker Arm Strain Gauge. D. DATA...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE by John H. Petersen June 2013 Thesis...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John H

  9. Bearings for high performance requirements in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G.

    1983-11-01

    Most measures to reduce fuel consumption in diesel engines lead, directly or indirectly, to more severe operating conditions for the engine bearings. In ever more instances the bearings become the components which limit useful engine life and the time between overhauls. Bearings with improved performance characteristics are required. During recent years, Miba Gleitlager AG has developed several solutions to meet these requirements. They consist of either material improvements, such as a cast white metal (SnSb 12Cu 3 NiCd) with higher fatigue strength, or an electroplated overlay (PbSn 18 Cu) with improved fatigue and wear resistance. New design solutions found included the steel-Al Sn 6-WM 85 bearing for two-stroke engines, the steel-Al Sn 6 PbSn 18 Cu bearing applied to two-stroke crosshead bearings, the steel-AlZn 4,5 PbSn 18 Cu bearing for high bearing loads in four-stroke engines, and the Miba-Rillenlager with its radically new running-surface structure for extreme load and wear conditions. The application potential of these bearings and the operating experience with them are discussed in this article.

  10. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  11. Modeling the condensation of sulfuric acid and water on the cylinder liner of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Mayer, Stefan; Eskildsen, Svend S.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosive wear of cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines that burn heavy fuel oil containing sulfur is coupled to the formation of gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO3) and subsequent combined condensation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O) vapor. The present work seeks to address...... vapor liquid equilibrium. By assuming homogenous cylinder gas mixtures condensation is modeled using a convective heat and mass transfer analogy combined with realistic liner temperature profiles. Condensation of water is significantly altered by the liner temperature and charge air humidity while...... how fuel sulfur content, charge air humidity and liner temperature variations affects the deposition of water and sulfuric acid at low load operation. A phenomenological engine model is applied to simulate the formation of cylinder/bulk gas combustion products and dew points comply with H2O–H2SO4...

  12. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  13. Performance optimization of a Two-Stroke supercharged diesel engine for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Trullo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Two-Stroke diesel engine for aircraft propulsion was modeled with a 0D/1D approach. • The results of the 0D/1D model are compared with those resulting from a 3D model. • The effect of several design and thermodynamic parameters have been analyzed. • Guidelines for the optimization of engine performance are provided. - Abstract: In Two-Stroke engines, the cylinder filling efficiency is antithetical to the cylinder scavenging efficiency; moreover, both of them are influenced by geometric and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the design and operation of both the engine and the related supercharging system. Aim of this work is to provide several guidelines about the definition of design and operation parameters for a Two-Stroke two banks Uniflow diesel engine, supercharged with two sequential turbochargers and an aftercooler per bank, with the goal of either increasing the engine brake power at take-off or decreasing the engine fuel consumption in cruise conditions. The engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. Then, the model capability in describing the effect of several parameters on engine performance has been assessed comparing the results of 3D simulations with those of 0D/1D model. The validated 0D/1D model has been used to simulate the engine behavior varying several design and operation engine parameters (exhaust valves opening and closing angles and maximum valve lift, scavenging ports opening angle, distance between bottom edge of the scavenging ports and bottom dead center, area of the single scavenging port and number of ports, engine volumetric compression ratio, low and high pressure compressor pressure ratios, air/fuel ratio) on a wide range of possible values. The parameters most influencing the engine performance are then recognized and their effect on engine thermodynamic behavior is discussed. Finally, the system configurations leading to best engine power at sea level and lowest fuel consumption in cruise

  14. Modeling the Distribution of Sulfur Compounds in a Large Two Stroke Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Schramm, Jesper; Andreasen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In many years large low speed marine diesel engines have consumed heavy fuel oils with sulfur contents in the order of 2.5 - 4.5wt%. Present legislations require that the fuel sulfur is reduced and in near future the limit will be 0.5wt% globally. During combustion most of the sulfur is oxidized...... conditions and sulfur feed. This work presents a computational model of a large low speed two-stroke diesel engine where a 0D multi-zone approach including a detailed reaction mechanism is employed in order to investigate in cylinder formation of gaseous SO3 where fuel injection rates are determined using...... experimental pressure traces. Similarly to NO the SO3 is very sensitive to the rate that fresh air mixes with hot combustion products. Therefore a simple mixing rate is proposed and calibrated in order to meet experimental results of NO. Generally 3 - 5 % of the injected sulfur is oxidized to SO3...

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of sprays in two stroke diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Bjarke Skovgård

    2007-01-01

    . The latter is the subject of this dissertation. The theory and experimental findings on diesel sprays are investigated, including e.g. spray parameters and droplet break up. It is found that no complete theory is yet present and large challenges lie ahead. Generally, there is fairly good consensus on which......The control of the injected spray is important when optimizing performance and reducing emissions from diesel engines. The research community has conducted extensive research especially on smaller four stroke engines, but so far only little has been done on sprays in large two stroke engines...... have different scales and other designs than those used in the literature, so extending results from the literature will require experiments on this particular type of setup. Numerical investigations of diesel sprays are performed using the Eulerian/Lagrangian engine CFD code Kiva. In agreement...

  16. Simulation Modeling and Optimization of Uniflow Scavenging System Parameters on Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the introduction of opposed-piston two-stroke (OP2S gasoline direct injection (GDI engines, the OP2S-GDI engine working principle and scavenging process were analyzed. GT-Power software was employed to model the working process based on the structural style and principle of OP2S-GDI engine. The tracer gas method and OP2S-GDI engine experiment were employed for model validation at full load of 6000 rpm. The OP2S-GDI engine scavenging system parameters were optimized, including intake port height stroke ratio, intake port circumference ratio, exhaust port height stroke ratio, exhaust port circumference ratio, and opposed-piston motion phase difference. At the same time, the effect of the port height stroke ratio and opposed-piston motion phase difference on effective compression ratio and expansion ratio were considered, and the indicated work was employed as the optimization objective. A three-level orthogonal experiment was applied in the calculation process to reduce the calculation work. The influence and correlation coefficient on the scavenging efficiency and delivery ratio were investigated by the orthogonal experiment analysis of intake and exhaust port height stroke ratio and circular utilization. The effect of the scavenging system parameters on delivery ratio, scavenging efficiency and indicated work were calculated to obtain the best parameters. The results show that intake port height stroke ratio is the main factor for the delivery ratio, while exhaust port height stroke ratio is the main factor to engine delivery ratio and scavenging efficiency.

  17. Flex-Fuel Two-Stroke Snowmobile: Development of a Flex-Fuel, Two-Stroke, Direct-Injection Snowmobile for Use in the Clean Snowmobile Challenge and National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The University of Idaho's entry into the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was a semi-direct-injection (SDI) two-stroke powered REV-XP snowmobile modified to use flex fuel. The flex fuel engine produces stock engine power on any blend of etha...

  18. Optimizing the Performance of a 50cc Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Engine Operating on Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene; Dolriis, J.D.; Hansson, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the optimization of a 50cc crankcase scavenged two-stroke diesel engine operating on dimethyl ether (DME). The optimization is primarily done with respect to engine efficiency. The underlying idea behind the work is that the low weight, low internal friction and low engine...

  19. Numerical Simulation of Condensation of Sulfuric Acid and Water in a Large Two-stroke Marine Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Karvounis, Nikolas; Pang, Kar Mun

    2016-01-01

    We present results from computational fluid dynamics simulations of the condensation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O) in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. The model uses a reduced n-heptane skeletal chemical mechanism coupled with a sulfur subsetto simulate the combustion process...

  20. Investigation of Different Piston Ring Curvatures on Lubricant Transport along Cylinder Liner in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Hannibal Christian; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the hydrodynamic lubrication of the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. The groove mounted piston ring is driven by the reciprocal motion of the piston. The ring shape follows a circular geometry and the effect...

  1. Investigation of different piston ring curvatures on lubricant transport along cylinder liner in large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, H; Klit, P; Vølund, A

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the hydrodynamic lubrication of the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. The groove mounted piston ring is driven by the reciprocal motion of the piston. The ring shape follows a circular geometry and the effect...

  2. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J; Mayer, S

    2013-01-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry. (paper)

  3. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed state feedback was investigated. First, the nonlinear Linear Parameter Varying (LPV model was utilized to describe the coupling relationship between the engine speed and the rail pressure. The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR optimal control algorithm was applied to design the controller by the feedback of speed and rail pressure. Second, cooperating with the switching characteristics of injectors, the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and GT-Power was utilized to verify the validity of the control algorithm and analyze workspaces for both normal and special sections. Finally, bench test results showed that the accuracy of the rail pressure control was in the range of ±1 MPa, in the condition of sudden 600 r/min speed increases. In addition, the fuel mass was reduced 76.3% compared with the maximum fuel supply quantity and the rail pressure fluctuation was less than 20 MPa. The algorithm could also be appropriate for other types of common rail system thanks to its universality.

  4. Scavenging processes in high speed two-stroke engines studied with laser diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekenberg, M.

    1998-12-31

    The major problem with the carburetted two-stroke engine is the short-circuiting of fuel that occurs during the scavenging phase. This leads to large emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. The object of this thesis has been to map the flow behaviour in the cylinder during the scavenging phase, and to detect differences between different cylinder designs. The measurement techniques used has been Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Laser Sheet Droplet Illumination (LSDI). Of these measurement methods, LDV and LSDI has been used inside the cylinder. LIF was used outside the exhaust port. All measurements were performed in engines running at their rated speeds, 9000 rpm for three of the designs and 5800 rpm for one design. All engines were run at full load with combustion. The LDV measurements inside the cylinder show that cylinders with cup handle transfer channels have a flow pattern inside the cylinder that gives less short-circuiting, and hence less emissions of hydrocarbons, than the cylinder with open transfer channels has. The LIF measurements outside the exhaust port show that the HC emissions that are caused by short-circuiting comes earlier in the scavenging phase for the cylinder with open transfer channels than is the case for the cylinders with cup handle transfer channels. The LSDI measurements in the cylinder give the transfer channel flow angle, for the cylinders with cup handle transfer channels. For the cylinder with open transfer channels, the results are not as useful; fuel droplet vaporization close to the exhaust port ruins the results 35 refs, 43 figs

  5. Turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvorsen, K. M.; Meyer, K. E.; Walther, J. H.; Mayer, S.

    2014-06-01

    It is desirable to use computational fluid dynamics for optimization of the in-cylinder processes in low-speed two-stroke uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engines. However, the complex nature of the turbulent swirling in-cylinder flow necessitates experimental data for validation of the used turbulence models. In the present work, the flow in a dynamic scale model of a uniflow-scavenged cylinder is investigated experimentally. The model has a transparent cylinder and a moving piston driven by a linear motor. The flow is investigated using phase-locked stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Radial profiles of the phase-locked mean and rms velocities are computed from the velocity fields recorded with PIV, and the accuracy of the obtained profiles is demonstrated by comparison with reference LDA measurements. Measurements are carried out at five axial positions for 15 different times during the engine cycle and show the temporal and spatial development of the swirling in-cylinder flow. The tangential velocity profiles in the bottom of the cylinder near the end of the scavenge process are characterized by a concentrated swirl resulting in wake-like axial velocity profiles and the occurrence of a vortex breakdown. After scavenge port closing, the axial velocity profiles indicate that large transient swirl-induced structures exist in the cylinder. Comparison with profiles obtained under steady-flow conditions shows that the scavenge flow cannot be assumed to be quasi-steady. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34 %, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  6. The matching of characteristics of the turbo-supercharging system and two-stroke transport diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Алёхин, Сергей Алексеевич; Герасименко, Владимир Петрович; Опалев, Василий Анатольевич

    2013-01-01

    The basic problems of the matching of characteristics of turbo-supercharging units and two-stroke transport diesel engines with various number of cylinders are considered. Influence of the number of impeller tiers and other geometrical parameters on the pressure characteristic of the centrifugal compressor and joint action of the compressor and the piston engine is investigated. Effective measures on the optimum coordination of a mechanical turbo-supercharging with a transport diesel engin...

  7. Characteristics of Sulfuric Acid Condensation on Cylinder Liners of Large Two-Stroke Marine Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Mayer, Stefan; Schramm, Jesper

    . Formation of corrosive sulfuric acid in the cylinder gas is modeled with a cali-brated engine model that incorporates a detailed sulfur reaction mechanism. Condensation of sulfuric acid follows the analogy between heat and mass transfer. Average bulk gas acid dew points are calculated by applying two......-phase thermochemistry of the binary H2O-H2SO4 system. Max dew points of typically more than 200 °C are modeled close to max pressure and variations in terms of operating conditions are not large. However small increments of the dew point provided by e.g. the residual gas fraction, operating pressure, sulfur content...

  8. Gasoline-related organics in Lake Tahoe before and after prohibition of carbureted two-stroke engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    On June 1, 1999, carbureted two-stroke engines were banned on waters within the Lake Tahoe Basin of California and Nevada. The main gasoline components MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) were present at detectable concentrations in all samples taken from Lake Tahoe during 1997-98 prior to the ban. Samples taken from 1999 through 2001 after the ban contained between 10 and 60 percent of the pre-ban concentrations of these compounds, with MTBE exhibiting the most dramatic change (a 90 percent decrease). MTBE and BTEX concentrations in water samples from Lake Tahoe and Lower Echo Lake were related to the amount of boat use at the sampling sites. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are produced by high-temperature pyrolytic reactions. They were sampled using semipermeable membrane sampling devices in Lake Tahoe and nearby Donner Lake, where carbureted two-stroke engines are legal. PAHs were detected in all samples taken from Lake Tahoe and Donner Lake. The number of PAH compounds and their concentrations are related to boat use. The highest concentrations of PAH were detected in samples from two heavily used boating areas, Tahoe Keys Marina and Donner Lake boat ramp. Other sources of PAH, such as atmospheric deposition, wood smoke, tributary streams, and automobile exhaust do not contribute large amounts of PAH to Lake Tahoe. Similar numbers of PAH compounds and concentrations were found in Lake Tahoe before and after the ban of carbureted two-stroke engines. ?? by the North American Lake Management Society 2004.

  9. Validation of a zero-dimensional model for prediction of NOx and engine performance for electronically controlled marine two-stroke diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scappin, Fabio; Stefansson, Sigurður H.; Haglind, Fredrik; Andreasen, Anders; Larsen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to derive a methodology suitable for energy system analysis for predicting the performance and NO x emissions of marine low speed diesel engines. The paper describes a zero-dimensional model, evaluating the engine performance by means of an energy balance and a two zone combustion model using ideal gas law equations over a complete crank cycle. The combustion process is divided into intervals, and the product composition and flame temperature are calculated in each interval. The NO x emissions are predicted using the extended Zeldovich mechanism. The model is validated using experimental data from two MAN B and W engines; one case being data subject to engine parameter changes corresponding to simulating an electronically controlled engine; the second case providing data covering almost all model input and output parameters. The first case of validation suggests that the model can predict specific fuel oil consumption and NO x emissions within the 95% confidence intervals given by the experimental measurements. The second validation confirms the capability of the model to match measured engine output parameters based on measured engine input parameters with a maximum 5% deviation. - Highlights: ► A fast realistic model of a marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine was derived. ► The model is fast and accurate enough for future complex energy systems analysis. ► The effects of engine tuning were validated with experimental tests. ► The model was validated while constrained by experimental input and output data.

  10. Progress on uncooled PbSe detectors for low-cost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, German; Gomez, Luis J.; Villamayor, Victor; Alvarez, M.; Rodrigo, Maria T.; del Carmen Torquemada, Maria; Sanchez, Fernando J.; Verdu, Marina; Diezhandino, Jorge; Rodriguez, Purificacion; Catalan, Irene; Almazan, Rosa; Plaza, Julio; Montojo, Maria T.

