Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masahito, Hayashi; Reynaud, S.; Jaekel, M.Th.; Fiuraaek, J.; Garcia-Patron, R.; Cerf, N.J.; Hage, B.; Chelkowski, S.; Franzen, A.; Lastzka, N.; Vahlbruch, N.; Danzmann, K.; Schnabel, R.; Hassan, S.S.; Joshi, A.; Jakob, M.; Bergou, J.A.; Kozlovskii, A.V.; Prakash, H.; Kumar, R.
2005-01-01
The purpose of the conference was to bring together people working in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on non-classical light sources and related areas, quantum computing, statistical mechanics and mathematical physics. As a novelty, this edition will include the topics of quantum imaging, quantum phase noise and number theory in quantum mechanics. This document gives the program of the conference and gathers the abstracts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masahito, Hayashi [ERATO, Quantum Computation and Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Reynaud, S. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. Kastler Brossel, 75 - Paris (France); Jaekel, M.Th. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. de Physique Theorique 75 - Paris (France); Fiuraaek, J. [Palacky Univ., Dept. of Optics (Czech Republic); Garcia-Patron, R.; Cerf, N.J. [QUIC, Ecole Polytechnique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Hage, B.; Chelkowski, S.; Franzen, A.; Lastzka, N.; Vahlbruch, N.; Danzmann, K.; Schnabel, R. [Hannover Univ., Institut Faur Atom- und Molekaulphysik, Max-Planck-Institut, Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) (Germany); Hassan, S.S. [Bahrain Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, College of Science (Bahrain); Joshi, A. [Arkansas, Univ., Dept. of Physics, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Jakob, M. [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH (ARCS), Tech Gate Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Bergou, J.A. [New York City Univ., Dept. of Physics, Hunter College, NY (United States); Kozlovskii, A.V. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prakash, H. [Allahabad Univ., Dept. of Physics (India)]|[Allahabad Univ., M. N. Saha Centre of Space Studies, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies (India); Kumar, R. [Allahabad Univ., Dept. of Physics (India)]|[Udai Pratap Autonomous College (India)
2005-07-01
The purpose of the conference was to bring together people working in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on non-classical light sources and related areas, quantum computing, statistical mechanics and mathematical physics. As a novelty, this edition will include the topics of quantum imaging, quantum phase noise and number theory in quantum mechanics. This document gives the program of the conference and gathers the abstracts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masahito, Hayashi [ERATO, Quantum Computation and Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Reynaud, S [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. Kastler Brossel, 75 - Paris (France); Jaekel, M Th [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. de Physique Theorique 75 - Paris (France); Fiuraaek, J [Palacky Univ., Dept. of Optics (Czech Republic); Garcia-Patron, R; Cerf, N J [QUIC, Ecole Polytechnique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Hage, B; Chelkowski, S; Franzen, A; Lastzka, N; Vahlbruch, N; Danzmann, K; Schnabel, R [Hannover Univ., Institut Faur Atom- und Molekaulphysik, Max-Planck-Institut, Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) (Germany); Hassan, S S [Bahrain Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, College of Science (Bahrain); Joshi, A [Arkansas, Univ., Dept. of Physics, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Jakob, M [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH (ARCS), Tech Gate Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Bergou, J A [New York City Univ., Dept. of Physics, Hunter College, NY (United States); Kozlovskii, A V [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prakash, H [Allahabad Univ., Dept. of Physics (India); [Allahabad Univ., M. N. Saha Centre of Space Studies, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies (India); Kumar, R [Allahabad Univ., Dept. of Physics (India); [Udai Pratap Autonomous College (India)
2005-07-01
The purpose of the conference was to bring together people working in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on non-classical light sources and related areas, quantum computing, statistical mechanics and mathematical physics. As a novelty, this edition will include the topics of quantum imaging, quantum phase noise and number theory in quantum mechanics. This document gives the program of the conference and gathers the abstracts.
Additivity of entropic uncertainty relations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Schwonnek
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider the uncertainty between two pairs of local projective measurements performed on a multipartite system. We show that the optimal bound in any linear uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of the Shannon entropy, is additive. This directly implies, against naive intuition, that the minimal entropic uncertainty can always be realized by fully separable states. Hence, in contradiction to proposals by other authors, no entanglement witness can be constructed solely by comparing the attainable uncertainties of entangled and separable states. However, our result gives rise to a huge simplification for computing global uncertainty bounds as they now can be deduced from local ones. Furthermore, we provide the natural generalization of the Maassen and Uffink inequality for linear uncertainty relations with arbitrary positive coefficients.
Relational uncertainty in service dyads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreye, Melanie
2017-01-01
in service dyads and how they resolve it through suitable organisational responses to increase the level of service quality. Design/methodology/approach: We apply the overall logic of Organisational Information-Processing Theory (OIPT) and present empirical insights from two industrial case studies collected...... the relational uncertainty increased the functional quality while resolving the partner’s organisational uncertainty increased the technical quality of the delivered service. Originality: We make two contributions. First, we introduce relational uncertainty to the OM literature as the inability to predict...... and explain the actions of a partnering organisation due to a lack of knowledge about their abilities and intentions. Second, we present suitable organisational responses to relational uncertainty and their effect on service quality....
Stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) [11]. Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014) [12] and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.
Two multi-dimensional uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skala, L; Kapsa, V
2008-01-01
Two multi-dimensional uncertainty relations, one related to the probability density and the other one related to the probability density current, are derived and discussed. Both relations are stronger than the usual uncertainty relations for the coordinates and momentum
Uncertainty Relations and Possible Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregg Jaeger
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The uncertainty principle can be understood as a condition of joint indeterminacy of classes of properties in quantum theory. The mathematical expressions most closely associated with this principle have been the uncertainty relations, various inequalities exemplified by the well known expression regarding position and momentum introduced by Heisenberg. Here, recent work involving a new sort of “logical” indeterminacy principle and associated relations introduced by Pitowsky, expressable directly in terms of probabilities of outcomes of measurements of sharp quantum observables, is reviewed and its quantum nature is discussed. These novel relations are derivable from Boolean “conditions of possible experience” of the quantum realm and have been considered both as fundamentally logical and as fundamentally geometrical. This work focuses on the relationship of indeterminacy to the propositions regarding the values of discrete, sharp observables of quantum systems. Here, reasons for favoring each of these two positions are considered. Finally, with an eye toward future research related to indeterminacy relations, further novel approaches grounded in category theory and intended to capture and reconceptualize the complementarity characteristics of quantum propositions are discussed in relation to the former.
Improvement of uncertainty relations for mixed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Yong Moon
2005-01-01
We study a possible improvement of uncertainty relations. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation employs commutator of a pair of conjugate observables to set the limit of quantum measurement of the observables. The Schroedinger uncertainty relation improves the Heisenberg uncertainty relation by adding the correlation in terms of anti-commutator. However both relations are insensitive whether the state used is pure or mixed. We improve the uncertainty relations by introducing additional terms which measure the mixtureness of the state. For the momentum and position operators as conjugate observables and for the thermal state of quantum harmonic oscillator, it turns out that the equalities in the improved uncertainty relations hold
Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Helgeson, Casey; Elsawah, Sondoss; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Kummu, Matti
2017-08-01
Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, among other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g., uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim—what we call here "framing" the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. (1) It proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. (2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. (3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. (4) We make provocative recommendations to achieve a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ˜5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (˜25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (˜40%)—or uncertainty is completely ignored (˜8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers.
Entropic uncertainty relations-a survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehner, Stephanie; Winter, Andreas
2010-01-01
Uncertainty relations play a central role in quantum mechanics. Entropic uncertainty relations in particular have gained significant importance within quantum information, providing the foundation for the security of many quantum cryptographic protocols. Yet, little is known about entropic uncertainty relations with more than two measurement settings. In the present survey, we review known results and open questions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
The Western Theories of War Ethics and Contemporary Controversies Li Xiaodong U Ruijing （4） [ Abstract] In the field of international relations, war ethics is a concept with distinct westem ideological color. Due to factors of history and reality, the in
Uncertainty relation and probability. Numerical illustration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Umetsu, Koichiro
2011-01-01
The uncertainty relation and the probability interpretation of quantum mechanics are intrinsically connected, as is evidenced by the evaluation of standard deviations. It is thus natural to ask if one can associate a very small uncertainty product of suitably sampled events with a very small probability. We have shown elsewhere that some examples of the evasion of the uncertainty relation noted in the past are in fact understood in this way. We here numerically illustrate that a very small uncertainty product is realized if one performs a suitable sampling of measured data that occur with a very small probability. We introduce a notion of cyclic measurements. It is also shown that our analysis is consistent with the Landau-Pollak-type uncertainty relation. It is suggested that the present analysis may help reconcile the contradicting views about the 'standard quantum limit' in the detection of gravitational waves. (author)
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo
2011-01-01
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-12-15
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Optimal entropic uncertainty relation for successive measurements ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
measurements in quantum information theory. M D SRINIVAS ... derived by Robertson in 1929 [2] from the first principles of quantum theory, does not ... systems and may hence be referred to as 'uncertainty relations for distinct measurements'.
Ascertaining the uncertainty relations via quantum correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jun-Li; Du, Kun; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2014-01-01
We propose a new scheme to express the uncertainty principle in the form of inequality of the bipartite correlation functions for a given multipartite state, which provides an experimentally feasible and model-independent way to verify various uncertainty and measurement disturbance relations. By virtue of this scheme, the implementation of experimental measurement on the measurement disturbance relation to a variety of physical systems becomes practical. The inequality in turn, also imposes a constraint on the strength of correlation, i.e. it determines the maximum value of the correlation function for two-body system and a monogamy relation of the bipartite correlation functions for multipartite system. (paper)
Majorization uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states
Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Krawiec, Aleksandra; Życzkowski, Karol
2018-04-01
Majorization uncertainty relations are generalized for an arbitrary mixed quantum state ρ of a finite size N. In particular, a lower bound for the sum of two entropies characterizing the probability distributions corresponding to measurements with respect to two arbitrary orthogonal bases is derived in terms of the spectrum of ρ and the entries of a unitary matrix U relating both bases. The results obtained can also be formulated for two measurements performed on a single subsystem of a bipartite system described by a pure state, and consequently expressed as an uncertainty relation for the sum of conditional entropies.
Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukhovoj, A.M.
1996-01-01
Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics are considered. P, T-breaking, neutron beta decay, neutron radiative capture and neutron polarizability are discussed. Reaction with fast neutrons, methodical aspect low-energy fission are considered too
Generalized Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki
2007-01-01
The Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation treats a pair of rank one projection valued measures and imposes a restriction on their probability distributions. It gives a nontrivial bound for summation of their maximum values. We give a generalization of this bound (weak version of the Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation). Our generalization covers a pair of positive operator valued measures. A nontrivial but slightly weak inequality that can treat an arbitrary number of positive operator valued measures is also presented. A possible application to the problem of separability criterion is also suggested
Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty and the uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redei, Miklos
1987-01-01
The usual verbal form of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the usual mathematical formulation (the so-called uncertainty theorem) are not equivalent. The meaning of the concept 'uncertainty' is not unambiguous and different interpretations are used in the literature. Recently a renewed interest has appeared to reinterpret and reformulate the precise meaning of Heisenberg's principle and to find adequate mathematical form. The suggested new theorems are surveyed and critically analyzed. (D.Gy.) 20 refs
Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.
2007-01-01
We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like
Uncertainty relations for approximation and estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jaeha, E-mail: jlee@post.kek.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsutsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.tsutsui@kek.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)
2016-05-27
We present a versatile inequality of uncertainty relations which are useful when one approximates an observable and/or estimates a physical parameter based on the measurement of another observable. It is shown that the optimal choice for proxy functions used for the approximation is given by Aharonov's weak value, which also determines the classical Fisher information in parameter estimation, turning our inequality into the genuine Cramér–Rao inequality. Since the standard form of the uncertainty relation arises as a special case of our inequality, and since the parameter estimation is available as well, our inequality can treat both the position–momentum and the time–energy relations in one framework albeit handled differently. - Highlights: • Several inequalities interpreted as uncertainty relations for approximation/estimation are derived from a single ‘versatile inequality’. • The ‘versatile inequality’ sets a limit on the approximation of an observable and/or the estimation of a parameter by another observable. • The ‘versatile inequality’ turns into an elaboration of the Robertson–Kennard (Schrödinger) inequality and the Cramér–Rao inequality. • Both the position–momentum and the time–energy relation are treated in one framework. • In every case, Aharonov's weak value arises as a key geometrical ingredient, deciding the optimal choice for the proxy functions.
Uncertainty relations for approximation and estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jaeha; Tsutsui, Izumi
2016-01-01
We present a versatile inequality of uncertainty relations which are useful when one approximates an observable and/or estimates a physical parameter based on the measurement of another observable. It is shown that the optimal choice for proxy functions used for the approximation is given by Aharonov's weak value, which also determines the classical Fisher information in parameter estimation, turning our inequality into the genuine Cramér–Rao inequality. Since the standard form of the uncertainty relation arises as a special case of our inequality, and since the parameter estimation is available as well, our inequality can treat both the position–momentum and the time–energy relations in one framework albeit handled differently. - Highlights: • Several inequalities interpreted as uncertainty relations for approximation/estimation are derived from a single ‘versatile inequality’. • The ‘versatile inequality’ sets a limit on the approximation of an observable and/or the estimation of a parameter by another observable. • The ‘versatile inequality’ turns into an elaboration of the Robertson–Kennard (Schrödinger) inequality and the Cramér–Rao inequality. • Both the position–momentum and the time–energy relation are treated in one framework. • In every case, Aharonov's weak value arises as a key geometrical ingredient, deciding the optimal choice for the proxy functions.
Energy and Uncertainty in General Relativity
Cooperstock, F. I.; Dupre, M. J.
2018-03-01
The issue of energy and its potential localizability in general relativity has challenged physicists for more than a century. Many non-invariant measures were proposed over the years but an invariant measure was never found. We discovered the invariant localized energy measure by expanding the domain of investigation from space to spacetime. We note from relativity that the finiteness of the velocity of propagation of interactions necessarily induces indefiniteness in measurements. This is because the elements of actual physical systems being measured as well as their detectors are characterized by entire four-velocity fields, which necessarily leads to information from a measured system being processed by the detector in a spread of time. General relativity adds additional indefiniteness because of the variation in proper time between elements. The uncertainty is encapsulated in a generalized uncertainty principle, in parallel with that of Heisenberg, which incorporates the localized contribution of gravity to energy. This naturally leads to a generalized uncertainty principle for momentum as well. These generalized forms and the gravitational contribution to localized energy would be expected to be of particular importance in the regimes of ultra-strong gravitational fields. We contrast our invariant spacetime energy measure with the standard 3-space energy measure which is familiar from special relativity, appreciating why general relativity demands a measure in spacetime as opposed to 3-space. We illustrate the misconceptions by certain authors of our approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2017-01-01
Supplementary Short Board: Orderly Cultivate Housing Leasing Market WANG Guangtao (Former Minister of Ministry of Construction) Abstract: In December 2016, Central Economic Work Conference proposed that to promote the steady and healthy development of the real estate market, it should adhere to the “house is used to live, not used to speculate” position. At present, the development of housing leasing market in China is lagging behind. It is urgent to improve the housing conditions of large cities and promote the urbanization of small and medium-sized cities. Therefore, it is imperative to innovate and supplement the short board to accelerate the development of housing leasing market.
Entanglement detection via tighter local uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chengjie; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan; Nha, Hyunchul
2010-01-01
We propose an entanglement criterion based on local uncertainty relations (LURs) in a stronger form than the original LUR criterion introduced by Hofmann and Takeuchi [H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032103 (2003)]. Using arbitrarily chosen operators (A k ) and (B k ) of subsystems A and B, the tighter LUR criterion, which may be used not only for discrete variables but also for continuous variables, can detect more entangled states than the original criterion.
On uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatovich, V.K.
2004-01-01
Uncertainty relations (UR) are shown to have nothing specific for quantum mechanics (QM), being the general property valid for the arbitrary function. A wave function of a particle simultaneously having a precisely defined position and momentum in QM is demonstrated. Interference on two slits in a screen is shown to exist in classical mechanics. A nonlinear classical system of equations replacing the QM Schroedinger equation is suggested. This approach is shown to have nothing in common with the Bohm mechanics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
Strategic Realism： An Option for China＇ s Grand Strategy Song Dexing （4） [ Abstract] As a non-Western emerging power, China should positively adapt its grand strategy to the strategic psychological traits in the 21st century, maintain a realist tone consistent with the national conditions of China, and avoid adventurist policies while awaring both strategic strength and weakness. In the 21st century, China＇ s grand strategy should be based on such core values as security, development, peace and justice, especially focusing on development in particular, which we named ＂strategic realism＂. Given the profound changes in China and the world, strategic realism encourages active foreign policy to safe- guard the long-term national interests of China. Following the self-help logic and the fun- damental values of security and prosperity, strategic realism concerns national interests as its top-priority. It advocates smart use of power, and aims to achieve its objectives by optimizing both domestic and international conditions. From the perspective of diplomatic phi- losophy, strategic realism is not a summarization of concrete policies but a description of China＇ s grand strategy orientations in the new century. [ Key Words] China, grand strategy, strategic realism [ Author]Song Dexing, Professor, Ph.D. Supervisor, and Director of the Center for International Strategic Studies, University of International Studies of PLA.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
in Imo state, the gender-perceived production constraints; the relative ... to establishing if stereotyping such operations along gender lines will ... difference in returns accruing to male and female small ruminant ..... The bias against Sheep and.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Jose Carvalho de Souza Domingues
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The practice of teaching, in actuality, shows the necessity of teachers and students coming together to form a behavior that is different from the traditional model of teaching. The unity formed from various types of knowledge and the relation between theory and practice show themselves to be fundamental. Starting in 2002, and in search of this unity, a project that hoped to unify the disciplines taught in the second semester of the course in Administration was implemented. During the semester, a single work sought to relate the theories studied with the reality of an organization. Each professor evaluated the works from the point of view of his discipline, as well as the presentation, in general, of the group. It can be affirmed that seeking to bring together various types of knowledge necessarily passes to a rethinking of the postures of teachers and students.
Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts.
Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M
2017-01-01
This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and
Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Barca
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012, the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016. Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6 children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
. user
2016-02-01
677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2, and almond vegetative rootstock (local control.In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth. The results showed that the levels of(EM on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2015-04-15
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo
2015-01-01
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed
Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y.S.; Zachary, W.W.
1992-02-01
The proceedings from the workshop are presented, and the focus was on the application of squeezed states. There are many who say that the potential for industrial applications is enormous, as the history of the conventional laser suggests. All those who worked so hard to produce squeezed states of light are continuing their efforts to construct more efficient squeezed-state lasers. Quite naturally, they are looking for new experiments using these lasers. The physical basis of squeezed states is the uncertainty relation in Fock space, which is also the basis for the creation and annihilation of particles in quantum field theory. Indeed, squeezed states provide a unique opportunity for field theoreticians to develop a measurement theory for quantum field theory
The Conflict between Interpersonal Relations and Abstract Systems in Education
Endres, Benjamin
2007-01-01
In this essay, Benjamin Endres examines how teaching is caught between the ideals of formal, systemic institutions, on the one hand, and the ideals of more intimate or personal relations, on the other. Endres uses Anthony Giddens's account of "abstract systems" and "pure" relations to suggest that the tension that teachers face is not only the…
Some applications of uncertainty relations in quantum information
Majumdar, A. S.; Pramanik, T.
2016-08-01
We discuss some applications of various versions of uncertainty relations for both discrete and continuous variables in the context of quantum information theory. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation enables demonstration of the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox. Entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) are used to reveal quantum steering for non-Gaussian continuous variable states. EURs for discrete variables are studied in the context of quantum memory where fine-graining yields the optimum lower bound of uncertainty. The fine-grained uncertainty relation is used to obtain connections between uncertainty and the nonlocality of retrieval games for bipartite and tripartite systems. The Robertson-Schrödinger (RS) uncertainty relation is applied for distinguishing pure and mixed states of discrete variables.
Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janice Penrod
2002-12-01
Full Text Available Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal investigation into the meaning of the concept. Through concept analysis, the concept was deconstructed to identify conceptual components and gaps in understanding. Using this skeletal framework of the concept identified through concept analysis, subsequent studies were carried out to add ‘flesh’ to the concept. First, a concept refinement using the literature as data was completed. Findings revealed that the current state of the concept of uncertainty failed to incorporate what was known of the lived experience. Therefore, using interview techniques as the primary data source, a phenomenological study of uncertainty among caregivers was conducted. Incorporating the findings of the phenomenology, the skeletal framework of the concept was further fleshed out using techniques of concept correction to produce a more mature conceptualization of uncertainty. In this section, I describe the flow of this qualitative project investigating the concept of uncertainty, with special emphasis on a particular threat to validity (called conceptual tunnel vision that was identified and addressed during the phases of concept correction. Though in this article I employ a study of uncertainty for illustration, limited substantive findings regarding uncertainty are presented to retain a clear focus on the methodological issues.
Advancing Uncertainty: Untangling and Discerning Related Concepts
Janice Penrod
2002-01-01
Methods of advancing concepts within the qualitative paradigm have been developed and articulated. In this section, I describe methodological perspectives of a project designed to advance the concept of uncertainty using multiple qualitative methods. Through a series of earlier studies, the concept of uncertainty arose repeatedly in varied contexts, working its way into prominence, and warranting further investigation. Processes of advanced concept analysis were used to initiate the formal in...
Quantum uncertainty relation based on the mean deviation
Sharma, Gautam; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Sazim, Sk; Pati, Arun Kumar
2018-01-01
Traditional forms of quantum uncertainty relations are invariably based on the standard deviation. This can be understood in the historical context of simultaneous development of quantum theory and mathematical statistics. Here, we present alternative forms of uncertainty relations, in both state dependent and state independent forms, based on the mean deviation. We illustrate the robustness of this formulation in situations where the standard deviation based uncertainty relation is inapplica...
Agent Performance in Vehicle Routing when the Only Thing Certain is Uncertainty (extended abstract)
Mahr, T.; Srour, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Zuidwijk, R.
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate whether a distributed agent-based planning approach indeed suffers less from job arrival uncertainty than a centralized optimization-based approach. In order to compare the two different approaches, we use the best available algorithms for both sides.
EDITORIAL: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations
Jauregue-Renaud, Rocio; Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Moya-Cessa, Hector
2004-06-01
This special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is composed mainly of extended versions of talks and papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Puebla, Mexico on 9-13 June 2003. The Conference was hosted by Instituto de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This series of meetings began at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in March 1991. The second and third workshops were organized by the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, in 1992 and by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA, in 1993, respectively. Afterwards, it was decided that the workshop series should be held every two years. Thus the fourth meeting took place at the University of Shanxi in China and was supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The next three meetings in 1997, 1999 and 2001 were held in Lake Balatonfüred, Hungary, in Naples, Italy, and in Boston, USA, respectively. All of them were sponsored by IUPAP. The ninth workshop will take place in Besançon, France, in 2005. The conference has now become one of the major international meetings on quantum optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics, where most of the active research groups throughout the world present their new results. Accordingly this conference has been able to align itself to the current trend in quantum optics and quantum mechanics. The Puebla meeting covered most extensively the following areas: quantum measurements, quantum computing and information theory, trapped atoms and degenerate gases, and the generation and characterization of quantum states of light. The meeting also covered squeeze-like transformations in areas other than quantum optics, such as atomic physics, nuclear physics, statistical physics and relativity, as well as optical devices. There were many new participants at this meeting, particularly
State-independent uncertainty relations and entanglement detection
Qian, Chen; Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2018-04-01
The uncertainty relation is one of the key ingredients of quantum theory. Despite the great efforts devoted to this subject, most of the variance-based uncertainty relations are state-dependent and suffering from the triviality problem of zero lower bounds. Here we develop a method to get uncertainty relations with state-independent lower bounds. The method works by exploring the eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix composed by Bloch vectors of incompatible observables and is applicable for both pure and mixed states and for arbitrary number of N-dimensional observables. The uncertainty relation for the incompatible observables can be explained by geometric relations related to the parallel postulate and the inequalities in Horn's conjecture on Hermitian matrix sum. Practical entanglement criteria are also presented based on the derived uncertainty relations.
New class of uncertainty relations for partially coherent light
Bastiaans, M.J.
1984-01-01
A class of uncertainty relations for partially coherent light is derived; the uncertainty relations in this class express the fact that the product of the effective widths of the space-domain intensity and the spatial-frequency-domain intensity of the light has a lower bound and that this lower
Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group
Sudarshan, E. C. G.
1993-01-01
The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.
Uncertainty relations for information entropy in wave mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Pittsburgh Univ., Pa.; Mycielski, J.
1975-01-01
New uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics are derived. They express restrictions imposed by quantum theory on probability distributions of canonically conjugate variables in terms of corresponding information entropies. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation follows from those inequalities and so does the Gross-Nelson inequality. (orig.) [de
Generalized uncertainty relations and characteristic invariants for the multimode states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Chiu, C.B.; Bhamathi, G.
1995-01-01
The close relationship between the zero-point energy, the uncertainty relation, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group theoretic perspective of the problem enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. A simple and efficient method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented. Implication of canonical commutation relations for correlations are not exhausted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, not even by the Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty inequality, but there are relations in the multimode case that are the generalization of the Schroedinger-Robertson relation
Measurement Uncertainty Relations for Discrete Observables: Relative Entropy Formulation
Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo; Toigo, Alessandro
2018-02-01
We introduce a new information-theoretic formulation of quantum measurement uncertainty relations, based on the notion of relative entropy between measurement probabilities. In the case of a finite-dimensional system and for any approximate joint measurement of two target discrete observables, we define the entropic divergence as the maximal total loss of information occurring in the approximation at hand. For fixed target observables, we study the joint measurements minimizing the entropic divergence, and we prove the general properties of its minimum value. Such a minimum is our uncertainty lower bound: the total information lost by replacing the target observables with their optimal approximations, evaluated at the worst possible state. The bound turns out to be also an entropic incompatibility degree, that is, a good information-theoretic measure of incompatibility: indeed, it vanishes if and only if the target observables are compatible, it is state-independent, and it enjoys all the invariance properties which are desirable for such a measure. In this context, we point out the difference between general approximate joint measurements and sequential approximate joint measurements; to do this, we introduce a separate index for the tradeoff between the error of the first measurement and the disturbance of the second one. By exploiting the symmetry properties of the target observables, exact values, lower bounds and optimal approximations are evaluated in two different concrete examples: (1) a couple of spin-1/2 components (not necessarily orthogonal); (2) two Fourier conjugate mutually unbiased bases in prime power dimension. Finally, the entropic incompatibility degree straightforwardly generalizes to the case of many observables, still maintaining all its relevant properties; we explicitly compute it for three orthogonal spin-1/2 components.
Language-Agnostic Relation Extraction from Abstracts in Wikis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Heist
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Large-scale knowledge graphs, such as DBpedia, Wikidata, or YAGO, can be enhanced by relation extraction from text, using the data in the knowledge graph as training data, i.e., using distant supervision. While most existing approaches use language-specific methods (usually for English, we present a language-agnostic approach that exploits background knowledge from the graph instead of language-specific techniques and builds machine learning models only from language-independent features. We demonstrate the extraction of relations from Wikipedia abstracts, using the twelve largest language editions of Wikipedia. From those, we can extract 1.6 M new relations in DBpedia at a level of precision of 95%, using a RandomForest classifier trained only on language-independent features. We furthermore investigate the similarity of models for different languages and show an exemplary geographical breakdown of the information extracted. In a second series of experiments, we show how the approach can be transferred to DBkWik, a knowledge graph extracted from thousands of Wikis. We discuss the challenges and first results of extracting relations from a larger set of Wikis, using a less formalized knowledge graph.
Reconsiderations of long debated subjects: uncertainty relations and Planck's constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumitru, S.
2005-01-01
Some earlier unresolved controversies about uncertainty relations and quantum measurements have persisted to this day. They originate in the shortcomings of the conventional interpretation of uncertainty relations. In this paper, we showed that those shortcomings exposed credible, unavoidable facts making it imperative that the conventional interpretation should be dropped. So, the primitive uncertainty relations appeared as being either figments or fluctuation formulae. Subsequently, we showed that for quantum microparticles the Planck constant h acted as an indicator of stochasticity, a role entirely similar to the one the Boltzmann constant k played in respect of the thermodynamic stochasticity of macroscopic systems. (author)
Uncertainty relation and simultaneous measurements in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, P.
1982-01-01
In this thesis the question for the interpretation of the uncertainty relation is picked up, and a program for the justification of its individualistic interpretation is formulated. By means of quantum mechanical models for the position and momentum measurement a justification of the interpretaton has been tried by reconstruction of the origin of the uncertainties from the conditions of the measuring devices and the determination of the relation of the measured results to the object. By means of a model of the common measurement it could be shown how the uncertainty relation results from the not eliminable mutual disturbance of the devices and the uncertainty relation for the measuring system. So finally the commutation relation is conclusive. For the illustration the split experiment is discussed, first according to Heisenberg with fixed split, then for the quantum mechanical, movable split (Bohr-Einstein). (orig./HSI) [de
Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Significances for Physics?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitru S.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.
Tightness Entropic Uncertainty Relation in Quantum Markovian-Davies Environment
Zhang, Jun; Liu, Liang; Han, Yan
2018-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the tightness of entropic uncertainty relation in the absence (presence) of the quantum memory which the memory particle being weakly coupled to a decohering Davies-type Markovian environment. The results show that the tightness of the quantum uncertainty relation can be controlled by the energy relaxation time F, the dephasing time G and the rescaled temperature p, the perfect tightness can be arrived by dephasing and energy relaxation satisfying F = 2G and p = 1/2. In addition, the tightness of the memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation and the entropic uncertainty relation can be influenced mainly by the purity. While in memory-assisted model, the purity and quantum correlation can also influence the tightness actively while the quantum entanglement can influence the tightness slightly.
Uncertainty relations and semi-groups in B-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papaloucas, L.C.
1980-07-01
Starting from a B-algebra which satisfies the conditions of a structure theorem, we obtain directly a Lie algebra for which the Lie ring satisfies automatically the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. (author)
Abstract numeric relations and the visual structure of algebra.
Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan
2014-09-01
Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition, it has often been assumed that skilled users of these formalisms treat situations in terms of semantic properties encoded in an abstract syntax that governs the use of notation without particular regard to the details of the physical structure of the equation itself (Anderson, 2005; Hegarty, Mayer, & Monk, 1995). We explore how the notational structure of verbal descriptions or algebraic equations (e.g., the spatial proximity of certain words or the visual alignment of numbers and symbols in an equation) plays a role in the process of interpreting or constructing symbolic equations. We propose in particular that construction processes involve an alignment of notational structures across representation systems, biasing reasoners toward the selection of formal notations that maintain the visuospatial structure of source representations. For example, in the statement "There are 5 elephants for every 3 rhinoceroses," the spatial proximity of 5 and elephants and 3 and rhinoceroses will bias reasoners to write the incorrect expression 5E = 3R, because that expression maintains the spatial relationships encoded in the source representation. In 3 experiments, participants constructed equations with given structure, based on story problems with a variety of phrasings. We demonstrate how the notational alignment approach accounts naturally for a variety of previously reported phenomena in equation construction and successfully predicts error patterns that are not accounted for by prior explanations, such as the left to right transcription heuristic.
Universal quantum uncertainty relations between nonergodicity and loss of information
Awasthi, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2018-03-01
We establish uncertainty relations between information loss in general open quantum systems and the amount of nonergodicity of the corresponding dynamics. The relations hold for arbitrary quantum systems interacting with an arbitrary quantum environment. The elements of the uncertainty relations are quantified via distance measures on the space of quantum density matrices. The relations hold for arbitrary distance measures satisfying a set of intuitively satisfactory axioms. The relations show that as the nonergodicity of the dynamics increases, the lower bound on information loss decreases, which validates the belief that nonergodicity plays an important role in preserving information of quantum states undergoing lossy evolution. We also consider a model of a central qubit interacting with a fermionic thermal bath and derive its reduced dynamics to subsequently investigate the information loss and nonergodicity in such dynamics. We comment on the "minimal" situations that saturate the uncertainty relations.