    2004-08-01

    This work reports on progress on development of polycrystalline PbSe infrared detectors at the Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Armada (CIDA). Since mid nineties, the CIDA owns an innovative technology for processing uncooled MWIR detectors of polycrystalline PbSe. Based on this technology, some applications have been developed. However, future applications demand smarter, more complex, faster yet cheaper detectors. Aiming to open new perspectives to polycrystalline PbSe detectors, we are currently working on different directions: 1) Processing of 2D arrays: a) Designing and processing low density x-y addressed arrays with 16x16 and 32x32 elements, as an extension of our standard technology. b) Trying to make compatible standard CMOS and polycrystalline PbSe technologies in order to process monolithic large format arrays. 2) Adding new features to the detector such as monolithically integrated spectral discrimination.

  11. 320 x 240 uncooled IRFPA with pixel wise thin film vacuum packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, J.-J.; Dumont, G.; Rabaud, W.; Becker, S.; Carle, L.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Hamelin, A.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Silicon based vacuum packaging is a key enabling technology for achieving affordable uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) as required by the promising mass market for very low cost IR applications, such as automotive driving assistance, energy loss monitoring in buildings, motion sensors… Among the various approaches studied worldwide, the CEA, LETI is developing a unique technology where each bolometer pixel is sealed under vacuum at the wafer level, using an IR transparent thin film deposition. This technology referred to as PLP (Pixel Level Packaging), leads to an array of hermetic micro-caps each containing a single microbolometer. Since the successful demonstration that the PLP technology, when applied on a single microbolometer pixel, can provide the required vacuum noise and NETD distributions, the paper also puts emphasis on additional key features such as thermal time constant, image quality, and ageing properties.

  12. Development and Experimental Investigation of a Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Free-Piston Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stephan; Chiodi, Marco; Friedrich, Horst E.; Bargende, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like...

  13. A computational fluid dynamics analysis on stratified scavenging system of medium capacity two-stroke internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitta Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to make a computational study of stratified scavenging system in two-stroke medium capacity engines to reduce or to curb the emissions from the two-stroke engines. The 3-D flows within the cylinder are simulated using computational fluid dynamics and the code Fluent 6. Flow structures in the transfer ports and the exhaust port are predicted without the stratification and with the stratification, and are well predicted. The total pressure and velocity map from computation provided comprehensive information on the scavenging and stratification phenomenon. Analysis is carried out for the transfer ports flow and the extra port in the transfer port along with the exhaust port when the piston is moving from the top dead center to the bottom dead center, as the ports are closed, half open, three forth open, and full port opening. An unstructured cell is adopted for meshing the geometry created in CATIA software. Flow is simulated by solving governing equations namely conservation of mass momentum and energy using SIMPLE algorithm. Turbulence is modeled by high Reynolds number version k-e model. Experimental measurements are made for validating the numerical prediction. Good agreement is observed between predicted result and experimental data; that the stratification had significantly reduced the emissions and fuel economy is achieved.

  14. STEADY STATE PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS OF MODERN MARINE TWO-STROKE LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE USING MLP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Bukovac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the other marine engines for ship propulsion, turbocharged two-stroke low speed diesel engines have advantages due to their high efficiency and reliability. Modern low speed ”intelligent” marine diesel engines have a flexibility in its operation due to the variable fuel injection strategy and management of the exhaust valve drive. This paper carried out verified zerodimensional numerical simulations which have been used for MLP (Multilayer Perceptron neural network predictions of marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine steady state performances. The developed MLP neural network was used for marine engine optimized operation control. The paper presents an example of achieving lowest specific fuel consumption and for minimization of the cylinder process highest temperature for reducing NOx emission. Also, the developed neural network was used to achieve optimal exhaust gases heat flow for utilization. The obtained data maps give insight into the optimal working areas of simulated marine diesel engine, depending on the selected start of the fuel injection (SOI and the time of the exhaust valve opening (EVO.

  15. Fast uncooled module 32×32 array of polycrystalline PbSe used for muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Bieszczad, Grzegorz

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents some aspects of muzzle flash detection using low resolution polycrystalline PbSe uncooled 32×32 detectors array. This system for muzzle flash detection works in MWIR (3 - 5 microns) region and it is based on VPD (Vapor Phase Deposition) technology. The low density uncooled 32×32 array is suitable for being used in low cost IR imagers sensitive in the MWIR band with frame rates exceeding 1.000 Hz. The FPA detector, read-out electronics and processing electronics (allowing the implementation of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection) has been presented. The system has been tested at field test ground. Results of detection range measurement with two types of optical systems (wide and narrow field of view) have been shown. The initial results of testing of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection have been also presented.

  16. Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevik, James M., Jr.

    The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each

  17. Technology of uncooled fast polycrystalline PbSe focal plane arrays in systems for muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Barela, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Vergara, German; Linares, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Raul; Fernandez, Carlos; Montojo Supervielle, Maria Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents some aspects of muzzle flash detection using low resolution polycrystalline PbSe 32×32 and 80×80 detectors FPA operating at room temperature (uncooled performance). These sensors, which detect in MWIR (3 - 5 microns region) and are manufactured using proprietary technology from New Infrared Technologies (VPD PbSe - Vapor Phase Deposition of polycrystalline PbSe), can be applied to muzzle flash detection. The system based in the uncooled 80×80 FPA monolithically integrated with the CMOS readout circuitry has allowed image recording with frame rates over 2000 Hz (true snapshot acquisition), whereas the lower density, uncooled 32×32 FPA is suitable for being used in low cost infrared imagers sensitive in the MWIR band with frame rates above 1000 Hz. The FPA detector, read-out electronics and processing electronics (allows the implementation of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection) of both systems are presented. The systems have been tested at field test ground. Results of detection range measurement with two types of optical systems (wide and narrow field of view) have been shown. The theoretical analysis of possibility detection of muzzle flash and initial results of testing of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection have been presented too.

  18. Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Hansen, Anders V.; Bjørnbak-Hansen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests...... grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.......The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from...

  19. Effect of Cylinder Liner Oil Grooves Shape on Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine's Piston Ring Friction Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheldin A. Mohamad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The dimensions, area densities, and geometry of macroscale surface textures may affect the performance of hydrodynamic lubrication interface. Reported in this paper are the investigations of the effect of surface textures bottom shapes on the friction forces between piston ring and cylinder liner for two-stroke marine diesel engine, using numerically generated textures and average Reynolds equation. These textures are on the cylinder liner surface in the form of circumferential oil grooves with different aspect ratios and different area densities. The hydrodynamic pressure distribution is also calculated using Reynolds boundary condition. The results revealed that the bottom shape could positively affect the friction between moving surfaces, as it could provide a microwedge or microstep bearing that tends to enhance the lubrication condition between piston ring and cylinder liner.

  20. Effects of Surface Irregularities on Piston Ring-Cylinder Tribo Pair of a Two Stroke Motor Engine in Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zavos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribological parameters such as friction, lubrication and wear influence strongly the engine component's life. In this study, a piston ring-cylinder system simulated taking into account the surface modifications under fully flooded lubrication and normal engine conditions. The hydrodynamic pressure field solved based on the Navier Stokes equations by Fluid Structure Interaction analysis. A real experimental data of piston ring-cylinder was used from a two stroke motor engine 50 cc. The surface irregularities are measured by 3D coordinate measurement machine while the engine has been worked about 4000 hours. The friction force, the hydrodynamic pressure, the oil film and the mechanical stresses were predicted for different engine conditions. Results show that the worn profile ring reduces the friction as well as the mechanical stresses increased. Surface condition of worn top ring was observed after a metallurgical profile analysis.

  1. The Influence of Fuel Sulfur on the Operation of Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov

    The present work focusses on SO3/H2SO4 formation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) condensation in a large low speed 2-stroke marine diesel engine. SO3 formation is treated theoretically from a formulated multizone engine model described in this work that includes a detailed and validated sulfur reaction...... mechanism. Model results show that for a large marine engine generally about 3 % - 6 % of the fuel sulfur converts to SO3 while the remainder leaves the engine as SO2 from which the SO3 is formed during the expansion stroke. SO3 formation scales with the cylinder pressure and inversely with the engine speed...... as also demonstrated by a number of SO3 experiments described in this work. The experiments are carried out with a heavy duty medium speed 4 stroke diesel engine operating on heavy fuel oil including ≈ 2 wt. % sulfur. SO3 was measured successfully in the exhaust gas with the PENTOL SO3 analyzer...

  2. Uncooled Thermal Camera Calibration and Optimization of the Photogrammetry Process for UAV Applications in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Gomes, Krishna; Hernández-López, David; Ortega, José F; Ballesteros, Rocío; Poblete, Tomás; Moreno, Miguel A

    2017-09-23

    The acquisition, processing, and interpretation of thermal images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is becoming a useful source of information for agronomic applications because of the higher temporal and spatial resolution of these products compared with those obtained from satellites. However, due to the low load capacity of the UAV they need to mount light, uncooled thermal cameras, where the microbolometer is not stabilized to a constant temperature. This makes the camera precision low for many applications. Additionally, the low contrast of the thermal images makes the photogrammetry process inaccurate, which result in large errors in the generation of orthoimages. In this research, we propose the use of new calibration algorithms, based on neural networks, which consider the sensor temperature and the digital response of the microbolometer as input data. In addition, we evaluate the use of the Wallis filter for improving the quality of the photogrammetry process using structure from motion software. With the proposed calibration algorithm, the measurement accuracy increased from 3.55 °C with the original camera configuration to 1.37 °C. The implementation of the Wallis filter increases the number of tie-point from 58,000 to 110,000 and decreases the total positing error from 7.1 m to 1.3 m.

  3. Optical response of laser-doped silicon carbide for an uncooled midwave infrared detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geunsik; Manzur, Tariq; Kar, Aravinda

    2011-06-10

    An uncooled mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detector is developed by doping an n-type 4H-SiC with Ga using a laser doping technique. 4H-SiC is one of the polytypes of crystalline silicon carbide and a wide bandgap semiconductor. The dopant creates an energy level of 0.30  eV, which was confirmed by optical spectroscopy of the doped sample. This energy level corresponds to the MWIR wavelength of 4.21  μm. The detection mechanism is based on the photoexcitation of electrons by the photons of this wavelength absorbed in the semiconductor. This process modifies the electron density, which changes the refractive index, and, therefore, the reflectance of the semiconductor is also changed. The change in the reflectance, which is the optical response of the detector, can be measured remotely with a laser beam, such as a He-Ne laser. This capability of measuring the detector response remotely makes it a wireless detector. The variation of refractive index was calculated as a function of absorbed irradiance based on the reflectance data for the as-received and doped samples. A distinct change was observed for the refractive index of the doped sample, indicating that the detector is suitable for applications at the 4.21  μm wavelength.

  4. Uncooled Terahertz real-time imaging 2D arrays developed at LETI: present status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Dussopt, Laurent; Nicolas, Jean-Alain; Monnier, Nicolas; Sicard, Gilles; Siligaris, Alexandre; Hiberty, Bruno

    2017-05-01

    As for other imaging sensor markets, whatever is the technology, the commercial spread of terahertz (THz) cameras has to fulfil simultaneously the criteria of high sensitivity and low cost and SWAP (size, weight and power). Monolithic silicon-based 2D sensors integrated in uncooled THz real-time cameras are good candidates to meet these requirements. Over the past decade, LETI has been studying and developing such arrays with two complimentary technological approaches, i.e. antenna-coupled silicon bolometers and CMOS Field Effect Transistors (FET), both being compatible to standard silicon microelectronics processes. LETI has leveraged its know-how in thermal infrared bolometer sensors in developing a proprietary architecture for THz sensing. High technological maturity has been achieved as illustrated by the demonstration of fast scanning of large field of view and the recent birth of a commercial camera. In the FET-based THz field, recent works have been focused on innovative CMOS read-out-integrated circuit designs. The studied architectures take advantage of the large pixel pitch to enhance the flexibility and the sensitivity: an embedded in-pixel configurable signal processing chain dramatically reduces the noise. Video sequences at 100 frames per second using our 31x31 pixels 2D Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) have been achieved. The authors describe the present status of these developments and perspectives of performance evolutions are discussed. Several experimental imaging tests are also presented in order to illustrate the capabilities of these arrays to address industrial applications such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security or quality control of food.

  5. Use of COTS uncooled microbolometers for the observation of solar eruptions in far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ruyet, B.; Bernardi, P.; Sémery, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions (SMESE) mission is a French-Chinese satellite dedicated to the combined study of coronal mass ejections and flares. It should operate by the beginning of 2013. The spacecraft is based on a generic MYRIADE platform developed by CNES. Its payload consists of a Lyman α imager and a Lyman α chronograph (LYOT), a far infrared telescope (DESIR) and a hard X and γ ray spectrometer (HEBS). Its Sun-synchronous orbit will allow for continuous observations. LESIA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique, in Paris-Meudon Observatory) is in charge of DESIR instrument. DESIR (Detection of Eruptive Solar InfraRed emission) is an imaging photometer observing the sun in two bandwidths: [25; 45μm] and [80; 130μm]. The detector is a commercially available, uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (UL 02 05 1, from ULIS) designed for thermographic imaging in the 8-14 μm wavelength range. The 160x120 pixels are based on amorphous silicon, with dimensions 35x35 μm2. The performances in terms of noise and dynamics given by the manufacturer associated with simulations of a perfect quarter-wave cavity to predict the microbolometer absorption, make possible the use of such a detector to fulfil the DESIR detection specifications in the two FIR bandwidths. During the A Phase, tests have been carried out in our laboratory to validate the feasibility of the project. In this work, we present the first results obtained on the microbolometer performances in the FIR domain.

  6. Lubricant transport across the piston ring with flat and triangular lubrication injection profiles on the liner in large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, H.; Klit, P.; Vølund, A.

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the lubricant transport across the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. A numerical model for solving Reynolds equation between the piston ring and cylinder liner based on the finite difference method in one dimension...

  7. Influence of outlet geometry on the swirling flow in a simplfied model of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Sajjad; Schnipper, Teis; Meyer, Knud Erik

    We present Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements of the effect of a dummy-valve on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a simplified scale model of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine cylinder using air at room temperature and pressure as the working fluid and Reynolds number 19500...

  8. Chemical characterization of emissions from modern two-stroke mopeds complying with legislative regulation in Europe (EURO-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T; Farfaletti, A; Montero, L; Martini, G; Manfredi, U; Larsen, B; Santi, G De; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C

    2010-01-01

    In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds a study was carried out to comprehensively characterize exhaust gases of mopeds complying current EURO-2 emission standards. Three mopeds with different engine types (carburetor, direct injection, and electronic carburetion system ECS) where investigated by applying two different driving cycles, the legislative cycle ECE47 and the worldwide motorcycle test cycle WMTC. Thereby, particulate matter (PM), regulated compounds, carbonyls, volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), and particle-associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed and ozone formation potentials (OFP) as well as toxicity equivalents (TEQ) determined. The ECE47 emission factors for almost all species and moped types were much higher in the nonregulated, prior cold phase than in the hot phase, which is considered for legislation. Great differences for the mopeds could be observed for NO(x), VOC, and PM, whereas discrepancies between the driving cycles ECE47 and WMTC were smaller. In addition, a positive influence on exhaust composition caused by technical modifications of the ECS engine was determined. Results indicate that regulation of total hydrocarbons (THC) alone might not be sufficient to regulate PM, especially for direct injection engines. Moreover, recommendations for a revised future test protocol are demonstrated and discussed, whereby the cold phase and the hot phase are taken into account.

  9. Development of the infrared instrument for gas detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Chen, Chia-Ray

    2017-08-01

    MWIR (Mid-Wave Infrared) spectroscopy shows a large potential in the current IR devices market, due to its multiple applications, such as gas detection, chemical analysis, industrial monitoring, combustion and flame characterization. It opens this technique to the fields of application, such as industrial monitoring and control, agriculture and environmental monitoring. However, a major barrier, which is the lack of affordable specific key elements such a MWIR light sources and low cost uncooled detectors, have held it back from its widespread use. In this paper an uncooled MWIR detector combined with image enhancement technique is reported. This investigation shows good results in gas leakage detection test. It also verify the functions of self-developed MWIR lens and optics. A good agreement in theoretical design and experiment give us the lessons learned for the potential application in infrared satellite technology. A brief discussions will also be presented in this paper.

  10. An Investigation of the Composition of the Flow in and out of a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine and Air Consumption Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the mass, substance and energy flow through two-stroke low speed Diesel engines. For this reason, a zero-dimensional model of the combustion in the engine was developed with a calculated amount and composition of exhaust gases. Due to the large amount of oxygen in the exhaust gases, a ratio of real air consumption and stoichiometric amount of air required for combustion of injected fuel was set. The calculated ratio showed that the engine consumed four times more air than needed for combustion in AFRstoich. In this work, this was called the Air Consumption Factor or Ratio, and has not previously been mentioned in scientific literature. The air consumption ratio is defined as a factor of dry or humid air. To be more comprehensive, a modified diagram of the composition of the flow in and out of a two-stroke fuel injection engine and the cylinder was made.

  11. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  12. Implementation of real-time nonuniformity correction with multiple NUC tables using FPGA in an uncooled imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gyong Jin; Kim, Lyang-June; Sheen, Sue-Ho; Koo, Gyou-Phyo; Jin, Sang-Hun; Yeo, Bo-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of Non Uniformity Correction (NUC). Two point correction and one point correction with shutter were carried out in an uncooled imaging system which will be applied to a missile application. To design a small, light weight and high speed imaging system for a missile system, SoPC (System On a Programmable Chip) which comprises of FPGA and soft core (Micro-blaze) was used. Real time NUC and generation of control signals are implemented using FPGA. Also, three different NUC tables were made to make the operating time shorter and to reduce the power consumption in a large range of environment temperature. The imaging system consists of optics and four electronics boards which are detector interface board, Analog to Digital converter board, Detector signal generation board and Power supply board. To evaluate the imaging system, NETD was measured. The NETD was less than 160mK in three different environment temperatures.

  13. Shutterless non-uniformity correction for the long-term stability of an uncooled long-wave infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwei; Sui, Xiubao; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian

    2018-02-01

    For the uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera, the infrared (IR) irradiation the focal plane array (FPA) receives is a crucial factor that affects the image quality. Ambient temperature fluctuation as well as system power consumption can result in changes of FPA temperature and radiation characteristics inside the IR camera; these will further degrade the imaging performance. In this paper, we present a novel shutterless non-uniformity correction method to compensate for non-uniformity derived from the variation of ambient temperature. Our method combines a calibration-based method and the properties of a scene-based method to obtain correction parameters at different ambient temperature conditions, so that the IR camera performance can be less influenced by ambient temperature fluctuation or system power consumption. The calibration process is carried out in a temperature chamber with slowly changing ambient temperature and a black body as uniform radiation source. Enough uniform images are captured and the gain coefficients are calculated during this period. Then in practical application, the offset parameters are calculated via the least squares method based on the gain coefficients, the captured uniform images and the actual scene. Thus we can get a corrected output through the gain coefficients and offset parameters. The performance of our proposed method is evaluated on realistic IR images and compared with two existing methods. The images we used in experiments are obtained by a 384× 288 pixels uncooled LWIR camera. Results show that our proposed method can adaptively update correction parameters as the actual target scene changes and is more stable to temperature fluctuation than the other two methods.

  14. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  15. An Investigation on the Influence of Root Defects on the Fatigue Life of the Welded Structure of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders V.; Olesen, John Forbes; Agerskov, Henning

    2004-01-01

    -models of the welded joints, are described and the results presented. In addition, large-scale test specimens with controlled lack-of-fusion weld root geometry were manufactured and fatigue tested to develop S-N curves and determine threshold stress intensity factor range values. These were established for opening......The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt welded joints of thick plates, welded...

  16. Effects of Scavenging System Configuration on In-Cylinder Air Flow Organization of an Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Fukang Ma; Changlu Zhao; Fujun Zhang; Zhenfeng Zhao; Shuanlu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In-cylinder air flow is very important from the point of view of mixture formation and combustion. In this direction, intake chamber structure and piston crown shape play a very crucial role for in-cylinder air pattern of opposed-piston two-stroke (OP2S) engines. This study is concerned with the three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of in-cylinder air motion coupled with the comparison of predicted results with the zero-dimensional (0D) parametric model. Three con...

  17. Phase-locked stereoscopic PIV measurements of the turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    It is desirable to use computational fluid dynamics for the optimization of in-cylinder processes in large two-stroke low-speed uniflowscavenged marine diesel engines. However, the complex nature of the turbulent swirling in-cylinder flow necessitates experimental data for validation of the used...... profiles in general will not be representative for the dynamic conditions. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34%....

  18. Large eddy simulations of the influence of piston position on the swirling flow in a model two-stroke diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas Hassan MohD; Schnipper, Teis; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a simplified model of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. Design/methodology/approach – Large eddy simulations with four different models for the turbulent flow are used: a one...... qualitatively with port closure from a Lamb-Oseen vortex profile to a solid body rotation, while the axial velocity changes from a wake-like profile to a jet-like profile. The numerical results are compared with particle image velocimetry measurements, and in general, the authors find a good agreement. Research...

  19. Personal exposure to benzene from fuel emissions among commercial fishers: comparison of two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Ellen; Loomis, Dana; Egeghy, Peter; Nylander-French, Leena

    2007-03-01

    Commercial fishers are exposed to unburned hydrocarbon vapors and combustion products present in the emissions from their boat engines. The objective of this study was to measure personal exposure to benzene as a marker of fuel exposure, and to predict exposure levels across categories of carbureted two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines. A self-monitoring approach, employing passive monitors, was used to obtain measurements of personal exposure to benzene over time. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to predict exposure levels, identify significant effects and determine restricted maximum likelihood estimates for within- and between-person variance components. Significant fixed effects for engine type and refueling a car or truck were identified. After controlling for refueling, predicted benzene exposure levels to fishers on boats equipped with two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines were 58.4, 38.9 and 15.7 microg/m3, respectively. The logged within-person variance component was 1.43, larger than the between-person variance component of 1.13, indicating that the total variation may be attributable to monitor placement, environmental conditions and other factors that change over time as well as differences between individual work practices. The health consequences of exposure to marine engine emissions are not known. The predicted levels are well below those at which health effects have been attributed, however.

  20. Improvement performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas; Tennen gas dual fuel diesel kikan no seino haishutsu gas tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S; Okamoto, T; Kusaka, J; Daisho, Y; Kihara, R; Saito, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper deals with a study on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas. Dual fueling systems tend to emit high unburned fuel especially at low load, resulting in a decreased thermal efficiency. This is because natural gas-air mixtures are too lean for flame to propagate under low load conditions. Intake charge heating and uncooled EGR are very useful to improve emissions and thermal efficiency at low load. Such favorable effects are supported by NO kinetic simulations. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Improved optical properties and detectivity of an uncooled silicon carbide mid-wave infrared optical detector with increased dopant concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Geunsik; Kar, Aravinda; Manzur, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    An n-type 4H-SiC substrate is doped with gallium using a laser doping technique and its optical response is investigated at the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) wavelength 4.21 μm as a function of the dopant concentration. The dopant creates a p-type energy level of 0.3 eV, which is the energy of a photon corresponding to the MWIR wavelength 4.21 μm. Therefore, Ga-doped SiC can be used as an uncooled MWIR detector because an optical signal was obtained at this wavelength when the sample was at room temperature. The energy level of the Ga dopant in the substrate was confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of the doped samples revealed an enhancement in the solid solubility of Ga in the substrate when doping is carried out by increasing the number of laser scans. A higher dopant concentration increases the number of holes in the dopant energy level, enabling photoexcitation of more electrons from the valence band by the incident MWIR photons. The detector performance improves as the dopant concentration increases from 1.15 × 10 19 to 6.25 × 10 20 cm −3 . The detectivity of the optical photodetector is found to be 1.07 × 10 10 cm Hz 1/2 W −1 for the case of doping with four laser passes. (paper)

  2. Modelling of Combustion and Pollutant Formation in a Large, Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine using Integrated CFD-Skeletal Chemical Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Schramm, Jesper

    In this reported work, simulation studies of in-cylinder diesel combustion and pollutant formation processesin a two-stroke, low-speed uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engine are presented. Numerical computation is performed by integrating chemical kinetics into CFD computations. In order...... to minimize the computational runtime, an in-house skeletal n-heptane chemical mechanism is coupled with the CFD model. This surrogate fuel model comprises 89 reactions with 32 species essential to diesel ignition/combustion processes as well as the formation of soot precursors and nitrogen monoxide (NO......). Prior to the marine engine simulation,coupling of the newly developed surrogate fuel model and a revised multi-step soot model [1] is validated on the basis of optical diagnostics measurement obtained at varying ambient pressure levels [2]. It is demonstrated that the variation of ignition delay times...

  3. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  4. A study of the performance and properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited by plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for two stroke engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tither, D. [BEP Grinding Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Ahmed, W.; Sarwar, M.; Penlington, R. [Univ. of Northumbria, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using microwave and RF plasma is arguably the most successful technique for depositing diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) films for various engineering applications. However, the difficulties of depositing diamond are nearly as extreme as it`s unique combination of physical, chemical and electrical properties. In this paper, the modified low temperature plasma enhanced CVD system is described. The main focus of this paper will be work related to deposition of DLC on metal matrix composite materials (MMCs) for application in two-stroke engine components and results will be presented from SEM, mechanical testing and composition analysis studies. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of depositing DLC on MMCs for the first time using a vacuum deposition process.

  5. Numerical investigation of soot formation and oxidation processes under large two-stroke marine diesel engine-like conditions using integrated CFD-chemical kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    n-heptane mechanism and a revised multi-step soot model using laser extinction measurements of diesel soot obtained at different ambient pressure levels in an optical accessible, constant volume chamber experiment. It is revealed that ignition delay times and liftoff lengths generated using the new......In this reported work, multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies of diesel combustion and soot formation processes in a constant volume combustion chamber and a marine diesel engine are carried out. The key interest here is firstly to validate the coupling of a newly developed skeletal...... using the revised soot model agrees reasonably well with the measurements in terms of peak values. The numerical model is subsequently applied to investigate the flame development, soot/nitrogen monoxide formation and heat transfer in a two-stroke, low-speed uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engine...

  6. Hybrid System Modeling and Full Cycle Operation Analysis of a Two-Stroke Free-Piston Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-piston linear generators (FPLGs have attractive application prospects for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs owing to their high-efficiency, low-emissions and multi-fuel flexibility. In order to achieve long-term stable operation, the hybrid system design and full-cycle operation strategy are essential factors that should be considered. A 25 kW FPLG consisting of an internal combustion engine (ICE, a linear electric machine (LEM and a gas spring (GS is designed. To improve the power density and generating efficiency, the LEM is assembled with two modular flat-type double-sided PM LEM units, which sandwich a common moving-magnet plate supported by a middle keel beam and bilateral slide guide rails to enhance the stiffness of the moving plate. For the convenience of operation processes analysis, the coupling hybrid system is modeled mathematically and a full cycle simulation model is established. Top-level systemic control strategies including the starting, stable operating, fault recovering and stopping strategies are analyzed and discussed. The analysis results validate that the system can run stably and robustly with the proposed full cycle operation strategy. The effective electric output power can reach 26.36 kW with an overall system efficiency of 36.32%.

  7. Enhancing the Responsivity of Uncooled Infrared Detectors Using Plasmonics for High-Performance Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Shebl Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A lead zirconate titanate (PZT;Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 layer embedded infrared (IR detector decorated with wavelength-selective plasmonic crystals has been investigated for high-performance non-dispersive infrared (NDIR spectroscopy. A plasmonic IR detector with an enhanced IR absorption band has been designed based on numerical simulations, fabricated by conventional microfabrication techniques, and characterized with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser. The enhanced responsivity of the plasmonic IR detector at specific wavelength band has improved the performance of NDIR spectroscopy and pushed the limit of detection (LOD by an order of magnitude. In this paper, a 13-fold enhancement in the LOD of a methane gas sensing using NDIR spectroscopy is demonstrated with the plasmonic IR detector.

  8. Conversion of a micro, glow-ignition, two-stroke engine from nitromethane-methanol blend fuel to military jet propellant (JP-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Andrew L.

    The goal of the thesis "Conversion of a Micro, Glow-Ignition, Two-Stroke Engine from Nitromethane-Methanol Blend Fuel to Military Jet Propellant (JP-8)" was to demonstrate the ability to operate a small engine on JP-8 and was completed in two phases. The first phase included choosing, developing a test stand for, and baseline testing a nitromethane-methanol-fueled engine. The chosen engine was an 11.5 cc, glow-ignition, two-stroke engine designed for remote-controlled helicopters. A micro engine test stand was developed to load and motor the engine. Instrumentation specific to the low flow rates and high speeds of the micro engine was developed and used to document engine behavior. The second phase included converting the engine to operate on JP-8, completing JP-8-fueled steady-state testing, and comparing the performance of the JP-8-fueled engine to the nitromethane-methanol-fueled engine. The conversion was accomplished through a novel crankcase heating method; by heating the crankcase for an extended period of time, a flammable fuel-air mixture was generated in the crankcase scavenged engine, which greatly improved starting times. To aid in starting and steady-state operation, yttrium-zirconia impregnated resin (i.e. ceramic coating) was applied to the combustion surfaces. This also improved the starting times of the JP-8-fueled engine and ultimately allowed for a 34-second starting time. Finally, the steady-state data from both the nitromethane-methanol and JP-8-fueled micro engine were compared. The JP-8-fueled engine showed signs of increased engine friction while having higher indicated fuel conversion efficiency and a higher overall system efficiency. The minimal ability of JP-8 to cool the engine via evaporative effects, however, created the necessity of increased cooling air flow. The conclusion reached was that JP-8-fueled micro engines could be viable in application, but not without additional research being conducted on combustion phenomenon and

  9. Calculation of the operational behaviour of uniflow-scavenged two-stroke ship's diesel engines. Beitrag zur berechnung des betriebsverhaltens gleichstromgespuelter zweitakt-schiffsdieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeschen, K

    1984-01-01

    The object of this dissertation was to calculate the operational behaviour of supercharged uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engines; this includes a description of the scavenging process and its effect on the thermodynamics of the whole cycle. The aim is to optimize the diesel engine's functioning and to allow joint operation with other machines for instance propellers. A calculation model is developed for the 3-zone mixed scavenging which, together with the step-by-step cycle calculation supplies the operational data of this type of diesel-engine. This method also allows to make calculations with simplified scavening models for complete mixture and pure displacement and to make comparisons. The calculation model of the 3-zone mixed scavenging also makes it possible to test engines by varying their design parameters. It was proven that an increasing stroke causes the fuel consumption to drop slighty, due to the improved thermodynamics. By varying the compression ratio it was possible to optimize engines for partial-load operation. (HWJ)

  10. Effects of Scavenging System Configuration on In-Cylinder Air Flow Organization of an Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In-cylinder air flow is very important from the point of view of mixture formation and combustion. In this direction, intake chamber structure and piston crown shape play a very crucial role for in-cylinder air pattern of opposed-piston two-stroke (OP2S engines. This study is concerned with the three-dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis of in-cylinder air motion coupled with the comparison of predicted results with the zero-dimensional (0D parametric model. Three configurations viz., a flat piston uniform scavenging chamber, a flat piston non-uniform scavenging chamber and a pit piston non-uniform scavenging chamber have been studied. 0D model analysis of in-cylinder air flow is consistent with 3D CFD simulation. It is concluded that a pit piston non-uniform scavenging chamber is the best design from the point of view of tumble ratio, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent intensity, which play very important roles in imparting proper air motion. Meanwhile a flat piston uniform scavenging chamber can organize a higher swirl ratio and lower tumble ratio which is important to improve the scavenging process.