The role of general relativity in the uncertainty principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1986-01-01
The role played by general relativity in quantum mechanics (especially as regards the uncertainty principle) is investigated. It is confirmed that the validity of time-energy uncertainty does depend on gravitational time dilation. It is also shown that there exists an intrinsic lower bound to the accuracy with which acceleration due to gravity can be measured. The motion of equivalence principle in quantum mechanics is clarified. (author)
Uncertainties related to the fault tree reliability data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, Minodora; Nitoi, Mirela; Farcasiu, M.
2003-01-01
Uncertainty analyses related to the fault trees evaluate the system variability which appears from the uncertainties of the basic events probabilities. Having a logical model which describes a system, to obtain outcomes means to evaluate it, using estimations for each basic event of the model. If the model has basic events that incorporate uncertainties, then the results of the model should incorporate the uncertainties of the events. Uncertainties estimation in the final result of the fault tree means first the uncertainties evaluation for the basic event probabilities and then combination of these uncertainties, to calculate the top event uncertainty. To calculate the propagating uncertainty, a knowledge of the probability density function as well as the range of possible values of the basic event probabilities is required. The following data are defined, using suitable probability density function: the components failure rates; the human error probabilities; the initiating event frequencies. It was supposed that the possible value distribution of the basic event probabilities is given by the lognormal probability density function. To know the range of possible value of the basic event probabilities, the error factor or the uncertainty factor is required. The aim of this paper is to estimate the error factor for the failure rates and for the human errors probabilities from the reliability data base used in Cernavoda Probabilistic Safety Evaluation. The top event chosen as an example is FEED3, from the Pressure and Inventory Control System. The quantitative evaluation of this top event was made by using EDFT code, developed in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR). It was supposed that the error factors for the component failures are the same as for the failure rates. Uncertainty analysis was made with INCERT application, which uses the moment method and Monte Carlo method. The reliability data base used at INR Pitesti does not contain the error factors (ef
New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Guanlei
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.
Decoherence effect on quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations
Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu
2018-01-01
Uncertainty principle significantly provides a bound to predict precision of measurement with regard to any two incompatible observables, and thereby plays a nontrivial role in quantum precision measurement. In this work, we observe the dynamical features of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (EUR) for a pair of incompatible measurements in an open system characterized by local generalized amplitude damping (GAD) noises. Herein, we derive the dynamical evolution of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement affecting by the canonical GAD noises when particle A is initially entangled with quantum memory B. Specifically, we examine the dynamics of EUR in the frame of three realistic scenarios: one case is that particle A is affected by environmental noise (GAD) while particle B as quantum memory is free from any noises, another case is that particle B is affected by the external noise while particle A is not, and the last case is that both of the particles suffer from the noises. By analytical methods, it turns out that the uncertainty is not full dependent of quantum correlation evolution of the composite system consisting of A and B, but the minimal conditional entropy of the measured subsystem. Furthermore, we present a possible physical interpretation for the behavior of the uncertainty evolution by means of the mixedness of the observed system; we argue that the uncertainty might be dramatically correlated with the systematic mixedness. Furthermore, we put forward a simple and effective strategy to reduce the measuring uncertainty of interest upon quantum partially collapsed measurement. Therefore, our explorations might offer an insight into the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty relation in a realistic system, and be of importance to quantum precision measurement during quantum information processing.
Symmetry, Contingency, Complexity: Accommodating Uncertainty in Public Relations Theory.
Murphy, Priscilla
2000-01-01
Explores the potential of complexity theory as a unifying theory in public relations, where scholars have recently raised problems involving flux, uncertainty, adaptiveness, and loss of control. Describes specific complexity-based methodologies and their potential for public relations studies. Offers an account of complexity theory, its…
A new uncertainty relation for angular momentum and angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kranold, H.U.
1984-01-01
An uncertainty relation of the form ΔL 2 ΔSo >=sup(h/2π)/sub(2) is derived for angular momentum and angle. The non-linear operator So measures angles and has a simple interpretation. Subject to very general conditions of rotational invariance the above relation is unique. Radial momentum is not quantized
Generalization of uncertainty relation for quantum and stochastic systems
Koide, T.; Kodama, T.
2018-06-01
The generalized uncertainty relation applicable to quantum and stochastic systems is derived within the stochastic variational method. This relation not only reproduces the well-known inequality in quantum mechanics but also is applicable to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equation, showing that the finite minimum uncertainty between the position and the momentum is not an inherent property of quantum mechanics but a common feature of stochastic systems. We further discuss the possible implication of the present study in discussing the application of the hydrodynamic picture to microscopic systems, like relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.
1993-01-01
This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.
Uncertainty related to Environmental Data and Estimated Extreme Events
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.
The design loads on rubble mound breakwaters are almost entirely determined by the environmental conditions, i.e. sea state, water levels, sea bed characteristics, etc. It is the objective of sub-group B to identify the most important environmental parameters and evaluate the related uncertainties...... including those corresponding to extreme estimates typically used for design purposes. Basically a design condition is made up of a set of parameter values stemming from several environmental parameters. To be able to evaluate the uncertainty related to design states one must know the corresponding joint....... Consequently this report deals mainly with each parameter separately. Multi parameter problems are briefly discussed in section 9. It is important to notice that the quantified uncertainties reported in section 7.7 represent what might be regarded as typical figures to be used only when no more qualified...
Correlated quadratures of resonance fluorescence and the generalized uncertainty relation
Arnoldus, Henk F.; George, Thomas F.; Gross, Rolf W. F.
1994-01-01
Resonance fluorescence from a two-state atom has been predicted to exhibit quadrature squeezing below the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, provided that the optical parameters (Rabi frequency, detuning, laser linewidth, etc.) are chosen carefully. When the correlation between two quadratures of the radiation field does not vanish, however, the Heisenberg limit for quantum fluctuations might be an unrealistic lower bound. A generalized uncertainty relation, due to Schroedinger, takes into account the possible correlation between the quadrature components of the radiation, and it suggests a modified definition of squeezing. We show that the coherence between the two levels of a laser-driven atom is responsible for the correlation between the quadrature components of the emitted fluorescence, and that the Schrodinger uncertainty limit increases monotonically with the coherence. On the other hand, the fluctuations in the quadrature field diminish with an increasing coherence, and can disappear completely when the coherence reaches 1/2, provided that certain phase relations hold.
Abstracted publications related to the Hanford environment, 1980 to 1988
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, C.D.; Gray, R.H.
1989-05-01
This abstracted bibliography provides a reference to the diverse environmental activities conducted on the Hanford Site from 1980 through 1988. It includes 500 reports and articles that were prepared largely by onsite contractors and the Department of Energy. Documents contained here were separated into eight subject areas: air and atmosphere, aquatic ecology, effluents and wastes, geology and hydrology, Hanford Site, radioactivity, terrestrial ecology, and socioeconomics. These areas form the basis of a key word index, which is intended to help the reader locate subjects of interest. An author index is also included.
Interpretation of uncertainty relations for three or more observables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M.I.
2003-01-01
Conventional quantum uncertainty relations (URs) contain dispersions of two observables. Generalized URs are known which contain three or more dispersions. They are derived here starting with suitable generalized Cauchy inequalities. It is shown what new information the generalized URs provide. Similar interpretation is given to generalized Cauchy inequalities
Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)
1998-01-01
The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.
Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck
2013-01-01
The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…
Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.
Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel
2014-01-01
Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed.
Another two dark energy models motivated from Karolyhazy uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li; Song, Yu. [Northwest University, Institute of Modern Physics, Xian (China); Yue, Rui-Hong [Ningbo University, Faculty of Science, Ningbo (China)
2012-03-15
The Karolyhazy uncertainty relation indicates that there exists a minimal detectable cell {delta}t{sup 3} over the region t{sup 3} in Minkowski space-time. Due to the energy-time uncertainty relation, the energy of the cell {delta}t {sup 3} cannot be less {delta}t{sup -1}. Then we get a new energy density of metric fluctuations of Minkowski spacetime as {delta}t{sup -4}. Motivated by the energy density, we propose two new dark-energy models. One model is characterized by the age of the universe and the other is characterized by the conformal age of the universe. We find that in the two models, the dark energy mimics a cosmological constant in the late time. (orig.)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
To reflect this uncertainty in the climate scenarios, the use of AOGCMs that explicitly simulate the carbon cycle and chemistry of all the substances are needed. The Hadley Centre has developed a version of the climate model that allows the effect of climate change on the carbon cycle and its feedback into climate, to be ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, T.A. da
1988-01-01
The comparison between the uncertainty method recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the and the International Weight and Measure Commitee (CIPM) are showed, for the calibration of clinical dosimeters in the secondary standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). (C.G.C.) [pt
The Sobolev inequality and the Tsallis entropic uncertainty relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajagopal, A.K.
1995-01-01
The Heisenberg uncertainty relation is expressed in terms of the Tsallis entropies associated with the conjugate coordinate and momentum probability densities. By rewriting this in terms of a positive joint probability distribution suggested by Cohen and coworkers, a different insight into the statistical dependence of the quantum variables is obtained. A discussion of how this improves the previous results on this subject is given. (orig.)
Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)
1996-01-01
The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.
Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G
2016-11-01
In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.
Heisenberg's uncertainty relation: Violation and reformulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozawa, Masanao
2014-01-01
The uncertainty relation formulated by Heisenberg in 1927 describes a trade-off between the error of a measurement of one observable and the disturbance caused on another complementary observable so that their product should be no less than a limit set by Planck's constant. In 1980, Braginsky, Vorontsov, and Thorne claimed that this relation leads to a sensitivity limit for gravitational wave detectors. However, in 1988 a model of position measurement was constructed that breaks both this limit and Heisenberg's relation. Here, we discuss the problems as to how we reformulate Heisenberg's relation to be universally valid and how we experimentally quantify the error and the disturbance to refute the old relation and to confirm the new relation.
Cauchy inequality and uncertainty relations for mixed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M.I.
2004-01-01
Cauchy inequality (CI) relates scalar products of two vectors and their norms. I point out other similar inequalities (SI). Starting with CI Schroedinger derived his uncertainty relation (UR). By using SI other various UR can be obtained. It is shown that they follow from the Schroedinger UR. Two generalizations of CI are obtained for mixed states described by density matrices. Using them two generalizations of UR for mixed states are derived. Both differ from the UR generalization known from the literature. The discussion of these generalizations is given
Realistic Approach of the Relations of Uncertainty of Heisenberg
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul E. Sterian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the requirements of the principle of causality in the theory of relativity, one cannot make a device for the simultaneous measuring of the canonical conjugate variables in the conjugate Fourier spaces. Instead of admitting that a particle’s position and its conjugate momentum cannot be accurately measured at the same time, we consider the only probabilities which can be determined when working at subatomic level to be valid. On the other hand, based on Schwinger's action principle and using the quadridimensional form of the unitary transformation generator function of the quantum operators in the paper, the general form of the evolution equation for these operators is established. In the nonrelativistic case one obtains the Heisenberg's type evolution equations which can be particularized to derive Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. The analysis of the uncertainty relations as implicit evolution equations allows us to put into evidence the intrinsic nature of the correlation expressed by these equations in straight relations with the measuring process. The independence of the quantisation postulate from the causal evolution postulate of quantum mechanics is also put into discussion.
Bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric local uncertainty relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, Holger F.
2003-01-01
As a consequence of having a positive partial transpose, bound entangled states lack many of the properties otherwise associated with entanglement. It is therefore interesting to identify properties that distinguish bound entangled states from separable states. In this paper, it is shown that some bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric class of local uncertainty relations [H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032103 (2003)]. This result indicates that the asymmetry of nonclassical correlations may be a characteristic feature of bound entanglement
Uncertainties related to numerical methods for neutron spectra unfolding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glodic, S.; Ninkovic, M.; Adarougi, N.A.
1987-10-01
One of the often used techniques for neutron detection in radiation protection utilities is the Bonner multisphere spectrometer. Besides its advantages and universal applicability for evaluating integral parameters of neutron fields in health physics practices, the outstanding problems of the method are data analysis and the accuracy of the results. This paper briefly discusses some numerical problems related to neutron spectra unfolding, such as uncertainty of the response matrix as a source of error, and the possibility of real time data reduction using spectrometers. (author)
Detecting quantum entanglement. Entanglement witnesses and uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guehne, O.
2004-01-01
This thesis deals with methods of the detection of entanglement. After recalling some facts and definitions concerning entanglement and separability, we investigate two methods of the detection of entanglement. In the first part of this thesis we consider so-called entanglement witnesses, mainly in view of the detection of multipartite entanglement. Entanglement witnesses are observables for which a negative expectation value indicates entanglement. We first present a simple method to construct these witnesses. Since witnesses are nonlocal observables, they are not easy to measure in a real experiment. However, as we will show, one can circumvent this problem by decomposing the witness into several local observables which can be measured separately. We calculate the local decompositions for several interesting witnesses for two, three and four qubits. Local decompositions can be optimized in the number of measurement settings which are needed for an experimental implementation. We present a method to prove that a given local decomposition is optimal and discuss with this the optimality of our decompositions. Then we present another method of designing witnesses which are by construction measurable with local measurements. Finally, we shortly report on experiments where some of the witnesses derived in this part have been used to detect three- and four-partite entanglement of polarized photons. The second part of this thesis deals with separability criteria which are written in terms of uncertainty relations. There are two different formulations of uncertainty relations since one can measure the uncertainty of an observable by its variance as well as by entropic quantities. We show that both formulations are useful tools for the derivation of separability criteria for finite-dimensional systems and investigate the resulting criteria. Our results in this part exhibit also some more fundamental properties of entanglement: We show how known separability criteria for
Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal
Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele
2015-12-01
The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.
Characterizing quantum correlations. Entanglement, uncertainty relations and exponential families
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niekamp, Soenke
2012-04-20
This thesis is concerned with different characterizations of multi-particle quantum correlations and with entropic uncertainty relations. The effect of statistical errors on the detection of entanglement is investigated. First, general results on the statistical significance of entanglement witnesses are obtained. Then, using an error model for experiments with polarization-entangled photons, it is demonstrated that Bell inequalities with lower violation can have higher significance. The question for the best observables to discriminate between a state and the equivalence class of another state is addressed. Two measures for the discrimination strength of an observable are defined, and optimal families of observables are constructed for several examples. A property of stabilizer bases is shown which is a natural generalization of mutual unbiasedness. For sets of several dichotomic, pairwise anticommuting observables, uncertainty relations using different entropies are constructed in a systematic way. Exponential families provide a classification of states according to their correlations. In this classification scheme, a state is considered as k-correlated if it can be written as thermal state of a k-body Hamiltonian. Witness operators for the detection of higher-order interactions are constructed, and an algorithm for the computation of the nearest k-correlated state is developed.
Characterizing quantum correlations. Entanglement, uncertainty relations and exponential families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niekamp, Soenke
2012-01-01
This thesis is concerned with different characterizations of multi-particle quantum correlations and with entropic uncertainty relations. The effect of statistical errors on the detection of entanglement is investigated. First, general results on the statistical significance of entanglement witnesses are obtained. Then, using an error model for experiments with polarization-entangled photons, it is demonstrated that Bell inequalities with lower violation can have higher significance. The question for the best observables to discriminate between a state and the equivalence class of another state is addressed. Two measures for the discrimination strength of an observable are defined, and optimal families of observables are constructed for several examples. A property of stabilizer bases is shown which is a natural generalization of mutual unbiasedness. For sets of several dichotomic, pairwise anticommuting observables, uncertainty relations using different entropies are constructed in a systematic way. Exponential families provide a classification of states according to their correlations. In this classification scheme, a state is considered as k-correlated if it can be written as thermal state of a k-body Hamiltonian. Witness operators for the detection of higher-order interactions are constructed, and an algorithm for the computation of the nearest k-correlated state is developed.
Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)
2000-01-01
These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.
How to: understanding SWAT model uncertainty relative to measured results
Watershed models are being relied upon to contribute to most policy-making decisions of watershed management, and the demand for an accurate accounting of complete model uncertainty is rising. Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is a widely used method for quantifying uncertainty i...
Fisher information, kinetic energy and uncertainty relation inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Shunlong
2002-01-01
By interpolating between Fisher information and mechanical kinetic energy, we introduce a general notion of kinetic energy with respect to a parameter of Schroedinger wavefunctions from a statistical inference perspective. Kinetic energy is the sum of Fisher information and an integral of a parametrized analogue of quantum mechanical current density related to phase. A family of integral inequalities concerning kinetic energy and moments are established, among which the Cramer-Rao inequality and the Weyl-Heisenberg inequality, are special cases. In particular, the integral inequalities involving the negative order moments are relevant to the study of electron systems. Moreover, by specifying the parameter to a scale, we obtain a family of inequalities of uncertainty relation type which incorporate the position and momentum observables symmetrically in a single quantity. (author)
Stakeholder relations in the oil sands : managing uncertainty
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2009-05-15
Alberta's oil sands are now at the crossroads of a series of significant and complex global issues that will require careful negotiation by all stakeholders involved in the oil sands industry. This paper discussed methods of managing uncertainty and risk related to the oil sands industry's agenda for the future. Oil sands developers must continue to secure permission from communities and other key stakeholders in order to develop oil sand projects. Stakeholder relations between oil sands operators, First Nations, and Metis Nation communities must ensure that respect is maintained while environmental impacts are minimized and long-term economic benefits are secured for all parties. Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) must ensure that oil sands resources are developed responsibly, and that environmental standards are maintained. Seven key shifts in stakeholder relations resulting from the recent economic crisis were identified. These included (1) withdrawal from the multi-stakeholder process, (2) increased focus on government to demonstrate policy leadership, (3) a stronger push from ENGOs to express environmental concerns, (4) global lobby and public relations efforts from ENGOs, (5) companies retreating to local community stakeholders, (6) more active demands from First Nations and Metis Nations groups, and (7) companies challenging ENGO campaigns. The study concluded by suggesting that government leadership is needed to clear policy and regulatory frameworks for Canada's oil sands.
Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.
Entropy-power uncertainty relations: towards a tight inequality for all Gaussian pure states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertz, Anaelle; Jabbour, Michael G; Cerf, Nicolas J
2017-01-01
We show that a proper expression of the uncertainty relation for a pair of canonically-conjugate continuous variables relies on entropy power, a standard notion in Shannon information theory for real-valued signals. The resulting entropy-power uncertainty relation is equivalent to the entropic formulation of the uncertainty relation due to Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski, but can be further extended to rotated variables. Hence, based on a reasonable assumption, we give a partial proof of a tighter form of the entropy-power uncertainty relation taking correlations into account and provide extensive numerical evidence of its validity. Interestingly, it implies the generalized (rotation-invariant) Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation exactly as the original entropy-power uncertainty relation implies Heisenberg relation. It is saturated for all Gaussian pure states, in contrast with hitherto known entropic formulations of the uncertainty principle. (paper)
Sensitivity, uncertainty assessment, and target accuracies related to radiotoxicity evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Hill, R.N.
1994-01-01
Time-dependent sensitivity techniques, which have been used in the past for standard reactor applications, are adapted to calculate the impact of data uncertainties and to estimate target data accuracies in radiotoxicity evaluations. The methodology is applied to different strategies of radioactive waste management connected with the European Fast Reactor and the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles. Results are provided in terms of sensitivity coefficients of basic data (cross sections and decay constants), uncertainties of global radiotoxicity at different times of storing after discharge, and target data accuracies needed to satisfy maximum uncertainty limits
Reconsideration of the Uncertainty Relations and Quantum Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitru S.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Discussions on uncertainty relations (UR and quantum measurements (QMS persisted until nowadays in publications about quantum mechanics (QM. They originate mainly from the conventional interpretation of UR (CIUR. In the most of the QM literarure, it is underestimated the fact that, over the years, a lot of deficiencies regarding CIUR were signaled. As a rule the alluded deficiencies were remarked disparately and discussed as punctual and non-essential questions. Here we approach an investigation of the mentioned deficiencies collected in a conclusive ensemble. Subsequently we expose a reconsideration of the major problems referring to UR and QMS. We reveal that all the basic presumption of CIUR are troubled by insurmountable deficiencies which require the indubitable failure of CIUR and its necessary abandonment. Therefore the UR must be deprived of their statute of crucialpieces for physics. So, the aboriginal versions of UR appear as being in postures of either (i thought-experimental fictions or (ii simple QM formulae and, any other versions of them, have no connection with the QMS. Then the QMS must be viewed as an additional subject comparatively with the usual questions of QM. For a theoretical description of QMS we propose an information-transmission model, in which the quantum observables are considered as random variables. Our approach directs to natural solutions and simplifications for many problems regarding UR and QMS.
Entanglement witness via quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation
Shi, Jiadong; Ding, Zhiyong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan; Yu, Lizhi; Sun, Wenyang; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-12-01
By virtue of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (EUR), we analyze entanglement witness via the efficiencies of the estimates proposed by Berta (2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) and Pati (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 042105). The results show that, without a structured reservoir, the entanglement regions witnessed by these EUR estimates are only determined by the chosen estimated setup, and have no correlation with the explicit form of the initial state. On the other hand, with the structured reservoirs, the time regions during which the entanglement can be witnessed, and the corresponding entanglement regions closely depend on the choice of the estimated setup, the initial state and the state purity p . Concretely, for a pure state with p=1 , the entanglement can be witnessed by both estimates, while for mixed states with p=0.78 , it can only be witnessed using the Pati estimate. What is more, we find that the time regions incorporating the Pati estimate become discontinuous for the initial state with ≤ft| {{φ }\\prime } \\right> ={≤ft(≤ft| 01 \\right> +≤ft| 10 \\right> \\right)}/{\\sqrt{2}} , and the corresponding entanglement regions remain the same; however the entanglement can only be witnessed once by utilizing the Berta estimate.
Reconsideration of the Uncertainty Relations and Quantum Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitru S.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Discussions on uncertainty relations (UR and quantum measurements (QMS persisted until nowadays in publications about quantum mechanics (QM. They originate mainly from the conventional interpretation of UR (CIUR. In the most of the QM literarure, it is underestimated the fact that, over the years, a lot of deficiencies regarding CIUR were signaled. As a rule the alluded deficiencies were remarked disparately and dis- cussed as punctual and non-essential questions. Here we approach an investigation of the mentioned deficiencies collected in a conclusive ensemble. Subsequently we expose a reconsideration of the major problems referring to UR and QMS. We reveal that all the basic presumption of CIUR are troubled by insurmountable deficiencies which require the indubitable failure of CIUR and its necessary abandonment. Therefore the UR must be deprived of their statute of crucial pieces for physics. So, the aboriginal versions of UR appear as being in postures of either (i thought-experimental fictions or (ii sim- ple QM formulae and, any other versions of them, have no connection with the QMS. Then the QMS must be viewed as an additional subject comparatively with the usual questions of QM. For a theoretical description of QMS we propose an information- transmission model, in which the quantum observables are considered as random vari- ables. Our approach directs to natural solutions and simplifications for many problems regarding UR and QMS.
Concept of uncertainty in relation to the foresight research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magruk Andrzej
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Uncertainty is one of the most important features of many areas of social and economic life, especially in the forward-looking context. On the one hand, the degree of uncertainty is associated with the objective essence of randomness of the phenomenon, and on the other, with the subjective perspective of a man. Future-oriented perception of human activities is laden with an incomplete specificity of the analysed phenomena, their volatility, and lack of continuity. A man is unable to determine, with complete certainty, the further course of these phenomena. According to the author of this article, in order to significantly reduce the uncertainty while making strategic decisions in a complex environment, we should focus our actions on the future through systemic research of foresight. This article attempts to answer the following research questions: 1 What is the relationship between foresight studies in the system perspective to studies of the uncertainty? 2 What classes of foresight methods enable the research of uncertainty in the process of system inquiry of the future? This study conducted deductive reasoning based on the results of the analysis methods and criticism of literature.
STEM Education Related Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-study
Banning, James; Folkestad, James E.
2012-12-01
This article utilizes a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 101 dissertation abstracts found by searching the ProQuest Dissertation and Theses™ digital database for dissertations abstracts from 1990 through 2010 using the search terms education, science, technology, engineer, and STEM/SMET. Professional search librarians established the search criteria used to establish the database. The overarching research question for this study was: What can we learn from the examination of doctoral dissertations abstracts that focus on the STEM education found from 1990 through 2010? The study's findings provide an overview of doctoral research related to STEM education and the discussion section focuses on quality of abstracts, questions regarding the use of the pipeline metaphor, and location of instructional innovation.
Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.
1988-08-01
The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented
Mapping of uncertainty relations between continuous and discrete time.
Chiuchiù, Davide; Pigolotti, Simone
2018-03-01
Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds. Our results reduce the quests for uncertainty bounds in discrete and continuous time to a single problem.
Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.
1988-08-01
The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented.
Psychological Entropy: A Framework for Understanding Uncertainty-Related Anxiety
Hirsh, Jacob B.; Mar, Raymond A.; Peterson, Jordan B.
2012-01-01
Entropy, a concept derived from thermodynamics and information theory, describes the amount of uncertainty and disorder within a system. Self-organizing systems engage in a continual dialogue with the environment and must adapt themselves to changing circumstances to keep internal entropy at a manageable level. We propose the entropy model of…
Uncertainty relations and topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romera, E; Calixto, M
2015-01-01
Uncertainty relations are studied for a characterization of topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials isostructural with graphene. We show that the relative or Kullback–Leibler entropy in position and momentum spaces, and the standard variance-based uncertainty relation give sharp signatures of topological phase transitions in these systems. (paper)
Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, D.W.
1976-03-01
Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations. (This updated bibliography contains 136 abstracts, 4 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper
2004-01-01
When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...
Exploring entropic uncertainty relation in the Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field
Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jia-Ming; Shi, Jia-Dong; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu
2017-08-01
In this work, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It has been found that larger coupling strength J between the two spin-chain qubits can effectively reduce the entropic uncertainty. Besides, we observe the mechanics of how the inhomogeneous field influences the uncertainty, and find out that when the inhomogeneous field parameter b1. Intriguingly, the entropic uncertainty can shrink to zero when the coupling coefficients are relatively large, while the entropic uncertainty only reduces to 1 with the increase of the homogeneous magnetic field. Additionally, we observe the purity of the state and Bell non-locality and obtain that the entropic uncertainty is anticorrelated with both the purity and Bell non-locality of the evolution state.
Position-momentum uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furrer, Fabian; Berta, Mario; Tomamichel, Marco
2014-01-01
A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear oper....... As an illustration, we evaluate the uncertainty relations for position and momentum measurements, which is operationally significant in that it implies security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on homodyne detection of squeezed Gaussian states....
Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.
Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio
2014-02-01
Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.
Tritium source-related systematic uncertainties of the KATRIN experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seitz-Moskaliuk, Hendrik [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer experimentelle Kernphysik, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration
2016-07-01
KATRIN will perform a direct, kinematics-based measurement of the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90 % C. L.) reached after 3 years of measurement time. The neutrino mass is obtained by determining the shape of the spectrum of tritium β decay electrons close to the endpoint of 18.6 keV with a spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. To achieve the planned sensitivity, the systematic measurement uncertainties have to be carefully controlled and evaluated. Main sources of systematics are the MAC-E filter on the one hand and the source and transport section (STS) on the other hand. Most of the operational parameters of KATRIN have to be stable at or even below the per mille level and have to meet further strict requirements. This talk reviews the KATRIN systematics with a special focus on the STS. Early commissioning measurements to determine the main systematics are introduced.
SU-G-BRB-14: Uncertainty of Radiochromic Film Based Relative Dose Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devic, S; Tomic, N; DeBlois, F; Seuntjens, J [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lewis, D [RCF Consulting, LLC, Monroe, CT (United States); Aldelaijan, S [King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Due to inherently non-linear dose response, measurement of relative dose distribution with radiochromic film requires measurement of absolute dose using a calibration curve following previously established reference dosimetry protocol. On the other hand, a functional form that converts the inherently non-linear dose response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system into linear one has been proposed recently [Devic et al, Med. Phys. 39 4850–4857 (2012)]. However, there is a question what would be the uncertainty of such measured relative dose. Methods: If the relative dose distribution is determined going through the reference dosimetry system (conversion of the response by using calibration curve into absolute dose) the total uncertainty of such determined relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature total uncertainties of doses measured at a given and at the reference point. On the other hand, if the relative dose is determined using linearization method, the new response variable is calculated as ζ=a(netOD)n/ln(netOD). In this case, the total uncertainty in relative dose will be calculated by summing in quadrature uncertainties for a new response function (σζ) for a given and the reference point. Results: Except at very low doses, where the measurement uncertainty dominates, the total relative dose uncertainty is less than 1% for the linear response method as compared to almost 2% uncertainty level for the reference dosimetry method. The result is not surprising having in mind that the total uncertainty of the reference dose method is dominated by the fitting uncertainty, which is mitigated in the case of linearization method. Conclusion: Linearization of the radiochromic film dose response provides a convenient and a more precise method for relative dose measurements as it does not require reference dosimetry and creation of calibration curve. However, the linearity of the newly introduced function must be verified. Dave Lewis
On the uncertainty relations for vector-valued operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chistyakov, A.L.
1976-01-01
In analogy with the expression for the Heisenberg incertainty principle in terms of dispersions by means of the Weyl inequality, in the case of one-dimensional quantum mechanical quantities, the principle for many-dimensional quantities can be expressed in terms of generalized dispersions and covariance matrices by means of inequalities similar to the Weyl unequality. The proofs of these inequalities are given in an abstract form, not only for the physical vector quantities, but also for arbitrary vector-valued operators with commuting self-adjoint components
Uncertainty in estimating and mitigating industrial related GHG emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Fadel, M.; Zeinati, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Mezher, T.
2001-01-01
Global climate change has been one of the challenging environmental concerns facing policy makers in the past decade. The characterization of the wide range of greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks as well as their behavior in the atmosphere remains an on-going activity in many countries. Lebanon, being a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is required to submit and regularly update a national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions sources and removals. Accordingly, an inventory of greenhouse gases from various sectors was conducted following the guidelines set by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory indicated that the industrial sector contributes about 29% to the total greenhouse gas emissions divided between industrial processes and energy requirements at 12 and 17%, respectively. This paper describes major mitigation scenarios to reduce emissions from this sector based on associated technical, economic, environmental, and social characteristics. Economic ranking of these scenarios was conducted and uncertainty in emission factors used in the estimation process was emphasized. For this purpose, theoretical and experimental emission factors were used as alternatives to default factors recommended by the IPCC and the significance of resulting deviations in emission estimation is presented. (author)
Uncertainty Analysis of RBMK-Related Experimental Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urbonas, Rolandas; Kaliatka, Algirdas; Liaukonis, Mindaugas
2002-01-01
An attempt to validate state-of-the-art thermal hydraulic code ATHLET (GRS, Germany) on the basis of E-108 test facility was made. Originally this code was developed and validated for different type reactors than RBMK. Since state-of-art thermal hydraulic codes are widely used for simulation of RBMK reactors, further codes' implementation and validation is required. The phenomena associated with channel type flow instabilities and CHF were found to be an important step in the frame of the overall effort of state-of-the-art validation and application for RBMK reactors. In the paper one-channel approach analysis is presented. Thus, the oscillatory behaviour of the system was not detected. The results show dependence on the nodalization used in the heated channels, initial and boundary conditions and code selected models. It is shown that the code is able to predict a sudden heat structure temperature excursion, when critical heat flux is approached. GRS developed uncertainty and sensitivity methodology was employed in the analysis. (authors)
Experimental Test of Entropic Noise-Disturbance Uncertainty Relations for Spin-1/2 Measurements.
Sulyok, Georg; Sponar, Stephan; Demirel, Bülent; Buscemi, Francesco; Hall, Michael J W; Ozawa, Masanao; Hasegawa, Yuji
2015-07-17
Information-theoretic definitions for noise and disturbance in quantum measurements were given in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050401 (2014)] and a state-independent noise-disturbance uncertainty relation was obtained. Here, we derive a tight noise-disturbance uncertainty relation for complementary qubit observables and carry out an experimental test. Successive projective measurements on the neutron's spin-1/2 system, together with a correction procedure which reduces the disturbance, are performed. Our experimental results saturate the tight noise-disturbance uncertainty relation for qubits when an optimal correction procedure is applied.
Interpretation of the peak areas in gamma-ray spectra that have a large relative uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korun, M.; Maver Modec, P.; Vodenik, B.