  11. Production of syngas and oil at biomass refinery and their application in low speed two stroke engines for combined cycle electric energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, Daltro Garcia [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: pinatti@demar.eel.usp.br; Oliveira, Isaias de; Ferreira, Joao Carlos; Romao, Erica Leonor [RM Materiais Refratarios Ltd., Lorena, SP (Brazil)], Emails: isaias@rm-gpc.com.br, joaocarlos@rm-gpc.com.br, ericaromao@rm-gpc.com.br; Conte, Rosa Ana [University of Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), SP (Brazil). Lorena School of Engineering. Dept. of Materials Engineering], E-mail: rosaconte@demar.eel.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Low speed two stroke engines burn fuels of medium quality with high efficiency (47%) and allows a flexible use of oil (> 8% of total power) and syngas (< 92%, low heating value-LHV>11.2MJ/m{sup 3}). Biomass refinery (BR) generates oil from sludge and oleaginous biomass by low temperature conversion and syngas from lignocellulosic biomass treated by diluted acidic prehydrolysis. BR has low investment cost (US$1,500.00/kW) compared with hydroelectric plants (US$2,500.00/kW) and both generate electric energy with sales price below US$75.00/MWh. It allows distributed generation from 30 MW up to 170 MW or centralized power of 1 GW with six motor generator sets. BR matrix, mass and energy balance, fuels compositions, modulations and scope of supply will be presented. Besides electric energy BR can be tailored to supply other products such as ethanol, H{sub 2} for fuel cells, biodiesel, fertilizer recycling, char and simultaneously maximizes the production of animal protein. (author)

  12. Theoretical and experimental analysis of cyclic stresses in gas turbine rotor blades, taking thermal fatigue into account (low cycle fatigue). Theoretische und experimentelle Analyse der zyklischen Beanspruchung von Gasturbinenlaufschaufeln unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der thermischen Ermuedung (low cycle fatigue)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, R.

    1982-08-01

    The author is concerned with determining the life of highly stressed hot components of gas turbines. The main point of the experimental and theoretical investigations is the analysis of the cyclic stresses of an uncooled turbine rotor blade of an aircraft gas turbine ATAR 101. Apart from simulating cyclic load changes of turbine blades on a model test rig, models of service life predictions are prepared and tested. (HAG).

  13. Laser beam welding quality monitoring system based in high-speed (10 kHz) uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, German; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, Maria; Baldasano, Arturo; Castro, G.; Arias, R.; Lapido, Y.; Rodríguez, J.; Romero, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    The combination of flexibility, productivity, precision and zero-defect manufacturing in future laser-based equipment are a major challenge that faces this enabling technology. New sensors for online monitoring and real-time control of laserbased processes are necessary for improving products quality and increasing manufacture yields. New approaches to fully automate processes towards zero-defect manufacturing demand smarter heads where lasers, optics, actuators, sensors and electronics will be integrated in a unique compact and affordable device. Many defects arising in laser-based manufacturing processes come from instabilities in the dynamics of the laser process. Temperature and heat dynamics are key parameters to be monitored. Low cost infrared imagers with high-speed of response will constitute the next generation of sensors to be implemented in future monitoring and control systems for laser-based processes, capable to provide simultaneous information about heat dynamics and spatial distribution. This work describes the result of using an innovative low-cost high-speed infrared imager based on the first quantum infrared imager monolithically integrated with Si-CMOS ROIC of the market. The sensor is able to provide low resolution images at frame rates up to 10 KHz in uncooled operation at the same cost as traditional infrared spot detectors. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new sensor technology, a low-cost camera was assembled on a standard production laser welding head, allowing to register melting pool images at frame rates of 10 kHz. In addition, a specific software was developed for defect detection and classification. Multiple laser welding processes were recorded with the aim to study the performance of the system and its application to the real-time monitoring of laser welding processes. During the experiments, different types of defects were produced and monitored. The classifier was fed with the experimental images obtained. Self

  14. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  15. The effects of key parameters on the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston linear engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen Ba; Lim, Ocktaeck; Iida, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A free piston engine is modeled and simulated by three mathematical models. • The models include dynamic model, linear alternator model and thermodynamic model. • The SI-HCCI transition is successful if the key parameters are adjusted suitably. • Spring stiffness has a strong influence on reducing peak temperature in HCCI mode. • Adjusting spark timing helps the SI-HCCI transition to be more convenient. - Abstract: An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of key parameters such as intake temperature, equivalence ratio, engine load, intake pressure, spark timing and spring stiffness on the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston linear engine. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran. To validate the mathematical models, the simulation results were compared with experimental data in the SI mode. For the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion, the simulation results show that if the equivalence ratio is decreased, the intake temperature and engine load should be increased to get a successful SI-HCCI transition. However, the simulation results also show that the in-cylinder pressure is decreased, while the peak in-cylinder temperature in HCCI mode is increased significantly if the intake temperature is increased so much. Beside the successful SI-HCCI transition, the increase of intake pressure from P in = 1.1 bar to P in = 1.6 bar is one of solutions to reduce peak in-cylinder temperature in HCCI mode. However, the simulation results also indicate that if the intake pressure is increased so much (P in = 1.6 bar), the engine knocking problem is occurred. Adjusting spring stiffness from k = 2.9 N/mm to k = 14.7 N/mm is also considered one of useful solutions for

  16. Modelling of temporal and spatial evolution of sulphur oxides and sulphuric acid under large, two-stroke marine engine-like conditions using integrated CFD-chemical kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Walther, Jens Honore

    2017-01-01

    that the flameimpinges at the cylinder liner near top dead centre. The gas is cooled rapidly by the wall temperatureand H2SO4 is produced in the region where the local temperature is less than 600 K. Based on the fluegas correlation, the acid dew point temperature is higher than the wall temperature, suggesting...

  17. Modeling the condensation of sulfuric acid and water on the cylinder liner of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Mayer, Stefan; Eskildsen, Svend S.

    2018-01-01

    how fuel sulfur content, charge air humidity and liner temperature variations affects the deposition of water and sulfuric acid at low load operation. A phenomenological engine model is applied to simulate the formation of cylinder/bulk gas combustion products and dew points comply with H2O–H2SO4...

  18. Evaporative gas turbine cycles. A thermodynamic evaluation of their potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, P M

    1993-03-01

    The report presents a systematic method of thermodynamically evaluating different gas turbine cycles, treating the working fluids as ideal gases (c{sub p}=c{sub p}(T)). All models used to simulate different components in the cycles are presented in the report in detail and then connected in a computer program fully developed by the author. The report focuses on the theme of evaporative gas turbine cycles, in which low level heat is used to evaporate water into the compressed air stream between the compressor and recuperator. This leads to efficiency levels close to a comparable combined cycle but without the steam bottoming cycle. A parametric analysis has been conducted with the aim of deciding the best configuration of an evaporative cycle both for an uncooled expander and for a cooled expander. The model proposed to simulate the cooled expander is a combination between two existing models. (121 refs., 35 figs.,).

  19. Gas-discharge sources with charged particle emission from the plasma of glow discharge with a hollow cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A P

    2001-01-01

    One studied properties of a magnetron discharge with a cold hollow and uncooled rod cathodes. One demonstrated the dominant effect of thermoelectron emission of a rod cathode heated in a discharge on characteristics of discharge and on emission properties of a gas-discharge plasma and the possibility pf a smooth transition of glow discharge to diffusion mode of arc discharge combustion. Paper describes sources of ions and electrons with improved physical and generalized design and engineering parameters. One shows the promise of the electrode structure of a hollow cathode magnetron discharge to be used as a source, in particular, of the atomic hydrogen and of atom flow of a working rod cathode

  20. Analysis of the Scavenging Process of a Two-Stroke Free-Piston Engine Based on the Selection of Scavenging Ports or Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The free-piston engine generator (FPEG is a linear energy conversion device with the objective of utilisation within a hybrid-electric automotive vehicle power system. In this research, the piston dynamic characteristics of an FPEG is compared with that of a conventional engine (CE of the same size, and the difference in the valve timing is compared for both port scavenging type and valve scavenging type, with the exhaust valve closing timing is selected as the parameter. A zero-dimensional simulation model is developed in Ricardo WAVE software (2016.1, with the piston dynamics obtained from the simulation model in Matlab/SIMULINK (R2017a. For the CE and FEPG using scavenging ports, in order to improve its power output to the same level as that of a CE, the inlet gas pressure is suggested to be improved to above 1.2 bar, approximately 0.2 bar higher than that used for a CE. If a CE cylinder with exhaust valves is adopted or referred to during the development of an FPEG prototype, the exhaust valve is suggested to be closed earlier to improve its power output, and a higher intake pressure is also suggested if its output power is expected to be the same or higher than that of a CE.

  1. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  2. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  3. Identification Of Damages Of Tribological Associations In Crankshaft And Piston Systems Of Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines Used As Main Propulsion In Sea-Going Vessels And Proposal Of Probabilistic Description Of Loads As Causes Of These Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses damages of essential tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of large power two-stroke engines used as main engines, which take place during transport tasks performed by those ships. Difficulties are named which make preventing those damages impossible, despite the fact that the technical state of engines of this type is identified with the aid of complex diagnostic systems making use of advanced computer technology. It is demonstrated that one of causes of the damages is the lack of research activities oriented on recognising random properties of the loads leading to those damages. A proposal is made for the loads acting at a given time t on tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of internal combustion engines used as main engines to be considered as random variables Qt. At the same time the loads examined within a given time interval tr ≤ t ≤ tz would be considered stochastic processes {Q(t: t ≥ 0}. Essential properties of the loads of the abovementioned tribological associations are named and explained by formulating hypotheses which need empirical verification. Interval estimation is proposed for estimating the expected value E(Qt of the load Qt acting at time t. A relation is indicated between the mechanical load and the thermal load acting on tribological associations in the ship main engine crankshaft and piston system. A suggestion is formulated that a stochastic form of the relation between these types of load is to be searched for, rather than statistic relation, and a proposal is made to measure the intensity (strength of the stochastic relation using the Czuprow’s convergence coefficient.

  4. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  5. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  6. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection can become a critical task in dangerous environments that involve hazardous or contaminant gases, and the use of imaging sensors provides an important tool for leakage location. This paper presents a new design for remote sensing of gas leaks based on infrared (IR imaging techniques. The inspection system uses an uncooled microbolometer detector, operating over a wide spectral bandwidth, that features both low size and low power consumption. This equipment is boarded on a robotic platform, so that wide objects or areas can be scanned. The detection principle is based on the use of active imaging techniques, where the use of external IR illumination enhances the detection limit and allows the proposed system to operate in most cases independently from environmental conditions, unlike passive commercial approaches. To illustrate this concept, a fully radiometric description of the detection problem has been developed; CO2 detection has been demonstrated; and simulations of typical gas detection scenarios have been performed, showing that typical industrial leaks of CH4 are well within the detection limits. The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  7. La détection infrarouge avec les plans focaux non refroidis : état de l'artUncooled focal plane infrared detectors: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Jean-Luc

    2003-12-01

    The emergence of uncooled detectors has opened new opportunities for IR detection for both military and commercial applications. Development of such devices involves a lot of trade-offs between the different parameters that define the technological stack. These trade-offs explain the number of different architectures that are under worldwide development. The key factor is to find a high sensitivity and low noise thermometer material compatible with silicon technology in order to achieve high thermal isolation in the smallest area as possible. Ferroelectric thermometer based hybrid technology and electrical resistive thermometer based (microbolometer) technology are under development. LETI and ULIS have chosen from the very beginning to develop first a monolithic microbolometer technology fully compatible with commercially available CMOS technology and secondly amorphous silicon based thermometer. This silicon approach has the greatest potential for reducing infrared detector manufacturing cost. After the development of the technology, the transfer to industrial facilities has been performed in a short period of time and the production is now ramping up with ULIS team in new facilities. LETI and ULIS are now working to facilitate the IRFPA integration into equipment in order to address a very large market. Achievement of this goal needs the development of smart sensors with on-chip advanced functions and the decrease of manufacturing cost of IRFPA by decreasing the pixel pitch and simplifying the vacuum package. We present in this paper the technology developed by CEA/LETI and its improvement for being able to designs 384×288 and 160×120 arrays with a pitch of 35 μm. Thermographic application needs high stability infrared detector with a precise determination of the amount of absorbed infrared flux. Hence, infrared detector with internal temperature stabilized shield has been developed and characterized. These results will be presented. To cite this article: J

  8. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  9. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  10. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  11. Gas manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J W

    1915-05-03

    Retorts for the distillation of shale or coal for the production of oil or illuminating-gas are heated by gas from a generator or a gas-holder, and a portion of the gas from the flue leading to the heating-flues is forced by a steam jet through a by-pass and is injected into the bottom of the retorts. If the gas to be admitted to the retort is cold, it is first heated.

  12. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  13. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  14. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  15. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  16. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  17. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...... configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two......-stroke marine diesel engine. A turbocharger model together with a blower, a pre-scrubber and a cooler for the exhaust gas recirculation line, are included. The steam turbine, depending on the configuration, is modeled as either a dual or triple pressure level turbine. The condensation and pre-heating process...

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  19. Rigorous Electromagnetic Analysis of Uncooled Microbolometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirotznik, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... The optical absorption of the thin-film thermal infrared detector was calculated as a function of wavelength, pixel size, incident angle and area fill factor using the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method...

  20. Analytical Modelling of the Effects of Different Gas Turbine Cooling Techniques on Engine Performance =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Selcuk Can

    In this research, MATLAB SimulinkRTM was used to develop a cooled engine model for industrial gas turbines and aero-engines. The model consists of uncooled on-design, mean-line turbomachinery design and a cooled off-design analysis in order to evaluate the engine performance parameters by using operating conditions, polytropic efficiencies, material information and cooling system details. The cooling analysis algorithm involves a 2nd law analysis to calculate losses from the cooling technique applied. The model is used in a sensitivity analysis that evaluates the impacts of variations in metal Biot number, thermal barrier coating Biot number, film cooling effectiveness, internal cooling effectiveness and maximum allowable blade temperature on main engine performance parameters of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. The model is subsequently used to analyze the relative performance impact of employing Anti-Vortex Film Cooling holes (AVH) by means of data obtained for these holes by Detached Eddy Simulation-CFD Techniques that are valid for engine-like turbulence intensity conditions. Cooled blade configurations with AVH and other different external cooling techniques were used in a performance comparison study. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1947-05-01

    A short description of the process is given, with gas yields from various feedstocks, and the composition of the gas. Short descriptions of several batch digester designs are given: Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofta, and Somagaz. The utilization and the economics of the process are discussed. Two diagrams of Ducellier and Isman designs are included.

  2. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  3. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  4. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  5. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  6. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  7. Volcanic Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive ... the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash -producing eruption, ash particles are ...

  8. Gas - flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and other symptoms such as stomach pain, rectal pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fever, or ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  9. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  10. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  11. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  12. Gas attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D.

    1977-08-01

    Consumersfirst Ltd. is reacting to deregulation with a massive advertising campaign. The gas utility is owned by Consumers Gas Energy Inc., and is struggling to hold onto its 35 per cent share of Ontario`s two million residential natural gas buyers. An industry analyst pointed out that deregulation could mean that Consumers` Gas has much to lose: customers, market share, control of the assets and control of the process. The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) however, had specified that Consumersfirst is not to proceed with paperwork to sign up new customers until the OEB issues a draft code-of-conduct that would prevent cross-subsidizing between regulated franchise holders. This has now been done, and several heavyweights such as Calgary-based Suncor Energy Inc., Union Gas of Chatham, Ontario, and the US-based Enron Corp. of Houston, have started campaigns to sign up potential consumers. It is predicted that brand loyalty will be a factor, but in the end, like long distance telephone rates, it will all come down to pricing, and a winning formula is not easy to find.

  13. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  14. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  15. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  16. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1948-11-01

    Descriptions are given of several batch digesters: the Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofla, and Somagaz designs. Sketches of two Ducellier and Isman designs are given with a photograph of an installation consisting of four contiguous, rectangular concrete tanks. There are short explanations of the fundamentals and economics of the process, and of the use of the gas.

  17. Sealing apparatus for airfoils of gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.B.

    1998-05-19

    An improved airfoil tip sealing apparatus is disclosed wherein brush seals are attached to airfoil tips with the distal ends of the brush seal fibers sealingly contacting opposing wall surfaces. Embodiments for variable vanes, stators and both cooled and uncooled turbine blade applications are disclosed. 17 figs.

  18. Gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.P.; Risby, T.H.; Field, L.R.; Yu, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to the published literature for the years 1978 - 79, this review of developments in the field of gas chromatography includes earlier articles of particular significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature which was not available at the time of the previous review. The articles cited were selected as presenting the most fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation. Some applications are cited if they reflect an advance in the state-of-the-art or have particular relevance to new developments. 1149 references are cited

  19. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  20. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  1. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  2. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  3. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  5. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  6. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  7. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  8. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  9. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  10. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S. [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  11. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  12. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  13. Future of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Widdershoven, C.; Nicola, S.; Cragg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles and two columns in this section on the future of natural gas. In the first article attention is paid to the possibility that large natural gas producers are setting up a cartel a la OPEC. Most experts argue that the structure of gas markets makes the gas business much less amenable to cartelisation than the oil business. If that is true, why are so many people in the gas industry afraid of a gas cartel? The second article focuses on the future role of North Africa in the supply of natural gas

  14. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  15. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Worldwide gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas is an important source of energy throughout the world due to its availability and clean burning characteristics. From liquefied natural gas being shipped via tanker from Alaska to Japan, to natural gas via pipeline from Canada to the US, to inter-country natural gas shipment within the European continent, natural gas continues to expand and justify its place of honor in the world energy picture

  17. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  18. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  19. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  20. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale 'city-gate' price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply

  1. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  3. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  4. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  5. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  6. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  7. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  8. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  9. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  10. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  11. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  12. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  13. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  14. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster describes the development process of an electro-optical based solution for detecting and locating SF6 gas leaks at gas insulated switch gear. The principal technologies that were researched are explained with their advantages...

  15. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  16. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  17. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.

    1994-01-01

    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  18. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  19. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  20. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  1. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  2. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  3. Water into gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodord, Julian.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the move by water utilities into the gas market and potentially into the electricity supply market. Operation by Dee Valley Holdings, York Waterworks, York Gas, and North Wales Gas are reported, and investment, use of mail campaigns and telemarketing to secure customers, and the opportunities offered by diversification are considered. (UK)

  4. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  5. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  6. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  7. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  8. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  9. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  10. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  11. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  12. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  13. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  14. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  15. The Gas Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document is published before a congress which will address the struggle against climate change, the security of the gas supply chain, the responses of energy groups to environmental and economic challenges, the opening of the gas market, the European energy policy, the future role of gas in the third industrial revolution, and the security of gas supplies. After an introduction briefly discussing these issues and the impacts of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and the struggle against climate change for gas production and consumption, several interviews are proposed with actors belonging to the AFG (Association Francaise du Gaz), ADEME, European Commission, Total, GDF Suez, other professional bodies, or local communities

  16. Gas: the great depression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the worrying situation of gas industry: thermal plants are being closed one after the other because of the concurrence of renewable energies and of consumption decrease. European gas industries outline that gas plants could be used for back-up production in case of consumption peaks, and criticize subsidies awarded to renewable energies. Several factors impact this situation: decrease of gross prices, decrease of energy consumption due to a better energy efficiency, development of shale gas production in the USA and in Canada, revival of coal plants (coal is now competitive with respect to gas, and CO 2 is very cheap on the ETS)

  17. Catalytic reduction of methane/unburned hydrocarbons in smoke from lean-burn gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, Jan de.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been: To describe the flue gas conditions of typical stationary gas engines for cogeneration; To evaluate the predominant causes of deactivation of oxidation catalysts under realistic operation conditions; To develop improved long-term stable oxidation catalysts; To evaluate alternative catalyst-based methane reduction technologies. Most gas engines for stationary purposes are efficient lean-burn gas engines. Both the high efficiency and the very lean operation lead to low exhaust temperatures. However, there is now a tendency to design engines with un-cooled exhaust manifolds. This leads to higher shaft efficiency and increases the exhaust temperature. Exhaust gas composition and temperatures during continuous operation and start/stops are given in this report. Analyses have been made of catalyst samples to find predominant causes for oxidation catalyst deactivation. The analyses have shown that the presence of sulphur dioxide in the flue gas causes sulphur poisoning on the active catalyst surface. This effect is dependent on both the catalyst formulation and the catalyst support material composition. Neither sintering, nor other poisoning components than sulphur have been on the examined catalyst samples. The sulphur dioxide in the exhaust is a result of the sulphur in the odorisation additive used in the natural gas (approx. 10 mg/n 3 m THT) and of the sulphur present in combusted lubrication oil. These sources leads to a level of approx. 0.3 - 0.6 ppm (vol) SO 2 in the exhaust gas. Based on a large number of laboratory tests, a new oxidation catalyst formulation has been developed and successfully tested over 5000 hours of operation at a commercial cogeneration plant. This long-term testing has been additionally supplemented by short-term testings at test sites to see performance under other operation conditions. It has been shown that a rise in flue gas temperature (from e.g. 450 deg. C) will significantly reduce the necessary

  18. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  19. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  20. Venezuelan gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Venezuelan natural gas industry. The structure of PDVSA, the Petroleos de Venezuela Organization, its foreign and domestic affiliates, and its subsidiaries are discussed. Natural gas resources in Venezuela total 290 trillion cubic feet, and Venezuela's share of world, OPEC and latin American production and reserves are 1%, 11% and 26%, respectively for production and 3%, 6% and 49% for reserves. Venezuela's gas pipeline network, plants, production, and marketing are described. Natural gas production and demand forecasts to 2002 are presented. Gas resources are largely located in eastern Venezuela, and large volumes of natural gas non-associated with crude oil will start to become important in the Venezuelan natural gas industry. 19 figs

  1. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  2. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  3. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  4. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  5. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  6. Competitive landscape for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990s, natural gas will be the critical pressure point for energy and environmental developments in North America, according to the author of this paper. The author points to the forces bearing on natural gas, including the need for new power generation capacity, tightening environmental standards, growing concerns about energy security, cyclical factors in U.S. oil and gas exploration, and changes in the oil services industry. This paper discusses how these external factors will shape gas markets in the 1990s. First, it states that gas will gain market share in power generation through greater use of both existing gas-fired facilities and new turbines by electric utilities. Second, it predicts that the cumulative impact of the Clean Air Act and other environmental legislation having significant consequences for the relative roles of coal and natural gas, particularly during the late 1990s. Third, it points to the eventual reawakening of energy security concerns, focusing attention on developing North America's sizeable gas reserves. Finally, it states that while the long-term view of a gas supply crisis without a rebound in drilling activity is accurate, it has been disastrously wrong in the short term. This had led to underestimation of the amount of extra gas that can be provided in the interim from conventional areas at relatively low cost

  7. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  8. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  9. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  10. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  11. U.S. gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. gas producers won't see much price relief in 1991, barring a Persian Gulf war that interrupts crude supply which might be replaced by gas on short notice. Besides the current supply surplus, natural gas futures have added yet another dimension to the process of setting gas prices. Spectators (read speculators) having no intention of ever buying one cu ft of gas now have a hand in setting the forward price of gas. That doesn't necessarily mean something bad; it simply means that there is a new game with new rules and new players. All things considered, look for an average spot price of $1.70 this year. Exploration should pick up modestly, but production from conventional sources is expected to decline slightly in the '90s. Technological developments that enhance deliverability and reduce finding costs will moderate the decline, but not halt it

  12. The gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part proposes an overview of the current situation of the gas market and predictions regarding gas consumption and turnovers of gas producers and dealers, indication of important recent events, and a dashboard of the sector activity. A second part proposes an annual report on trends and on the competition context. It describes the activity structure (sector organisations, gas types, main customers, heating modes in French housing, tariff offers), indicates the main determining factors for the sector activity, describes the context (temperature evolution, thermal electricity production, production of the chemical industry, housing stock, natural gas consumption), analyses the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators), describes the sector economic structure (upstream sector, gas supply), and gives an overview of actors: historical suppliers, alternate suppliers, highlights of the sector, company rankings, and financial performance

  13. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  14. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  15. The 'new' gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Vornel

    2000-01-01

    The use of computer-aided 3-dimensional design tools to overcome problems associated with extraction of gas from unconventional gas deposits such as shale, sand and coal gas fields in landlocked nations is examined, and the economics of land based gas exploration in the USA, and the transport of the product to market are considered. The use of 3D design tools by the Pearl Development Company for providing engineering solutions for the recovery of natural gas liquids (NGL) for the Thunder Creek Gas Services company servicing the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and utilisation of the CADWorx/PIPE 3D piping design tool are reported. The benefits of the software package which allows easy visualisation of designs and produces 2D drawings from multi-discipline plant models are outlined

  16. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  17. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  18. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  19. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  20. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  1. Valve for gas centrifuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  2. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  3. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  4. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  5. Gas in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) can be thought of as the galactic atmosphere which fills the space between stars. When clouds within the ISM collapse, stars are born. When the stars die, they return their matter to the surrounding gas. Therefore the ISM plays a vital role in galactic evolution. The medium includes starlight, gas, dust, planets, comets, asteroids, fast moving charged particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields. The gas can be further divided into hot, warm and cold components, e...

  6. From Cool to Un-cool to Re-cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This chapter re-examines the vicissitudes of fashionableness of Nehru and Mao jackets in the 1960s-1970s West. The fashion dynamics of these jackets without lapels and featuring standing or high turn-down military-style collars calls for renewed investigation and a comparative analysis. Although...

  7. Uncoolness factor of collaborative Web Mining Tools (WMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Chulilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of social mining is a useful and direct analogy to talking about the less visible part of the adoption of successive waves of social software. The striking fact of visibility decrease as each type of social software matures should be taken into account for any comprehensive analysis of the relation between collectives and Internet technologies. One of the main results of this relation is the social data mining of Internet, which both gives sense to virtual communities and produces contents via feedback. We are just at the beginning of the adoption of new ways of social data mining, which will be significant when grow mature and become invisible.

  8. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  9. Monolithic Silicon Microbolometer Materials for Uncooled Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    2012 11/03/2012 2.00 3.00 Mingliang Zhang, D. Drabold. Comparison of the Kubo formula, the microscopic response method, and the Greenwood formula...structure with four layers.................................................. 37 Figure 2-12. (a) Cartoon and (b) graph of TLM pattern used to calculate ...film before and after annealing. This sample was used to calculate the average grain size and average stress. This film was prepared with 60 SCCM

  10. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  11. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  12. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  13. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  15. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  16. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  17. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  18. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  19. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  20. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  1. 2017 Gas Congress special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Patrick; Ferrier, Jerome; Holleaux, Didier; Vivier, Laurent; Gattaz, Pierre; Delga, Carole; Carenco, Jean-Francois; Sadamori, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of 'Gaz d'Aujourd'hui' journal is entirely devoted to the 2017 Gas Congress proceedings. The congress was organized in 5 round tables and 12 workshops: Round table 1 - COP 21 2 years after, workshops 1-6: 1 - digital transformation: what are the challenges for the gas sector? 2 - Which actors and what policies to fight against energy insecurity? 3 - Natural gas development: what fiscal signs? 4 - Terrestrial transportation: current situation and prospects; 5 - Consumers' perception of gas; 6 - industrial uses; Round table 2 - Maritime and fluvial LNG perspectives; Round table 3 - Territories, the new decision-makers, workshops 7-12: 7 - What energy regulation for tomorrow? 8 - How to succeed in injecting more and more green gas? 9 - Digital, data and emerging technologies (drones, blockchain..): challenges and applications for gas networks? 10 - Underground storage: a promising infrastructure? 11 - Security of supply: what new cooperation? 12 - Power-to-gas: a new way of energy valorization; Round table 4 - Gas and electricity, winning synergies; Round table 5 - The Europe of gas

  2. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  3. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  4. Analysis of Combustion Process in Industrial Gas Engine with Prechamber-Based Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Ślefarski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a pre-combustion chamber (PCC ignition system is one of the methods to improve combustion stability and reduce toxic compounds emission, especially NOx. Using PCC allows the operation of the engine at lean combustion conditions or the utilization of low calorific gaseous fuels such as syngas or biogas. The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the combustion process in two stroke, large bore, stationary gas engine GMVH 12 equipped with two spark plugs (2-SP and a PCC ignition system. The experimental research has been performed during the normal operation of the engine in an industrial compression station. It was observed that application of PCC provides less cycle-to-cycle combustion variation (more than 10% and nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions decreased to 60% and 26% respectively. The total hydrocarbon (THC emission rate is 25% higher for the engine equipped with PCC, which results in roughly two percent engine efficiency decrease. Another important criterion of engine retrofitting was the PCC location in the engine head. The experimental results show that improvement of engine operating parameters was recorded only for a configuration with one port offset by 45° from the axis of the main chamber. The study of the ignition delay angle and equivalence ratio in PCC did not demonstrate explicit influence on engine performance.

  5. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1919-07-01

    and to the fact that it affects the skin, the eyes, the throat and lungs, as well as the digestive’ tract if’ food be eaten that has been exposed to...zfYx~r its firat uzje by the Germanic before tile first Allied mustard gas at- $ack took place, This was made by the Franch in the vicinity of Com...of bicarbonate of soda &Uxr and their eyes, ears, mouth and nasal pasa gee washed with the same, PROTECTING FOOD FROM MUSTARD GAS, ‘9 It was very

  6. Gas conditioning and gas balance in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Bonnel, P.; Grosman, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Bardon, J.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate barometry is very helpful in analysing the plasma wall interaction processes in controlled fusion devices. In Tore Supra, residual gas analysis and various types of pressure gauges allow to monitor the various conditioning processes and the global particle balance. In this paper, measurements are described and analysis of two examples is given [fr

  7. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  8. Fission gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by failed fuel rods which device uses a filter adapted to pass coolant but to block passage of fission gas bubbles due to the surface tension of the bubbles. The coolant may be liquid metal. (author)

  9. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  10. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  11. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  12. 1962 : Bay City gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1962, a major natural gas export system from Alberta to San Francisco was brought online. The $300 million, 2,200 km Alberta and Southern system was expected to transport 584 million cubic feet daily in its first year of operation, more than one-third the total volume of gas sold by Canadian producers the previous year. The new gas export market also served to create more gas for the Canadian market because the incentive to serve a large export market also encouraged producers to explore for and develop more gas. The pipeline system started in the foothills belt 200 km northwest of Edmonton, and spanned through Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. One month before its official opening, a gas line explosion occurred during pressure testing of a lateral line. The Alberta portion of the Alberta and Southern system was also used 2 decades later as a tie-in to the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline project. Other key events in 1962 included approval of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited; the manufacture of the first rock drill bits in western Canada; production of 90 million cubic feet of natural gas from 12 wells in Quebec; and, an increase in oil production from the Soviet Union. 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  14. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  15. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  16. GasAttack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQuillin, I.