2012-01-01
Empirical evidence is provided that the areas of peaks having a relative uncertainty in excess of 30% are overestimated. This systematic influence is of a statistical nature and originates in way the peak-analyzing routine recognizes the small peaks. It is not easy to detect this influence since it is smaller than the peak-area uncertainty. However, the systematic influence can be revealed in repeated measurements under the same experimental conditions, e.g., in background measurements. To evaluate the systematic influence, background measurements were analyzed with the peak-analyzing procedure described by Korun et al. (2008). The magnitude of the influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the peak area and may amount, in the conditions used in the peak analysis, to a factor of 5 at relative uncertainties exceeding 60%. From the measurements, the probability for type-II errors, as a function of the relative uncertainty of the peak area, was extracted. This probability is near zero below an uncertainty of 30% and rises to 90% at uncertainties exceeding 50%. - Highlights: ► A systematic influence affecting small peak areas in gamma-ray spectra is described. ► The influence originates in the peak locating procedure, using a pre-determined sensitivity. ► The predetermined sensitivity makes peak areas with large uncertainties to be overestimated. ► The influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the number of counts in the peak. ► Corrections exceeding a factor of 3 are attained at peak area uncertainties exceeding 60%.
Chen, Peng-Fei; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2018-01-01
Quantum objects are susceptible to noise from their surrounding environments, interaction with which inevitably gives rise to quantum decoherence or dissipation effects. In this work, we examine how different types of local noise under an open system affect entropic uncertainty relations for two incompatible measurements. Explicitly, we observe the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the presence of quantum memory under two canonical categories of noisy environments: unital (phase flip) and nonunital (amplitude damping). Our study shows that the measurement uncertainty exhibits a non-monotonic dynamical behavior—that is, the amount of the uncertainty will first inflate, and subsequently decrease, with the growth of decoherence strengths in the two channels. In contrast, the uncertainty decreases monotonically with the growth of the purity of the initial state shared in prior. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty in noisy environments, we put forward a remarkably effective strategy to steer the magnitude of uncertainty by means of a local non-unitary operation (i.e. weak measurement) on the qubit of interest. It turns out that this non-unitary operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty, upon tuning the operation strength. Our investigations might thereby offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of entropic uncertainty in open systems.
On entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of a minimal length
Rastegin, Alexey E.
2017-07-01
Entropic uncertainty relations for the position and momentum within the generalized uncertainty principle are examined. Studies of this principle are motivated by the existence of a minimal observable length. Then the position and momentum operators satisfy the modified commutation relation, for which more than one algebraic representation is known. One of them is described by auxiliary momentum so that the momentum and coordinate wave functions are connected by the Fourier transform. However, the probability density functions of the physically true and auxiliary momenta are different. As the corresponding entropies differ, known entropic uncertainty relations are changed. Using differential Shannon entropies, we give a state-dependent formulation with correction term. State-independent uncertainty relations are obtained in terms of the Rényi entropies and the Tsallis entropies with binning. Such relations allow one to take into account a finiteness of measurement resolution.
Uncertainty relation on a world crystal and its applications to micro black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen; Scardigli, Fabio
2010-01-01
We formulate generalized uncertainty relations in a crystal-like universe - a 'world crystal' - whose lattice spacing is of the order of Planck length. In the particular case when energies lie near the border of the Brillouin zone, i.e., for Planckian energies, the uncertainty relation for position and momenta does not pose any lower bound on involved uncertainties. We apply our results to micro black holes physics, where we derive a new mass-temperature relation for Schwarzschild micro black holes. In contrast to standard results based on Heisenberg and stringy uncertainty relations, our mass-temperature formula predicts both a finite Hawking's temperature and a zero rest-mass remnant at the end of the micro black hole evaporation. We also briefly mention some connections of the world-crystal paradigm with 't Hooft's quantization and double special relativity.
Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Shi, Wei-Nan; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu
2018-04-01
The uncertainty principle is recognized as an elementary ingredient of quantum theory and sets up a significant bound to predict outcome of measurement for a couple of incompatible observables. In this work, we develop dynamical features of quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We specifically derive the dynamical evolutions of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement in the Heisenberg XXZ model when spin A is initially correlated with quantum memory B. It has been found that the larger coupling strength J of the ferromagnetism ( J 0 ) chains can effectively degrade the measuring uncertainty. Besides, it turns out that the higher temperature can induce the inflation of the uncertainty because the thermal entanglement becomes relatively weak in this scenario, and there exists a distinct dynamical behavior of the uncertainty when an inhomogeneous magnetic field emerges. With the growing magnetic field | B | , the variation of the entropic uncertainty will be non-monotonic. Meanwhile, we compare several different optimized bounds existing with the initial bound proposed by Berta et al. and consequently conclude Adabi et al.'s result is optimal. Moreover, we also investigate the mixedness of the system of interest, dramatically associated with the uncertainty. Remarkably, we put forward a possible physical interpretation to explain the evolutionary phenomenon of the uncertainty. Finally, we take advantage of a local filtering operation to steer the magnitude of the uncertainty. Therefore, our explorations may shed light on the entropic uncertainty under the Heisenberg XXZ model and hence be of importance to quantum precision measurement over solid state-based quantum information processing.
Automatic activation of categorical and abstract analogical relations in analogical reasoning.
Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N
2006-10-01
We examined activation of concepts during analogical reasoning. Subjects made either analogical judgments or categorical judgments about four-word sets. After each four-word set, they named the ink color of a single word in a modified Stroop task. Words that referred to category relations were primed (as indicated by longer response times on Stroop color naming) subsequent to analogical judgments and categorical judgments. This finding suggests that activation of category concepts plays a fundamental role in analogical thinking. When colored words referred to analogical relations, priming occurred subsequent to analogical judgments, but not to categorical judgments, even though identical four-word stimuli were used for both types of judgments. This finding lends empirical support to the hypothesis that, when people comprehend the analogy between two items, they activate an abstract analogical relation that is distinct from the specific content items that compose the analogy.
Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Signiﬁcances for Physics?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitru S.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial signif- icances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.
Uncertainty of relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry
Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.
2017-10-01
The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.
Park, DaeKil
2018-06-01
The dynamics of entanglement and uncertainty relation is explored by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for coupled harmonic oscillator system analytically when the angular frequencies and coupling constant are arbitrarily time dependent. We derive the spectral and Schmidt decompositions for vacuum solution. Using the decompositions, we derive the analytical expressions for von Neumann and Rényi entropies. Making use of Wigner distribution function defined in phase space, we derive the time dependence of position-momentum uncertainty relations. To show the dynamics of entanglement and uncertainty relation graphically, we introduce two toy models and one realistic quenched model. While the dynamics can be conjectured by simple consideration in the toy models, the dynamics in the realistic quenched model is somewhat different from that in the toy models. In particular, the dynamics of entanglement exhibits similar pattern to dynamics of uncertainty parameter in the realistic quenched model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Maldonado
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements.
Overcoming uncertainty for within-network relational machine learning
Pfeiffer, Joseph J.
2015-01-01
People increasingly communicate through email and social networks to maintain friendships and conduct business, as well as share online content such as pictures, videos and products. Relational machine learning (RML) utilizes a set of observed attributes and network structure to predict corresponding labels for items; for example, to predict individuals engaged in securities fraud, we can utilize phone calls and workplace information to make joint predictions over the individuals. However, in...
Peest, Christian; Schinke, Carsten; Brendel, Rolf; Schmidt, Jan; Bothe, Karsten
2017-01-01
Spectrophotometers are operated in numerous fields of science and industry for a variety of applications. In order to provide confidence for the measured data, analyzing the associated uncertainty is valuable. However, the uncertainty of the measurement results is often unknown or reduced to sample-related contributions. In this paper, we describe our approach for the systematic determination of the measurement uncertainty of the commercially available two-channel spectrophotometer Agilent Cary 5000 in accordance with the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurements. We focus on the instrumentation-related uncertainty contributions rather than the specific application and thus outline a general procedure which can be adapted for other instruments. Moreover, we discover a systematic signal deviation due to the inertia of the measurement amplifier and develop and apply a correction procedure. Thereby we increase the usable dynamic range of the instrument by more than one order of magnitude. We present methods for the quantification of the uncertainty contributions and combine them into an uncertainty budget for the device.
Eisenberg, Stacy A; Kurita, Keiko; Taylor-Ford, Megan; Agus, David B; Gross, Mitchell E; Meyerowitz, Beth E
2015-02-01
Prostate cancer survivors have reported cognitive complaints following treatment, and these difficulties may be associated with survivors' ongoing cancer-related distress. Intolerance of uncertainty may exacerbate this hypothesized relationship by predisposing individuals to approach uncertain situations such as cancer survivorship in an inflexible and negative manner. We investigated whether greater cognitive complaints and higher intolerance of uncertainty would interact in their relation to more cancer-related distress symptoms. This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study included 67 prostate cancer survivors who were 3 to 5 years post treatment. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested the extent to which intolerance of uncertainty, cognitive complaints, and their interaction were associated with cancer-related distress (measured with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised; IES-R) after adjusting for age, education, physical symptoms, and fear of cancer recurrence. Intolerance of uncertainty was positively associated with the IES-R avoidance and hyperarousal subscales. More cognitive complaints were associated with higher scores on the IES-R hyperarousal subscale. The interaction of intolerance of uncertainty and cognitive complaints was significantly associated with IES-R intrusion, such that greater cognitive complaints were associated with greater intrusive thoughts in survivors high in intolerance of uncertainty but not those low in it. Prostate cancer survivors who report cognitive difficulties or who find uncertainty uncomfortable and unacceptable may be at greater risk for cancer-related distress, even 3 to 5 years after completing treatment. It may be beneficial to address both cognitive complaints and intolerance of uncertainty in psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Uncertainty characterization of HOAPS 3.3 latent heat-flux-related parameters
Liman, Julian; Schröder, Marc; Fennig, Karsten; Andersson, Axel; Hollmann, Rainer
2018-03-01
Latent heat flux (LHF) is one of the main contributors to the global energy budget. As the density of in situ LHF measurements over the global oceans is generally poor, the potential of remotely sensed LHF for meteorological applications is enormous. However, to date none of the available satellite products have included estimates of systematic, random, and sampling uncertainties, all of which are essential for assessing their quality. Here, the challenge is taken on by matching LHF-related pixel-level data of the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite (HOAPS) climatology (version 3.3) to in situ measurements originating from a high-quality data archive of buoys and selected ships. Assuming the ground reference to be bias-free, this allows for deriving instantaneous systematic uncertainties as a function of four atmospheric predictor variables. The approach is regionally independent and therefore overcomes the issue of sparse in situ data densities over large oceanic areas. Likewise, random uncertainties are derived, which include not only a retrieval component but also contributions from in situ measurement noise and the collocation procedure. A recently published random uncertainty decomposition approach is applied to isolate the random retrieval uncertainty of all LHF-related HOAPS parameters. It makes use of two combinations of independent data triplets of both satellite and in situ data, which are analysed in terms of their pairwise variances of differences. Instantaneous uncertainties are finally aggregated, allowing for uncertainty characterizations on monthly to multi-annual timescales. Results show that systematic LHF uncertainties range between 15 and 50 W m-2 with a global mean of 25 W m-2. Local maxima are mainly found over the subtropical ocean basins as well as along the western boundary currents. Investigations indicate that contributions from qa (U) to the overall LHF uncertainty are on the order of 60 % (25 %). From an
2016-03-01
CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY by Nicholas M. Chisler March 2016 Thesis Advisor...March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RELATING TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS...WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas M. Chisler 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES
Position-momentum uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Tomamichel, Marco [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Scholz, Volkher B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Christandl, Matthias [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
2014-12-15
A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear operational interpretation in information theory and cryptography. Recently, entropic uncertainty relations have been used to show that the uncertainty can be reduced in the presence of entanglement and to prove security of quantum cryptographic tasks. However, much of this recent progress has been focused on observables with only a finite number of outcomes not including Heisenberg’s original setting of position and momentum observables. Here, we show entropic uncertainty relations for general observables with discrete but infinite or continuous spectrum that take into account the power of an entangled observer. As an illustration, we evaluate the uncertainty relations for position and momentum measurements, which is operationally significant in that it implies security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on homodyne detection of squeezed Gaussian states.
Hyeon, Changbong; Hwang, Wonseok
2017-07-01
Using Brownian motion in periodic potentials V (x ) tilted by a force f , we provide physical insight into the thermodynamic uncertainty relation, a recently conjectured principle for statistical errors and irreversible heat dissipation in nonequilibrium steady states. According to the relation, nonequilibrium output generated from dissipative processes necessarily incurs an energetic cost or heat dissipation q , and in order to limit the output fluctuation within a relative uncertainty ɛ , at least 2 kBT /ɛ2 of heat must be dissipated. Our model shows that this bound is attained not only at near-equilibrium [f ≪V'(x ) ] but also at far-from-equilibrium [f ≫V'(x ) ] , more generally when the dissipated heat is normally distributed. Furthermore, the energetic cost is maximized near the critical force when the barrier separating the potential wells is about to vanish and the fluctuation of Brownian particles is maximized. These findings indicate that the deviation of heat distribution from Gaussianity gives rise to the inequality of the uncertainty relation, further clarifying the meaning of the uncertainty relation. Our derivation of the uncertainty relation also recognizes a bound of nonequilibrium fluctuations that the variance of dissipated heat (σq2) increases with its mean (μq), and it cannot be smaller than 2 kBT μq .
Hertz, Anaelle; Vanbever, Luc; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2018-01-01
The uncertainty relation for continuous variables due to Byałinicki-Birula and Mycielski [I. Białynicki-Birula and J. Mycielski, Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129 (1975), 10.1007/BF01608825] expresses the complementarity between two n -tuples of canonically conjugate variables (x1,x2,...,xn) and (p1,p2,...,pn) in terms of Shannon differential entropy. Here we consider the generalization to variables that are not canonically conjugate and derive an entropic uncertainty relation expressing the balance between any two n -variable Gaussian projective measurements. The bound on entropies is expressed in terms of the determinant of a matrix of commutators between the measured variables. This uncertainty relation also captures the complementarity between any two incompatible linear canonical transforms, the bound being written in terms of the corresponding symplectic matrices in phase space. Finally, we extend this uncertainty relation to Rényi entropies and also prove a covariance-based uncertainty relation which generalizes the Robertson relation.
Uncertainties of exposure-related quantities in mammographic x-ray unit quality control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, Kent J.; Pattison, John E.; Bibbo, Giovanni
2006-01-01
Breast screening programs operate in many countries with mammographic x-ray units subject to stringent quality control tests. These tests include the evaluation of quantities based on exposure measurements, such as half value layer, automatic exposure control reproducibility, average glandular dose, and radiation output rate. There are numerous error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, some of which are unique to the low energy x-ray spectrum produced by mammographic x-ray units. For each of these exposure-related quantities, the applicable error sources and their magnitudes vary, depending on the test equipment used to make the measurement, and whether or not relevant corrections have been applied. This study has identified and quantified a range of error sources that may be used to estimate the combined uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, given the test equipment used and corrections applied. The uncertainty analysis uses methods described by the International Standards Organization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Examples of how these error sources combine to give the uncertainty of the exposure-related quantities are presented. Using the best test equipment evaluated in this study, uncertainties of the four exposure-related quantities at the 95% confidence interval were found to be ±1.6% (half value layer), ±0.0008 (automatic exposure control reproducibility), ±2.3% (average glandular dose), and ±2.1% (radiation output rate). In some cases, using less precise test equipment or failing to apply corrections, resulted in uncertainties more than double in magnitude
Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Yu, Weiwei; Tong, Shilu
2015-02-01
Climate change may affect mortality associated with air pollutants, especially for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Projection studies of such kind involve complicated modelling approaches with uncertainties. We conducted a systematic review of researches and methods for projecting future PM2.5-/O3-related mortality to identify the uncertainties and optimal approaches for handling uncertainty. A literature search was conducted in October 2013, using the electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 to September 2013. Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that an increase of climate change-induced PM2.5 and O3 may result in an increase in mortality. However, little research has been conducted in developing countries with high emissions and dense populations. Additionally, health effects induced by PM2.5 may dominate compared to those caused by O3, but projection studies of PM2.5-related mortality are fewer than those of O3-related mortality. There is a considerable variation in approaches of scenario-based projection researches, which makes it difficult to compare results. Multiple scenarios, models and downscaling methods have been used to reduce uncertainties. However, few studies have discussed what the main source of uncertainties is and which uncertainty could be most effectively reduced. Projecting air pollution-related mortality requires a systematic consideration of assumptions and uncertainties, which will significantly aid policymakers in efforts to manage potential impacts of PM2.5 and O3 on mortality in the context of climate change. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wasserman, Nicholas H.
2017-01-01
This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…
Does Preference for Abstract Patterns Relate to Information Processing and Perceived Duration?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Letizia Palumbo
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Repetitive prestimulation, in the form of click trains, is known to alter a wide range of cognitive and perceptual judgments. To date, no research has explored whether click trains also influence subjective preferences. This is plausible because preference is related to perceptual fluency and clicks may increase fluency, or, because preference is related to arousal and clicks may increase arousal. In Experiment 1, participants heard a click train, white noise, or silence through headphones and then saw an abstract symmetrical pattern on the screen for 0.5, 1, or 1.5 s. They rated the pattern on a 7-point scale. Click trains had no effect on preference ratings, although patterns that lasted longer were preferred. In Experiment 2, we again presented a click train, silence, or white noise but included both symmetrical and random patterns. Participants made both a duration and a preference judgment on every trial. Auditory click trains increased perceived duration, and symmetrical patterns were perceived as lasting longer than random patterns. Again there was no effect of auditory click trains on preference, and again patterns that were presented for longer were preferred. We conclude that click trains alter perceptual and cognitive processes, but not preferences. This helps clarify the nature of the click train effect and shows which predictions implicit in the existing literature are supported.
The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu
2015-01-01
The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)
Event-by-event simulation of single-neutron experiments to test uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raedt, H De; Michielsen, K
2014-01-01
Results from a discrete-event simulation of a recent single-neutron experiment that tests Ozawa's generalization of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation are presented. The event-based simulation algorithm reproduces the results of the quantum theoretical description of the experiment but does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation, nor does it rely on detailed concepts of quantum theory. In particular, the data from these non-quantum simulations satisfy uncertainty relations derived in the context of quantum theory. (paper)
Complementarity and the Nature of Uncertainty Relations in Einstein–Bohr Recoiling Slit Experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shogo Tanimura
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A model of the Einstein–Bohr recoiling slit experiment is formulated in a fully quantum theoretical setting. In this model, the state and dynamics of a movable wall that has two slits in it, as well as the state of a particle incoming to the two slits, are described by quantum mechanics. Using this model, we analyzed complementarity between exhibiting an interference pattern and distinguishing the particle path. Comparing the Kennard–Robertson type and the Ozawa-type uncertainty relations, we conclude that the uncertainty relation involved in the double-slit experiment is not the Ozawa-type uncertainty relation but the Kennard-type uncertainty relation of the position and the momentum of the double-slit wall. A possible experiment to test the complementarity relation is suggested. It is also argued that various phenomena which occur at the interface of a quantum system and a classical system, including distinguishability, interference, decoherence, quantum eraser, and weak value, can be understood as aspects of entanglement. Quanta 2015; 4: 1–9.
Strekalova, Yulia A; James, Vaughan S
2017-09-01
User-generated information on the Internet provides opportunities for the monitoring of health information consumer attitudes. For example, information about cancer prevention may cause decisional conflict. Yet posts and conversations shared by health information consumers online are often not readily actionable for interpretation and decision-making due to their unstandardized format. This study extends prior research on the use of natural language as a predictor of consumer attitudes and provides a link to decision-making by evaluating the predictive role of uncertainty indicators expressed in natural language. Analyzed data included free-text comments and structured scale responses related to information about skin cancer prevention options. The study identified natural language indicators of uncertainty and showed that it can serve as a predictor of decisional conflict. The natural indicators of uncertainty reported here can facilitate the monitoring of health consumer perceptions about cancer prevention recommendations and inform education and communication campaign planning and evaluation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerche, I.; Noeth, S.
2002-01-01
The influence of two fundamentally different types of uncertainty on the value of oil field production are investigated here. First considered is the uncertainty caused by the fact that the expected value estimate is not one of the possible outcomes. To correctly allow for the risk attendant upon using the expected value as a measure of worth, even with statistically sharp parameters, one needs to incorporate the uncertainty of the expected value. Using a simple example we show how such incorporation allows for a clear determination of the relative risk of projects that may have the same expected value but very different risks. We also show how each project can be risked on its own using the expected value and variance. This uncertainty type is due to the possible pathways for different outcomes even when parameters categorizing the system are taken to be known. Second considered is the risk due to the fact that parameters in oil field estimates are just estimates and, as such, have their own intrinsic errors that influence the possible outcomes and make them less certain. This sort of risk depends upon the uncertainty of each parameter, and also the type of distribution the parameters are taken to be drawn from. In addition, not all uncertainties in parameters values are of equal importance in influencing an outcome probability. We show how can determine the relative importance for the parameters and so determine where to place effort to resolve the dominant contributions to risk if it is possible to do so. Considerations of whether to acquire new information, and also whether to undertake further studies under such an uncertain environment, are used as vehicles to address these concerns of risk due to uncertainty. In general, an oil field development project has to contend with all the above types of risk and uncertainty. It is therefore of importance to have quantitative measures of risk so that one can compare and contrast the various effects, and so that
Third international workshop on compound nuclear reactions and related topics. Book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-09-01
The conference was divided into the following sections: Fission; Surrogate reactions; Heavy ion reactions; Neutron-induced reactions; Gamma-ray strength functions; Nuclear astrophysics; Superheavy nuclei; Nuclear level density; Various nuclear reactions; Optical model simulations; and Pre-equilibrium. The publication contains 82 abstracts. (P.A.)
Abstract robots with an attitude : applying interpersonal relation models to human-robot interaction
Hiah, J.L.; Beursgens, L.; Haex, R.; Perez Romero, L.M.; Teh, Y.; Bhomer, ten M.; Berkel, van R.E.A.; Barakova, E.I.
2013-01-01
This paper explores new possibilities for social interaction between a human user and a robot with an abstract shape. The social interaction takes place by simulating behaviors such as submissiveness and dominance and analyzing the corresponding human reactions. We used an object that has no
Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke
2005-01-01
Today it is common practice - in the major part of Europe - to base design of sewer systems in urban areas on recommended minimum values of flooding frequencies related to either pipe top level, basement level in buildings or level of road surfaces. Thus storm water runoff in sewer systems is only...... proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing sewer systems. If a sewer system can fulfil recommended flooding frequencies or not, can only be verified...... by performing long term simulations - using a sewer flow simulation model - and draw up extreme event statistics from the model simulations. In this context it is important to realize that uncertainties related to the input parameters of rainfall runoff models will give rise to uncertainties related...
Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model
Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.
2012-12-01
Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Powers, D.W. [Powers (Dennis W.), Anthony, TX (United States); Martin, M.L. [International Technology, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)
1993-08-01
This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Powers, D.W.; Martin, M.L.
1993-08-01
This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries
A quantum uncertainty relation based on Fisher's information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Moreno, P; Plastino, A R; Dehesa, J S, E-mail: pablos@ugr.es, E-mail: arplastino@ugr.es, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)
2011-02-11
We explore quantum uncertainty relations involving the Fisher information functionals I{sub x} and I{sub p} evaluated, respectively, on a wavefunction {Psi}(x) defined on a D-dimensional configuration space and the concomitant wavefunction {Psi}-tilde(p) on the conjugate momentum space. We prove that the associated Fisher functionals obey the uncertainty relation I{sub x}I{sub p} {>=} 4D{sup 2} when either {Psi}(x) or {Psi}-tilde(p) is real. On the other hand, there is no lower bound to the above product for arbitrary complex wavefunctions. We give explicit examples of complex wavefunctions not obeying the above bound. In particular, we provide a parametrized wavefunction for which the product I{sub x}I{sub p} can be made arbitrarily small.
Measurability of quantum fields and the energy-time uncertainty relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensky, Mikhail B
2011-01-01
Quantum restrictions on the measurability of an electromagnetic field strength and their relevance to the energy-time uncertainty relation are considered. The minimum errors in measuring electromagnetic field strengths, as they were estimated by the author (1988) in the framework of the phenomenological method of restricted path integral (RPI), are compared with the analogous estimates found by Landau and Peierls (1931) and by Bohr and Rosenfeld (1933) with the help of certain measurement setups. RPI-based restrictions, including those of Landau and Peierls as a special case, hold for any measuring schemes meeting the strict definition of measurement. Their fundamental nature is confirmed by the fact that their associated field detectability condition has the form of the energy-time uncertainty relation. The weaker restrictions suggested by Bohr and Rosenfeld rely on an extended definition of measurement. The energy-time uncertainty relation, which is the condition for the electromagnetic field to be detectable, is applied to the analysis of how the near-field scanning microscope works. (methodological notes)
Loague, Keith; Blanke, James S; Mills, Melissa B; Diaz-Diaz, Ricardo; Corwin, Dennis L
2012-01-01
Precious groundwater resources across the United States have been contaminated due to decades-long nonpoint-source applications of agricultural chemicals. Assessing the impact of past, ongoing, and future chemical applications for large-scale agriculture operations is timely for designing best-management practices to prevent subsurface pollution. Presented here are the results from a series of regional-scale vulnerability assessments for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Two relatively simple indices, the retardation and attenuation factors, are used to estimate near-surface vulnerabilities based on the chemical properties of 32 pesticides and the variability of both soil characteristics and recharge rates across the SJV. The uncertainties inherit to these assessments, derived from the uncertainties within the chemical and soil data bases, are estimated using first-order analyses. The results are used to screen and rank the chemicals based on mobility and leaching potential, without and with consideration of data-related uncertainties. Chemicals of historic high visibility in the SJV (e.g., atrazine, DBCP [dibromochloropropane], ethylene dibromide, and simazine) are ranked in the top half of those considered. Vulnerability maps generated for atrazine and DBCP, featured for their legacy status in the study area, clearly illustrate variations within and across the assessments. For example, the leaching potential is greater for DBCP than for atrazine, the leaching potential for DBCP is greater for the spatially variable recharge values than for the average recharge rate, and the leaching potentials for both DBCP and atrazine are greater for the annual recharge estimates than for the monthly recharge estimates. The data-related uncertainties identified in this study can be significant, targeting opportunities for improving future vulnerability assessments. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America
Mockler, E. M.; Chun, K. P.; Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Bruen, M.; Wheater, H. S.
2016-11-01
Predictions of river flow dynamics provide vital information for many aspects of water management including water resource planning, climate adaptation, and flood and drought assessments. Many of the subjective choices that modellers make including model and criteria selection can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the output uncertainty. Hydrological modellers are tasked with understanding and minimising the uncertainty surrounding streamflow predictions before communicating the overall uncertainty to decision makers. Parameter uncertainty in conceptual rainfall-runoff models has been widely investigated, and model structural uncertainty and forcing data have been receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to assess uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to forcing data and the identification of behavioural parameter sets in 31 Irish catchments. By combining stochastic rainfall ensembles and multiple parameter sets for three conceptual rainfall-runoff models, an analysis of variance model was used to decompose the total uncertainty in streamflow simulations into contributions from (i) forcing data, (ii) identification of model parameters and (iii) interactions between the two. The analysis illustrates that, for our subjective choices, hydrological model selection had a greater contribution to overall uncertainty, while performance criteria selection influenced the relative intra-annual uncertainties in streamflow predictions. Uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to the method of determining parameters were relatively lower for wetter catchments, and more evenly distributed throughout the year when the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of logarithmic values of flow (lnNSE) was the evaluation criterion.
Effect of minimal length uncertainty on the mass-radius relation of white dwarfs
Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.
2018-06-01
Generalized uncertainty relation that carries the imprint of quantum gravity introduces a minimal length scale into the description of space-time. It effectively changes the invariant measure of the phase space through a factor (1 + βp2) - 3 so that the equation of state for an electron gas undergoes a significant modification from the ideal case. It has been shown in the literature (Rashidi 2016) that the ideal Chandrasekhar limit ceases to exist when the modified equation of state due to the generalized uncertainty is taken into account. To assess the situation in a more complete fashion, we analyze in detail the mass-radius relation of Newtonian white dwarfs whose hydrostatic equilibria are governed by the equation of state of the degenerate relativistic electron gas subjected to the generalized uncertainty principle. As the constraint of minimal length imposes a severe restriction on the availability of high momentum states, it is speculated that the central Fermi momentum cannot have values arbitrarily higher than pmax ∼β - 1 / 2. When this restriction is imposed, it is found that the system approaches limiting mass values higher than the Chandrasekhar mass upon decreasing the parameter β to a value given by a legitimate upper bound. Instead, when the more realistic restriction due to inverse β-decay is considered, it is found that the mass and radius approach the values 1.4518 M⊙ and 601.18 km near the legitimate upper bound for the parameter β.
Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph
2016-10-15
The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl–Teller and Gaussian wells.
Walker, Caren M; Bridgers, Sophie; Gopnik, Alison
2016-11-01
We explore the developmental trajectory and underlying mechanisms of abstract relational reasoning. We describe a surprising developmental pattern: Younger learners are better than older ones at inferring abstract causal relations. Walker and Gopnik (2014) demonstrated that toddlers are able to infer that an effect was caused by a relation between two objects (whether they are the same or different), rather than by individual kinds of objects. While these findings are consistent with evidence that infants recognize same-different relations, they contrast with a large literature suggesting that older children tend to have difficulty inferring these relations. Why might this be? In Experiment 1a, we demonstrate that while younger children (18-30-month-olds) have no difficulty learning these relational concepts, older children (36-48-month-olds) fail to draw this abstract inference. Experiment 1b replicates the finding with 18-30-month-olds using a more demanding intervention task. Experiment 2 tests whether this difference in performance might be because older children have developed the general hypothesis that individual kinds of objects are causal - the high initial probability of this alternative hypothesis might override the data that favors the relational hypothesis. Providing additional information falsifying the alternative hypothesis improves older children's performance. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrates that prompting for explanations during learning also improves performance, even without any additional information. These findings are discussed in light of recent computational and algorithmic theories of learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quantum scattering in one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph
2016-12-15
In quantum gravity theories, when the scattering energy is comparable to the Planck energy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle breaks down and is replaced by the minimal length uncertainty relation. In this paper, the consequences of the minimal length uncertainty relation on one-dimensional quantum scattering are studied using an approach involving a recently proposed second-order differential equation. An exact analytical expression for the tunneling probability through a locally-periodic rectangular potential barrier system is obtained. Results show that the existence of a non-zero minimal length uncertainty tends to shift the resonant tunneling energies to the positive direction. Scattering through a locally-periodic potential composed of double-rectangular potential barriers shows that the first band of resonant tunneling energies widens for minimal length cases when the double-rectangular potential barrier is symmetric but narrows down when the double-rectangular potential barrier is asymmetric. A numerical solution which exploits the use of Wronskians is used to calculate the transmission probabilities through the Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian barrier, and double-Gaussian barrier. Results show that the probability of passage through the Pöschl–Teller well and Gaussian barrier is smaller in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. For the double-Gaussian barrier, the probability of passage for energies that are more positive than the resonant tunneling energy is larger in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. The approach is exact and applicable to many types of scattering potential.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frutiger, Jerome; Marcarie, Camille; Abildskov, Jens
2016-01-01
regression and outlier treatment have been applied to achieve high accuracy. Furthermore, linear error propagation based on covariance matrix of estimated parameters was performed. Therefore, every estimated property value of the flammability-related properties is reported together with its corresponding 95......%-confidence interval of the prediction. Compared to existing models the developed ones have a higher accuracy, are simple to apply and provide uncertainty information on the calculated prediction. The average relative error and correlation coefficient are 11.5% and 0.99 for LFL, 15.9% and 0.91 for UFL, 2...
Annas, Suwardi; Djadir; Mutmainna Hasma, Sitti
2018-01-01
on is an activity to organize a mathematical concept that has been previously owned into a new mathematical structure. Activites in abstraction are recognizing, organizing and constructing. Recognizing is a process of identifying a mathematical structure that had existed before. Organizing is a process of using structural knowledge to be assembled into a solution of a problem and constructing is a process of organizing the characteristics of the object into a new structure that does not exist. In abstraction process, the students use attributes to address the object, including routine attribute, nonroutine attributes, and meaningless attributes. This research applied descriptive qualitative research which aimed to describe the abstraction ability of students from high, moderate, and low groups to construct a relation within triangle. In collecting the data, this research used students’ pre-ability math test, abstraction test, and guided interview. The sampling technique in this research was based on the students’ scores in pre-ability math test, which were divided into three groups. Two students from each group were opted as the subjects of this research. Questions of the test are based on the indicators of steps in abstraction activity. Thus, based on the data gained in this research, researcher determined the tendency of attributes used in each abstraction activity. The result of this research revealed that students from high, moderate and low groups were prone to use routine attributes in recognizing triangles. In organizing the characteristics within triangles, high group tended to organize the triangle correctly, while the moderate and low groups tended to organize the triangle incorrectly. In constructing relation within triangles, students in high, moderate and low groups construct it incompletely.
The Effects of Linguistic Labels Related to Abstract Scenes on Memory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Inomata
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Boundary extension is the false memory beyond the actual boundary of a picture scene. Gagnier (2011 suggested that a linguistic label has no effect on the magnitude of boundary extension. Although she controlled the timing of the presentation or information of the linguistic label, the information of stimulus was not changed. In the present study, the depiction of the main object was controlled in order to change the contextual information of a scene. In experiment, the 68 participants were shown 12 pictures. The stimulus consisted pictures that depicted the main object or did not depict the main object, and half of them were presented with linguistic description. Participants rated the object-less pictures more closely than the original pictures, when the former were presented with linguistic labels. However, when they were presented without linguistic labels, boundary extension did not occur. There was no effect of labels on the pictures that depicted the main objects. On the basis of these results, the linguistic label enhances the representation of the abstract scene like a homogeneous field or a wall. This finding suggests that boundary extension may be affected by not only visual information but also by other sensory information mediated by linguistic representation.
Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--Feb 77
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, D.W.
1977-04-01
Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included, as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations
Uncertainty, joint uncertainty, and the quantum uncertainty principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narasimhachar, Varun; Poostindouz, Alireza; Gour, Gilad
2016-01-01
Historically, the element of uncertainty in quantum mechanics has been expressed through mathematical identities called uncertainty relations, a great many of which continue to be discovered. These relations use diverse measures to quantify uncertainty (and joint uncertainty). In this paper we use operational information-theoretic principles to identify the common essence of all such measures, thereby defining measure-independent notions of uncertainty and joint uncertainty. We find that most existing entropic uncertainty relations use measures of joint uncertainty that yield themselves to a small class of operational interpretations. Our notion relaxes this restriction, revealing previously unexplored joint uncertainty measures. To illustrate the utility of our formalism, we derive an uncertainty relation based on one such new measure. We also use our formalism to gain insight into the conditions under which measure-independent uncertainty relations can be found. (paper)
Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbizzi, Sabrina; Zorzi, Paolo de; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter
2004-01-01
An integrated approach to quality assurance in soil sampling remains to be accomplished. - The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the 'fit-for-purpose' method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated
The angle-angular momentum and entropic uncertainty relations for quantum scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.
1999-01-01
Recently the entropic uncertainty relations are obtained in a more general form by using Tsallis-like entropies for the quantum scattering. Hence, using Riesz theorem, the state-independent entropic angle-angular momentum uncertainty relations are proved for the Tsallis-like scattering entropies of spinless particles. The generalized entropic inequalities for the Tsallis-like entropies are presented. The two upper bounds are optimal bounds and can be obtained via Lagrange multipliers by extremizing the Tsallis-like entropies subject to the normalization constraints, respectively. The proof of the lower bound is provided by considering the condition that the angular distribution of probability, P(x) has, everywhere, a finite magnitude. Next, by using the Riesz Theorem a general result was obtained, appearing as inequalities valid for the case of hadron-hadron scattering. An important entropic uncertainty relation for the scattering of spinless particle was thus obtained. For σ el and dσ/dΩ, fixed from experiment, we proved that the optimal scattering entropies are the maximum possible entropies in the scattering process. In as previous paper it was shown that the experimental values of the entropies for the pion--nucleus scatterings are systematically described by the optimal entropies, at all available pion kinetic energies. In this sense the obtained results can also be considered as new experimental signatures for the validity of the principle of minimum distance in space of scattering states. The extension of the optimal state analysis to the generalized non-extensive statistics case, as well as, a test of the entropic inequalities, can be obtained in similar way by using non-extensive optimal entropies. Since this kind of analysis is more involved the numerical examples will be given in a following more extended paper. Finally, we believe that the results obtained here are encouraging for further investigations of the entropic uncertainty relations as well
Adaptive relative pose control of spacecraft with model couplings and uncertainties
Sun, Liang; Zheng, Zewei
2018-02-01
The spacecraft pose tracking control problem for an uncertain pursuer approaching to a space target is researched in this paper. After modeling the nonlinearly coupled dynamics for relative translational and rotational motions between two spacecraft, position tracking and attitude synchronization controllers are developed independently by using a robust adaptive control approach. The unknown kinematic couplings, parametric uncertainties, and bounded external disturbances are handled with adaptive updating laws. It is proved via Lyapunov method that the pose tracking errors converge to zero asymptotically. Spacecraft close-range rendezvous and proximity operations are introduced as an example to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.
Abstract of the law relating to the nuclear industry and radioactive substances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1980-01-01
This summary of the law relating to Atomic Energy and Radioactive substances as at March 1980 is divided into sections headed: (1) The common law. (2) Legislation. (3) Regulations under the Factories Act 1961. (4) Regulations, rules etc. affecting the transport of radioactive materials. (5) The Euratom treaty. (U.K.)
Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Becker, Stephen P; Shamsi, Mahin; Shakouri, Zeinab; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
2016-07-01
The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. A total of 341 adults (M=29years) completed a series of questionnaires related to the DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. A higher DT total score was associated with increased sleep disturbances, and higher scores for anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. In regression analyses Machiavellianism and psychopathy were predictors of sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Results indicate that specific DT traits, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Min-Nan; Sun, Wen-Yang; Huang, Ai-Jun; Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2018-01-01
In this work, we investigate the dynamics of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations under open systems, and how to steer the uncertainty under different types of decoherence. Specifically, we develop the dynamical behaviors of the uncertainty of interest under two typical categories of noise; bit flipping and depolarizing channels. It has been shown that the measurement uncertainty firstly increases and then decreases with the growth of the decoherence strength in bit flipping channels. In contrast, the uncertainty monotonically increases with the increase of the decoherence strength in depolarizing channels. Notably, and to a large degree, it is shown that the uncertainty depends on both the systematic quantum correlation and the minimal conditional entropy of the observed subsystem. Moreover, we present a possible physical interpretation for these distinctive behaviors of the uncertainty within such scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a simple and effective strategy to reduce the entropic uncertainty by means of a partially collapsed operation—quantum weak measurement. Therefore, our investigations might offer an insight into the dynamics of the measurment uncertainty under decoherence, and be of importance to quantum precision measurement in open systems.
Abstracts of the 8th Conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wobrauschek, P.
2000-01-01
The 8. conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods held from 25.9 to 29.9.2000 contains 79 abstracts about x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) as a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is also a tool used for chemical analysis in medicine, industry and research. (E.B.)
Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooperstock, F.I., E-mail: cooperst@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dupre, M.J., E-mail: mdupre@tulane.edu [Department of Mathematics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)
2013-12-15
We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.
Crop improvement for salinity and drought tolerance using nuclear and related techniques (abstract)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serraj, R.; Lagoda, P.J.
2005-01-01
complex interactions among the traits involved in tolerance to both drought and salinity, pyramiding using marker-assisted breeding, induced mutation and other biotechnologies, combined with a multidisciplinary approach and the participation of farmers, is likely to provide the best strategy to accelerate the progress towards the development of adapted tolerant crop germplasm. The joint FAO/IAEA division is investing considerable effort in evaluating opportunities for using nuclear and related technologies to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. The division has a long-standing experience in developing and coordinating collaborative research programs (CRP) on abiotic stresses, involving NARs in developing countries, international IARCs and expert scientists. Similarly, several technical cooperation projects (TCP) were carried out on crop improvement for tolerance to drought and salinity, at national, regional and interregional levels. The Soil and Biotechnology laboratories at Seibersdorf also have the experience and facilities for developing, testing and applying new isotope and nuclear-related techniques for the improvement of crop productivity and stress tolerance. An important project is currently being implemented by the joint FAO/IAEA division for the identification and development of crop germplasm with superior resource use efficiency and nutritional value and adapted to harsh environments. Two CRPs have been recently launched under this project dealing respectively with (i) the identification and pyramiding of mutated genes, and novel approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought, and (II) the selection for greater agronomic water-use efficiency in wheat and rice using carbon isotope discrimination under drought and saline environments. This paper will review the recent progress made at the joint FAO/IAEA division in deciphering the complexity of drought and salinity problems and developing drought and salt
Management of uncertainties related to renewable generation participation in electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourry, Franck
2009-01-01
The operation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) units, such as wind or solar plants, is intrinsically dependent on the variability of the wind or solar resource. This makes large scale integration of RES into power systems particularly challenging. The research work in the frame of this thesis focuses on the participation of renewable power producers in liberalized electricity markets, and more precisely on the management of the regulation costs incurred by the producer for any imbalance between the contracted and delivered energy. In such context, the main objective of the thesis is to model and evaluate different methods for the management of imbalance penalties related to the participation of renewable power producers in short-term electricity markets. First, the thesis gives a classification of the existing solutions for the management of these imbalance penalties. A distinction is made between physical solutions which are related to the generation portfolio, and financial solutions which are based on market products. The physical solutions are considered in the frame of a Virtual Power Plant. A generic model of the imbalance penalty resulting from the use of physical or financial solutions is formulated, based on a market rule model. Then, the decision-making problem relative to both physical and financial solutions is formulated as an optimization problem under uncertainty. The approach is based on a loss function derived from the generic imbalance penalty model. Finally, the uncertainty related to the RES production is considered in the risk-based decision making process. The methods are illustrated using case studies based on real world data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leigh, C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M and O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragan, G.
2001-01-01
The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000e for/ICN--02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M andO 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release
Wang, Dong; Huang, Aijun; Ming, Fei; Sun, Wenyang; Lu, Heping; Liu, Chengcheng; Ye, Liu
2017-06-01
The uncertainty principle provides a nontrivial bound to expose the precision for the outcome of the measurement on a pair of incompatible observables in a quantum system. Therefore, it is of essential importance for quantum precision measurement in the area of quantum information processing. Herein, we investigate quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg \\boldsymbol{X}\\boldsymbol{Y}\\boldsymbol{Z} spin chain. Specifically, we observe the dynamics of QMA-EUR in a realistic model there are two correlated sites linked by a thermal entanglement in the spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It turns out that the temperature, the external inhomogeneous magnetic field and the field inhomogeneity can lift the uncertainty of the measurement due to the reduction of the thermal entanglement, and explicitly higher temperature, stronger magnetic field or larger inhomogeneity of the field can result in inflation of the uncertainty. Besides, it is found that there exists distinct dynamical behaviors of the uncertainty for ferromagnetism \\boldsymbol{}≤ft(\\boldsymbol{J}\\boldsymbol{0}\\right) chains. Moreover, we also verify that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically anti-correlated with the purity of the bipartite spin system, the greater purity can result in the reduction of the measuring uncertainty, vice versa. Therefore, our observations might provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus shed light on quantum precision measurement in the framework of versatile systems, particularly solid states.
Managing uncertainty in multiple-criteria decision making related to sustainability assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Kapelan, Zoran; Azapagic, Adisa
2011-01-01
In real life, decisions are usually made by comparing different options with respect to several, often conflicting criteria. This requires subjective judgements on the importance of different criteria by DMs and increases uncertainty in decision making. This article demonstrates how uncertainty can......: (1) no uncertainty, (2) uncertainty in data/models and (3) uncertainty in models and decision-makers’ preferences. The results shows how characterising and propagating uncertainty can help increase the effectiveness of multi-criteria decision making processes and lead to more informed decision....... be handled in multi-criteria decision situations using Compromise Programming, one of the Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques. Uncertainty is characterised using a probabilistic approach and propagated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The methodological approach is illustrated...
Entanglement criterion for tripartite systems based on local sum uncertainty relations
Akbari-Kourbolagh, Y.; Azhdargalam, M.
2018-04-01
We propose a sufficient criterion for the entanglement of tripartite systems based on local sum uncertainty relations for arbitrarily chosen observables of subsystems. This criterion generalizes the tighter criterion for bipartite systems introduced by Zhang et al. [C.-J. Zhang, H. Nha, Y.-S. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, Phys. Rev. A 81, 012324 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.012324] and can be used for both discrete- and continuous-variable systems. It enables us to detect the entanglement of quantum states without having a complete knowledge of them. Its utility is illustrated by some examples of three-qubit, qutrit-qutrit-qubit, and three-mode Gaussian states. It is found that, in comparison with other criteria, this criterion is able to detect some three-qubit bound entangled states more efficiently.
The small sample uncertainty aspect in relation to bullwhip effect measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Erland Hejn
2009-01-01
The bullwhip effect as a concept has been known for almost half a century starting with the Forrester effect. The bullwhip effect is observed in many supply chains, and it is generally accepted as a potential malice. Despite of this fact, the bullwhip effect still seems to be first and foremost...... a conceptual phenomenon. This paper intends primarily to investigate why this might be so and thereby investigate the various aspects, possibilities and obstacles that must be taken into account, when considering the potential practical use and measure of the bullwhip effect in order to actually get the supply...... chain under control. This paper will put special emphasis on the unavoidable small-sample uncertainty aspects relating to the measurement or estimation of the bullwhip effect. ...
The Beam Dynamics and Beam Related Uncertainties in Fermilab Muon $g-2$ Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Wanwei [Mississippi U.
2018-05-01
The anomaly of the muon magnetic moment, $a_{\\mu}\\equiv (g-2)/2$, has played an important role in constraining physics beyond the Standard Model for many years. Currently, the Standard Model prediction for $a_{\\mu}$ is accurate to 0.42 parts per million (ppm). The most recent muon $g-2$ experiment was done at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and determined $a_{\\mu}$ to 0.54 ppm, with a central value that differs from the Standard Model prediction by 3.3-3.6 standard deviations and provides a strong hint of new physics. The Fermilab Muon $g-2$ Experiment has a goal to measure $a_{\\mu}$ to unprecedented precision: 0.14 ppm, which could provide an unambiguous answer to the question whether there are new particles and forces that exist in nature. To achieve this goal, several items have been identified to lower the systematic uncertainties. In this work, we focus on the beam dynamics and beam associated uncertainties, which are important and must be better understood. We will discuss the electrostatic quadrupole system, particularly the hardware-related quad plate alignment and the quad extension and readout system. We will review the beam dynamics in the muon storage ring, present discussions on the beam related systematic errors, simulate the 3D electric fields of the electrostatic quadrupoles and examine the beam resonances. We will use a fast rotation analysis to study the muon radial momentum distribution, which provides the key input for evaluating the electric field correction to the measured $a_{\\mu}$.
Extreme Events in China under Climate Change: Uncertainty and related impacts (CSSP-FOREX)
Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Hodges, Kevin I.
2016-04-01
Suitable adaptation strategies or the timely initiation of related mitigation efforts in East Asia will strongly depend on robust and comprehensive information about future near-term as well as long-term potential changes in the climate system. Therefore, understanding the driving mechanisms associated with the East Asian climate is of major importance. The FOREX project (Fostering Regional Decision Making by the Assessment of Uncertainties of Future Regional Extremes and their Linkage to Global Climate System Variability for China and East Asia) focuses on the investigation of extreme wind and rainfall related events over Eastern Asia and their possible future changes. Here, analyses focus on the link between local extreme events and their driving weather systems. This includes the coupling between local rainfall extremes and tropical cyclones, the Meiyu frontal system, extra-tropical teleconnections and monsoonal activity. Furthermore, the relation between these driving weather systems and large-scale variability modes, e.g. NAO, PDO, ENSO is analysed. Thus, beside analysing future changes of local extreme events, the temporal variability of their driving weather systems and related large-scale variability modes will be assessed in current CMIP5 global model simulations to obtain more robust results. Beyond an overview of FOREX itself, first results regarding the link between local extremes and their steering weather systems based on observational and reanalysis data are shown. Special focus is laid on the contribution of monsoonal activity, tropical cyclones and the Meiyu frontal system on the inter-annual variability of the East Asian summer rainfall.
Servin, Christian
2015-01-01
On various examples ranging from geosciences to environmental sciences, this book explains how to generate an adequate description of uncertainty, how to justify semiheuristic algorithms for processing uncertainty, and how to make these algorithms more computationally efficient. It explains in what sense the existing approach to uncertainty as a combination of random and systematic components is only an approximation, presents a more adequate three-component model with an additional periodic error component, and explains how uncertainty propagation techniques can be extended to this model. The book provides a justification for a practically efficient heuristic technique (based on fuzzy decision-making). It explains how the computational complexity of uncertainty processing can be reduced. The book also shows how to take into account that in real life, the information about uncertainty is often only partially known, and, on several practical examples, explains how to extract the missing information about uncer...
Mezzasalma, Stefano A
2007-03-15
The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.
Quantifying uncertainties of climate signals related to the 11-year solar cycle
Kruschke, T.; Kunze, M.; Matthes, K. B.; Langematz, U.; Wahl, S.
2017-12-01
Although state-of-the-art reconstructions based on proxies and (semi-)empirical models converge in terms of total solar irradiance, they still significantly differ in terms of spectral solar irradiance (SSI) with respect to the mean spectral distribution of energy input and temporal variability. This study aims at quantifying uncertainties for the Earth's climate related to the 11-year solar cycle by forcing two chemistry-climate models (CCMs) - CESM1(WACCM) and EMAC - with five different SSI reconstructions (NRLSSI1, NRLSSI2, SATIRE-T, SATIRE-S, CMIP6-SSI) and the reference spectrum RSSV1-ATLAS3, derived from observations. We conduct a unique set of timeslice experiments. External forcings and boundary conditions are fixed and identical for all experiments, except for the solar forcing. The set of analyzed simulations consists of one solar minimum simulation, employing RSSV1-ATLAS3 and five solar maximum experiments. The latter are a result of adding the amplitude of solar cycle 22 according to the five reconstructions to RSSV1-ATLAS3. Our results show that the climate response to the 11y solar cycle is generally robust across CCMs and SSI forcings. However, analyzing the variance of the solar maximum ensemble by means of ANOVA-statistics reveals additional information on the uncertainties of the mean climate signals. The annual mean response agrees very well between the two CCMs for most parts of the lower and middle atmosphere. Only the upper mesosphere is subject to significant differences related to the choice of the model. However, the different SSI forcings lead to significant differences in ozone concentrations, shortwave heating rates, and temperature throughout large parts of the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. Regarding the seasonal evolution of the climate signals, our findings for short wave heating rates, and temperature are similar to the annual means with respect to the relative importance of the choice of the model or the SSI forcing for the
Badawy, B.; Fletcher, C. G.
2017-12-01
The parameterization of snow processes in land surface models is an important source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Quantifying the importance of snow-related parameters, and their uncertainties, may therefore lead to better understanding and quantification of uncertainty within integrated earth system models. However, quantifying the uncertainty arising from parameterized snow processes is challenging due to the high-dimensional parameter space, poor observational constraints, and parameter interaction. In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of the land simulation to uncertainty in snow microphysical parameters in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS) using an uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach. A set of training cases (n=400) from CLASS is used to sample each parameter across its full range of empirical uncertainty, as determined from available observations and expert elicitation. A statistical learning model using support vector regression (SVR) is then constructed from the training data (CLASS output variables) to efficiently emulate the dynamical CLASS simulations over a much larger (n=220) set of cases. This approach is used to constrain the plausible range for each parameter using a skill score, and to identify the parameters with largest influence on the land simulation in CLASS at global and regional scales, using a random forest (RF) permutation importance algorithm. Preliminary sensitivity tests indicate that snow albedo refreshment threshold and the limiting snow depth, below which bare patches begin to appear, have the highest impact on snow output variables. The results also show a considerable reduction of the plausible ranges of the parameters values and hence reducing their uncertainty ranges, which can lead to a significant reduction of the model uncertainty. The implementation and results of this study will be presented and discussed in details.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panka, Istvan; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Temesvari, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Reactor Analysis Dept.
2017-11-15
The best-estimate KARATE code system has been widely used for core design calculations and simulations of slow transients of VVER reactors. Recently there has been an increasing need for assessing the uncertainties of such calculations by propagating the basic input uncertainties of the models through the full calculation chain. In order to determine the uncertainties of quantities of interest during the burnup, the statistical version of the KARATE code system has been elaborated. In the first part of the paper, the main features of the new code system are discussed. The applied statistical method is based on Monte-Carlo sampling of the considered input data taking into account mainly the covariance matrices of the cross sections and/or the technological uncertainties. In the second part of the paper, only the uncertainties of cross sections are considered and an equilibrium cycle related to a VVER-440 type reactor is investigated. The burnup dependence of the uncertainties of some safety related parameters (e.g. critical boron concentration, rod worth, feedback coefficients, assembly-wise radial power and burnup distribution) are discussed and compared to the recently used limits.
Uncertainties in relation to CO2 capture and sequestration. Preliminary results. Working Paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gielen, D.
2003-03-01
This paper has been presented at an expert meeting on CO2 capture technology learning at the IEA headquarters, January 24th, 2003. The electricity sector is a key source of CO2 emissions and a strong increase of emissions is forecast in a business-as-usual scenario. A range of strategies have been proposed to reduce these emissions. This paper focuses on one of the promising strategies, CO2 capture and storage. The future role of CO2 capture in the electricity sector has been assessed, using the Energy Technology Perspectives model (ETP). Technology data have been collected and reviewed in cooperation with the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D implementing agreement and other expert groups. CO2 capture and sequestration is based on relatively new technology. Therefore, its characteristics and its future role in the energy system is subject to uncertainties, as for any new technology. The analysis suggests that the choice of a reference electricity production technology and the characteristics of the CO2 storage option constitute the two main uncertainties, apart from a large number of other factors of lesser importance. Based on the choices made cost estimates can range from less than zero USD for coal fired power plants to more than 150 USD per ton of CO2 for gas fired power plants. The results suggest that learning effects are important, but they do not affect the CO2 capture costs significantly, other uncertainties dominate the cost estimates. The ETP model analysis, where choices are based on the ideal market hypothesis and rational price based decision making, suggest up to 18% of total global electricity production will be equipped with CO2 capture by 2040, in case of a penalty of 50 US$ per ton of CO2. However this high penetration is only achieved in case coal fired IGCC-SOFC power plants are developed successfully. Without such technology only a limited amount of CO2 is captured from gas fired power plants. Higher penalties may result in a higher share of CO2
Uncertainty Forecasts Improve Weather-Related Decisions and Attenuate the Effects of Forecast Error
Joslyn, Susan L.; LeClerc, Jared E.
2012-01-01
Although uncertainty is inherent in weather forecasts, explicit numeric uncertainty estimates are rarely included in public forecasts for fear that they will be misunderstood. Of particular concern are situations in which precautionary action is required at low probabilities, often the case with severe events. At present, a categorical weather…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsberg, P.T.
1990-01-01
This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)
Shen, Mingxi; Chen, Jie; Zhuan, Meijia; Chen, Hua; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xiong, Lihua
2018-01-01
Uncertainty estimation of climate change impacts on hydrology has received much attention in the research community. The choice of a global climate model (GCM) is usually considered as the largest contributor to the uncertainty of climate change impacts. The temporal variation of GCM uncertainty needs to be investigated for making long-term decisions to deal with climate change. Accordingly, this study investigated the temporal variation (mainly long-term) of uncertainty related to the choice of a GCM in predicting climate change impacts on hydrology by using multi-GCMs over multiple continuous future periods. Specifically, twenty CMIP5 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios were adapted to adequately represent this uncertainty envelope, fifty-one 30-year future periods moving from 2021 to 2100 with 1-year interval were produced to express the temporal variation. Future climatic and hydrological regimes over all future periods were compared to those in the reference period (1971-2000) using a set of metrics, including mean and extremes. The periodicity of climatic and hydrological changes and their uncertainty were analyzed using wavelet analysis, while the trend was analyzed using Mann-Kendall trend test and regression analysis. The results showed that both future climate change (precipitation and temperature) and hydrological response predicted by the twenty GCMs were highly uncertain, and the uncertainty increased significantly over time. For example, the change of mean annual precipitation increased from 1.4% in 2021-2050 to 6.5% in 2071-2100 for RCP4.5 in terms of the median value of multi-models, but the projected uncertainty reached 21.7% in 2021-2050 and 25.1% in 2071-2100 for RCP4.5. The uncertainty under a high emission scenario (RCP8.5) was much larger than that under a relatively low emission scenario (RCP4.5). Almost all climatic and hydrological regimes and their uncertainty did not show significant periodicity at the P = .05 significance
Carcioppolo, Nick; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qinghua
2016-09-01
Uncertainty is a central characteristic of many aspects of cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Brashers's (2001) uncertainty management theory details the multifaceted nature of uncertainty and describes situations in which uncertainty can both positively and negatively affect health outcomes. The current study extends theory on uncertainty management by developing four scale measures of uncertainty preferences in the context of cancer. Two national surveys were conducted to validate the scales and assess convergent and concurrent validity. Results support the factor structure of each measure and provide general support across multiple validity assessments. These scales can advance research on uncertainty and cancer communication by providing researchers with measures that address multiple aspects of uncertainty management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BENNO BELKE
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Recently, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004 have proposed a model of aesthetic experience in which stylistic processing is central for aesthetic experiences of art. Here we present an empirical study which investigates predictions derived from the model. Using modern and contemporary abstract paintings we investigated how their appreciation is affected by style information generalized onto new exemplars of paintings by the same artists. In accordance with the model’s predictions, effects of style processing depend on the affective states of the viewers as well as their ability for cognitive mastery, measured by amount of expertise. The experiment reveals that the examination of style-related cognitive processes is important to psychologically understand the affective, cognitive and presumably self-rewarding aspects of aesthetic experiences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijk, Eduard van; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Damen, Patricia M. G.
2004-01-01
Different methods exist to determine the air kerma calibration factor of an ionization chamber for the spectrum of a 192 Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) or pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) source. An analysis of two methods to obtain such a calibration factor was performed: (i) the method recommended by [Goetsch et al., Med. Phys. 18, 462-467 (1991)] and (ii) the method employed by the Dutch national standards institute NMi [Petersen et al., Report S-EI-94.01 (NMi, Delft, The Netherlands, 1994)]. This analysis showed a systematic difference on the order of 1% in the determination of the strength of 192 Ir HDR and PDR sources depending on the method used for determining the air kerma calibration factor. The definitive significance of the difference between these methods can only be addressed after performing an accurate analysis of the associated uncertainties. For an NE 2561 (or equivalent) ionization chamber and an in-air jig, a typical uncertainty budget of 0.94% was found with the NMi method. The largest contribution in the type-B uncertainty is the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factor for isotope i, N k i , as determined by the primary or secondary standards laboratories. This uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainties in the physical constants for the average mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio and the stopping power ratios. This means that it is not foreseeable that the standards laboratories can decrease the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factors for ionization chambers in the short term. When the results of the determination of the 192 Ir reference air kerma rates in, e.g., different institutes are compared, the uncertainties in the physical constants are the same. To compare the applied techniques, the ratio of the results can be judged by leaving out the uncertainties due to these physical constants. In that case an uncertainty budget of 0.40% (coverage factor=2) should be taken into account. Due to the differences in approach between the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Watanabe; Masahito Ueda
2012-01-01
Full text: When we try to obtain information about a quantum system, we need to perform measurement on the system. The measurement process causes unavoidable state change. Heisenberg discussed a thought experiment of the position measurement of a particle by using a gamma-ray microscope, and found a trade-off relation between the error of the measured position and the disturbance in the momentum caused by the measurement process. The trade-off relation epitomizes the complementarity in quantum measurements: we cannot perform a measurement of an observable without causing disturbance in its canonically conjugate observable. However, at the time Heisenberg found the complementarity, quantum measurement theory was not established yet, and Kennard and Robertson's inequality erroneously interpreted as a mathematical formulation of the complementarity. Kennard and Robertson's inequality actually implies the indeterminacy of the quantum state: non-commuting observables cannot have definite values simultaneously. However, Kennard and Robertson's inequality reflects the inherent nature of a quantum state alone, and does not concern any trade-off relation between the error and disturbance in the measurement process. In this talk, we report a resolution to the complementarity in quantum measurements. First, we find that it is necessary to involve the estimation process from the outcome of the measurement for quantifying the error and disturbance in the quantum measurement. We clarify the implicitly involved estimation process in Heisenberg's gamma-ray microscope and other measurement schemes, and formulate the error and disturbance for an arbitrary quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory. The error and disturbance are defined in terms of the Fisher information, which gives the upper bound of the accuracy of the estimation. Second, we obtain uncertainty relations between the measurement errors of two observables [1], and between the error and disturbance in the
Mazziotti, David A.; Erdahl, Robert M.
2001-04-01
For the description of ground-state correlation phenomena an accurate mapping of many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles is developed. The energy for a quantum system with no more than two-particle interactions may be expressed in terms of a two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM), but variational optimization of the 2-RDM requires that it corresponds to an N-particle wave function. We derive N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM that guarantee the validity of the uncertainty relations for all operators with two-particle interactions. One of these conditions is shown to be necessary and sufficient to make the RDM solutions of the dispersion condition equivalent to those from the contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE) [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4219 (1998)]. In general, the CSE is a stronger N-representability condition than the dispersion condition because the CSE implies the dispersion condition as well as additional N-representability constraints from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Energy minimization subject to the representability constraints is performed for a boson model with 10, 30, and 75 particles. Even when traditional wave-function methods fail at large perturbations, the present method yields correlation energies within 2%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amitabh, J.; Vaccaro, J.A.; Hill, K.E.
1998-01-01
We study the recently defined number-phase Wigner function S NP (n,θ) for a single-mode field considered to be in binomial and negative binomial states. These states interpolate between Fock and coherent states and coherent and quasi thermal states, respectively, and thus provide a set of states with properties ranging from uncertain phase and sharp photon number to sharp phase and uncertain photon number. The distribution function S NP (n,θ) gives a graphical representation of the complimentary nature of the number and phase properties of these states. We highlight important differences between Wigner's quasi probability function, which is associated with the position and momentum observables, and S NP (n,θ), which is associated directly with the photon number and phase observables. We also discuss the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation for the binomial and negative binomial states and we show that negative binomial states give a lower phase entropy than states which minimize the phase variance
DeWeber, Jefferson T.; Wagner, Tyler
2018-01-01
Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30‐day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species’ distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold‐water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid‐century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation
DeWeber, Jefferson T; Wagner, Tyler
2018-06-01
Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30-day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species' distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold-water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid-century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation actions. Our
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri
2004-01-01
anthropogenic pressures and international shared water. Here are the 320 abstracts proposed by authors and accepted by the Scientific Committee. More than 200 papers are presented during the Conference on 8 topics related to Hydrology, Climatology and Hydro biology: - Climate and Environment; - Hydrological regimes and water balances; - Droughts and Floods; -Integrated Water Resources Management; -Water bodies Protection and Eco hydrology; -Lakes; -Information Systems for decision support; -Hydrological modelling. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Caputo, Andrea
2015-01-01
Euthanasia has received increasing attention in both academic and public debates as one of the most controversial issues. However, the contribution of psychology-related themes to the topic has had little role on these ongoing debates. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main themes relating to euthanasia as provided by psychology-related research; (2) to analyze the temporal trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia over the last decades. A comprehensive search of academic literature was conducted on PsychINFO database. A qualitative software-based thematic analysis was carried out on 602 journal abstracts published from 1935 to 2014. This study highlighted four different thematic areas which characterized the scientific discourse on euthanasia: (1) moral values, in terms of religious, philosophical, and social implications concerning the individual's decision to die; (2) professional ethics, in terms of health and social workers' legal responsibility in death assistance; (3) end-of-life care, with regard to medical options provided to support individuals nearing death; and (4) patient's right to healthcare, in terms of access to palliative care and better quality of dying. Euthanasia discourse over the last decades seems to be overall characterized by two main dimensions: (1) the increasing trend of social legitimacy and acceptability of euthanasia over time, which moved from ethical to healthcare issues; and (2) the curvilinear temporal trend about the request/provision process in euthanasia, which moved from patient's decision for ending life (mainly characterizing the most past and recent research) to the role of health professionals (with a peak in the 1990s). The results suggest palliative care as a potential future research area which can provide healthcare providers with skills to 'connect' with patients, understand patients' hidden agendas, and grant a good quality of life and dying process.
Garrett, Paul B
2007-01-01
Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal
Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia
1996-01-01
It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of non-degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations in this process are also presented.
Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L
2012-04-24
Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area.
Assessment the impact of samplers change on the uncertainty related to geothermalwater sampling
Wątor, Katarzyna; Mika, Anna; Sekuła, Klaudia; Kmiecik, Ewa
2018-02-01
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of samplers change on the uncertainty associated with the process of the geothermal water sampling. The study was carried out on geothermal water exploited in Podhale region, southern Poland (Małopolska province). To estimate the uncertainty associated with sampling the results of determinations of metasilicic acid (H2SiO3) in normal and duplicate samples collected in two series were used (in each series the samples were collected by qualified sampler). Chemical analyses were performed using ICP-OES method in the certified Hydrogeochemical Laboratory of the Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Department at the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow (Certificate of Polish Centre for Accreditation No. AB 1050). To evaluate the uncertainty arising from sampling the empirical approach was implemented, based on double analysis of normal and duplicate samples taken from the same well in the series of testing. The analyses of the results were done using ROBAN software based on technique of robust statistics analysis of variance (rANOVA). Conducted research proved that in the case of qualified and experienced samplers uncertainty connected with the sampling can be reduced what results in small measurement uncertainty.
Ando, Amy W.; Mallory, Mindy L.
2012-01-01
Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit–cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change–induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914
Casola, J. H.; Huber, D.
2013-12-01
Many media, academic, government, and advocacy organizations have achieved sophistication in developing effective messages based on scientific information, and can quickly translate salient aspects of emerging climate research and evolving observations. However, there are several ways in which valid messages can be misconstrued by decision makers, leading them to inaccurate conclusions about the risks associated with climate impacts. Three cases will be discussed: 1) Issues of spatial scale in interpreting climate observations: Local climate observations may contradict summary statements about the effects of climate change on larger regional or global spatial scales. Effectively addressing these differences often requires communicators to understand local and regional climate drivers, and the distinction between a 'signal' associated with climate change and local climate 'noise.' Hydrological statistics in Missouri and California are shown to illustrate this case. 2) Issues of complexity related to extreme events: Climate change is typically invoked following a wide range of damaging meteorological events (e.g., heat waves, landfalling hurricanes, tornadoes), regardless of the strength of the relationship between anthropogenic climate change and the frequency or severity of that type of event. Examples are drawn from media coverage of several recent events, contrasting useful and potentially confusing word choices and frames. 3) Issues revolving around climate sensitivity: The so-called 'pause' or 'hiatus' in global warming has reverberated strongly through political and business discussions of climate change. Addressing the recent slowdown in warming yields an important opportunity to raise climate literacy in these communities. Attempts to use recent observations as a wedge between climate 'believers' and 'deniers' is likely to be counterproductive. Examples are drawn from Congressional testimony and media stories. All three cases illustrate ways that decision
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.
Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki
2011-11-21
We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.
MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M
2012-12-01
This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.
The Evolution of Classroom Physics Knowledge in Relation to Certainty and Uncertainty
Tiberghien, Andrée; Cross, David; Sensevy, Gérard
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the joint construction of knowledge by the teacher and the students in a physics classroom. It is focused on the status of epistemic certainty/uncertainty of knowledge. The same element of knowledge can be introduced as possible and thus uncertain and then evolve towards a status of epistemic certainty; the status of other…
Canosa, Daniela; Ferrero, Fernando; Melamud, Ariel; Otero, Paula D; Merech, Raúl S; Ceriani Cernadas, José M
2011-02-01
There is no information about non publication of research presented at scientific meetings in Argentina. We analyzed the full-text publication rate of abstracts presented at the 33° Argentinean Pediatric Congress (APC), time to achieve publication, and factors associated with publication or non-publication. Survey-based cross-sectional study, including authors of abstracts presented at the 33° APC. The survey included age, gender, specialty and sub-specialty, professional area and reason of publication or non-publication. We randomly selected 140/894 presented abstracts. Only 16 abstracts (11.4%) were subsequently published in full, requiring 27±15 months. There were no association between full-text publication and author's characteristics. "Oral presentations" were more likely to be subsequently published (p= 0.018). In non published abstracts, 95% were not submitted by the author, more frequently because of "lack of time" (35.9%). Only 11.4% of abstracts were subsequently published in full. Oral presentation was associated with a higher publication rate. Most frequent cause for non-publication was non submission due to lack of time.
Regeneration decisions in forestry under climate change related uncertainties and risks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schou, Erik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl
2015-01-01
) assigned to each outcome. Results show that the later a forest manager expects to obtain certainty about climate change or the more skewed their belief distribution, the more will decisions be based on ex ante assessments — suggesting that if forest managers believe that climate change uncertainty......Future climate development and its effects on forest ecosystems are not easily predicted or described in terms of standard probability concepts. Nevertheless, forest managers continuously make long-term decisions that will be subject to climate change impacts. The manager's assessment of possible...... to generate a set of alternative outcomes, investigating effects on decision making of three aspects of uncertainty: (i) the perceived time horizon before there will be certainty on outcome, (ii) the spread of impacts across the set of alternative outcomes, and (iii) the subjective probability (belief...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Ohoka, Masao; Kameya, Hiroshi
2009-11-01
In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is important to develop a methodology for long-term estimation of regional groundwater flow from data acquisition to numerical analyses. In the uncertainties associated with estimation of regional groundwater flow, there are the one that concerns parameters and the one that concerns the hydrologeological evolution. The uncertainties of parameters include measurement errors and their heterogeneity. The authors discussed the uncertainties of hydraulic conductivity as a significant parameter for regional groundwater flow analysis. This study suggests that hydraulic conductivities of rock mass are controlled by rock characteristics such as fractures, porosity and test conditions such as hydraulic gradient, water quality, water temperature and that there exists variations more than ten times in hydraulic conductivity by difference due to test conditions such as hydraulic gradient or due to rock type variations such as rock fractures, porosity. In addition this study demonstrated that confining pressure change caused by uplift and subsidence and change of hydraulic gradient under the long-term evolution of hydrogeological environment could possibly produce variations more than ten times of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity. It was also shown that the effect of water quality change on hydraulic conductivity was not negligible and that the replacement of fresh water and saline water caused by sea level change could induce 0.6 times in current hydraulic conductivities in case of Horonobe site. (author)
Novak, Gordon S., Jr.
GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…
Uncertainty in the area-related QPF for heavy convective precipitation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Řezáčová, Daniela; Zacharov, Petr, jr.; Sokol, Zbyněk
2009-01-01
Roč. 93, 1-3 (2009), s. 238-246 ISSN 0169-8095. [European Conference on Severe Storms /4./. Miramare -Trieste, 10.09.2007-14.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk OC 112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Convective storm * Quantitative precipitation forecast * Uncertainty in precipitation forecasting * Ensemble forecasting * Numerical weather prediction model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01698095
High-voltage measurements on the 5 ppm relative uncertainty level with collinear laser spectroscopy
Krämer, J.; König, K.; Geppert, Ch; Imgram, P.; Maaß, B.; Meisner, J.; Otten, E. W.; Passon, S.; Ratajczyk, T.; Ullmann, J.; Nörtershäuser, W.
2018-04-01
We present the results of high-voltage collinear laser spectroscopy measurements on the 5 ppm relative uncertainty level using a pump and probe scheme at the 4s ^2S1/2 → 4p ^2P3/2 transition of {\\hspace{0pt}}40Ca+ involving the 3d ^2D5/2 metastable state. With two-stage laser interaction and a reference measurement we can eliminate systematic effects such as differences in the contact potentials due to different electrode materials and thermoelectric voltages, and the unknown starting potential of the ions in the ion source. Voltage measurements were performed between -5 kV and -19 kV and parallel measurements with stable high-voltage dividers calibrated to 5 ppm relative uncertainty were used as a reference. Our measurements are compatible with the uncertainty limits of the high-voltage dividers and demonstrate an unprecedented (factor of 20) increase in the precision of direct laser-based high-voltage measurements.
New entropic uncertainty relations and tests of PMD-SQS-optimal limits in pion-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.
2002-01-01
In this paper we define a new kind of quantum entropy, namely, the nonextensivity conjugated entropy S Jθ (p,q) bar.Then we prove the optimal nonextensivity conjugated entropic uncertainty relations (ONC-EUR) as well as optimal nonextensivity conjugated entropic uncertainty bands (ONC E UB). The results of the first experimental test of ONC-EUB in the pion-nucleus scattering, obtained by using 49-sets of experimental phase shift analysis, are presented. So, strong evidences for the saturation of the PMD-SQS-optimum limit are obtained with high accuracy (confidence level > 99%) for the nonextensivities: 1/2 ≤ p ≤ 2/3 and q = p/(2p-1). (authors)
Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.
1990-02-01
The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.
Radon contents in groundwater and the uncertainty related to risk assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukui, Masami [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
1997-02-01
The United States has proposed 11 Bq/l (300 pCi/l) as the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of radon. Japan has not set up the standards for drinking water. The problems about evaluation of effects of radon on organism and MCLs of radon in groundwater and drinking water in 12 countries were reported. The local area content the high concentrations of radon, but generally it`s low levels were observed in Nigeria, China and Mexico. The countries which content high concentration of radon were Greek, Slovakia, Bornholm Island and Scotland. There are high and low concentration area in US and Japan. I proposed an uncertainty scheme on risk assessment for the exposure by radon. (S.Y.)
Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney
2014-11-01
Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mélanie Trudel
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Low-flow is the flow of water in a river during prolonged dry weather. This paper investigated the uncertainty originating from hydrological model calibration and structure in low-flow simulations under climate change conditions. Two hydrological models of contrasting complexity, GR4J and SWAT, were applied to four sub-watersheds of the Yamaska River, Canada. The two models were calibrated using seven different objective functions including the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSEQ and six other objective functions more related to low flows. The uncertainty in the model parameters was evaluated using a PARAmeter SOLutions procedure (PARASOL. Twelve climate projections from different combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs and Regional Circulation Models (RCMs were used to simulate low-flow indices in a reference (1970–2000 and future (2040–2070 horizon. Results indicate that the NSEQ objective function does not properly represent low-flow indices for either model. The NSE objective function applied to the log of the flows shows the lowest total variance for all sub-watersheds. In addition, these hydrological models should be used with care for low-flow studies, since they both show some inconsistent results. The uncertainty is higher for SWAT than for GR4J. With GR4J, the uncertainties in the simulations for the 7Q2 index (the 7-day low-flow value with a 2-year return period are lower for the future period than for the reference period. This can be explained by the analysis of hydrological processes. In the future horizon, a significant worsening of low-flow conditions was projected.
Duffy, P.; Keller, M. M.; Morton, D. C.
2016-12-01
Carbon accounting for REDD+ requires knowledge of deforestation, degradation, and associated changes in forest carbon stocks. Degradation is more difficult to detect than deforestation so SilvaCarbon, an US inter-agency effort, has set a priority to better characterize forest degradation effects on carbon loss. By combining information from forest inventory and lidar data products, impacts of deforestation, degradation, and associated changes in forest carbon stocks can be more accurately characterized across space. Our approach employs a hierarchical Bayesian modeling (HBM) framework where the assimilation of information from multiple sources is accomplished using a change of support (COS) technique. The COS formulation allows data from multiple spatial resolutions to be assimilated into an intermediate resolution. This approach is being applied in Paragominas, a jurisdiction in the eastern Brazilian Amazon with a high proportion of logged and burned degraded forests where political change has opened the way for REDD+. We build on a long history of research including our extensive studies of logging damage. Our primary objective is to quantify above-ground carbon stocks and corresponding uncertainty in a spatially explicit manner. A secondary objective is to quantify the relative contribution of lower level data products to the overall uncertainty, allowing for more focused subsequent data collection in the context of uncertainty reduction. This approach provides a mechanism to assimilate information from multiple sources to produce spatially-explicit maps of carbon stocks and changes with corresponding spatially explicit maps of uncertainty. Importantly, this approach also provides a mechanism that can be used to assess the value of information from specific data products.
Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan
1997-01-01
PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Torgersen, Mads
This thesis presents the RUNE language, a semantic construction of related and tightly coupled programming constructs presented in the shape of a programming language. The major contribution is the succesfull design of a highly unified and general programming model, capable of expressing some of ...... a unified name declaration mechanism. The resulting expressiveness allows for argument covariance, dependent types and module types, plus a solution to the so-called expression problem of two way extensibility in object-oriented languages....... of the most complex type relations put forth in type systems research, without compromising such fundamental qualities as conceptuality, modularity and static typing. While many new constructs and unifications are put forth to substantiate their conceptual validity, type rules are given to support...
Roberson, Quinetta M; Stevens, Cynthia Kay
2006-03-01
To discern patterns of employee sense-making about workplace diversity, the authors analyzed 751 natural language accounts of diversity incidents from 712 workers in one department of a large organization. Six generic incident types emerged: discrimination, representation, treatment by management, work relationships, respect between groups, and diversity climates. Consistent with hypotheses, incidents that respondents viewed as negative, accounts from women, and those involving members of respondents' in-groups were more likely to cite justice issues. Partially consistent with research on the linguistic intergroup bias, both negative and positive accounts involving out-group members and accounts from men were more likely to be expressed using abstract verb forms. The authors discuss future opportunities to integrate research on diversity, justice, and the linguistic category model.
Sanchez-Vila, X.; de Barros, F.; Bolster, D.; Nowak, W.
2010-12-01
Assessing the potential risk of hydro(geo)logical supply systems to human population is an interdisciplinary field. It relies on the expertise in fields as distant as hydrogeology, medicine, or anthropology, and needs powerful translation concepts to provide decision support and policy making. Reliable health risk estimates need to account for the uncertainties in hydrological, physiological and human behavioral parameters. We propose the use of fault trees to address the task of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and to support related management decisions. Fault trees allow decomposing the assessment of health risk into individual manageable modules, thus tackling a complex system by a structural “Divide and Conquer” approach. The complexity within each module can be chosen individually according to data availability, parsimony, relative importance and stage of analysis. The separation in modules allows for a true inter- and multi-disciplinary approach. This presentation highlights the three novel features of our work: (1) we define failure in terms of risk being above a threshold value, whereas previous studies used auxiliary events such as exceedance of critical concentration levels, (2) we plot an integrated fault tree that handles uncertainty in both hydrological and health components in a unified way, and (3) we introduce a new form of stochastic fault tree that allows to weaken the assumption of independent subsystems that is required by a classical fault tree approach. We illustrate our concept in a simple groundwater-related setting.
Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer
2013-01-01
the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
Reflection on Some Issues Regarding the System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Zhang Xingmao The establishment of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, as the symbol of China＇s entry into the socialist society with Chinese characteristics, is the significant development of Marist theory of social formation. The Chinese model is framed and defined by the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, therefore the study of different levels and aspects of the Chinese model should be related to the relevant Chinese system to guarantee a scientific interpretation. Under the fundamental system of socialism, the historical and logical starting point of the formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics lies in eliminating the private ownership first and then allowing the existence and rapid development of the non-public sectors of the economy. With the gradual establishment and on the basis of the basic economic system in the preliminary stage of Socialism, and with the adaptive adjustments in the economic, political, cultural, and social systems, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics is gradually formed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Hong-Mei; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yang, Bai-Yuan; Guo, You-Neng; He, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yang
2014-01-01
The quantum entropic uncertainty relation and entanglement witness in the two-atom system coupling with the non-Markovian environments are studied using the time-convolutionless master-equation approach. The influence of the non-Markovian effect and detuning on the lower bound of the quantum entropic uncertainty relation and entanglement witness is discussed in detail. The results show that, only if the two non-Markovian reservoirs are identical, increasing detuning and non-Markovian effect can reduce the lower bound of the entropic uncertainty relation, lengthen the time region during which the entanglement can be witnessed, and effectively protect the entanglement region witnessed by the lower bound of the entropic uncertainty relation. The results can be applied in quantum measurement, quantum cryptography tasks and quantum information processing. (paper)
Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.
Corkill, Alice J.; And Others
1988-01-01
Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kleist David
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI, which was signed in June 2017, raises a multitude of questions relating not only to the text of the treaty provisions but also to the way the MLI will interact with tax treaties, for instance, and what it will mean for the future development of tax treaty law and international cooperation in tax matters. This article focuses on two aspects of the MLI. First, it deals with the substance of the MLI by providing an overview of its background and content, including the many options available to the contracting states under the MLI. Second, some thoughts are presented on the effects of the MLI in terms of complexity and uncertainty.
The uncertainties in estimating measurement uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, J.P.; Shull, A.H.
1994-01-01
All measurements include some error. Whether measurements are used for accountability, environmental programs or process support, they are of little value unless accompanied by an estimate of the measurements uncertainty. This fact is often overlooked by the individuals who need measurements to make decisions. This paper will discuss the concepts of measurement, measurements errors (accuracy or bias and precision or random error), physical and error models, measurement control programs, examples of measurement uncertainty, and uncertainty as related to measurement quality. Measurements are comparisons of unknowns to knowns, estimates of some true value plus uncertainty; and are no better than the standards to which they are compared. Direct comparisons of unknowns that match the composition of known standards will normally have small uncertainties. In the real world, measurements usually involve indirect comparisons of significantly different materials (e.g., measuring a physical property of a chemical element in a sample having a matrix that is significantly different from calibration standards matrix). Consequently, there are many sources of error involved in measurement processes that can affect the quality of a measurement and its associated uncertainty. How the uncertainty estimates are determined and what they mean is as important as the measurement. The process of calculating the uncertainty of a measurement itself has uncertainties that must be handled correctly. Examples of chemistry laboratory measurement will be reviewed in this report and recommendations made for improving measurement uncertainties
Uncertainties in downscaled relative humidity for a semi-arid region ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
variables are extracted from the (1) National Centers for Environmental Prediction ... and (2) simulations of the third generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate ... Ef, MAE and P. Cumulative distribution functions were prepared from the ... Climate change; downscaling; hydroclimatology; relative humidity; multi-step linear ...
Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel
2017-09-01
Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
The materials of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (June 26-29, 2017, Yekaterinburg) are presented. The forum was organized by the IAEA with the assistance of Rosatom State Corporation. The theme of the conference: “The New Generation of Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development”. About 700 specialists from more than 30 countries took part in the conference. The state and prospects for the development of the direction of fast reactors in countries dealing with this topic were discussed. A wide range of scientific issues covered the concepts of prospective reactors, reactor cores, fuel and fuel cycles, operation and decommissioning, safety, licensing, structural materials, industrial implementation [ru
Lee, Fu-Jung; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Peng, Shih-Yen; Fan, Kuo-Tung
2007-09-01
Many anesthesiologists in medical centers (MC) or in anesthesiologist-training hospitals (ATH) are accustomed to present their research data in the form of poster abstracts at the annual meetings of Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists (TSA) to represent their academic gainings in a designated period of time. However, an orphaned P value without mentioning the related specified statistical test has frequently been found in these articles. The difference in presentation of statistical test after P value between MC/ATH and non-MC/non-ATH in recent three TSA consecutive annual meetings was explored in this article. We collected the proceedings handbooks of TSA annual meetings in a period spanning 3 yrs (2003 to 2005) and analyzed the hospital characteristic of first institute-byliner in the poster abstract. Data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and statistical significance was assumed if P poster abstracts with byliners of 20 hospitals. Only 2 of the 20 hospitals were accredited as non-ATH and 4 as non-MC. There were 64 (63%) abstracts without specified statistical test after P value and no significant difference was found among each category. (P = 0.47 in ATH vs. non-ATH and P = 0.07 in MC vs. non-MC). The basic concept of P value with specified statistical test was not applicable comprehensively in poster abstracts of the annual conferences. Based on our wishful intention, we suggest that the anesthesia administrators and senior anesthesiologists at ATH or MC, and the members of the committee responsible for running academic affairs in TSA, should pay attention to this prodigy and work together to improve our basic statistics in poster presentation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Federation, Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation)
2012-12-15
Any key-generation session contains a finite number of quantum-state messages, and it is there-fore important to understand the fundamental restrictions imposed on the minimal length of a string required to obtain a secret key with a specified length. The entropy uncertainty relations for smooth min and max entropies considerably simplify and shorten the proof of security. A proof of security of quantum key distribution with phase-temporal encryption is presented. This protocol provides the maximum critical error compared to other protocols up to which secure key distribution is guaranteed. In addition, unlike other basic protocols (of the BB84 type), which are vulnerable with respect to an attack by 'blinding' of avalanche photodetectors, this protocol is stable with respect to such an attack and guarantees key security.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molotkov, S. N.
2012-01-01
Any key-generation session contains a finite number of quantum-state messages, and it is there-fore important to understand the fundamental restrictions imposed on the minimal length of a string required to obtain a secret key with a specified length. The entropy uncertainty relations for smooth min and max entropies considerably simplify and shorten the proof of security. A proof of security of quantum key distribution with phase-temporal encryption is presented. This protocol provides the maximum critical error compared to other protocols up to which secure key distribution is guaranteed. In addition, unlike other basic protocols (of the BB84 type), which are vulnerable with respect to an attack by “blinding” of avalanche photodetectors, this protocol is stable with respect to such an attack and guarantees key security.
Chen, Xing; Zhang, Xing
2016-01-01
Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization's adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization's intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization's intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization's adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization’s adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization’s intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization’s intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization’s adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo Bianco, A.S.; Oliveira, H.P.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.
2009-01-01
To implant the primary standard of the magnitude kerma in the air for X-ray between 10 - 50 keV, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) must evaluate all the uncertainties of measurement related with Victtoren chamber. So, it was evaluated the uncertainty of the kerma in the air consequent of the inaccuracy in the active volume of the chamber using the calculation of Monte Carlo as a tool through the Penelope software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontenot, Jonas D; Bloch, Charles; Followill, David; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D
2010-01-01
Theoretical calculations have shown that proton therapy can reduce the incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN) compared with photon therapy for patients with prostate cancer. However, the uncertainties associated with calculations of SMN risk had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to quantify the uncertainties in projected risks of secondary cancer following contemporary proton and photon radiotherapies for prostate cancer. We performed a rigorous propagation of errors and several sensitivity tests to estimate the uncertainty in the ratio of relative risk (RRR) due to the largest contributors to the uncertainty: the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the dose-response model for radiation carcinogenesis and interpatient variations in absorbed dose. The interval of values for the radiation weighting factor for neutrons and the dose-response model were derived from the literature, while interpatient variations in absorbed dose were taken from actual patient data. The influence of each parameter on a baseline RRR value was quantified. Our analysis revealed that the calculated RRR was insensitive to the largest contributors to the uncertainty. Uncertainties in the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the shape of the dose-risk model and interpatient variations in therapeutic and stray doses introduced a total uncertainty of 33% to the baseline RRR calculation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hukkerikar, Amol; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent
2012-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop group-3 contribution+ (GC+)method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI)) based 15 property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncertainties of estimated...... property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is used. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of property models and an uncertainty analysis step to establish statistical information about the quality......, poly functional chemicals, etc.) taken from the database of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and from the database of USEtox is used. For property modeling and uncertainty analysis, the Marrero and Gani GC method and atom connectivity index method have been considered. In total, 22...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, R.E.
1982-03-01
An evaluation is made of the suitability of analytical and statistical sampling methods for making uncertainty analyses. The adjoint method is found to be well-suited for obtaining sensitivity coefficients for computer programs involving large numbers of equations and input parameters. For this purpose the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is found to be inferior to conventional experimental designs. The Latin hypercube method can be used to estimate output probability density functions, but requires supplementary rank transformations followed by stepwise regression to obtain uncertainty information on individual input parameters. A simple Cork and Bottle problem is used to illustrate the efficiency of the adjoint method relative to certain statistical sampling methods. For linear models of the form Ax=b it is shown that a complete adjoint sensitivity analysis can be made without formulating and solving the adjoint problem. This can be done either by using a special type of statistical sampling or by reformulating the primal problem and using suitable linear programming software
Lindley, Dennis V
2013-01-01
Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.
Yang, Ming; Zhu, X. Ronald; Park, Peter C.; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E.; Dong, Lei
2012-07-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Hashimi, M.H.; Wiese, U.-J.
2012-01-01
We consider a 1-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian for a particle confined to a finite interval with perfectly reflecting boundary conditions. In some cases, one obtains negative energy states which seem to violate the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. We use this as a motivation to derive a generalized uncertainty relation valid for an arbitrarily shaped quantum dot with general perfectly reflecting walls in d dimensions. In addition, a general uncertainty relation for non-Hermitian operators is derived and applied to the non-Hermitian momentum operator in a quantum dot. We also consider minimal uncertainty wave packets in this situation, and we prove that the spectrum depends monotonically on the self-adjoint extension parameter. In addition, we construct the most general boundary conditions for semiconductor heterostructures such as quantum dots, quantum wires, and quantum wells, which are characterized by a 4-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions. Finally, we consider perfectly reflecting boundary conditions for relativistic fermions confined to a finite volume or localized on a domain wall, which are characterized by a 1-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions in the (1+1)-d and (2+1)-d cases, and by a 4-parameter family in the (3+1)-d and (4+1)-d cases. - Highlights: ► Finite volume Heisenberg uncertainty relation. ► General self-adjoint extensions for relativistic fermions. ► New prospective for the problem of particle in a box.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Michael L.
2001-01-01
Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing
Conditional uncertainty principle
Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun
2018-04-01
We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.
Zhang, Zuo-Yuan; Wei, DaXiu; Liu, Jin-Ming
2018-06-01
The precision of measurements for two incompatible observables in a physical system can be improved with the assistance of quantum memory. In this paper, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation for a spin-1 Heisenberg model in the presence of external magnetic fields, the systemic quantum entanglement (characterized by the negativity) is analyzed as contrast. Our results show that for the XY spin chain in thermal equilibrium, the entropic uncertainty can be reduced by reinforcing the coupling between the two particles or decreasing the temperature of the environment. At zero-temperature, the strong magnetic field can result in the growth of the entropic uncertainty. Moreover, in the Ising case, the variation trends of the uncertainty are relied on the choices of anisotropic parameters. Taking the influence of intrinsic decoherence into account, we find that the strong coupling accelerates the inflation of the uncertainty over time, whereas the high magnetic field contributes to its reduction during the temporal evolution. Furthermore, we also verify that the evolution behavior of the entropic uncertainty is roughly anti-correlated with that of the entanglement in the whole dynamical process. Our results could offer new insights into quantum precision measurement for the high spin solid-state systems.
Seismic Consequence Abstraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, M.
2004-01-01
The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])
Seismic Consequence Abstraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Gross
2004-10-25
The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).
Gortais, Bernard
2003-07-29
In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haleigh A. Boswell
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, K.; Hishida, H.
1978-01-01
Probabilistic fuel pin gap distributions within a wire-spaced fuel subassembly and sensitivities of the related uncertainties to fuel pin gaps are discussed. The analyses consist mainly of expressing a local fuel pin gap in terms of sensitivity functions of the related uncertainties and calculating the corresponding probabilistic distribution through taking all the possible combinations of the distribution of uncertainties. The results of illustrative calculations show that with the reliability level of 0.9987, the maximum deviation of the pin gap at the cladding hot spot of a center fuel subassembly is 8.05% from its nominal value and the corresponding probabilistic pin gap distribution is shifted to the narrower side due to the external confinement of a pin bundle with a wrapper tube. (Auth.)
Koch, Michael
Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, M. Y.
2006-01-01
Full text: The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Laboratory of Egypt Second Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is increasingly requested to perform multi-element analysis to large number of samples from different origins. The INAA laboratory has to demonstrate competence by conforming to appropriate internationally and nationally accepted standards. The objective of this work is to determine the uncertainty budget and sensitivity of the INAA laboratory measurements. Concentrations of 9 elements; Mn, Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, and Cs, were measured against a certified test sample. Relative, absolute, and Ko-IAEA standardization methods were employed and results compared. The flux was monitored using cadmium covered gold method, and multifoil (gold, nickel and zirconium) method. The combined and expanded uncertainties were estimated. Uncertainty of concentrations ranged between 2-21% depending on the standardization method used. The relative method, giving the lowest uncertainty, produced uncertainty budget between 2 and 11%. The minimum detectable concentration was the lowest for Cs ranging between 0.36 and 0.59 ppb and the highest being for K in the range of 0.32 to 8.64 ppm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Woolson, William A.
2005-01-01
In order to avoid the pitfalls that so discredited DS86 and its uncertainty estimates, and to provide DS02 uncertainties that are both defensible and credible, this report not only presents the ensemble uncertainties assembled from uncertainties in individual computational elements and radiation dose components but also describes how these relate to comparisons between observed and computed quantities at critical intervals in the computational process. These comparisons include those between observed and calculated radiation free-field components, where observations include thermal- and fast-neutron activation and gamma-ray thermoluminescence, which are relevant to the estimated systematic uncertainty for DS02. The comparisons also include those between calculated and observed survivor shielding, where the observations consist of biodosimetric measurements for individual survivors, which are relevant to the estimated random uncertainty for DS02. (J.P.N.)
EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schreiner, R.
2001-01-01
The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other
Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts
CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro
2017-01-01
In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.
From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romi Mikulinsky
2016-11-01
Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
There are a number of sources of uncertainty in regional climate change scenarios. When statistical downscaling is used to obtain regional climate change scenarios, the uncertainty may originate from the uncertainties in the global climate models used, the skill of the statistical model, and the forcing scenarios applied to the global climate model. The uncertainty associated with global climate models can be evaluated by examining the differences in the predictors and in the downscaled climate change scenarios based on a set of different global climate models. When standardized global climate model simulations such as the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2) are used, the difference in the downscaled variables mainly reflects differences in the climate models and the natural variability in the simulated climates. It is proposed that the spread of the estimates can be taken as a measure of the uncertainty associated with global climate models. The proposed method is applied to the estimation of global-climate-model-related uncertainty in regional precipitation change scenarios in Sweden. Results from statistical downscaling based on 17 global climate models show that there is an overall increase in annual precipitation all over Sweden although a considerable spread of the changes in the precipitation exists. The general increase can be attributed to the increased large-scale precipitation and the enhanced westerly wind. The estimated uncertainty is nearly independent of region. However, there is a seasonal dependence. The estimates for winter show the highest level of confidence, while the estimates for summer show the least.
Uncertainty in hydrological signatures
McMillan, Hilary; Westerberg, Ida
2015-04-01
Information that summarises the hydrological behaviour or flow regime of a catchment is essential for comparing responses of different catchments to understand catchment organisation and similarity, and for many other modelling and water-management applications. Such information types derived as an index value from observed data are known as hydrological signatures, and can include descriptors of high flows (e.g. mean annual flood), low flows (e.g. mean annual low flow, recession shape), the flow variability, flow duration curve, and runoff ratio. Because the hydrological signatures are calculated from observed data such as rainfall and flow records, they are affected by uncertainty in those data. Subjective choices in the method used to calculate the signatures create a further source of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the signatures may affect our ability to compare different locations, to detect changes, or to compare future water resource management scenarios. The aim of this study was to contribute to the hydrological community's awareness and knowledge of data uncertainty in hydrological signatures, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We proposed a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrated it for a variety of commonly used signatures. The study was made for two data rich catchments, the 50 km2 Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand and the 135 km2 Brue catchment in the UK. For rainfall data the uncertainty sources included point measurement uncertainty, the number of gauges used in calculation of the catchment spatial average, and uncertainties relating to lack of quality control. For flow data the uncertainty sources included uncertainties in stage/discharge measurement and in the approximation of the true stage-discharge relation by a rating curve. The resulting uncertainties were compared across the different signatures and catchments, to quantify uncertainty
Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Bell, Thomas L.; Steiner, Matthias; Zhang, Yu; Wood, Eric F.