    1998-01-01

    A recent Landfill Directive, which aims to reduce the amount of biodegradable materials being disposed of in landfill sites, must necessarily, it is argued, cause gas supply problems for the fledgling landfill gas industry in the United Kingdom. Prospects for the new industry over the next twenty years are explored in the light of this setback. (UK)

  17. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  18. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  19. Electric Engines to Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental pollution and specially air pollution, it is produced in a wide range by exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, those which are used to generate energy. Direct use of fossil combustibles as petroleum derivatives and coal produces large quantities of harmful elements to ecology equilibrium. Whit the objective of reducing this pollutant load has been development thermoelectric plants whit turbine to gas or to steam, those which are moved by internal combustion engines. Gas engines can burn most of available gases, as both solid waste and wastewater treatment plants biogas, propane gas, oil-liquefied gas or natural gas. These gases are an alternative and clean energy source, and its efficiency in internal combustion engines is highest compared whit other combustibles as gasoline-motor or diesel

  20. Having the last gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, N P; Phillips, P S; Hall, R [Nene College of Higher Education, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Millions of visitors to the 1985 International Garden Festival in Liverpool were probably unaware that the landscape gardens they had come to enjoy were on top of approximately 10m t of domestic rubbish. Nor were they aware that this rubbish was generating a methane-rich gas that had necessitated installing a special extraction system to remove it from the site. At first this gas - landfill gas - was simply flared (burnt), but once it was realised that extraction would be need for at least 15 years it was decided to use the gas to generate electricity. This development is a good example of the potential, especially in the developed world, for using landfill gas produced in refuse tips as an additional and versatile energy source. This potential is analysed and the problems of exploitation examined. (2 figures). (author)

  1. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  2. Gas information campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, D.

    The second Federal German experts' meeting on Gas Consulting from 2nd to 5th June 1981 in Saarbruecken documents the importance attached by the gas industry to a qualified energy consulting. The consumers are informed of natural gas by country-wide and regional PR- and marketing activities. This information is the basis for sales promotion measures in the regional and local sphere. All communicative measures end with the consulting. It is the most important sales-political instrument which helps the supply companies to win interested and informed customers. The action gas consulting shows possibilities of how to effect an advisory service in cooperation between Information on Natural Gas and local suppliers.

  3. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  4. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  5. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  6. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  7. Emergency gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruishi, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the reduction of radioactive substances released out of reactor buildings irrespective of the aging change in the buildings. Constitution: There are provided an exhaust gas flow channel for cleaning contaminated airs within a reactor building by way of a series of filters and exhausting the cleaned airs by means of exhaust fans to the outside and a gas recycling flow channel having a cooler in connection with the exhaust gas flow channel at a position downstream of the exhaust fans for returning the cleaned airs in the exhaust gas flow channel to the inside of the reactor buildings. The pressure difference between the outside and the inside of the reactor buildings is made constant by controlling the air flow channel within the gas recycling flow channel by a flow control valve. The airs cleaned by the series of the filters are recycled to the inside of the buildings to decrease the radioactive substance within the buildings. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  9. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  10. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  11. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  12. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  13. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  14. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  15. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  16. Russian gas in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas output in Russia fell by 3.5% in 1993. This followed decades of rapid growth in production reaching a peak in 1991 and a minor fall in 1993. Gas consumption also peaked in 1991 and fell by 5% over the two following years. The major cause of the decline in consumption is the fall in electricity demand which has accompanied the economic recession. Gas has accounted for about 60% of the reduction in fuel consumption by power stations. Gas consumption by industrial and municipal boilers has also dropped steeply although household and other municipal consumption has increased. The fall in demand does not wholely account for the fall in production, however. Apart from Yamburg, all operational gas fields have now reached the stage of declining production. Government officials are talking tentatively of 1997 as the turning point for the Russian economy and following this, the demand for gas will rise again. It is not certain, however, that the industry will be able to meet the increased demand which is anticipated. Most of the increased production will have to come from new fields in the Yamal Peninsular the development of which is proceeding much more slowly than planned. In the longer term, possibly in the early years of the next century, the Shtokmanovsk gasfield in the Barents Sea may be developed. Other aspects of the Russian gas industry briefly covered are reserves, financing of exploratory drilling, investment, intra-CIS trade and exports and privatisation of the state owned company Garyprom. (UK)

  17. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  18. Kara-Kum gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudz, A.

    1975-05-01

    Natural gas from the Shatlyk gas field in the Kara Kum Desert, Turkmenia, U.S.S.R., will soon be available to the European section of the U.S.S.R. with the recent completion of the 291-mi Shatlyk-Khiva gas pipeline and the completion of all associated production units by the end of the year. The gas field, with explored reserves of (1.5 trillion m/sup 3/), is expected to be producing (100 million m/sup 3//day) at the end of 1975. Diagonal profiling was used in the exploration stage to reduce the number of boreholes required from 16 to 11, saving about $6.7 million (5 million rubles) and cutting the exploration time by almost 2 y. Most of the boreholes, drilled within the contour of the gas-bearing structure, can be used for gas production. The gas, produced at 2352 psi and 205/sup 0/F, is cooled to 113/sup 0/F, stripped of condensate and moisture, metered, and treated before transmission.

  19. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  20. Gas supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: When injecting gas during plasma discharge, to prevent erronous operation of the piezoelectric valves due to vibrations and to inject gas into the vacuum vessel by accurately controlling gas flow. Constitution: The piezoelectric valve designed to control the flow of gas when charging vacuum vessels is installed between the vacuum vessel and the gas cylinder and a pulse voltage generator to control the valve (open/close) and the reverse voltage generator to apply a reverse current to the valve element are also provided. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric element, the piezoelectric element bends. However, when the polarity is changed, the direction of the bend is also reversed. The seat portion is pressed in proportion to the degree of bending. When gas is injected while plasma is being discharged, the gap created, due to vibrations, between the piezoelectric element and the sealing material is prevented by the application of a reverse current. This allows precise control of the gas injection volume as well as the injection interval. This assures maintenance of precise test conditions when testing thermonuclear devices. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  3. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  4. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  5. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  6. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  7. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  8. Opening up to gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing number of gas-fired generation projects in Eastern Europe, and the need for the different countries who wish to join the European Union to approximate their laws with EU legislation which requires the opening up of each member's gas market. Projects in Poland, Croatia, Turkey, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are considered, and project financing, the financial backing provided by the European Bank for Restructuring and Development (EBRD), and the anticipated growth in gas are discussed. (uk)

  9. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  10. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  11. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  13. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  14. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Ryan, David; Anthony, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO 2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO 2 than the equivalent CO 2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO 2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO 2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  15. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  16. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  17. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  18. Ole for Spanish gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a new gas market in Europe. Relative to other EC countries, gas use is still low at 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) or around 6 percent of total primary energy demand (TPED) in 1992 against an EC average of almost 20 percent. The historic reasons for this are Spain's lack of major domestic gas fields and the ready existence of alternative energy sources in the form of coal and hydroelectric power. But gas use is now growing fast, having more than quadrupled since 1980 and with usage predicted to double again in volume terms, rising to 12 percent of TPED by 2000. Only the low population density, which adds to distribution costs, is likely to stop Spain reaching the EC average. (author)

  19. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  20. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  1. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  2. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  3. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  4. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  5. INFORMATION FOR GAS USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested : to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible, to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact Gas.Store@cern.ch by e-mail or call 72265. Thank you for your co-operation.

  6. Information for gas users

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested: - to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible - to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact "Gas store" by e-mail. Thank you for your co-operation. Logistics Group SPL Division

  7. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  8. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  9. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  10. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  11. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  12. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierrez-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm 3 with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm 3 for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others remained

  13. Gas chromatography in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, S. O.; Dimandja, J. M.; Kojiro, D. R.; Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    Gas chromatography has proven to be a very useful analytical technique for in situ analysis of extraterrestrial environments as demonstrated by its successful operation on spacecraft missions to Mars and Venus. The technique is also one of the six scientific instruments aboard the Huygens probe to explore Titan's atmosphere and surface. A review of gas chromatography in previous space missions and some recent developments in the current environment of fiscal constraints and payload size limitations are presented.

  14. Gas dynamic laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas dynamic laser device is provided with an expansion chamber arranged between a heating chamber for the CO-gas and the resonance chamber. The expansion chamber is initially evacuated for producing a rarefaction wave. Between the heating chamber and the expansion chamber there are arranged rapid release means such as a valve or a diaphragm. Pressure recovering means are connected to the other side of the resonance chamber

  15. Controlled humidity gas circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable circulator capable of regulating the humidity of a gas stream over a wide range of humidity is described. An optical dew-point hygrometer is used as a feedback element to control the addition or removal of water vapor. Typical regulation of the gas is to a dew-point temperature of +- 0.2 0 C and to an accuracy limited by the dew-point hygrometer

  16. Gas gun dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of one- and two-stage gas guns are developed. Very high projectile muzzle speed can be obtained by the two-stage version. The physics of simple gas guns, such as air rifles, is accessible to undergraduates and the same level of presentation is used here to understand more complex designs. Numerical solutions to the equations of motion are shown, along with insightful analytic approximations. (paper)

  17. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  18. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  19. Global gas company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  20. Gas from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, H

    1943-01-01

    Various efforts to produce fuel gas from waste materials by fermentation are reviewed. Although the thermal yield appears to be attractive (60%) in the formation of CH/sub 4/ + CO/sub 2/ from cellulose the process requires very large equipment owing to the slowness of the reaction. From 1 ton of waste, a daily production of 1 m/sup 2/ of gas (7700 cal) is obtained for 50 days.

  1. The Italian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2004-01-01

    The first meeting of the French gas association (AFG) of the year 2004 was devoted to the Italian gas market. Two experts of this market were invited: A. Ferrari, general director of the Italian gas and electricity regulation authority, and D. Dispenza, vice-general director of Eni Division Gas and Power. This conference was the occasion to compare the French and Italian gas industries. France and Italy have a border in common and also a series of common structural characteristics: the dependence with respect to foreign supplies, the position of the public company, the sensitiveness with respect to the security of supplies, to the role of storage and to the public utility. The French and Italian decisions are inter-dependent. The liberalization taking place with an unpredictable rate, it is necessary for the gas industry to anticipate its effects. When the political, legal and regulatory decisions are enforced, the initiative comes back to the hands of the industry. In this context, the trend of the transfrontier industries becomes particularly important for the regulatory authority. (J.S.)

  2. Gas strategies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch-Prigent, L.

    1992-01-01

    The different factors affecting gas supply and demand in Europe are examined and the strategies considered necessary to ensure a successful European gas market in the 21st century are outlined. A number of conclusions are drawn. Even though a significant rise in the total demand for gas in Europe is forecast, there are enough sources to cover this demand. However, to think that this gas will be available at cheap conditions is an illusion. These sources are located further and further away which means that their costs will increase. Given the risks inherent in exploring, producing, transporting and marketing these reserves, all the concerned parties must be allowed an acceptable rate of return on their investment. The environmental positive assets inherent in natural gas will guarantee the industry a bright future if they can be fully exploited. New regulations must not hinder the development of new markets or the construction of new infrastructures. The transit directive already permits the softening of the rules regarding transportation; but in order for it to come into real effect there must be gas available on the market. (author)

  3. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster's operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently ∼4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased

  4. Retained gas inventory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available

  5. Balance of plan gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An increment of 10% is observed, in the supply of the gas propane in 1996 being generated big expectations in the initiation of the Natural Gas program, these achievements in those that comes participating the private sector actively, have given to the plan gas a dynamics peculiar to the investments fundamentally in the exploration areas, production, transport and distribution, being configured in the country a transition phase for the use of this resource, characterized by the change from a state manager to a state regulator that even reflective holes and serious focus problems to allow a competitive handling of this industry. With the entrance in operation of the new platform in the Guajira at the end of 1998 and the production expectations in the opon Area, the possibilities are increased of gas supply for the short term, however in the medium and long term they think about queries before the uncertainty and opportune exploitation of the gas in the piedemonte llanero areas, for the recruiting problems that it is trusted, they will be overcome for benefit of the parts, with all the volume of proven and probable reserves of gas it shows a readiness for 35 years if they stay the production levels and it demands

  6. Cracked gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J; Schuster, H D; Gabler, R

    1976-11-17

    A small cracked-gas generator in a vehicle driven, in particular, by an air combustion engine has been proposed for the economic production of the gases necessary for low toxicity combustion from diesel fuel. This proceeds via catalytic crack-gasification and exploitation of residual heat from exhaust gases. This patent application foresees the insertion of one of the catalysts supporting the cracked-gas reaction in a container through which the reacting mixture for cracked-gas production flows in longitudinal direction. Further, air ducts are embedded in the catalyst through which exhaust gases and fresh air flow in counter direction to the cracked gas flow in the catalyst. The air vents are connected through heat conduction to the catalyst. A cracked gas constituting H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O can be produced from the air-fuel mixture using appropriate catalysts. By the addition of 5 to 25% of cracked gas to the volume of air drawn in by the combustion engine, a more favourable combustion can be achieved compared to that obtained under normal combustion conditions.

  7. The free-piston linear generator. Theoretical engine analysis and experimental investigations on gas spring subsystems; Der Freikolbenlineargenerator. Theoretische Betrachtungen des Gesamtsystems und experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Teilsystem der Gasfeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, S.E.

    2007-07-01

    The thesis presents the modeling and simulation of a novel development in the field of free-piston engines and the experimental investigation of controllable gas springs. The free-piston linear alternator proposed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) - Institute of Vehicle Concepts (IFK) combines a two stroke combustion engine with a linear alternator. An adjustable gas spring is used to reset the piston assembly. The engine is designed to enable new degrees of freedom for advanced optimization of the combustion process. In contrast to conventional crankshaft engines, the free-piston design offers mainly two degrees of freedom to improve engine performance: a variable piston stroke and a variable compression ratio. These key features allow for designing a combustion process with low emissions. The variable stroke and variable compression ratio can be used to optimize the combustion process for part load conditions. The goal is to achieve a compact electric power engine with high efficiency and reduced emissions. The free-piston linear alternator aims towards automotive application as auxiliary power unit and as power generator in hybrid electric vehicles. To study the features of free-piston engines this thesis provides a Modelica library containing basic and advanced component models. Control strategies are developed and the dynamic system behavior is characterized through parameter variations. The second part of the thesis examines two gas spring concepts allowing adjustable spring constants during engine operation. The gas spring concepts are theoretically and experimentally investigated. The experimental data is discussed and compared to simulation results. (orig.)

  8. Drilling of gas and condensed gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geranin, M P; Chao, P L; Lomonosov, V V

    1981-01-01

    Cementing of boreholes drilled into underground gas fields and the requirements imposed on the grouting mortar are reviewed. Results are set forth from a study of the insulation capacity of cementing mortar used to increase the quality of reinforcements of boreholes at PKhG. Data are presented on the properties of different grouting mortars for boreholes at PKhG, including those that may be used at low temperatures. Information is also provided on the use of light mortar containing a CaCl/sub 2/ additive, grouting mortar with furfuryl alcohol added, and expanding grouting mortars.

  9. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  10. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  11. Gas from the wall socket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Dutch public utility (Obragas) introduces a new way to supply gas for their household clients in Helmond, Netherlands: the gas wall socket. The use of gas wall sockets must prevent the decrease of the market share for natural gas compared to the market share of electricity for households

  12. Gas Cylinder Safety, Course 9518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-27

    This course, Gas Cylinder Safety (#9518), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with handling, storing, using, and transporting gas cylinders. Standard components and markings of gas cylinders are also presented, as well as the process for the procurement, delivery, and return of gas cylinders at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  13. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  14. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  16. A comparative study of gas-gas miscibility processes in underground gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Intermixture of gases in underground gas reservoirs have had great weight for natural gas storage in UGS projects with substitution of cushion gas by inert gases or changing the stored gas quality or origin, as for the replacement of town gas by natural gas. It was also investigated during the last years for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. The actual importance of its mechanisms is discussed for the H{sub 2} storage in Power to Gas to Power projects (PGP). In these approaches miscibility of the injected gas with the gas in place in the reservoir plays an important role in the displacement process. The conditions and parameters for the gas-gas displacement and mixing have been investigated in previous projects, as e.g. the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with natural gas (CLEAN). Furthermore the miscibility process of town gas with natural gas and sauer gas with sweet gas were also previously measured and compared in laboratory. The objective of this work is to investigate the miscibility of H{sub 2} injection into natural gas reservoirs using a compositional and a black oil reservoir simulator. Three processes of convection, dispersion and diffusion are considered precisely. The effect of gas miscibility is studied for both simulators and the results are compared to find optimum miscibility parameters. The findings of this work could be helpful for further pilot and field case studies to predict and monitor the changes in gas composition and quality. In future this monitoring might become more important when PGP together with H{sub 2}-UGS, as storage technology, will help to successfully implement the change to an energy supply from more renewable sources. Similarly the method confirms the use of the black oil simulator as an alternative for gas-gas displacement and sequestration reservoir simulation in comparison to the compositional simulator. (orig.)