2002-01-01
The uncertainty of rainfall estimated from averages of discrete samples collected by a satellite is assessed using a multi-year radar data set covering a large portion of the United States. The sampling-related uncertainty of rainfall estimates is evaluated for all combinations of 100 km, 200 km, and 500 km space domains, 1 day, 5 day, and 30 day rainfall accumulations, and regular sampling time intervals of 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 8 h, and 12 h. These extensive analyses are combined to characterize the sampling uncertainty as a function of space and time domain, sampling frequency, and rainfall characteristics by means of a simple scaling law. Moreover, it is shown that both parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques of estimating the sampling uncertainty produce comparable results. Sampling uncertainty estimates, however, do depend on the choice of technique for obtaining them. They can also vary considerably from case to case, reflecting the great variability of natural rainfall, and should therefore be expressed in probabilistic terms. Rainfall calibration errors are shown to affect comparison of results obtained by studies based on data from different climate regions and/or observation platforms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1975-01-01
Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine
Goutzamanis, Stelliana; Doyle, Joseph S; Thompson, Alexander; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Higgs, Peter
2018-04-02
People who inject drugs (PWID) are most at risk of hepatitis C virus infection in Australia. The introduction of transient elastography (TE) (measuring hepatitis fibrosis) and direct acting antiviral medications will likely alter the experience of living with hepatitis C. We aimed to explore positive and negative influences on wellbeing and stress among PWID with hepatitis C. The Treatment and Prevention (TAP) study examines the feasibility of treating hepatitis C mono-infected PWID in community settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 purposively recruited TAP participants. Participants were aware of their hepatitis C seropositive status and had received fibrosis assessment (measured by TE) prior to interview. Questions were open-ended, focusing on the impact of health status on wellbeing and self-reported stress. Interviews were voice recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed, guided by Mishel's (1988) theory of Uncertainty in Illness. In line with Mishel's theory of Uncertainty in Illness all participants reported hepatitis C-related uncertainty, particularly mis-information or a lack of knowledge surrounding liver health and the meaning of TE results. Those with greater fibrosis experienced an extra layer of prognostic uncertainty. Experiences of uncertainty were a key motivation to seek treatment, which was seen as a way to regain some stability in life. Treatment completion alleviated hepatitis C-related stress, and promoted feelings of empowerment and confidence in addressing other life challenges. TE scores seemingly provide some certainty. However, when paired with limited knowledge, particularly among people with severe fibrosis, TE may be a source of uncertainty and increased personal stress. This suggests the need for simple education programs and resources on liver health to minimise stress.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species
Kulasiri, Don; Liang, Jingyi; He, Yao; Samarasinghe, Sandhya
2017-04-21
We investigate the epistemic uncertainties of parameters of a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses using global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The model, which was published in this journal, is nonlinear and complex with Ca 2+ patterns with different level of frequencies as inputs. We explore the effects of parameter on the key outputs of the model to discover the most sensitive ones using GSA and partial ranking correlation coefficient (PRCC) and to understand why they are sensitive and others are not based on the biology of the problem. We also extend the model to add presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles release to have action potentials as inputs of different frequencies. We perform GSA on this extended model to show that the parameter sensitivities are different for the extended model as shown by PRCC landscapes. Based on the results of GSA and PRCC, we reduce the original model to a less complex model taking the most important biological processes into account. We validate the reduced model against the outputs of the original model. We show that the parameter sensitivities are dependent on the inputs and GSA would make us understand the sensitivities and the importance of the parameters. A thorough phenomenological understanding of the relationships involved is essential to interpret the results of GSA and hence for the possible model reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J.T. Birkholzer
2004-01-01
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aven, Terje; Pedersen, Linda Martens
2014-01-01
Production assurance analyses of production systems are in practice typically carried out using flow network modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the network and probability distribution assumptions for equipment lifetime and restoration time, the simulation tool produces predictions/estimates and uncertainty distributions of the production availability, which is defined as the ratio of production to planned production, or any other reference level, over a specified period of time. To adequately communicate the results from the analyses, it is essential that there is in place a framework which clarifies how to understand the concepts introduced, including the uncertainty distributions produced. Some key elements of such a conceptual framework are well established in the industry, for example the use of probability models to represent the stochastic variation related to lifetimes and restoration times. However an overall framework linking this variation, as well as “model uncertainties”, to the epistemic uncertainty distribution for the output production availability, has been lacking. The purpose of the present paper is to present such a framework, and in this way provide new insights to and guidelines on how to understand and present the uncertainties in practical production assurance analyses. An example related to a subsea production system is used to illustrate the framework and the guidelines
Liu, Baoding
2015-01-01
When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...
Measurement uncertainty and probability
Willink, Robin
2013-01-01
A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.
Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent; Young, Douglas M; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul
2012-11-26
The aim of this work is to develop group-contribution(+) (GC(+)) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) based property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncertainties of estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is used. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of property models and an uncertainty analysis step to establish statistical information about the quality of parameter estimation, such as the parameter covariance, the standard errors in predicted properties, and the confidence intervals. For parameter estimation, large data sets of experimentally measured property values of a wide range of chemicals (hydrocarbons, oxygenated chemicals, nitrogenated chemicals, poly functional chemicals, etc.) taken from the database of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and from the database of USEtox is used. For property modeling and uncertainty analysis, the Marrero and Gani GC method and atom connectivity index method have been considered. In total, 22 environment-related properties, which include the fathead minnow 96-h LC(50), Daphnia magna 48-h LC(50), oral rat LD(50), aqueous solubility, bioconcentration factor, permissible exposure limit (OSHA-TWA), photochemical oxidation potential, global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, emission to urban air (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental rural air (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental fresh water (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental seawater (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental natural soil (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), and emission to continental agricultural soil (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) have been modeled and analyzed. The application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wedenberg, Minna, E-mail: minna.wedenberg@raysearchlabs.com
2013-11-15
Purpose: To apply a statistical bootstrap analysis to assess the uncertainty in the dose–response relation for the endpoints pneumonitis and myelopathy reported in the QUANTEC review. Methods and Materials: The bootstrap method assesses the uncertainty of the estimated population-based dose-response relation due to sample variability, which reflects the uncertainty due to limited numbers of patients in the studies. A large number of bootstrap replicates of the original incidence data were produced by random sampling with replacement. The analysis requires only the dose, the number of patients, and the number of occurrences of the studied endpoint, for each study. Two dose–response models, a Poisson-based model and the Lyman model, were fitted to each bootstrap replicate using maximum likelihood. Results: The bootstrap analysis generates a family of curves representing the range of plausible dose–response relations, and the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals give an estimated upper and lower toxicity risk. The curve families for the 2 dose–response models overlap for doses included in the studies at hand but diverge beyond that, with the Lyman model suggesting a steeper slope. The resulting distributions of the model parameters indicate correlation and non-Gaussian distribution. For both data sets, the likelihood of the observed data was higher for the Lyman model in >90% of the bootstrap replicates. Conclusions: The bootstrap method provides a statistical analysis of the uncertainty in the estimated dose–response relation for myelopathy and pneumonitis. It suggests likely values of model parameter values, their confidence intervals, and how they interrelate for each model. Finally, it can be used to evaluate to what extent data supports one model over another. For both data sets considered here, the Lyman model was preferred over the Poisson-based model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1975-01-01
Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1975-01-01
Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics.
Introduction to abstract algebra
Nicholson, W Keith
2012-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be
Abstracting Concepts and Methods.
Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.
This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaw, W.; Grindrod, P.
1989-01-01
This document encompasses two main items. The first consists of a review of four aspects of fuzzy sets, namely, the general framework, the role of expert judgment, mathematical and computational aspects, and present applications. The second consists of the application of fuzzy-set theory to simplified problems in radionuclide migration, with comparisons between fuzzy and probabilistic approaches, treated both analytically and computationally. A new approach to fuzzy differential equations is presented, and applied to simple ordinary and partial differential equations. It is argued that such fuzzy techniques represent a viable alternative to probabilistic risk assessment, for handling systems subject to uncertainties
Wadsworth, A R
2017-01-01
This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.
Duerdoth, Ian
2009-01-01
The subject of uncertainties (sometimes called errors) is traditionally taught (to first-year science undergraduates) towards the end of a course on statistics that defines probability as the limit of many trials, and discusses probability distribution functions and the Gaussian distribution. We show how to introduce students to the concepts of…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas
2002-01-01
Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Roofegari Nejad
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents novel methods for Demand Response (DR programs by considering welfare state of consumers, to deal with the operational uncertainties, such as wind energy and energy price, within the framework of a smart microgrid. In this regard, total loads of microgrid are classified into two groups and each one is represented by a typical load. First group is energy storage capability represents by heater loads and second is curtailment capability loads represents by lighting loads. Next by the proposed DR methods, consumed energy of the all loads is coupled to the wind energy rate and energy price. Finally these methods are applied in the operation of a smart microgrid, consists of dispatchable supplier (microturbine, nondispatchable supplier (wind turbine, energy storage system and loads with the capability of energy exchanging with upstream distribution network. In order to consider uncertainties, Monte Carlo simulation method is used, which various scenarios are generated and applied in the operation of microgrid. In the end, the simulation results on a typical microgrid show that implementing proposed DR methods contributes to increasing total operational profit of smart microgrid and also decreasing the risk of low profit too.
The triconnected abstraction of process models
Polyvyanyy, Artem; Smirnov, Sergey; Weske, Mathias
2009-01-01
Contents: Artem Polyvanny, Sergey Smirnow, and Mathias Weske The Triconnected Abstraction of Process Models 1 Introduction 2 Business Process Model Abstraction 3 Preliminaries 4 Triconnected Decomposition 4.1 Basic Approach for Process Component Discovery 4.2 SPQR-Tree Decomposition 4.3 SPQR-Tree Fragments in the Context of Process Models 5 Triconnected Abstraction 5.1 Abstraction Rules 5.2 Abstraction Algorithm 6 Related Work and Conclusions
Framing of Uncertainty in Scientific Publications: Towards Recommendations for Decision Support
Guillaume, J. H. A.; Helgeson, C.; Elsawah, S.; Jakeman, A. J.; Kummu, M.
2016-12-01
Uncertainty is recognised as an essential issue in environmental decision making and decision support. As modellers, we notably use a variety of tools and techniques within an analysis, for example related to uncertainty quantification and model validation. We also address uncertainty by how we present results. For example, experienced modellers are careful to distinguish robust conclusions from those that need further work, and the precision of quantitative results is tailored to their accuracy. In doing so, the modeller frames how uncertainty should be interpreted by their audience. This is an area which extends beyond modelling to fields such as philosophy of science, semantics, discourse analysis, intercultural communication and rhetoric. We propose that framing of uncertainty deserves greater attention in the context of decision support, and that there are opportunities in this area for fundamental research, synthesis and knowledge transfer, development of teaching curricula, and significant advances in managing uncertainty in decision making. This presentation reports preliminary results of a study of framing practices. Specifically, we analyse the framing of uncertainty that is visible in the abstracts from a corpus of scientific articles. We do this through textual analysis of the content and structure of those abstracts. Each finding that appears in an abstract is classified according to the uncertainty framing approach used, using a classification scheme that was iteratively revised based on reflection and comparison amongst three coders. This analysis indicates how frequently the different framing approaches are used, and provides initial insights into relationships between frames, how the frames relate to interpretation of uncertainty, and how rhetorical devices are used by modellers to communicate uncertainty in their work. We propose initial hypotheses for how the resulting insights might influence decision support, and help advance decision making to
Evaluating prediction uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKay, M.D.
1995-03-01
The probability distribution of a model prediction is presented as a proper basis for evaluating the uncertainty in a model prediction that arises from uncertainty in input values. Determination of important model inputs and subsets of inputs is made through comparison of the prediction distribution with conditional prediction probability distributions. Replicated Latin hypercube sampling and variance ratios are used in estimation of the distributions and in construction of importance indicators. The assumption of a linear relation between model output and inputs is not necessary for the indicators to be effective. A sequential methodology which includes an independent validation step is applied in two analysis applications to select subsets of input variables which are the dominant causes of uncertainty in the model predictions. Comparison with results from methods which assume linearity shows how those methods may fail. Finally, suggestions for treating structural uncertainty for submodels are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Chang-Yuan, E-mail: yctcccy@163.net [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224051 (China); You, Yuan; Lu, Fa-Lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224051 (China); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)
2013-06-17
We present the position–momentum uncertainties for the Pöschl–Teller potential. We observe that the Δx decreases with the potential depth λ but increases with quantum number n. Interestingly, we find that the Δp first increases and then decreases with the n. The ΔxΔp first decreases and then increases with the λ, but almost becomes a constant (n+1/2)ℏ for a larger λ. Particularly, there exists a squeezed phenomenon in position x for the lower states. The squeezing in x compensated for by an increase in momentum p, such that ΔxΔp⩾ℏ/2 is still satisfied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Chang-Yuan; You, Yuan; Lu, Fa-Lin; Dong, Shi-Hai
2013-01-01
We present the position–momentum uncertainties for the Pöschl–Teller potential. We observe that the Δx decreases with the potential depth λ but increases with quantum number n. Interestingly, we find that the Δp first increases and then decreases with the n. The ΔxΔp first decreases and then increases with the λ, but almost becomes a constant (n+1/2)ℏ for a larger λ. Particularly, there exists a squeezed phenomenon in position x for the lower states. The squeezing in x compensated for by an increase in momentum p, such that ΔxΔp⩾ℏ/2 is still satisfied.
2018 Congress Poster Abstracts
2018-02-21
Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.
2018 Congress Podium Abstracts
2018-02-21
Each abstract has been indexed according to first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. For Congress scheduling information, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.
Compilation of Theses Abstracts
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2005-01-01
This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen
This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...
Nuclear works. Book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candel, Danielle; Calberg-Challot, Marie; Alexander, Catherine; Bergsman, Anne; Meyer, Morgan; Taebi, Behnam; Kloosterman, Jan Leen; Kelfaoui, Mahdi; Gingras, Yves; Laborie, Leonard; Beltran, Alain; Bouvier, Yves; Raineau, Laurence; Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Ollivon, Franck; Mueller, Birgit; Lemarchand, Frederick; Rivat, Emmanuel; Mormont, Marc; Aparicio, Luis; Fassert, Christine; Lehtonen, Markku; Billet, Philippe; Girard, Berenice; Fournier, Pierre; Marion, Richard; Lot, Nicolas
2012-01-01
the conception of a LILW repository (Marc Mormont, Anne Bergmans), The contribution of Social Sciences and Humanities to the scientific program for radioactive waste management of Andra (Luis Aparicio), The public expert and the nuclear catastrophe (Christine Fassert); 5 - Nuclear governance: Did Fukushima put an end to nuclear revival? A post-Fukushima debates analysis in Finnish, French and British media (Markku Lehtonen), Nuclear secrecy at the test of the right to participation (Philippe Billet), Nuclear science, politics and national construction: what remains from Nehru's India in these times of uncertainty? (Berenice Girard); 6 - Working in the nuclear industry. Training and work collectives: Nuclear industry: a workers-less world? (Pierre Fournier), Ambiguity dynamics at NPPs, a pluri-disciplinary approach (Nicolas Lot), Sino-French nuclear engineering curriculums: what kind of innovation configuration? (Richard Marion). This document brings together the French and English abstracts of the different talks
Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
2000-07-01
This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freixa, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu; Alfonso, Elsa de, E-mail: elsa.de.alfonso@upc.edu; Reventós, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu
2016-08-15
Highlights: • Uncertainty of physical models are a key issue in Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis. • Estimation of uncertainties of physical models of thermal hydraulics system codes. • Comparison of CIRCÉ and FFTBM methodologies. • Simulation of reflood experiments in order to evaluate uncertainty of physical models related to the reflood scenario. - Abstract: The increasing importance of Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) analyses in nuclear safety and licensing processes have lead to several international activities. The latest findings highlighted the uncertainties of physical models as one of the most controversial aspects of BEPU. This type of uncertainties is an important contributor to the total uncertainty of NPP BE calculations. Due to the complexity of estimating this uncertainty, it is often assessed solely by engineering judgment. The present study comprises a comparison of two different state-of-the-art methodologies CIRCÉ and IPREM (FFTBM) capable of quantifying the uncertainty of physical models. Similarities and differences of their results are discussed through the observation of probability distribution functions and envelope calculations. In particular, the analyzed scenario is core reflood. Experimental data from the FEBA and PERICLES test facilities is employed while the thermal hydraulic simulations are carried out with RELAP5/mod3.3. This work is undertaken under the framework of PREMIUM (Post-BEMUSE Reflood Model Input Uncertainty Methods) benchmark.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten
2012-01-01
indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics
Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Wisniewski
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.
The deleuzian abstract machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werner Petersen, Erik
2005-01-01
To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...
Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis
2009-02-01
The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.
Uncertainty calculations made easier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogenbirk, A.
1994-07-01
The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)
Peixoto, J. G. P.; de Almeida, C. E.
2001-09-01
It is recognized by the international guidelines that it is necessary to offer calibration services for mammography beams in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis. Major efforts have been made by several laboratories in order to establish an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure and to provide the basis for a quality control programme in mammography. The contribution of the radiation metrology network to the users of mammography is reviewed in this work. Also steps required for the implementation of a mammography calibration system using a constant potential x-ray and a clinical mammography x-ray machine are presented. The various qualities of mammography radiation discussed in this work are in accordance with the IEC 61674 and the AAPM recommendations. They are at present available at several primary standard dosimetry laboratories (PSDLs), namely the PTB, NIST and BEV and a few secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) such as at the University of Wisconsin and at the IAEA's SSDL. We discuss the uncertainties involved in all steps of the calibration chain in accord with the ISO recommendations.
Manzini, E.; Karpechko, A.Yu.; Anstey, J.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Baldwin, M.P.; Black, R.X.; Cagnazzo, C.; Calvo, N.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Christiansen, B.;
2014-01-01
Future changes in the stratospheric circulation could have an important impact on northern winter tropospheric climate change, given that sea level pressure (SLP) responds not only to tropospheric circulation variations but also to vertically coherent variations in troposphere-stratosphere circulation. Here we assess northern winter stratospheric change and its potential to influence surface climate change in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-Phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble. In the stratosphere at high latitudes, an easterly change in zonally averaged zonal wind is found for the majority of the CMIP5 models, under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario. Comparable results are also found in the 1% CO2 increase per year projections, indicating that the stratospheric easterly change is common feature in future climate projections. This stratospheric wind change, however, shows a significant spread among the models. By using linear regression, we quantify the impact of tropical upper troposphere warming, polar amplification, and the stratospheric wind change on SLP. We find that the intermodel spread in stratospheric wind change contributes substantially to the intermodel spread in Arctic SLP change. The role of the stratosphere in determining part of the spread in SLP change is supported by the fact that the SLP change lags the stratospheric zonally averaged wind change. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the importance of simulating the coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere, to narrow the uncertainty in the future projection of tropospheric circulation changes.
Stellar Presentations (Abstract)
Young, D.
2015-12-01
(Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.
Zou, Xiao-Duan; Li, Jian-Yang; Clark, Beth Ellen; Golish, Dathon
2018-01-01
The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, launched in September, 2016, will study the asteroid Bennu and return a sample from its surface to Earth in 2023. Bennu is a near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid which will provide insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system. OSIRIS-REx will first approach Bennu in August 2018 and will study the asteroid for approximately two years before sampling. OSIRIS-REx will develop its photometric model (including Lommel-Seelinger, ROLO, McEwen, Minnaert and Akimov) of Bennu with OCAM and OVIRS during the Detailed Survey mission phase. The model developed during this phase will be used to photometrically correct the OCAM and OVIRS data.Here we present the analysis of the error for the photometric corrections. Based on our testing data sets, we find:1. The model uncertainties is only correct when we use the covariance matrix to calculate, because the parameters are highly correlated.2. No evidence of domination of any parameter in each model.3. And both model error and the data error contribute to the final correction error comparably.4. We tested the uncertainty module on fake and real data sets, and find that model performance depends on the data coverage and data quality. These tests gave us a better understanding of how different model behave in different case.5. L-S model is more reliable than others. Maybe because the simulated data are based on L-S model. However, the test on real data (SPDIF) does show slight advantage of L-S, too. ROLO is not reliable to use when calculating bond albedo. The uncertainty of McEwen model is big in most cases. Akimov performs unphysical on SOPIE 1 data.6. Better use L-S as our default choice, this conclusion is based mainly on our test on SOPIE data and IPDIF.
Çankaya, Mehmet Niyazi; Déli, Eva
2017-07-01
It is a great aspiration to consider biological systems, especially the notoriously unpredictable brain, with mathematical tools, because of their reliable predictive power. The classic idea that the brain can be compartmentalized into operational modules, such as vision, movement, emotions or consciousness has come up empty. A new surge of publications sets out the mathematical analysis of this highly integrated, complex and self-regulating system. For example, the resting brain's recurring electromagnetic activities form a highly reproducible harmonic function [1], which permits the use of matrix formulation, borrowed from quantum mechanics, to assess the probabilities of measurable properties, or ;observables;. It has also been suggested that resting state electric activities might take the form of a hypersphere [2], and even the particle-like formalism of the self-regulatory nature of consciousness has even been proposed [3]. The 'TOPODYNAMICS OF METASTABLE BRAINS' by Tozzi et al. [4] is part of the growing wave of publications that seeks to explain the brain's global dynamics within a physical framework. This fast growing literature has uncovered that the oscillatory networks of local electromagnetic potential differences, which are highly responsive to the environment, formulate according to non-classical principles and can be best modeled by the mathematical framework of dynamic and complex physical systems. However, the ability to connect the oscillatory dynamics of the brain to the global cognitive processes of the mind has been difficult. The TOPODYNAMICS OF METASTABLE BRAINS is a pioneering attempt to approach these seemingly disparate areas and bridge their conceptual, methodological divide. Specifically, topodynamics examines how the changing electric signals of the brain form an abstract topology during evoked and resting potential, and give rise to cognitive processes. For example, rapid transitional periods intercept the stable, operational modules
Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ostronoff, Celina Silva; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and validate a microplate bioassay for relative potency determination of linezolid in pharmaceutical samples using quality-by-design and design space approaches. In addition, a procedure is described for estimating relative potency uncertainty based on microbiological response variability. The influence of culture media composition was studied using a factorial design and a central composite design was adopted to study the influence of inoculum proportion and triphenyltetrazolium chloride in microbial growth. The microplate bioassay was optimized regarding the responses of low, medium, and high doses of linezolid, negative and positive controls, and the slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient of dose-response curves. According to optimization results, design space ranges were established using: (a) low (1.0 μg/mL), medium (2.0 μg/mL), and high (4.0 μg/mL) doses of pharmaceutical samples and linezolid chemical reference substance; (b) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 653 in an inoculum proportion of 10%; (c) antibiotic No. 3 culture medium pH 7.0±0.1; (d) 6 h incubation at 37.0±0.1ºC; and (e) addition of 50 μL of 0.5% (w/v) triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution. The microplate bioassay was linear (r2=0.992), specific, precise (repeatability RSD=2.3% and intermediate precision RSD=4.3%), accurate (mean recovery=101.4%), and robust. The overall measurement uncertainty was reasonable considering the increased variability inherent in microbiological response. Final uncertainty was comparable with those obtained with other microbiological assays, as well as chemical methods.
Ruymán Brito-Brito, Pedro; García-Tesouro, Esther; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Domingo Ángel; García-Hernández, Alfonso Miguel; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Raquel; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo
2018-01-01
To validate a Spanish adaptation of the Mishel Uncertainty of Illness Scale for use with emergency-department (ED) patients and their accompanying relatives or friends (the UIS-ED). We first developed a version of the questionnaire for Spanish ED situations. Next we assessed the content validity index for each of its items, revised it, and reassessed its face validity to produce a second version, which we then piloted in 20 hospital ED patients. A third revised version was then validated in a population of 320 adults (160 patients and 160 accompanying persons) who attended the ED between November 2015 and September 2016. The 12-item UIS-ED (60 points) was administered by 2 nurses while the patients and accompanying persons were in the ED. We gathered sociodemographic and clinical data as well as the subjects' perception about the information they were given. The mean (SD) uncertainty score among patients was 29 (11) points. Accompanying persons had a mean score of 36 (13) points. Factorial analysis confirmed the instrument's construct validity, finding that both dimensions of the original Mishel scale (complexity and ambiguity) were present in 6 items each. Factorial analysis explained 60% of the total variance in the patient version and 67% of the variance in the version for accompanying persons. Reliability statistics were good, with Cronbach's α values ranging from 0.912 to 0.938. Split-half reliability statistics ranged from 0.901 to 0.933. Correlations were significant in the analysis of convergent validity. The UIS-ED questionnaire may prove to be a simple, valid, and reliable way for assessing uncertainty in patients and their accompanying friends or relatives attending Spanish EDs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
The document contains abstracts of 24 review papers, 24 invited papers, 24 oral contributions and 120 posters. 10 review papers summarize the status of laser fusion research and progress in high-power laser facilities in major world laboratories. Four papers review research programs (laser-matter interaction studies and X-ray source development) based on KrF laser systems. Other review papers discuss the problems of laser energy conversion into X-rays in laser-heated cavities, X-ray lasing at shorter wavelengths, optimization of targets for inertial fusion. Two review papers are devoted to light ion fusion. The subjects of most invited papers are special problems of current laser plasma research, such as hot electron generation, nonlinear resonance absorption, energy accumulation limits, pellet ignition, conversion of laser light into X-rays, high-pressure plasma generation. Three invited papers review laser plasma research in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Spain. One paper suggests a new method of producing muonic superdense matter. The remaining inivited papers deal with the progress in XUV lasers and with laser plasma applications for further laser development. Of the papers accepted for oral presentation 12 papers discuss various problems of laser-plasma interaction; 4 papers deal with laser targets, 4 papers with laser-initiated X-ray sources, 3 papers with the diagnostics of laser-produced plasma. The last oral contribution presents the main principles of the excimer laser theory. The largest group of posters is related to laser-plasma interaction and energy absorption problems, to laser-target interaction and various methods of laser plasma diagnostics. The other posters deal with plasma applications in laser development, plasma mirrors, Brillouin and Raman scattering, X-ray emission, harmonic generation, electron acceleration, production of high-Z plasmas and other related problems. (J.U.)
Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia
2018-04-01
Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation. The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related reference case, that emission reductions of up to 91% are possible for non-treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste with low contamination can achieve up to 83% emission savings, similar to untreated waste wood pellets, but in some cases emissions from waste wood based energy can exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference - in the worst case by 126%. Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Copyright © 2017
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-01-01
the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields
Mathematical games, abstract games
Neto, Joao Pedro
2013-01-01
User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.
Abstracts of contributed papers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-08-01
This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This publications related with Hacettepe University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, International Atomic Energy Agency, CEA-Saclay, CEA-Saclay Drecam, ANKAmall Shopping Center and Ion Beam Applications Industrial that was held in Antalya, Turkey, 23-28 September 2006. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2006-07-01
This publications related with Hacettepe University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, International Atomic Energy Agency, CEA-Saclay, CEA-Saclay Drecam, ANKAmall Shopping Center and Ion Beam Applications Industrial that was held in Antalya, Turkey, 23-28 September 2006. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.
Uncertainty analysis of environmental models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte, L.
1990-01-01
In the present paper an evaluation of the output uncertainty of an environmental model for assessing the transfer of 137 Cs and 131 I in the human food chain are carried out on the basis of a statistical analysis of data reported by the literature. The uncertainty analysis offers the oppotunity of obtaining some remarkable information about the uncertainty of models predicting the migration of non radioactive substances in the environment mainly in relation to the dry and wet deposition
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Levitt, TS; Lemmer, JF; Shachter, RD
1990-01-01
Clearly illustrated in this volume is the current relationship between Uncertainty and AI.It has been said that research in AI revolves around five basic questions asked relative to some particular domain: What knowledge is required? How can this knowledge be acquired? How can it be represented in a system? How should this knowledge be manipulated in order to provide intelligent behavior? How can the behavior be explained? In this volume, all of these questions are addressed. From the perspective of the relationship of uncertainty to the basic questions of AI, the book divides naturally i
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Gonzalez-Ferez, R [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)
2007-02-23
The inequality
>= (l+1/2){sup 2}
Uncertainty and validation. Effect of model complexity on uncertainty estimates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elert, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] [ed.
1996-09-01
zone concentration. Models considering faster net downward flow in the upper part of the root zone predict a more rapid decline in root zone concentration than models that assume a constant infiltration throughout the soil column. A sensitivity analysis performed on two of the models shows that the important parameters are the effective precipitation, the root water uptake and the soil K{sub d}-values. For the advection-dispersion model, the dispersion length is also important for the maximum flux to the groundwater. The amount of dispersion in radionuclide transport is of importance for the release to groundwater. For the box models, an inherent dispersion is obtained by the assumption of instantaneous mixing in the boxes. The degree of dispersion in the calculation will be a function of the size of the boxes. It is therefore important that division of the soil column is made with care in order to obtain the intended values. For many models the uncertainty calculations give very skewed distributions for the flux to the groundwater. In some cases the mean of the stochastic calculation can be several orders of magnitude higher than the value from the deterministic calculations. In relation to the objectives set up for this study it can be concluded that: The analysis of the relationship between uncertainty and model complexity proved to be a difficult task. For the studied scenario, the uncertainty in the model predictions does not have a simple relationship with the complexity of the models used. However, a complete analysis could not be performed since uncertainty results were not available for the full range of models and furthermore were not the uncertainty analysis always carried out in a consistent way. The predicted uncertainty associated with the concentration in the root zone does not show very much variation between the modelling approaches. For the predictions of the flux to groundwater, the simple models and the more complex gave very different results for
Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty in Turkey
dogru, bulent
2014-01-01
Abstract: In this study, the relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty is analyzed using Granger causality tests with annual inflation series covering the time period 1923 to 2012 for Turkish Economy. Inflation uncertainty is measured by Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic model. Econometric findings suggest that although in long run the Friedman's hypothesis that high inflation increases inflation ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, Jaewan
2006-01-01
We derive a class of inequalities, from the uncertainty relations of the su(1,1) and the su(2) algebra in conjunction with partial transposition, that must be satisfied by any separable two-mode states. These inequalities are presented in terms of the su(2) operators J x =(a † b+ab † )/2, J y =(a † b-ab † )/2i, and the total photon number a +N b >. They include as special cases the inequality derived by Hillery and Zubairy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], and the one by Agarwal and Biswas [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005)]. In particular, optimization over the whole inequalities leads to the criterion obtained by Agarwal and Biswas. We show that this optimal criterion can detect entanglement for a broad class of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., the su(2) minimum-uncertainty states. Experimental schemes to test the optimal criterion are also discussed, especially the one using linear optical devices and photodetectors
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Jansen van Rensburg, Gerhardus J
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In the present study, numerical results obtained on different but related shapes are compared by using a non-rigid mapping. Non-rigid registration is employed to obtain mesh representations of different human skull geometries with the same mesh...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robering, Klaus
2014-01-01
Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...
Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ole Lehrmann
2014-01-01
Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no......Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...
Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Marzocchi, Warner; Uhinga, Guido
2013-04-01
Extreme meteorological phenomena such as heavy precipitation, extreme temperature, or strong winds, may have considerable impacts on the economy, infrastructure, health, as well as may represent a non-negligible threat for human life. A changing climate may lead to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and timing of weather and climate extremes, and can result in unprecedented extreme events. Climatological parameters, that are reference variables for the assessment of climate-related hazards, can be generally obtained from data catalogues; nevertheless, it is often the case that the time window of the observations, if available at all, is too short for a correct analysis of the most extreme and less frequent events. For this reason there is a growing interest on the use of 'synthetic' data derived from climatological models which in addition, allow the possibility to perform climate projections considering different plausible emission/concentration scenarios in the modelling. Within this context, the scenario-based climate projections can be useful to assess possible temporal variations on climatological parameters (and hence in climate-related hazards) under climate change conditions. Here we discuss the characterization of some climate-related hazards based on the analysis of climatological parameters, debating relevant issues in the use of both observed and synthetic data, the consideration of climate-change scenarios, and the quantification and communication of uncertainties. In particular, to account for possible non-stationary conditions in the analysis of extremes under climate-change conditions, we have adopted a practical covariate approach recently used in different hydrological and meteorological applications, and used a Bayesian framework for the parameter estimation and uncertainty propagation.
Estimation of the uncertainties considered in NPP PSA level 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalchev, B.; Hristova, R.
2005-01-01
The main approaches of the uncertainties analysis are presented. The sources of uncertainties which should be considered in PSA level 2 for WWER reactor such as: uncertainties propagated from level 1 PSA; uncertainties in input parameters; uncertainties related to the modelling of physical phenomena during the accident progression and uncertainties related to the estimation of source terms are defined. The methods for estimation of the uncertainties are also discussed in this paper
Uncertainties and Solutions Related to Use of WRB (2007) in the Boreo-nemoral zone, Case of Latvia
Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Rolavs, Nauris
2014-05-01
Relatively high diversity of soils groups according to the WRB (2007) classification is observed in forest ecosystems in the boreo-nemoral zone in Latvia. This is due to the geological genesis of area and environmental conditions (Kasparinskis, Nikodemus, 2012), as well as historical land use and management (Nikodemus et al., 2013). Due to the relatively young soils, Albic, Spodic and Cambic horizons are relatively weakly expressed in many cases. Relatively well developed Albic horizons occur in sandy forest soils, but unusually well expressed Spodic features are observed. In some cases there is a Cambic horizon, however location of Cambisols in the WRB (2007) soil classification sequence does not provide an opportunity to classify these soils as Cambisols, but they are classified as Arenosols. This sequence does not reflect the logical sheme of soil development, and therefore raises the question about location of Podzols, Arenosols and Cambisols in the sequence of WRB (2007) soil classification. Soils with two parent materials (abrupt textural change) are relatively common in Latvia, where conceptually on the small scale mapping results in classification as the soil group Planosols, but in many cases there is occurrence of Fluvic materials, as parent material in the upper part of the soil profile is formed by Baltic Ice lake sandy sediments - this leads to question about the location of Fluvisols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. Soil research has found cases, where a relatively well developed Spodic horizon was established as the result of ground water table depth in areas of abrupt textural change. In this case the profile corresponds to the soil group of Podzols, however in some cases - Gleysols not Planosols due to a high ground water table. Therefore there is a need for discussion also about the location of Podzols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. The above mentioned questions raise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2000-01-01
This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [de
Journal of Engineering Education, 1972
1972-01-01
Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.
2014-01-01
The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2003-01-01
A fully abstract denotational semantics for the higher-order process language HOPLA is presented. It characterises contextual and logical equivalence, the latter linking up with simulation. The semantics is a clean, domain-theoretic description of processes as downwards-closed sets of computation...
Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols
2016-04-01
Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765
Abstract algebra for physicists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeman, J.
1975-06-01
Certain recent models of composite hadrons involve concepts and theorems from abstract algebra which are unfamiliar to most theoretical physicists. The algebraic apparatus needed for an understanding of these models is summarized here. Particular emphasis is given to algebraic structures which are not assumed to be associative. (2 figures) (auth)
Reasoning abstractly about resources
Clement, B.; Barrett, A.
2001-01-01
r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fortescue, Michael David
The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...
Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars
2014-01-01
We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...
Le Grice, Malcolm
A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Henning Salling
2006-01-01
The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...
Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994
1994-01-01
Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…
Circularity and Lambda Abstraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian
2013-01-01
unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2015-04-01
The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.
Controlling groundwater over abstraction
Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois
2017-01-01
The control of groundwater over abstraction is a vexing problem worldwide. Jordan is one of the countries facing severe water scarcity which has implemented a wide range of measures and policies over the past 20 years. While the gap between formal legal and policy frameworks and local practices on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew
2013-01-01
to instrument an analysis with high-level strategies for improving precision and performance, such as abstract garbage collection and widening. While the paper itself runs the development for continuationpassing style, our generic implementation replays it for direct-style lambda-calculus and Featherweight Java...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano
2016-01-01
The interactions between building occupants and control systems have a high influence on energy consumption and on indoor environmental quality. In the perspective of a future of "nearly-zero" energy buildings, it is crucial to analyse the energy-related interactions deeply to predict realistic e...... who take daylight level into account and switch on lights only if necessary and people who totally disregard the natural lighting. This underlines the importance of how individuality is at the base of the definition of the different types of users....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudolph, David Philipp
Offshore wind farms are widely considered to become a cornerstone of energy transition for securing the energy supply and tackling climate change simultaneously. But recent developments have demonstrated that offshore wind farms are far from being conflict-free, evoking confrontations with other...... stakeholder interests. Drawing on comparative case studies in Scotland and Germany, this paper addresses and explores various conflict lines emerging from the installation of offshore wind farms and contesting local community interests and concerns. Local resistance against wind farms opens up a vast debate...... explanations due to obscuring underlying rationales. By going beyond the stigmatisation of NIMBYism, the notion of space-related conflicts is intended to turn the attention towards conflicting interests and values that are aimed at space. This does not imply that such interests can be simply located...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heros Augusto Santos Lobo
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The general theory of systems is based in the integrated analysis of the spatiotemporal relations among the components, the system matrix and also the arising processes. In tourist systems, the current studies are focused on the description of its components and in some of its interaction relationships. The present contribution focuses on the processes between the components and the matrix of the tourist systems, considering the inherent complexity of open systems, its homeostasis and entropy in function of the carrying capacity of processing the received inputs, and also some questions linked to the steady state, the self-maintenance and the collapse of tourist system generated by structural-deterministic or stochastic causes. In the final considerations, the low similarity of the processes developed in different tourist systems and also in different spatiotemporal conditions in the same system are raised, highlighting the practical impossibility of universal models generation to the tourist systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-06-01
The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference
Some remarks on modeling uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ronen, Y.
1983-01-01
Several topics related to the question of modeling uncertainties are considered. The first topic is related to the use of the generalized bias operator method for modeling uncertainties. The method is expanded to a more general form of operators. The generalized bias operator is also used in the inverse problem and applied to determine the anisotropic scattering law. The last topic discussed is related to the question of the limit to accuracy and how to establish its value. (orig.) [de
Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shull, A.H.
1997-01-01
An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards'' uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entsua-Mensah, C.
2004-01-01
This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education
The abstract unconscious in painting
Parker, David
2009-01-01
The Abstract Unconscious in Painting addresses painting as experiential process, critically examining the psychological factors involved in the formation of imagery as it emerges through imaginative responses to the process of mark making and the structuring of space and form. The paper sets this process in relation to theoretical material drawn from Jungian and Post Jungian Psychology ( Avens, 1980; Hillman, 1975) the arts ( Gombrich, 1960; Kuspit, 2000; McKeever, 2005; Worringer, 1908) and ...
1979-12-01
abscess formation and tissue necrosis, its relationship to periodontal pockets was investigated. Specimens were obtained from maxillary and mandibular...of Organisms and Periodontal Pockets." (Abstract 4853). 10. SIMONSON, Lo Go, LAMDERTS, B. L. and JACROLA, Do R. - "Effects of Dextranases and other...the tip of the periodontal probe rests within epithelium, at or slightly apical to the coronal extent of the junctional epithelium. The purpose of
NPP life management (abstracts)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litvinskij, L.L.; Barbashev, S.V.
2002-01-01
Abstracts of the papers presented at the International conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'NPP Life Management'. The following problems are considered: modernization of the NPP; NPP life management; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; decommissioning issues; control systems (including radiation and ecological control systems); information and control systems; legal and regulatory framework. State nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power; training of personnel; economics of nuclear power engineering
1982-12-01
Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...record to determine changes in surface coverage or other outcomes -- extraction, endodontic therapy , crown placement -- which occurred over time. The...MR0412002-0443. 0 e5 History of Retention and Extraction of Third Molars in Naval Personnel. D. C. SCHROEDER*, J. C. CECIL and M. E. COHEN. Naval
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2017-06-15
The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.
Medical physics 2013. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treuer, Harald
2013-01-01
The proceedings of the medical physics conference 2013 include abstract of lectures and poster sessions concerning the following issues: Tele-therapy - application systems, nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, neuromodulation, hearing and technical support, basic dosimetry, NMR imaging -CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer), medical robotics, magnetic particle imaging, audiology, radiation protection, phase contrast - innovative concepts, particle therapy, brachytherapy, computerized tomography, quantity assurance, hybrid imaging techniques, diffusion and lung NMR imaging, image processing - visualization, cardiac and abdominal NMR imaging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2014-05-15
The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.
2013-01-01
The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations
Uncertainty enabled Sensor Observation Services
Cornford, Dan; Williams, Matthew; Bastin, Lucy
2010-05-01
Almost all observations of reality are contaminated with errors, which introduce uncertainties into the actual observation result. Such uncertainty is often held to be a data quality issue, and quantification of this uncertainty is essential for the principled exploitation of the observations. Many existing systems treat data quality in a relatively ad-hoc manner, however if the observation uncertainty is a reliable estimate of the error on the observation with respect to reality then knowledge of this uncertainty enables optimal exploitation of the observations in further processes, or decision making. We would argue that the most natural formalism for expressing uncertainty is Bayesian probability theory. In this work we show how the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Observation Service can be implemented to enable the support of explicit uncertainty about observations. We show how the UncertML candidate standard is used to provide a rich and flexible representation of uncertainty in this context. We illustrate this on a data set of user contributed weather data where the INTAMAP interpolation Web Processing Service is used to help estimate the uncertainty on the observations of unknown quality, using observations with known uncertainty properties. We then go on to discuss the implications of uncertainty for a range of existing Open Geospatial Consortium standards including SWE common and Observations and Measurements. We discuss the difficult decisions in the design of the UncertML schema and its relation and usage within existing standards and show various options. We conclude with some indications of the likely future directions for UncertML in the context of Open Geospatial Consortium services.
EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J. Prouty
2006-01-01
The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport
EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. Prouty
2006-07-14
The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport
1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood)
Uncertainty Analyses and Strategy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kevin Coppersmith
2001-01-01
performance difficult. Likewise, a demonstration of the magnitude of conservatisms in the dose estimates that result from conservative inputs is difficult to determine. To respond to these issues, the DOE explored the significance of uncertainties and the magnitude of conservatisms in the SSPA Volumes 1 and 2 (BSC 2001 [DIRS 155950]; BSC 2001 [DIRS 154659]). The three main goals of this report are: (1) To briefly summarize and consolidate the discussion of much of the work that has been done over the past few years to evaluate, clarify, and improve the representation of uncertainties in the TSPA and performance projections for a potential repository. This report does not contain any new analyses of those uncertainties, but it summarizes in one place the main findings of that work. (2) To develop a strategy for how uncertainties may be handled in the TSPA and supporting analyses and models to support a License Application, should the site be recommended. It should be noted that the strategy outlined in this report is based on current information available to DOE. The strategy may be modified pending receipt of additional pertinent information, such as the Yucca Mountain Review Plan. (3) To discuss issues related to communication about uncertainties, and propose some approaches the DOE may use in the future to improve how it communicates uncertainty in its models and performance assessments to decision-makers and to technical audiences
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Shachter, RD; Henrion, M; Lemmer, JF
1990-01-01
This volume, like its predecessors, reflects the cutting edge of research on the automation of reasoning under uncertainty.A more pragmatic emphasis is evident, for although some papers address fundamental issues, the majority address practical issues. Topics include the relations between alternative formalisms (including possibilistic reasoning), Dempster-Shafer belief functions, non-monotonic reasoning, Bayesian and decision theoretic schemes, and new inference techniques for belief nets. New techniques are applied to important problems in medicine, vision, robotics, and natural language und
Clark, Allan
1984-01-01
This concise, readable, college-level text treats basic abstract algebra in remarkable depth and detail. An antidote to the usual surveys of structure, the book presents group theory, Galois theory, and classical ideal theory in a framework emphasizing proof of important theorems.Chapter I (Set Theory) covers the basics of sets. Chapter II (Group Theory) is a rigorous introduction to groups. It contains all the results needed for Galois theory as well as the Sylow theorems, the Jordan-Holder theorem, and a complete treatment of the simplicity of alternating groups. Chapter III (Field Theory)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2017-05-15
The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entsua-Mensah, Clement
1994-01-01
Ghana Energy Abstracts 1994 is the first issue of an annual publication of the Energy information Centre. The aim is to combine in one publication the country' s bibliographic output on energy so as to provide a valuable source of reference for policy makers, planners,and researchers. It covers the broad spectrum of energy including; energy conservation, energy resource management, petroleum and renewable energy resources.The documents listed comprise research reports, baseline studies,conference proceedings, periodical articles dissertations and theses. Keywords and author indexes have been provided to facilitate easy reference. (C.E.M)
Parameterized Dataflow (Extended Abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominic Duggan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Dataflow networks have application in various forms of stream processing, for example for parallel processing of multimedia data. The description of dataflow graphs, including their firing behavior, is typically non-compositional and not amenable to separate compilation. This article considers a dataflow language with a type and effect system that captures the firing behavior of actors. This system allows definitions to abstract over actor firing rates, supporting the definition and safe composition of actor definitions where firing rates are not instantiated until a dataflow graph is launched.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2016-05-15
The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2015-05-10
The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.
Uncertainty in relative cost investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunn, D.; Viahos, K.
1989-01-01
One of the consequences of the privatization of the Central Electricity Generating Board has been a weakening of the economic case for nuclear generation over coal. Nuclear has higher capital, but lower operating costs than coal and is therefore favoured in capital budgeting by discounting at lower rates of return. In the Sizewell case (in 1987), discounting at the public sector rate of 5 per cent favoured nuclear. However, the private sector will require higher rates of return, thus rendering nuclear less attractive. Hence the imposition by the government of a diversity constraint on the privatized industry to ensure that contracts are made for a minimum fraction of non-fossil (essentially nuclear) energy. An electricity capacity planning model was developed to estimate the costs of imposing various non-fossil energy constraints on the planning decision of a privatized electricity supply industry, as a function of various discount rates. Using a large-scale linear programming technique, the model optimizes over a 50 year horizon the schedule of installation, and mix of generating capacity, both with and without a minimum non-fossil constraint. The conclusion is that the opportunity cost of diversity may be a complex joint substation of more than one type of plant (eg coal and gas) depending on the discount rate. (author)
Using Options to Manage Dynamic Uncertainty in Acquisition Projects
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ceylan, B. K; Ford, David N
2002-01-01
Uncertainty in acquisition projects and environments can degrade performance. Traditional project planning, management tools, and methods can effectively deal with uncertainties in relatively stable environments...
EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.D. Schreiber
2005-08-25
The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport
EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J.D. Schreiber
2005-01-01
The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers
Stereo-particle image velocimetry uncertainty quantification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Charonko, John J
2017-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are subject to multiple elemental error sources and thus estimating overall measurement uncertainty is challenging. Recent advances have led to a posteriori uncertainty estimation methods for planar two-component PIV. However, no complete methodology exists for uncertainty quantification in stereo PIV. In the current work, a comprehensive framework is presented to quantify the uncertainty stemming from stereo registration error and combine it with the underlying planar velocity uncertainties. The disparity in particle locations of the dewarped images is used to estimate the positional uncertainty of the world coordinate system, which is then propagated to the uncertainty in the calibration mapping function coefficients. Next, the calibration uncertainty is combined with the planar uncertainty fields of the individual cameras through an uncertainty propagation equation and uncertainty estimates are obtained for all three velocity components. The methodology was tested with synthetic stereo PIV data for different light sheet thicknesses, with and without registration error, and also validated with an experimental vortex ring case from 2014 PIV challenge. Thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the relative impact of the various parameters to the overall uncertainty. The results suggest that in absence of any disparity, the stereo PIV uncertainty prediction method is more sensitive to the planar uncertainty estimates than to the angle uncertainty, although the latter is not negligible for non-zero disparity. Overall the presented uncertainty quantification framework showed excellent agreement between the error and uncertainty RMS values for both the synthetic and the experimental data and demonstrated reliable uncertainty prediction coverage. This stereo PIV uncertainty quantification framework provides the first comprehensive treatment on the subject and potentially lays foundations applicable to volumetric
Uncertainty Flow Facilitates Zero-Shot Multi-Label Learning in Affective Facial Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjun Bai
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Featured Application: The proposed Uncertainty Flow framework may benefit the facial analysis with its promised elevation in discriminability in multi-label affective classification tasks. Moreover, this framework also allows the efficient model training and between tasks knowledge transfer. The applications that rely heavily on continuous prediction on emotional valance, e.g., to monitor prisoners’ emotional stability in jail, can be directly benefited from our framework. Abstract: To lower the single-label dependency on affective facial analysis, it urges the fruition of multi-label affective learning. The impediment to practical implementation of existing multi-label algorithms pertains to scarcity of scalable multi-label training datasets. To resolve this, an inductive transfer learning based framework, i.e.,Uncertainty Flow, is put forward in this research to allow knowledge transfer from a single labelled emotion recognition task to a multi-label affective recognition task. I.e., the model uncertainty—which can be quantified in Uncertainty Flow—is distilled from a single-label learning task. The distilled model uncertainty ensures the later efficient zero-shot multi-label affective learning. On the theoretical perspective, within our proposed Uncertainty Flow framework, the feasibility of applying weakly informative priors, e.g., uniform and Cauchy prior, is fully explored in this research. More importantly, based on the derived weight uncertainty, three sets of prediction related uncertainty indexes, i.e., soft-max uncertainty, pure uncertainty and uncertainty plus are proposed to produce reliable and accurate multi-label predictions. Validated on our manual annotated evaluation dataset, i.e., the multi-label annotated FER2013, our proposed Uncertainty Flow in multi-label facial expression analysis exhibited superiority to conventional multi-label learning algorithms and multi-label compatible neural networks. The success of our
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahin, S [Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)
2007-07-01
In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, S.
2007-01-01
In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues
Computational Abstraction Steps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt
2010-01-01
and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....
IEEE conference record -- Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1994-01-01
This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehlhoff, Ellen
2014-01-01
Full text: Promoting agriculture and food-based solutions to alleviate hunger and malnutrition is a major aim of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Interventions that focus on optimal nutrition during the first two years of life are recognized as essential in order to capitalize on the window of opportunity for preventing undernutrition and building healthy and productive future lives. FAO has been promoting improved complementary feeding for children 6-23 months by empowering rural families to enrich young children’s diets using local foods. Working through government health and agricultural extension systems, FAO promotes practical hands-on learning approaches that aim at behavior change in family and young child feeding. The trials of improved practices (TIPs) method is used to provide a comprehensive assessment of current dietary practices and to test feasible culturally acceptable solutions and behaviours with caregivers in a real home environment. Through farmer field schools and community-based demonstrations, households learn how to: 1) grow different nutrient dense crops; 2) raise small livestock to improve family and children’s diets, and generate income; 3) select and prepare nutritious complementary food, including indigenous food, based on taste, seasonal availability and price; 4) incorporate fruit and other healthy snacks into children’s diets; 5) feed age appropriate quantities of complementary food to children and continue breastfeeding; and 6) practice improved hygiene and sanitation. None of these actions are intuitive and frequently require learning of new knowledge and practical hands-on skills. Recognizing that good eating habits are learnt during the early years, good complementary feeding can form a basis for lifelong healthy eating patterns and may prevent the onset of diet-related diseases in the future. Few studies have documented the impact of promoting locally available food on children’s diets, nutritional status and
SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
B.W. ARNOLD
2004-01-01
The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ
Physical and Model Uncertainty for Fatigue Design of Composite Material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
The main aim of the present report is to establish stochastic models for the uncertainties related to fatigue design of composite materials. The uncertainties considered are the physical uncertainty related to the static and fatigue strength and the model uncertainty related to Miners rule...
Gentes, Emily L; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron
2011-08-01
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been suggested to reflect a specific risk factor for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there have been no systematic attempts to evaluate the specificity of IU to GAD. This meta-analysis examined the cross-sectional association of IU with symptoms of GAD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Random effects analyses were conducted for two common definitions of IU, one that has predominated in studies of GAD (56 effect sizes) and another that has been favored in studies of OCD (29 effect sizes). Using the definition of IU developed for GAD, IU shared a mean correlation of .57 with GAD, .53 with MDD, and .50 with OCD. Using the alternate definition developed for OCD, IU shared a mean correlation of .46 with MDD and .42 with OCD, with no studies available for GAD. Post-hoc significance tests revealed that IU was more strongly related to GAD than to OCD when the GAD-specific definition of IU was used. No other differences were found in the magnitude of associations between IU and the three syndromes. We discuss implications of these findings for models of shared and specific features of emotional disorders and for future research efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Some illustrative examples of model uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bier, V.M.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we first discuss the view of model uncertainty proposed by Apostolakis. We then present several illustrative examples related to model uncertainty, some of which are not well handled by this formalism. Thus, Apostolakis' approach seems to be well suited to describing some types of model uncertainty, but not all. Since a comprehensive approach for characterizing and quantifying model uncertainty is not yet available, it is hoped that the examples presented here will service as a springboard for further discussion
Model uncertainty: Probabilities for models?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, R.L.
1994-01-01
Like any other type of uncertainty, model uncertainty should be treated in terms of probabilities. The question is how to do this. The most commonly-used approach has a drawback related to the interpretation of the probabilities assigned to the models. If we step back and look at the big picture, asking what the appropriate focus of the model uncertainty question should be in the context of risk and decision analysis, we see that a different probabilistic approach makes more sense, although it raise some implementation questions. Current work that is underway to address these questions looks very promising
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents sediment size prediction uncertainty from a sediment spatial model developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. The model also...
Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, Erin
2005-01-01
Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy
Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)
Trimble, V.
2016-12-01
(Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumsden, M.D.; Argyriou, D.N.; Inosov, D.
2012-01-01
The microscopic origin of unconventional superconductivity continues to attract the attention of the condensed matter community. Whereas rare-earth / actinide-based intermetallic and copper oxide-based high temperature superconductors are studied for more than twenty years, the iron-based superconductors have been in the focus of interest since their recent discovery. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been of particular importance for the understanding of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these compounds. With its 29 talks and 14 posters the workshop provided a forum for the 71 registered participants to review and discuss experimental achievements, recognize the observed synergy and differences as well as discuss theoretical efforts to identify the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in addition to the coupling mechanisms of the Cooper pairs. The workshop covered different topics relevant for the study of unconventional superconductivity. Magnetization and lattice dynamics such as spin resonances, phonons, magnetic and other excitations as studied by spectroscopic methods were presented. Investigations of (doping, pressure and magnetic field dependent) phase diagrams, electronic states as well as vortex physics by the various diffraction techniques were also addressed. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-06-01
ANIMMA 2013 is the third of a series of conferences devoted to endorsing and promoting scientific and technical activities based on nuclear instrumentation and measurements. The main objective of ANIMMA conference is to unite the various scientific communities not only involved in nuclear instrumentation and measurements, but also in nuclear medicine and radiation. The conference is all about getting scientists, engineers and the industry to meet, exchange cultures and identify new scientific and technical prospects to help overcome both current and future unresolved issues. The conference provides scientists and engineers with a veritable opportunity to compare their latest research and development in different areas: physics, nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, safety, security, future energies (GEN III+, GENIV, ITER, ...). The conference topics include instrumentation and measurement methods for: Fundamental physics; Fusion diagnostics and technology; Nuclear power reactors; Research reactors; Nuclear fuel cycle; Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling; Safeguards, homeland security; Severe accident monitoring; Environmental and medical sciences; Education, training and outreach. This document brings together the abstracts of the presentations. Each presentation (full paper) is analysed separately and entered in INIS
Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)
Post, R. S.
2015-12-01
(Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.
Deterministic uncertainty analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worley, B.A.
1987-12-01
This paper presents a deterministic uncertainty analysis (DUA) method for calculating uncertainties that has the potential to significantly reduce the number of computer runs compared to conventional statistical analysis. The method is based upon the availability of derivative and sensitivity data such as that calculated using the well known direct or adjoint sensitivity analysis techniques. Formation of response surfaces using derivative data and the propagation of input probability distributions are discussed relative to their role in the DUA method. A sample problem that models the flow of water through a borehole is used as a basis to compare the cumulative distribution function of the flow rate as calculated by the standard statistical methods and the DUA method. Propogation of uncertainties by the DUA method is compared for ten cases in which the number of reference model runs was varied from one to ten. The DUA method gives a more accurate representation of the true cumulative distribution of the flow rate based upon as few as two model executions compared to fifty model executions using a statistical approach. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs
Uncertainty in social dilemmas
Kwaadsteniet, Erik Willem de
2007-01-01
This dissertation focuses on social dilemmas, and more specifically, on environmental uncertainty in these dilemmas. Real-life social dilemma situations are often characterized by uncertainty. For example, fishermen mostly do not know the exact size of the fish population (i.e., resource size uncertainty). Several researchers have therefore asked themselves the question as to how such uncertainty influences people’s choice behavior. These researchers have repeatedly concluded that uncertainty...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This publications related with 'Istanbul Technical University, Energy Workshop and Exhibition' that was held in Center of ITU Suleyman Demirel Culture in Istanbul, Turkey, 22-23 June 2006. A separated for each paper.
The Uncertainties of Risk Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vinnari, Eija; Skærbæk, Peter
2014-01-01
for expanding risk management. More generally, such uncertainties relate to the professional identities and responsibilities of operational managers as defined by the framing devices. Originality/value – The paper offers three contributions to the extant literature: first, it shows how risk management itself......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the implementation of risk management as a tool for internal audit activities, focusing on unexpected effects or uncertainties generated during its application. Design/methodology/approach – Public and confidential documents as well as semi......-structured interviews are analysed through the lens of actor-network theory to identify the effects of risk management devices in a Finnish municipality. Findings – The authors found that risk management, rather than reducing uncertainty, itself created unexpected uncertainties that would otherwise not have emerged...
Volume II: Compendium Abstracts
2008-08-01
breaking down of fuel into finer droplets, this design aims to increase the efficiency for liquid hydrocarbons and enable the use of JP-8 diesel in...varying the equivalent weight of the oligomeric diamine component, obeys universal response as the test temperature (T) is held constant in relation to...methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene) (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (POEM) and PS. These copolymers may support ionic
Typesafe Abstractions for Tensor Operations
Chen, Tongfei
2017-01-01
We propose a typesafe abstraction to tensors (i.e. multidimensional arrays) exploiting the type-level programming capabilities of Scala through heterogeneous lists (HList), and showcase typesafe abstractions of common tensor operations and various neural layers such as convolution or recurrent neural networks. This abstraction could lay the foundation of future typesafe deep learning frameworks that runs on Scala/JVM.
Uncertainty Characterization of Reactor Vessel Fracture Toughness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Fei; Modarres, Mohammad
2002-01-01
To perform fracture mechanics analysis of reactor vessel, fracture toughness (K Ic ) at various temperatures would be necessary. In a best estimate approach, K Ic uncertainties resulting from both lack of sufficient knowledge and randomness in some of the variables of K Ic must be characterized. Although it may be argued that there is only one type of uncertainty, which is lack of perfect knowledge about the subject under study, as a matter of practice K Ic uncertainties can be divided into two types: aleatory and epistemic. Aleatory uncertainty is related to uncertainty that is very difficult to reduce, if not impossible; epistemic uncertainty, on the other hand, can be practically reduced. Distinction between aleatory and epistemic uncertainties facilitates decision-making under uncertainty and allows for proper propagation of uncertainties in the computation process. Typically, epistemic uncertainties representing, for example, parameters of a model are sampled (to generate a 'snapshot', single-value of the parameters), but the totality of aleatory uncertainties is carried through the calculation as available. In this paper a description of an approach to account for these two types of uncertainties associated with K Ic has been provided. (authors)
Collective nuclear dynamics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrosimov, V.I.; Kolomietz, V.M.
1994-01-01
The fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects: liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete
of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...
Abstract algebra an introductory course
Lee, Gregory T
2018-01-01
This carefully written textbook offers a thorough introduction to abstract algebra, covering the fundamentals of groups, rings and fields. The first two chapters present preliminary topics such as properties of the integers and equivalence relations. The author then explores the first major algebraic structure, the group, progressing as far as the Sylow theorems and the classification of finite abelian groups. An introduction to ring theory follows, leading to a discussion of fields and polynomials that includes sections on splitting fields and the construction of finite fields. The final part contains applications to public key cryptography as well as classical straightedge and compass constructions. Explaining key topics at a gentle pace, this book is aimed at undergraduate students. It assumes no prior knowledge of the subject and contains over 500 exercises, half of which have detailed solutions provided.
Transplantation as an abstract good
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø; Olejaz, Maria
2015-01-01
This article investigates valuations of organ transfers that are currently seen as legitimising increasingly aggressive procurement methods in Denmark. Based on interviews with registered donors and the intensive care unit staff responsible for managing organ donor patients we identify three types...... a more general salience in the organ transplant field by way of facilitating a perception of organ transplantation as an abstract moral good rather than a specific good for specific people. Furthermore, we suggest that multiple forms of ignorance sustain each other: a desire for ignorance with respect...... to the prioritisation of recipients sustains pressure for more organs; this pressure necessitates more aggressive measures in organ procurement and these measures increase the need for ignorance in relation to the actual procedures as well as the actual recipients. These attempts to avoid knowledge are in remarkable...
Contents, Abstracts and Keywords
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
The Ethnic Minority Rights from the Angle of Multiculturalism Zhou Shaoqing（1） Abstract： Historically, multiculturalism was closely related to the ethnic minority rights. Currently there are two features in the research on multiculturalism and the ethnic minority rights. One is that most researchers do not strictly distinguish the different dimensions of multiculturalism, the other is that they tend to regard only multiculturalism as a theory of the ethnic minority rights, and less attach its importance to the multi-ethnie state construction. The thesis argues that multiculturalism has at least five dimensions, such as fact, theory, ideology, policy, and normative principle. The concept of the ethnic minority rights in each dimension has its special meaning and effect. The ethnic minority rights protection and the multi-ethnic state construction are two different aspects in the same historical process. Multiculturalism is not only a theory of the ethnic minority rights, but also an important supportive theory of the multi-ethnic state construction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
Religion, State and Civil Religion： Assumption and Practice of Confucian Religion in the Course of Nation-state Construction CAN Chun-song Abstract： In late Qing Dynasty and the early years of the Republic of China, Kang You-wei made a proposal to set Confucian religion as state religion. After analyzing carefully Kang＇s related texts, however, it can be shown that Kang had unique understandings of ＂religion＂ and ＂state religion＂. Kang defined Confucianism as religion in the sense of cultivation, and emphasized that the function of Confucianism was moral education. Kang＇s understanding of ＂state religion＂ aims to conserve Chinese traditional cultures and customs, shape the identity of nation-state, and enhance the state＇s cohesion. In this sense, Kang＇s definition of ＂national religion＂ is similar to to Bellah＇s ＂civil religion＂.
Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louise Marshall
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses.
Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hickok, R.L.
1979-01-01
This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics
Propagation of dynamic measurement uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hessling, J P
2011-01-01
The time-dependent measurement uncertainty has been evaluated in a number of recent publications, starting from a known uncertain dynamic model. This could be defined as the 'downward' propagation of uncertainty from the model to the targeted measurement. The propagation of uncertainty 'upward' from the calibration experiment to a dynamic model traditionally belongs to system identification. The use of different representations (time, frequency, etc) is ubiquitous in dynamic measurement analyses. An expression of uncertainty in dynamic measurements is formulated for the first time in this paper independent of representation, joining upward as well as downward propagation. For applications in metrology, the high quality of the characterization may be prohibitive for any reasonably large and robust model to pass the whiteness test. This test is therefore relaxed by not directly requiring small systematic model errors in comparison to the randomness of the characterization. Instead, the systematic error of the dynamic model is propagated to the uncertainty of the measurand, analogously but differently to how stochastic contributions are propagated. The pass criterion of the model is thereby transferred from the identification to acceptance of the total accumulated uncertainty of the measurand. This increases the relevance of the test of the model as it relates to its final use rather than the quality of the calibration. The propagation of uncertainty hence includes the propagation of systematic model errors. For illustration, the 'upward' propagation of uncertainty is applied to determine if an appliance box is damaged in an earthquake experiment. In this case, relaxation of the whiteness test was required to reach a conclusive result
Instrument uncertainty predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutts, D.A.