  17. Natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  18. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  19. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  20. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  1. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  2. Growth through gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, G.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on the strategies used by Texaco Global Gas and Power in their international marketing and business development. The company is a fully integrated mid-stream company with natural gas sales of 3.6 billion cubic feet per day and operating revenues of $3.6 billion. The company operates 1,116 miles of interstate gas pipelines and owns a dominant NGL export facility in Washington. They also generate 2223 MW of electric power. An additional 2428 MW are currently under development. In Colombia, Texaco supplies 90 per cent of the marketed gas. In Trinidad and Tobago, Texaco is in a 50/50 joint venture in the Dolphin field. Texaco also has a significant downstream presence in Brazil and is pursuing opportunities of the Gas Apertura in Venezuela. Key to the company's success are a defined strategy, dedication to the market place, alliances based on common interests and complimentary strengths, acceptance of greater risk and regionally based solutions. The bulk of the paper is devoted to describing the company's priorities and strategies in each of the Latin American countries. 5 figs

  3. Offshore gas comes ashore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W J

    1968-12-21

    The equivalent of 25% of present energy consumption is supplied by natural gas, but there is still much more work to be accomplished. Only 3 yr ago, the names West Sole, Leman Bank, Indefatigable, and Hewett were only significant to the North Sea fisherman as the names of proved fishing grounds. Now they are household words to almost everyone in the gas industry, if not the population at large. The estimate of the recoverable reserves from these 4 fields is under continuous review but the current figure is of the order of 25 million Mcf, sufficient to maintain an average withdrawal rate of 2,300 Mcfd for 30 yr. On shore, work is at present in progress on the development of the Lockton gas field in N. Yorkshire which has now proved to be capable of supplying about 1,000 Mcfd. The processes used and the plant installed off shore and at a terminal for gas treating vary according to the composition of the gas and the design philosophy of the operator. A flow sheet for a typical operation is given.

  4. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  5. Methane gas from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The Khadi and Village Industries Commission offers a gobar gas (methane gas) production scheme. The gas plant, available in sizes of 60 to 3000 cu ft, requires only low maintenance expenditures. The cow dung, which is at present being wasted or burned as domestic fuel, can be used for manufacturing methane for fuel gas. The residue will be a good fertilizer for increasing food production. There are now about 4000 gobar gas plants in India.

  6. Gas, the energy for transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigenet, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The author describes gas as the less polluting fossil energy. He outlines that new gas fields have been discovered, notably non conventional gas fields. He notices that whatever conventional or not conventional, a gas field produces methane, and that there is therefore no difference for the end user. However, he notices that reserve assessments by the IAE are a matter of discussion, and that hydraulic fracturing has resulted in important environmental and human damages. Anyway, gas will be needed to face energy demand

  7. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  8. Gas converter. Gaswandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, A

    1984-09-27

    A gas converter is proposed for carbonisation gas containing hydrocarbons, consisting of a bricked shaft, which has a free combustion chamber and a solid bed of bulk grainy material with partly burnt hot carbonisation gases flowing through it as the lower boundary of this combustion chamber, in the upper part of which a hot reaction zone at about 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C is formed and which has a cracked gas extraction below the solid bed and an ash outlet. The solid bed is arranged at an angle to the vertical. The shaft has a solid material outlet for the bed material no longer capable of taking part in the reaction on the wall going obliquely downwards and a solid material inlet for new bulk bed material on the opposite wall going obliquely upwards.

  9. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Bayly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas detection system provides for the effective detection of gas leaks over a large area. It includes a laser which has a laser line corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. A He-Xe laser scans a number of retroreflectors which are strategically located around a D 2 O plant to detect H 2 S leaks. The reflected beam is focused by a telescope, filtered, and passed into an infrared detector. The laser may be made to emit two frequencies, one of which corresponds with an H 2 S absorption line; or it may be modulated on and off the H 2 S absorption line. The relative amplitude of the absorbed light will be a measure of the H 2 S present

  10. Colorimetric gas dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnaughey, P.W.; McKee, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    A gas dosimeter comprises a stack of porous sheets, impregnated with a reagent that changes color on contact with the gas to be determined, contained in a housing which has an opening to expose one end of the stack to the atmosphere to be tested. The gas to be determined penetrates by diffusion the layers of porous sheets, causing the sheets in the stack to change color sequentially from the end of the stack exposed to the atmosphere. The degree of penetration through the layers of porous sheets is a function of dosage exposure. The housing may be transparent with each superposed sheet in the stack being larger than the adjacent underlying sheet, so that each sheet is visible through the housing endwall

  11. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  12. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  13. Radioactive gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Akira; Kumagaya, Koji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a gas processing system which has hitherto been much complicated by the recyclic use of molecular sieve regeneration gas, by enabling to release the regeneration gas to outside in a once-through manner. Constitution: The system comprises a cooler for receiving and cooling gases to be processed containing radioactive rare gases, moisture-removing pipelines each connected in parallel to the exit of the cooler and having switching valves and a moisture removing column disposed between the valves and a charcoal absorber in communication with the moisture removing pipelines. Pipelines for flowing regeneration heating gases are separately connected to the moisture removing columns, and molecular sieve is charged in the moisture removing column by the amount depending on the types of the radioactive rare gases. (Aizawa, K.)

  14. Biological flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H.; Wijte, G.; Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P.; Hartog, H.A.J. den [Paper B.V. Blak (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    A new biological flue gas desulfurization process (BIO-FGD) producing sulphur as a by-product was invented by Paques BV and Hoogens Technical Services in 1993. Sulphur dioxide is absorbed from flue gas using a combination of a sodium based scrubber and two biological reactors, an anaerobic and an aerobic biological reactor. The article describes the process and its evaluation in a pilot plant at 2 MW scale, designed to remove 6 kg/hr SO{sub 2} of the 2 million m{sup 3}/hr of flue gas produced at the 600 MW coal fired power station Amer-8 situated in Geertruidenberg in the south of the Netherlands. Research so far has proved the process works successfully and at low cost. A second pilot plant due to start-up in May 1995 will provide data on scale up and further information on sulphur recovery. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  16. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.B.; Lewis, W.W.; Edmiston, A.; Klauser, G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO 2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  17. Method of gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltner, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    In order to separate a mixture of gases having widely different partial pressures at a given temperature, a chamber is employed. A batch of gas mixture is passed into the chamber. The walls of the chamber are cooled by a refrigerant which passes through coils in heat exchange relationship with the walls. By this means the temperature of the chamber is cooled to a temperature (and held at such temperature until equilibrium is reached) at which all the components of the gas mixture have changed state, at least one being solidified and at least one liquefied. The liquid constituents are removed first. Then the chamber is warmed to facilitate removal of the previously solidified constituents. In an example, the gas mixture comprises nitrogen, argon, krypton and xenon, and the walls of the chamber are cooled by liquid nitrogen, the argon and nitrogen being liquefied and the xenon and krypton being solidified. (author)

  18. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  19. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... corporate name change from MichCon to DTE Gas, and pursuant to section 284.123 of the Commissions... Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE Gas and to...

  20. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  1. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  2. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  3. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  4. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  5. Gas dynamic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.; Jewell, N.T.

    1975-01-01

    In a high powered laser system it is proposed that combustion gases be bled off from a gas turbine engine and their composition adjusted by burning extra fuel in the bleed gases or adding extra substances. Suitable aerodynamic expansion produces a population inversion resulting in laser action in the CO 2 species. Alternatively, bleed gases may be taken from the high pressure compressor of the gas turbine engine and an appropriate fuel burned therein. If required, other adjustments may also be made to the composition and the resulting gaseous mixture subjected to aerodynamic expansion to induce laser action as before. (auth)

  6. Special feature - Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, David.

    1995-01-01

    In an introduction to a series of articles about the United Kingdom gas industry, the author criticises Government policy as being too full of assertions, yet lacking in substance. Despite agreeing with the proposition that free markets lead to the best allocation of resources and the best deal for consumers, the author argues that evidence for such assertions must be made public if citizens are to have any confidence in them. It is claimed that gas should be the subject of a Review, such as the coal and nuclear industries have recently undergone, in order to demonstrate its central importance to the United Kingdom power supply. (UK)

  7. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  8. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  9. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  10. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  11. Elements of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Liepmann, H W

    2001-01-01

    The increasing importance of concepts from compressible fluid flow theory for aeronautical applications makes the republication of this first-rate text particularly timely. Intended mainly for aeronautics students, the text will also be helpful to practicing engineers and scientists who work on problems involving the aerodynamics of compressible fluids. Covering the general principles of gas dynamics to provide a working understanding of the essentials of gas flow, the contents of this book form the foundation for a study of the specialized literature and should give the necessary background

  12. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  13. A review on the use of gas and steam turbine combined cycles as prime movers for large ships. Part I: Background and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the prospects of using combined cycles as prime movers for large ships, like, container ships, tankers and bulk carriers. The paper is divided into three parts of which this paper constitutes Part I. Here, the environmental and human health concerns of international shipping are outlined. The regulatory framework relevant for shipping and the design of combined cycles are discussed. In Part II, previous work and experience are reviewed, and an overview of the implications of introducing combined cycles as prime movers is included. In Part III, marine fuels are discussed and the pollutant emissions of gas turbines are compared with those of two-stroke, slow-speed diesel engines. Environmental effects of shipping include contributions to the formation of ground-level ozone, acidification, eutrophication and climate impact. Tightening environmental regulations limit the fuel sulphur content and pollutant emissions. For moderate live steam pressures, a vertical HRSG of drum-type mounted directly over the gas turbine, is suggested to be a viable configuration that minimizes ground floor and space requirements

  14. Northwest Asia - gas market outlook: LNG vs. pipeline gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keun Wook Paik

    1996-01-01

    The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)

  15. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  16. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  17. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  18. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  19. Gas-retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-07-10

    A vertical retort for the continuous distillation of coal, peat, shale, lignite, etc., is provided with a perforated gas withdrawal pipe in the upper part. The central part is surrounded by a heating-flue, and the lower part is provided with a conical discharging-screw mounted in a rotary water-pan.

  20. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  1. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. The future needs Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2000-01-01

    Colombia requires increasing its reserves, to export and to attract investment for this industry. A stable legal mark and rules of game clears they are the road to incentives the exploration and this way to develop the great gas potential of the country, prices and market, the key variables

  3. Venezuelan gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) is an international energy corporation wholly owned by the Republic of Venezuela. The steady expansion of PDVSA's natural gas infrastructure in Venezuela and the strong performance of its subsidiaries, has contributed to its operational and marketing flexibility, thus allowing it to evolve froma simple exporter of crude oil and refined products to an important supplier of Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) to the world's major energy markets. Corpoven one of PDVSA's affiliated Companies will in 1994 produce an incremental volume of 45 thousand barrels per day of natural gas liquids from the northern Monagas region. NGL exports are expected to increase from 175 thousand barrels day in 1994 to 232 thousand barrels day in 1988. At the end of 1992, another PDVSA subsidiary reached an agreement which calls for the exploitation of vast reserves of natural gas located in the Gulf of Paria, in northeastern Venezuela. The projected LNG production is in the order of 6 million tons per year. (author)

  4. Gas calorimeter workshop: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Gas calorimeters combining functions of energy measurement and fine tracking have become more and more popular in the past few years. They help identify muons, gammas, electrons, and hadrons within dense tracks from transverse and longitudinal shower development. Fine segmentation capability using pads and strips on the cathodes have made gas-sampling calorimeters very attractive for colliding-beam detectors where a large multiplicity of particles are detected in a projected geometry. Linearity, energy resolution, shower position resolution, multishower resolution, and calibration questions were discussed in detail at the workshop. Ease of energy calibration by monitoring radioactive sources, good gain uniformity, and gain stability obtained were among the topics of the speakers. There was a discussion session on the operation mode of wire chambers. Gas calorimeters have been used successfully at CERN, Cornell, Fermilab, and SLAC for experiments. Some of the results from those large-scale devices were reported. Future usage of gas-sampling calorimeters for colliding-beam experiments at Fermilab and CERN were discussed. Wire chambers using extruded conductive plastic tubes have made construction easy of pads and strips which can conveniently read out induced signals from the cathode. The results of extensive studies on such devices were discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 17 papers presented

  5. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  6. New King Gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feine, Paul.

    1997-01-01

    After describing how the natural gas market in the US has developed over the past 20 years under deregulation, the influence of the future market from political aspects is discussed. In particular the likely standards to be set by the Environmental Protection Agency on emissions from power plants and industry will be key. (UK)

  7. Opec's fratricidal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1997-01-01

    The growing dependence of the world economy on natural gas has presented political problems to the OPEC states in terms of how to handle such exports within the oil quotes agreed between members. The impact in terms of relative gain or loss is presented for eleven OPEC members. (UK)

  8. Workshop on Gas Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Effect of pressure on gas permeability. In Fish … Different channels or splice variants at different depth.  HRE (hypoxia-response elements): which...proteins unexpectedly have HREs . HIF-1.  Shear stress:  expression of NOS  Are different splice variants used under different conditions?  Size

  9. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  10. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of 1,2,3-oxadithiolan 2-oxide and thiiran 1-oxide have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry (f.v.t.–f.i.m.s.) technique in the temperature range from 1 043 to 1 404 K. The reactions are rationalized in terms of sulp...

  11. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono–thiolo rea...

  12. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  13. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Selective gas exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yoichi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method capable of evacuating gases at an exhaustion rate which varies depending on the kind of gases. For example, in a thermonuclear experimental device, a hydrogen gas exhaustion rate is determined to 0 and an exhaustion rate for other impure gases is made greater. Namely, a baffle plate is cooled to a temperature to a level at which the vapor pressure of gases to evacuate a baffle plate is required in a pump incorporating a baffle plate, for example, a cryopump or a sorption pump. In this case, the level of the vapor pressure required for evacuating the exhaustion gas ingredients is 1 x 10 -8 Torr or less, preferably, 1 x 10 -9 Torr. In a thermonuclear experimental device, a gas having a lower boiling point next to hydrogen is neon, but neon is scarcely present in natural world. Nitrogen has a lower boiling point next thereto, and if the temperature is lowered to such a level that the vapor pressure for evacuating gases such as nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon or methane having a boiling point at or lower than nitrogen is required. Then, evacuation rate sufficient for gases other than hydrogen gas can be obtained. (I.S.)

  15. IXM gas sampling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingel, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ion Exchange Modules (IXMs) are used at the 105-KE and -KW Fuel Storage Basins to control radionuclide concentrations in the water. A potential safety concern relates to production of hydrogen gas by radiolysis of the water trapped in the ion exchange media of spent IXMs. This document provides a procedure for sampling the gases in the head space of the IXM

  16. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  17. Chrysant zonder gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, M.G.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Knaap, van der E.; Veld, de Paul

    2015-01-01

    The most relevant options that can decrease the heat demand on Chrysanthemum are calculated on their saving potential. With the joint options, a gas consumption of less than 10 m3/m2.year can be realized. The main bottlenecks are the increased risk of fungal diseases and the low net present value of

  18. Financing landfill gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of financing landfill gas projects in the UK in the last few years are discussed. The approach of the author in setting up a company to finance such projects in the power generation field and a separate company to design and supply turnkey packages is reported. (UK)

  19. Marketing of Frigg gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, W R

    1976-01-01

    The marketing of Frigg gas is of particular interest, being the first major supplementary source of supply since the original development and major expansion of the natural gas industry. The timing of arrival is highly significant following a unique series of events - world energy crisis, upsurge of fuel prices, the deliberate restriction of gas sales to match available supply, and a major economic recession during which national energy usage has actually fallen. After such unprecedented changes, the future energy scene is far from clear. It is certain, however, that the marketing of Frigg gas will have to take into account the social, economic, and political changes that are occurring in the United Kingdom as manifested in an increasing interest in energy prices. Notwithstanding the uncertainties, the industry's broadly based strategy of market-related pricing in the premium sectors, which has served its customers and the economy as a whole to advantage over the past few years, will be extended to make the maximum use of a valuable indigenous resource.

  20. Fission gas in thoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah, E-mail: n.kuganathan@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ghosh, Partha S. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Galvin, Conor O.T. [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arya, Ashok K. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dutta, Bijon K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Trombay, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Dey, Gautam K. [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Grimes, Robin W. [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    The fission gases Xe and Kr, formed during normal reactor operation, are known to degrade fuel performance, particularly at high burn-up. Using first-principles density functional theory together with a dispersion correction (DFT + D), in ThO{sub 2} we calculate the energetics of neutral and charged point defects, the di-vacancy (DV), different neutral tri-vacancies (NTV), the charged tetravacancy (CTV) defect cluster geometries and their interaction with Xe and Kr. The most favourable incorporation point defect site for Xe or Kr in defective ThO{sub 2} is the fully charged thorium vacancy. The lowest energy NTV in larger supercells of ThO{sub 2} is NTV3, however, a single Xe atom is most stable when accommodated within a NTV1. The di-vacancy (DV) is a significantly less favoured incorporation site than the NTV1 but the CTV offers about the same incorporation energy. Incorporation of a second gas atom in a NTV is a high energy process and more unfavourable than accommodation within an existing Th vacancy. The bi-NTV (BNTV) cluster geometry studied will accommodate one or two gas atoms with low incorporation energies but the addition of a third gas atom incurs a high energy penalty. The tri-NTV cluster (TNTV) forms a larger space which accommodates three gas atoms but again there is a penalty to accommodate a fourth gas atom. By considering the energy to form the defect sites, solution energies were generated showing that in ThO{sub 2−x} the most favourable solution equilibrium site is the NTV1 while in ThO{sub 2} it is the DV. - Highlights: • We have considered Xe and Kr in point defects and defect clusters (neutral and charged) using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with a dispersion correction. • The most favourable charge state for a point defect (vacancy or interstitial) is that with full ionic charge and we have found that in all cases gas atoms occupy the fully charged vacancy sites. • The number of fission gas atoms accommodated in ThO{sub 2} is

  1. Gas pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M.M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 μm CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm 2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm 2 ) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 μm pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 μm) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

  2. Gas centrifuge purge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  3. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Who's afraid of natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in our electricity systems provoked by natural gas power generation technology are paving the way for large-scale renewables use in the future. Natural gas and gas turbines are now such a cheap and easy option for electricity generation that they appear to cast a pall over renewables. The market share of gas-fired generation continues expanding inexorably. Its cost continues to fall, setting renewables an ever more demanding competitive target. Nevertheless, paradoxical though this may sound, natural gas is actually the natural ally of renewables. Despite the fierce competitive challenge it represents, natural gas may even be the most important single factor shaping a bright future for renewables. (author)

  5. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Gas supply and Yorkshire Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Yorkshire Electricity, among other independent suppliers of gas, now competes for a share of the United Kingdom gas market, previously monopolised by British Gas. The experience of this successful electric utility company, expanding into the industrial and domestic gas supply market is described in the article. The company`s involvement stems partly from the fact that significant volumes of gas are landed at three terminals within its franchise area. The company will also seek to use subsidaries to generate electric power from gas turbine power plants and explore the possibilities of developing combined heat and power (CHP) plants where appropriate. (UK)

  7. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  8. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  9. Hot fuel gas dedusting after sorbent-based gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), require gas cleaning at high temperatures in order to meet environmental standards and to achieve high thermal efficiencies. The primary hot gas filtration process, which removes particulates from the cooled raw fuel gas at up to 600{degree}C is the first stage of gas cleaning prior to desulphurization and ammonia removal processes. The dust concentration in the fuel gas downstream of the sorbent processes would be much lower than for the hot gas filtration stage and would have a lower sulphur content and possibly reduced chlorine concentration. The main aim of this project is to define the requirements for a hot gas filter for dedusting fuel gas under these conditions, and to identify a substantially simpler and more cost effective solution using ceramic or metal barrier filters.

  10. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  11. Green gas. Gas of natural gas quality from biomass. Update of the 2004 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welink, Jan-Henk; Dumont, M.; Kwant, K.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 a study was published on green gas. Green gas is defined as a gaseous energy carrier from renewable biomass with a similar quality as natural gas. As a result of new developments in the field of co-digestion/fermentation the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs asked it's agency SenterNovem to update the 2004 study. The aim of the update is (1) to gain insight into operational aspects of green gas projects, e.g. reliability, efficiency and maintenance aspects; (2) stimulate the production of green gas, taking into account the economics of green gas projects, calculation of the financial gap of green gas production, efficient use of biogas (conversion to electricity or directly input into the natural gas distribution systems, and aspects with regard to commercialization and the market; and (3) the potential of green gas [nl

  12. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  13. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Dahl, M.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples

  14. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  15. Gas retorts: gas manufacture, process for distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J

    1874-05-23

    In apparatus for distilling shale, coal, etc. for making oil and gas, tubular retorts are supported horizontally in a chamber by plates from a brick setting and are heated partly by jets of gas from a pipe supplied through a cock from a gas holder, and partly by the waste gases from a furnace, which heats gas retorts placed in a chamber, air being supplied beneath the grate by a fan.

  16. Design and Simulation of a Pressure Wave Supercharger for a Small Two-Stroke Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    below. ?̇? = ∙ ?̇? (1) 33 The symbol ρ refers to the density ( lbm /ft3) of air, and the symbol ?̇? refers to the volumetric flow rate (ft3...calculated from Equation 1 using standard density, and was found to be 1.76 lbm /min. To account for the increase in flow resulting from using a...expected for a turbo-normalization device [10]. The resulting boosted mass flow was calculated to be 2.64 lbm /min. This was the desired mass flow used to

  17. Small Engine Repair. Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in repairing two- and four-stroke cycle small engines. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: safety, tools, fasteners, and measurement techniques; basic small engine theory (engine identification and inspection, basic engine principles and…

  18. Turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Walther, Jens Honore

    2014-01-01

    turbulence models. In the present work, the flow in a dynamic scale model of a uniflowscavenged cylinder is investigated experimentally. The model has a transparent cylinder and a moving piston driven by a linear motor. The flow is investigated using phase-locked stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV...... cannot be assumed to be quasi-steady. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34 %, which is in good agreement...

  19. U.S. Coast Guard pollution abatement program - Two-stroke cycle outboard engine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    This report documents the results of emissions tests performed on three old and two new outboard engines. Tests of the emissions were made before and after water contact. Older engines were tested in as-received condition, tuned to factory specificat...

  20. Ranking of Cylinder Liner Materials in Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    is made into a ring and the piston ring into a block. A short introduction of the test apparatus and its abilities is presented and discussed. Results from comparison and characterisation of five different cylinder liner materials run with a fixed piston ring material are presented. A preliminary ranking...... of the materials is given based on the materials tribological performance. The materials are evaluated on basis of friction force, oil film thickness variation, temperature variation and rotational speed....

  1. Parametric Study of the Scavenging Process in Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Mayer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    pressure are varied. TheCFD model comprise the full geometry from scavenge receiverto exhaust receiver. Asymmetric inlet and outlet conditions isincluded as well as the dynamics of a moving piston and valve.Time resolved boundary conditions corresponding tomeasurements from an operating, full scale...

  2. Heat Transfer in Two-Stroke Diesel Engines for Large Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar Ask

    Demands on reducing the fuel consumption and harmful emissions from the compression ignition engines (diesel engines) have been continuously increasing in recent years. To comply with this, better modeling tools for the diesel combustion process are desired from the engine developers. A very......%, 30% and 50% load) was performed on a MAN Diesel & Turbo SE test engine, which shows very promising results for further investigations of dynamic temperature and heat flux in large bore engines. Instantaneous heat flux is derived using both an analytical and a numerical model and compared. More...... was investigated by computer simulations using a 3-D numerical finite volume model made in STAR-CD. General trends are observed from the temperature measurements in the limited part load range. These include among others: local increase in mean surface temperature and mean surface heat flux with increasing load...

  3. Measuring Scaling Effects in Small Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    was used [9]. Compression ignition (CI) engines rely on auto - ignition to initiate combustion during an engine cycle. During intake, only air flows...9 Figure 2: Four-stroke IC engine cycle. (a) Intake stroke (b) Compression stroke (c) Ignition (d) Power...CAD crank angle degrees CI compression ignition COTS commercial off the shelf CoV coefficient of variance DAQ data acquisition system DI

  4. The challenge of implementing green gas into the gas supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain a more mature share in the future energy supply, green gas supply chains face some interesting challenges. In this thesis green gas supply chains, based on codigestion of cow manure and maize, are considered. The produced biogas is upgraded to natural gas quality and injected into

  5. A Gas Target with a Tritium Gas Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1963-12-15

    A detailed description is given of a simple tritium gas target and its tritium gas filling system, and how to put it into operation. By using the T (p,n) He reaction the gas target has been employed for production of monoenergetic fast neutrons of well defined energy and high intensity. The target has been operated successfully for a long time.

  6. An Ideal Gas Law Simulator for Atmospheric Gas Molecules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideal gas law which is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas that allows us to gain useful insights into the behavior of most real gases at low densities was utilized in this work to conceptualize, design and develop the ideal gas law simulator in a 3 dimensional space using Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft ...

  7. Gas-particle interactions in dense gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects gas¿solid contacting and transport processes in dense gas-fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore the

  8. Gas-ion laser with gas pressure maintenance means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A gas-ion laser is described including means to maintain the ionizable gas in the laser cavity at a rather constant pressure over an extended period of time to significantly increase the useful life of the gas-ion laser. The gas laser includes a gas makeup system having a high pressure source or storage container and a regulating valve. The valve has a permeable solid state orifice member through which the gas flows from the high pressure source to the laser cavity to replenish the gas in the laser cavity and maintain the gas pressure in the cavity rather constant. The permeable orifice member is selected from a solid state material having a permeability that is variable in relation to the magnitude of the energy applied to the orifice member. The gas-ion laser has a valve operating means such as a heater for varying the applied energy such as thermal energy to the member to regulate the gas flow. Additionally, the gas-ion laser has a valve control means that is responsive to the gas pressure in the laser cavity for controlling the valve control means to maintain the pressure at a desired level. (U.S.)

  9. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  10. Gas Composition Sensor for Natural Gas and Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Sweelsen, J.; Blokland, H.

    2016-01-01

    The calorific value of energetic gasses is an important parameter in the quality assessment of gas steams, and can be calculated from the chemical composition of the gas. An array of capacitive sensor electrodes was developed, each functionalized with a gas responsive coating to measure the

  11. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  12. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  13. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  14. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  15. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  16. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  18. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  19. Multiplex gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  20. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  1. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  2. Shale gas - uncertain destiny?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines that, even if it would be allowed, the exploitation of shale gas in France would need ten years to start, and no one can say what would be our needs then and what would be the situation of the gas market at that time. Even if the government decided to forbid hydraulic fracturing, there could be some opportunity for experimentation with a search for alternative technology. The article notices that risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and extraction of non conventional hydrocarbons, i.e. water pollution and consumption and land use, are variously perceived in different European countries (Germany, Romania, Poland) where important American actors are present (Chevron, Exxon) to exploit shale gases. In the USA, the economic profitability seems in fact to rapidly decrease

  3. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  4. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  5. Biological (flue) gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [PAQUES, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar CV, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Groep BV, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Biotechnological research has been carried out to find new micro-organisms and processes to make useful products, and to reveal new ways and biotechnological mechanisms to produce elemental sulfur in waste water treatment. Biotechnological development work has been carried out and the first commercial installation (on 300 m{sup 3}/hr scale) to produce sulfur from polluted waste water was started up in 1992. The importance of this recent research and development in the area of waste water treatment was recognized. In an intensive cooperation between Hoogovens Technical Services and PACQUES the concept for a totally new Biological Flue Gas Desulfurization process (BIO-FGD), producing sulfur as by-product, was invented. It consists of the combination of a sodium scrubber with two biological reactors resulting in a very attractive new concept for a gas cleaning process. A description of the process is given and the pilot plant results are outlined. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To easily and reliably detect the consumption of a sputtered cathode in a radioactive gas storage device using ion injection method. Constitution: Inert gases are sealed to the inside of a cathode. As the device is operated, the cathode is consumed and, if it is scraped to some extent, inert gases in the cathode gases are blown out to increase the inner pressure of the device. The pressure elevation is detected by a pressure detector connected with a gas introduction pipe or discharge pipe. Further, since the discharge current in the inside is increased along with the elevation of the pressure, it is possible to detect the increase of the electrical current. In this way, the consumption of the cathode can be recognized by detecting the elevation in the pressure or increase in the current. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  8. Flue Gas Desulphurization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Halhouli, K.A.; Abu-Ashur, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization process are discussed. These processes can be grouped into non-regenerable systems and regenerable systems. The non-regenerable systems produce a product which is either disposed of as waste or sold as a by-product e.g. lime/limestone process. While in the regenerable systems, e.g. Wellman-Lord process, the SO 2 is regenerated from the sorbent(sodium sulphite), which is returned to absorb more SO 2 . Also a newer technology for flue gas desulphurization is discussed. The Ispra process uses bromine as oxidant, producing HBr, from which bromine is regenerated by electrolysis. The only by-products of this process are sulphuric acid and hydrogen, which are both valuable products, and no waste products are produced. Suggested modifications on the process are made based on experimental investigations to improve the efficiency of the process and to reduce its costs

  9. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  10. MOCVD waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelen, A. van; Bink, P.H.M.; Giling, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A large scale production of GaAs based solar cells with MOCVD will give rise to a considerable use of arsine. Therefore a gas treatment system is needed to convert the waste gases into less toxic compounds. In this study seven different gas treatment systems for MOCVD are compared by quantifying the environmental aspects. The systems are divided in wet systems, adsorption systems and thermal systems. The smallest amount of waste is produced by adsorption and thermal systems. Adsorption systems use the smallest amount of energy. The amount of primary materials used for the equipment varies per system. All systems are safe, but adsorption systems are simplest. At the moment, adsorption systems are probably the best choice from an environmental point of view. Nevertheless thermal systems have some potential advantages which make them interesting for the future

  11. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  12. Measuring Dark Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Heiles, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    It is now well known that a substantial fraction of Galactic molecular gas cannot be traced by CO emission. The thus dubbed CO dark molecular gas (DMG) occupy a large volume of ISM with intermediate extinction, where CO is either not self-shielded and/or subthermally excited. We explore the utilities of simple hydrides, such OH, CH, etc., in tracing DMG. We mapped and modeled the transition zone cross a cloud boundary and derived emperical OH abundance and DMG distribution formulae. We also obtained absorption measurements of various species using Arecibo, VLA, ATCA, and ALMA. The absorption technique has the potential to provide systematic quantification of DMG in the next few years.

  13. Gas Dispatching and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoettker, R.; Spiecker, U.

    1995-01-01

    Activities in large dispatch centres are usually divided into volume planning and contract management as well as grid control. Volume planning and contract management require high-performance computers for contractual and technical optimisation models, for contract handling models and communication with partner companies. For grid control, the use of computers for SCADA systems and for grid simulation and optimisation has become a fundamental requirement. In 1992, Ruhrgas replaced the hardware by a modern hardware concept featuring a fault-tolerant process computer for SCADA system interface processing. The work-place computers were substituted by sophisticated workstations integrated into a computer network and an X-Windows user interface based on the MOTIF standard was introduced. Effective cooperation between the dispatch centres of European gas companies is of paramount importance. One example of good cooperation is the contractual and physical handling of North Sea gas supplies at Emden. 4 figs

  14. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the

  15. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information