1991-07-01
The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty
Uncertainty in geological and hydrogeological data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Nilsson
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Uncertainty in conceptual model structure and in environmental data is of essential interest when dealing with uncertainty in water resources management. To make quantification of uncertainty possible is it necessary to identify and characterise the uncertainty in geological and hydrogeological data. This paper discusses a range of available techniques to describe the uncertainty related to geological model structure and scale of support. Literature examples on uncertainty in hydrogeological variables such as saturated hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, effective porosity and dispersivity are given. Field data usually have a spatial and temporal scale of support that is different from the one on which numerical models for water resources management operate. Uncertainty in hydrogeological data variables is characterised and assessed within the methodological framework of the HarmoniRiB classification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cooke Georga PE
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP registrars. Methods We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional survey of GP registrars in Australia from June to July 2010, recruited from a newsletter item or registrar education events. Survey measures included the Resilience Scale-14, a single-item scale for burnout, Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL scale, Personal Meaning in Patient Care scale, Intolerance of Uncertainty-12 scale, and Physician Response to Uncertainty scale. Results 128 GP registrars responded (response rate 90%. Fourteen percent of registrars were found to be at risk of burnout using the single-item scale for burnout, but none met the criteria for burnout using the ProQOL scale. Secondary traumatic stress, general intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety due to clinical uncertainty and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients were associated with being at higher risk of burnout, but sex, age, practice location, training duration, years since graduation, and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to physicians were not. Only ten percent of registrars had high resilience scores. Resilience was positively associated with compassion satisfaction and personal meaning in patient care. Resilience was negatively associated with burnout, secondary traumatic stress, inhibitory anxiety, general intolerance to uncertainty, concern about bad outcomes and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients. Conclusions GP registrars in this survey showed a lower level of burnout than in other recent surveys of the broader junior doctor population in both Australia
Nuclear-data uncertainty propagations in burnup calculation for the PWR assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, Chenghui; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Shen, Wei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The DRAGON 5.0 and NECP-CACTI have been implemented in UNICORN. • The effects of different neutronics methods on S&U results were quantified. • Uncertainty analysis has been applied to burnup calculation of PWR assembly. • The uncertainties of eigenvalue and few-group constants have been quantified. - Abstract: In this paper, our home-developed lattice code NECP-CACTI has been implemented into our UNICORN code to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for the lattice calculations. The verified multigroup cross-section perturbation model and methods of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are established and applied to different lattice codes in UNICORN. As DRAGON5.0 and NECP-CACTI are available for the lattice calculations in UNICORN now, the effects of different neutronics methods (including methods for the neutron-transport and resonance self-shielding calculations) on the results of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were studied in this paper. Based on NECP-CACTI, uncertainty analysis using the statistical sampling method has been performed to the burnup calculation for the fresh-fueled TMI-1 assembly, propagating the nuclear-data uncertainties to k_∞ and two-group constants of the lattice calculation with depletions. As results shown, for different neutronics methods, it can be observed that different methods of the neutron-transport calculation introduce no differences to the results of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, while different methods of the resonance self-shielding calculation would impact the results. With depletions of the TMI-1 assembly, for k_∞, the relative uncertainty varies between 0.45% and 0.60%; for two-group constants, the largest variation is between 0.35% and 2.56% for vΣ_f_,_2. Moreover, the most significant contributors to the uncertainty of k_∞ and two-group constants varied with depletions are determined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gürhan UYSAL
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.
Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna M Borghi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.
Investment, regulation, and uncertainty
Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose
2014-01-01
As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases. This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745
Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.
Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety
Williams, Amanda S.
2013-01-01
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…
Frontopolar cortex mediates abstract integration in analogy.
Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Kraemer, David J M; Shamosh, Noah A; Dunbar, Kevin N
2006-06-22
Integration of abstractly similar relations during analogical reasoning was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation elicited by an analogical reasoning task that required both complex working memory and integration of abstractly similar relations was compared to activation elicited by a non-analogical task that required complex working memory in the absence of abstract relational integration. A left-sided region of the frontal pole of the brain (BA 9/10) was selectively active for the abstract relational integration component of analogical reasoning. Analogical reasoning also engaged a left-sided network of parieto-frontal regions. Activity in this network during analogical reasoning is hypothesized to reflect categorical alignment of individual component terms that make up analogies. This parieto-frontal network was also engaged by the complex control task, which involved explicit categorization, but not by a simpler control task, which did not involve categorization. We hypothesize that frontopolar cortex mediates abstract relational integration in complex reasoning while parieto-frontal regions mediate working memory processes, including manipulation of terms for the purpose of categorical alignment, that facilitate this integration.
Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength
Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
2013-01-01
Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picel, K.C.
1995-01-01
Projected volumes of contaminated media and debris at US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration sites that are potentially subject to the hazardous waste provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act are needed to support programmatic planning. Such projections have been gathered in various surveys conducted under DOE's environmental restoration and waste management programs. It is expected that reducing uncertainty in the projections through review of existing site data and process knowledge and through further site characterization will result in substantially lowered projections. If promulgated, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Waste Identification Rule would result in potentially even greater reductions in the projections when site conditions are reviewed under the provisions of the new rule. Reducing uncertainty in projections under current and future waste identification rules may be necessary to support effective remediation planning. Further characterization efforts that may be conducted should be designed to limit uncertainty in identifying volumes of wastes to the extent needed to support alternative selection and to minimize costs of remediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andres, T.H.
2002-05-01
This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andres, T.H
2002-05-01
This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)
Uncertainty and Cognitive Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faisal eMushtaq
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.
Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denney, R.M.
1982-01-01
The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts
Nuclear code abstracts (1975 edition)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akanuma, Makoto; Hirakawa, Takashi
1976-02-01
Nuclear Code Abstracts is compiled in the Nuclear Code Committee to exchange information of the nuclear code developments among members of the committee. Enlarging the collection, the present one includes nuclear code abstracts obtained in 1975 through liaison officers of the organizations in Japan participating in the Nuclear Energy Agency's Computer Program Library at Ispra, Italy. The classification of nuclear codes and the format of code abstracts are the same as those in the library. (auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mawardi Bahri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The continuous quaternion wavelet transform (CQWT is a generalization of the classical continuous wavelet transform within the context of quaternion algebra. First of all, we show that the directional quaternion Fourier transform (QFT uncertainty principle can be obtained using the component-wise QFT uncertainty principle. Based on this method, the directional QFT uncertainty principle using representation of polar coordinate form is easily derived. We derive a variation on uncertainty principle related to the QFT. We state that the CQWT of a quaternion function can be written in terms of the QFT and obtain a variation on uncertainty principle related to the CQWT. Finally, we apply the extended uncertainty principles and properties of the CQWT to establish logarithmic uncertainty principles related to generalized transform.
Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Acknowledge Uncertainty?
Teunis, Teun; Janssen, Stein; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David; Parisien, Robert
2016-06-01
of experience. Two hundred forty-two (34%) members completed the survey. We found no differences between responders and nonresponders. Each survey item measured its own trait better than any of the other traits. Recognition of uncertainty (0.70) and confidence bias (0.75) had relatively high Cronbach alpha levels, meaning that the questions making up these traits are closely related and probably measure the same construct. This was lower for statistical understanding (0.48) and trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (0.37). Subsequently, combining each trait's individual questions, we calculated a 0 to 10 score for each trait. The mean recognition of uncertainty score was 3.2 ± 1.4. Recognition of uncertainty in daily practice did not vary by years in practice (0-5 years, 3.2 ± 1.3; 6-10 years, 2.9 ± 1.3; 11-20 years, 3.2 ± 1.4; 21-30 years, 3.3 ± 1.6 years; p = 0.51), but overconfidence bias did correlate with years in practice (0-5 years, 6.2 ± 1.4; 6-10 years, 7.1 ± 1.3; 11-20 years, 7.4 ± 1.4; 21-30 years, 7.1 ± 1.2 years; p < 0.001). Accounting for a potential interaction of variables using multivariable analysis, less recognition of uncertainty was independently but weakly associated with working in a multispecialty group compared with academic practice (β regression coefficient, -0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.0 to -0.055; partial R(2), 0.021; p = 0.029), belief in God or any other deity/deities (β, -0.57; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.11; partial R(2), 0.026; p = 0.015), greater confidence bias (β, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.14; partial R(2), 0.084; p < 0.001), and greater trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (β, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.058; partial R(2), 0.040; p = 0.002). Better statistical understanding was independently, and more strongly, associated with greater recognition of uncertainty (β, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.17-0.34; partial R(2), 0.13; p < 0.001). Our full model accounted for 29% of the variability in recognition of uncertainty (adjusted
Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.
Coupling Radar Rainfall to Hydrological Models for Water Abstraction Management
Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; MacDonald, Ken
2015-04-01
The impacts of climate change and growing water use are likely to put considerable pressure on water resources and the environment. In the UK, a reform to surface water abstraction policy has recently been proposed which aims to increase the efficiency of using available water resources whilst minimising impacts on the aquatic environment. Key aspects to this reform include the consideration of dynamic rather than static abstraction licensing as well as introducing water trading concepts. Dynamic licensing will permit varying levels of abstraction dependent on environmental conditions (i.e. river flow and quality). The practical implementation of an effective dynamic abstraction strategy requires suitable flow forecasting techniques to inform abstraction asset management. Potentially the predicted availability of water resources within a catchment can be coupled to predicted demand and current storage to inform a cost effective water resource management strategy which minimises environmental impacts. The aim of this work is to use a historical analysis of UK case study catchment to compare potential water resource availability using modelled dynamic abstraction scenario informed by a flow forecasting model, against observed abstraction under a conventional abstraction regime. The work also demonstrates the impacts of modelling uncertainties on the accuracy of predicted water availability over range of forecast lead times. The study utilised a conceptual rainfall-runoff model PDM - Probability-Distributed Model developed by Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - set up in the Dove River catchment (UK) using 1km2 resolution radar rainfall as inputs and 15 min resolution gauged flow data for calibration and validation. Data assimilation procedures are implemented to improve flow predictions using observed flow data. Uncertainties in the radar rainfall data used in the model are quantified using artificial statistical error model described by Gaussian distribution and
African Journals Online (AJOL)
descriptive statistics, Z-test and multiple regressiion analysis. Results show that the ... protein intake from animal sources, which is less than 10gm/capita /day ... production offish and fish products through effective fisheries extension efforts ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Revolution of 1911 Promoting the Deep Development of the CPC History and National History by the Research and Publication of the History of the Revolution of …………1911 Zhu Jiamu （4）
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
inner forces (bending moments, shearing forces etc) are usually redistributed. Cracks that often appear within the walls of tall buildings during constructions point to this phenomenon. It has also been recognized that foundation engineering is complicated. (1). Also settlement has been accepted as stress induced and time ...
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1 Uyole Agr.icultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Co-operatives,. P.o Box 400 ... from this study suggest that participation in dairy market depended on access to both in-put and output ..... Socio-economics and.
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abstract abstract
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including 0, 500 and 1000 µl L-1 and 3 level of MeSA including 0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM. After treatment, the fruits were inoculated by Botrytis suspension and transferred to storage and quality parameters were evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days. At each sampling time, disease incidence, weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that both LEO and MeSA treatments had significant effects on inhibition of mycelium growth within in-vitro condition (p < 0.05. Inhibition rate of mycelium growth significantly improved by LEO and MeSA concentration increase of, (Table 1. At in-vivo assessment, diseases incidence of treated fruits with 500 µl L-1 LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA were 32% and 64% lower than untreated fruits, respectively (Fig. 1 and 2. During storage period, the percentage of infected fruits increased. In addition, LEO and MeSA treatments affected quality parameters of strawberry fruits including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity. Treated fruits had a high content of soluble solids, vitamin C and antioxidant activity in comparison to untreated fruits (Table 3 and 4. Probably ascorbic acid decreased through fungal infection duo to cell wall break down during storage. Any factors such as essential oil and salicylate that inhibit fungal growth can help preserving vitamin C in stored products. High level of vitamin C and antioxidant activity was observed in treated fruits with 0.1 mM MeSA and 500 µl L-1 LEO. In controlling weight loss of fruits, 0.2 mM of MeSA and 500 µl L-1 of LEO had significant effects, although MeSA was more effective than LEO treatments, possibly due to elimination of respiration rates and fungi infection (Table 4. Therefore, LEO and MeSA with fungicide effects could be replaced with synthetic fungicides in controlling fungal diseases of strawberry and maintain fruits quality during storage. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results showed that LEO and MeSA treatments could be safe and used to prevent infection of strawberry during storage, although LEO was more effective than MeSA treatments. Concentration of 500 μl L-1 of LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA could control fungal infection of fruits during storage. Also, LEO and MeSA treatments can extend shelf life for over the minimum period required to transit strawberries to foreign markets and without affecting quality, adversely. However, future studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which LEO and MeSA treatments may act as a fungicide and increase their postharvest life.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
a route of HIV transmission with sex (p=0.003) and age (p=0.000) being highly ... preventing HIV, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), health behaviour and ..... order to determine which infant feeding methods were perceived ..... breast diseases, cancer, insufficient milk, work and pregnancy.
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ATTAMAH C. O
female ̅=3.50; difference in mean{dm} = -0.70). Male entrepreneurs ... with the variance more on lack of information facilities (male ̅= 2.28; female. ̅= 2.60; dm = -0.32). ..... Issa R. (2009). Climate Change and Livestock Production Frontier.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
and Marketed in'Morogoro Municipality,"Taniania. lR. ... It was concluded that water adulteration ofmilk in ... Despite the fact that infofmal milk marketing i{ ..... Least sqoares ~einsand standard error of means (SEM) for'milk quality variables;.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective: To determine the incidence of post operative SSI after primary total hip arthroplasty. Design: A retrospective cohort study. ... Conclusion: The risk of post operative SSI after total hip arthroplasties is low in the African setting. Further investigation is .... knee replacements for osteoarthritis. J. Bone Joint. Surg.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-03-10
Mar 10, 2017 ... factors with low to moderate effect which have been described (Klareskog et al. 2006). The strongest ... 2014). Several studies in GWAS and meta-analyses ... All patients and healthy controls gave informed consent to .... HLA-DQB1 encoded chain of MHC-II protein and HLA-DQA2 encoded chain of MHC-II ...
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Maru Shete
business owned and controlled equally by the members that is targeted to break the ... The Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme of OSHO is focused in supporting the ..... The Report of United Nations (2005) indicates an improvement in the.
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PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU
An Authoring system is a software with pre-programmed elements which allows both programmers ... doing things in all aspects of human endeavour. ... learning is offered through an Internet .... based or problem-based learning environment.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
status of households in Owemi agricultural area of Imo state, isolate the determinants of ... importation, the country has hardly ever provided enough food for her teeming ..... Third in importance is the sale of valuable items as a coping strategy. The type ... while 70% preferred begging for food to dying of starvation. However,.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-09-01
The proceedings contain 106 papers of which 2 fall under the INIS Scope. One concerns seismic risk assessment at radioactive waste repositories in the U.S., the other concerns the possibility of predicting earthquakes from changes in radon 222 levels in selected ground water springs of northern Italy. (M.D.)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
dell
The study was conducted on high schools around the vicinity of Jimma. University easy to ... and community/Kebele leaders were sources of information and media ... biological, health sciences, social sciences ...... and one or more elementary.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
`123456789jkl''''#
1, 2Department of Educational Technology Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria oasofowora@yahoo.com. 46 ... Geography teachers drawn from secondary schools in Osun State. ..... Elementary/Secondary Education Handbook an.
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`123456789jkl''''#
extent of the integration of the new technology in teaching and learning Geography in Nigerian ... mounted pressure advocating for the removal ... which reduce opportunities for developing .... the fact the subject has distance itself from the.
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UDS-CAPTURED
examines the extent of women farmers' access to credit from Rural Banks (RBs) in the Upper East. Region of Ghana. .... In this regard, anybody who does not attempt to get credit from formal, semi-formal/endogenous or ... District and the Builsa Community Rural Bank with its headquarters at Sandema in the Builsa. District.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
E¢b
development of its economy presupposes entrepreneurial direction, which is ... and independence. Ethiopian business men and women should take intelligent risks ... opportunities. Such a strategy helps Ethiopian entrepreneurship to grow. .... propensity, and high energy decreased as the cultural distance from the United ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-03-10
Mar 10, 2017 ... autoimmune and infectious diseases including type 1 diabetes (Nakanishi and Inoko 2006) and chronic HCV infection (Tibbs et al. 1996). Additionally, it was suggested that it may be a shared epitope for RA (Li et al. 2013). According to these data and our findings, we can suggest that there is an interaction ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2012-01-01
4The Current Trends in Global Mineral Exploration and Development LIU Shucken （Information Center of Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100812, China） Abstract： This paper introduces the main issues that the global mineral exploration and development are faced with. The main issues of focus include： the mineral exploration has rapidly recovered from the short depression caused by the effects of global financial crisis; most of the important mineral reserves have continued to grow; there has been continued rapid growth in mining development investment; the supply capacity of mineral products has increased; mergers and acquisitions of mining company are stirring, and multinational mergers ＆ acquisitions has become mainstream,
African Journals Online (AJOL)
used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated .... with studies that focused so heavily 'on the beliefs and attitudes of those who are .... to harm the PLHA (e.g. ridicule, insults, blame), 8 items, alpha. = 0.886; (ii) ... self based on HIV status, 5 items, alpha = 0.906; (iii) health care neglect – in ...
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Getachew
realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the .... the paper models the cost function based on a realistic probability distributions based on the historical data is a .... Plot of Revenue generated vs. overbooking for two class case (at $500. Compensation Cost ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle de Stefano Sabino
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
The minutes of the Latinamerican Geology Meeting and the 3. Uruguayan Meeting organized by the National Direction of Mining and Geology (DINAMIGE) and Uruguayan Geology Society (Uruguay) includes topics such as: paleontology, sedimentation, stratigraphy, fossils, paleoclimatology, geo tectonics, coal deposits, minerals res sources, tectonic evolution of the Andes Mountain Ranges, IGCP Project, Environmental geology, Hydrogeology, fuels, and geomorphology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-01-01
The power point presentation is about: danger identification, caracterization, evaluation exposition, risk (CAC, 1997; FAO, 2007), European food safety authority, foodrisk organization, pathogens risk ranking, risk reduction, gubernamental responsability
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Efforts have also been successfully made to include the study of rock art in the school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
BSN
A CHEMICAL STlJDY OF AN I 'DI GENO KNOWLED<:E SYSTEM OF ... preservation of "kindirmo" with water and ethanol extracts of seeds and husk of. CO\\\\'J)Ca for ... Such facilities arc ho1\\·ever not a\\ailable to most peasant animal farmers.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Many mathematical models of stochastic dynamical systems were based on the assumption that the drift ... stochastic process with state space S is a ..... The algorithm was implemented through a MatLab script and the result of the simulation is.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
Wu Jie and Duan Yanchao. The current line drawing of Laterolog and its application. PI, 2011, 25（4） ： 1 - 4 The current line plays an important role in the directly understanding the characteristics of Laterolog tool. A method of drawing current lines for the discrete potential data based on the Finite Element calculation is studied. It solves a series of key problems, including the selection of step length, the identification of direction, treatment of nmtation point and the control of stop. A drawing program is written by MATLAB software. Taking the current line drawing of the dual Laterolog logging as an example, we analyze the tool＇s investigation characteristics in the several formations such as homogeneous, low or high invasion, and invasion with shoulder. These results verify the effectiveness of the new method. The method can be applied to the other kinds of Laterolog tools to draw their current lines and analyze their investigation characteristics.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
on human development are sufficiently important to warrant an integration of. HIV and .... interaction of HIV and malaria22, The discussions that follow further sub- .... HIV —MTCT and the paediatric management of children born of ser0p0$l-.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tafdrup, Oliver
2013-01-01
Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf......Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf...
Abstract concepts in grounded cognition
Lakens, D.
2010-01-01
When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and
Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2011-01-01
We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well...... as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...... from abstract interpretation and operating upon mappings from sets to intervals in order to express simultaneous over- and underapprox-imations of the multisets of process actions available in a particular state. We obtain a finite abstraction that is 3-valued in both states and transitions...
Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broesius, J.Y.
1991-01-01
This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing
Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.
Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan
2016-08-01
Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations.
Uncertainty analysis in Monte Carlo criticality computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Ao
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Two types of uncertainty methods for k eff Monte Carlo computations are examined. ► Sampling method has the least restrictions on perturbation but computing resources. ► Analytical method is limited to small perturbation on material properties. ► Practicality relies on efficiency, multiparameter applicability and data availability. - Abstract: Uncertainty analysis is imperative for nuclear criticality risk assessments when using Monte Carlo neutron transport methods to predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (k eff ) for fissionable material systems. For the validation of Monte Carlo codes for criticality computations against benchmark experiments, code accuracy and precision are measured by both the computational bias and uncertainty in the bias. The uncertainty in the bias accounts for known or quantified experimental, computational and model uncertainties. For the application of Monte Carlo codes for criticality analysis of fissionable material systems, an administrative margin of subcriticality must be imposed to provide additional assurance of subcriticality for any unknown or unquantified uncertainties. Because of a substantial impact of the administrative margin of subcriticality on economics and safety of nuclear fuel cycle operations, recently increasing interests in reducing the administrative margin of subcriticality make the uncertainty analysis in criticality safety computations more risk-significant. This paper provides an overview of two most popular k eff uncertainty analysis methods for Monte Carlo criticality computations: (1) sampling-based methods, and (2) analytical methods. Examples are given to demonstrate their usage in the k eff uncertainty analysis due to uncertainties in both neutronic and non-neutronic parameters of fissionable material systems.
Uncertainty in spatial planning proceedings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleš Mlakar
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Uncertainty is distinctive of spatial planning as it arises from the necessity to co-ordinate the various interests within the area, from the urgency of adopting spatial planning decisions, the complexity of the environment, physical space and society, addressing the uncertainty of the future and from the uncertainty of actually making the right decision. Response to uncertainty is a series of measures that mitigate the effects of uncertainty itself. These measures are based on two fundamental principles – standardization and optimization. The measures are related to knowledge enhancement and spatial planning comprehension, in the legal regulation of changes, in the existence of spatial planning as a means of different interests co-ordination, in the active planning and the constructive resolution of current spatial problems, in the integration of spatial planning and the environmental protection process, in the implementation of the analysis as the foundation of spatial planners activities, in the methods of thinking outside the parameters, in forming clear spatial concepts and in creating a transparent management spatial system and also in the enforcement the participatory processes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, C.B.
1987-08-01
The uncertainties of calculations of loss-of-feedwater transients at Davis-Besse Unit 1 were determined to address concerns of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission relative to the effectiveness of feed and bleed cooling. Davis-Besse Unit 1 is a pressurized water reactor of the raised-loop Babcock and Wilcox design. A detailed, quality-assured RELAP5/MOD2 model of Davis-Besse was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to perform an analysis of the loss-of-feedwater transient that occurred at Davis-Besse on June 9, 1985. A loss-of-feedwater transient followed by feed and bleed cooling was also calculated. The evaluation of uncertainty was based on the comparisons of calculations and data, comparisons of different calculations of the same transient, sensitivity calculations, and the propagation of the estimated uncertainty in initial and boundary conditions to the final calculated results
Addressing uncertainties in the ERICA Integrated Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oughton, D.H.; Agueero, A.; Avila, R.; Brown, J.E.; Copplestone, D.; Gilek, M.
2008-01-01
Like any complex environmental problem, ecological risk assessment of the impacts of ionising radiation is confounded by uncertainty. At all stages, from problem formulation through to risk characterisation, the assessment is dependent on models, scenarios, assumptions and extrapolations. These include technical uncertainties related to the data used, conceptual uncertainties associated with models and scenarios, as well as social uncertainties such as economic impacts, the interpretation of legislation, and the acceptability of the assessment results to stakeholders. The ERICA Integrated Approach has been developed to allow an assessment of the risks of ionising radiation, and includes a number of methods that are intended to make the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the assessment more transparent to users and stakeholders. Throughout its development, ERICA has recommended that assessors deal openly with the deeper dimensions of uncertainty and acknowledge that uncertainty is intrinsic to complex systems. Since the tool is based on a tiered approach, the approaches to dealing with uncertainty vary between the tiers, ranging from a simple, but highly conservative screening to a full probabilistic risk assessment including sensitivity analysis. This paper gives on overview of types of uncertainty that are manifest in ecological risk assessment and the ERICA Integrated Approach to dealing with some of these uncertainties
Model uncertainty and probability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parry, G.W.
1994-01-01
This paper discusses the issue of model uncertainty. The use of probability as a measure of an analyst's uncertainty as well as a means of describing random processes has caused some confusion, even though the two uses are representing different types of uncertainty with respect to modeling a system. The importance of maintaining the distinction between the two types is illustrated with a simple example
Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates
Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Kanal, LN
1986-01-01
How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.
Uncertainties in hydrogen combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stamps, D.W.; Wong, C.C.; Nelson, L.S.
1988-01-01
Three important areas of hydrogen combustion with uncertainties are identified: high-temperature combustion, flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition, and aerosol resuspension during hydrogen combustion. The uncertainties associated with high-temperature combustion may affect at least three different accident scenarios: the in-cavity oxidation of combustible gases produced by core-concrete interactions, the direct containment heating hydrogen problem, and the possibility of local detonations. How these uncertainties may affect the sequence of various accident scenarios is discussed and recommendations are made to reduce these uncertainties. 40 references
Model Uncertainty for Bilinear Hysteretic Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
1984-01-01
. The statistical uncertainty -due to lack of information can e.g. be taken into account by describing the variables by predictive density functions, Veneziano [2). In general, model uncertainty is the uncertainty connected with mathematical modelling of the physical reality. When structural reliability analysis...... is related to the concept of a failure surface (or limit state surface) in the n-dimensional basic variable space then model uncertainty is at least due to the neglected variables, the modelling of the failure surface and the computational technique used. A more precise definition is given in section 2...
Phenomenon of Uncertainty as a Subjective Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lifintseva A.A.
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of uncertainty in illness of patients is discussed and analyzed in this article. Uncertainty in illness is a condition that accompanies the patient from the moment of appearance of the first somatic symptoms of the disease and could be strengthened or weakened thanks to many psychosocial factors. The level of uncertainty is related to the level of stress, emotional disadaptation, affective states, coping strategies, mechanisms of psychological defense, etc. Uncertainty can perform destructive functions, acting as a trigger for stressful conditions and launching negative emotional experiences. As a positive function of uncertainty, one can note a possible positive interpretation of the patient's disease. In addition, the state of uncertainty allows the patient to activate the resources of coping with the disease, among which the leading role belongs to social support.
Communication and Agreement Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Asynchronous Distributed Systems
Raynal, Michel
2010-01-01
Understanding distributed computing is not an easy task. This is due to the many facets of uncertainty one has to cope with and master in order to produce correct distributed software. Considering the uncertainty created by asynchrony and process crash failures in the context of message-passing systems, the book focuses on the main abstractions that one has to understand and master in order to be able to produce software with guaranteed properties. These fundamental abstractions are communication abstractions that allow the processes to communicate consistently (namely the register abstraction
Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Mads
The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....
Fuzzy Uncertainty Evaluation for Fault Tree Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ki Beom; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
This traditional probabilistic approach can calculate relatively accurate results. However it requires a long time because of repetitive computation due to the MC method. In addition, when informative data for statistical analysis are not sufficient or some events are mainly caused by human error, the probabilistic approach may not be possible because uncertainties of these events are difficult to be expressed by probabilistic distributions. In order to reduce the computation time and quantify uncertainties of top events when basic events whose uncertainties are difficult to be expressed by probabilistic distributions exist, the fuzzy uncertainty propagation based on fuzzy set theory can be applied. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy uncertainty propagation code and apply the fault tree of the core damage accident after the large loss of coolant accident (LLOCA). The fuzzy uncertainty propagation code is implemented and tested for the fault tree of the radiation release accident. We apply this code to the fault tree of the core damage accident after the LLOCA in three cases and compare the results with those computed by the probabilistic uncertainty propagation using the MC method. The results obtained by the fuzzy uncertainty propagation can be calculated in relatively short time, covering the results obtained by the probabilistic uncertainty propagation.
The Stock Market: Risk vs. Uncertainty.
Griffitts, Dawn
2002-01-01
This economics education publication focuses on the U.S. stock market and the risk and uncertainty that an individual faces when investing in the market. The material explains that risk and uncertainty relate to the same underlying concept randomness. It defines and discusses both concepts and notes that although risk is quantifiable, uncertainty…
Evaluating Predictive Uncertainty of Hyporheic Exchange Modelling
Chow, R.; Bennett, J.; Dugge, J.; Wöhling, T.; Nowak, W.
2017-12-01
Hyporheic exchange is the interaction of water between rivers and groundwater, and is difficult to predict. One of the largest contributions to predictive uncertainty for hyporheic fluxes have been attributed to the representation of heterogeneous subsurface properties. This research aims to evaluate which aspect of the subsurface representation - the spatial distribution of hydrofacies or the model for local-scale (within-facies) heterogeneity - most influences the predictive uncertainty. Also, we seek to identify data types that help reduce this uncertainty best. For this investigation, we conduct a modelling study of the Steinlach River meander, in Southwest Germany. The Steinlach River meander is an experimental site established in 2010 to monitor hyporheic exchange at the meander scale. We use HydroGeoSphere, a fully integrated surface water-groundwater model, to model hyporheic exchange and to assess the predictive uncertainty of hyporheic exchange transit times (HETT). A highly parameterized complex model is built and treated as `virtual reality', which is in turn modelled with simpler subsurface parameterization schemes (Figure). Then, we conduct Monte-Carlo simulations with these models to estimate the predictive uncertainty. Results indicate that: Uncertainty in HETT is relatively small for early times and increases with transit times. Uncertainty from local-scale heterogeneity is negligible compared to uncertainty in the hydrofacies distribution. Introducing more data to a poor model structure may reduce predictive variance, but does not reduce predictive bias. Hydraulic head observations alone cannot constrain the uncertainty of HETT, however an estimate of hyporheic exchange flux proves to be more effective at reducing this uncertainty. Figure: Approach for evaluating predictive model uncertainty. A conceptual model is first developed from the field investigations. A complex model (`virtual reality') is then developed based on that conceptual model
Kennedy, Theodore A.
2013-01-01
Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of
Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.
Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y
1996-01-01
Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.
Classification and moral evaluation of uncertainties in engineering modeling.
Murphy, Colleen; Gardoni, Paolo; Harris, Charles E
2011-09-01
Engineers must deal with risks and uncertainties as a part of their professional work and, in particular, uncertainties are inherent to engineering models. Models play a central role in engineering. Models often represent an abstract and idealized version of the mathematical properties of a target. Using models, engineers can investigate and acquire understanding of how an object or phenomenon will perform under specified conditions. This paper defines the different stages of the modeling process in engineering, classifies the various sources of uncertainty that arise in each stage, and discusses the categories into which these uncertainties fall. The paper then considers the way uncertainty and modeling are approached in science and the criteria for evaluating scientific hypotheses, in order to highlight the very different criteria appropriate for the development of models and the treatment of the inherent uncertainties in engineering. Finally, the paper puts forward nine guidelines for the treatment of uncertainty in engineering modeling.
Uncertainties in radioecological assessment models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.; Ng, Y.C.
1983-01-01
Environmental radiological assessments rely heavily on the use of mathematical models. The predictions of these models are inherently uncertain because models are inexact representations of real systems. The major sources of this uncertainty are related to bias in model formulation and imprecision in parameter estimation. The magnitude of uncertainty is a function of the questions asked of the model and the specific radionuclides and exposure pathways of dominant importance. It is concluded that models developed as research tools should be distinguished from models developed for assessment applications. Furthermore, increased model complexity does not necessarily guarantee increased accuracy. To improve the realism of assessment modeling, stochastic procedures are recommended that translate uncertain parameter estimates into a distribution of predicted values. These procedures also permit the importance of model parameters to be ranked according to their relative contribution to the overall predicted uncertainty. Although confidence in model predictions can be improved through site-specific parameter estimation and increased model validation, health risk factors and internal dosimetry models will probably remain important contributors to the amount of uncertainty that is irreducible. 41 references, 4 figures, 4 tables
Youth Studies Abstracts, Vol. 3 No. 1.
Youth Studies Abstracts, 1984
1984-01-01
These abstracts summarize 73 research projects that were conducted in Australia during 1982 and 1983 to investigate various issues related to youth employment and unemployment. Included among the topics addressed in the individual research projects are the following: economic developments, education and rural communities; employment (changing…
Waste management research abstracts No. 18
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-12-01
The eighteenth issue of this publication contains over 750 abstracts from 33 IAEA member countries comprehending various aspects of radioactive waste management. Radioactive waste disposal, processing and storage, geochemical and geological investigations related to waste management, mathematical models and environmental impacts are reviewed
Uncertainty in social dilemmas
Kwaadsteniet, Erik Willem de
2007-01-01
This dissertation focuses on social dilemmas, and more specifically, on environmental uncertainty in these dilemmas. Real-life social dilemma situations are often characterized by uncertainty. For example, fishermen mostly do not know the exact size of the fish population (i.e., resource size
Uncertainty and Climate Change
Berliner, L. Mark
2003-01-01
Anthropogenic, or human-induced, climate change is a critical issue in science and in the affairs of humankind. Though the target of substantial research, the conclusions of climate change studies remain subject to numerous uncertainties. This article presents a very brief review of the basic arguments regarding anthropogenic climate change with particular emphasis on uncertainty.
Deterministic uncertainty analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worley, B.A.
1987-01-01
Uncertainties of computer results are of primary interest in applications such as high-level waste (HLW) repository performance assessment in which experimental validation is not possible or practical. This work presents an alternate deterministic approach for calculating uncertainties that has the potential to significantly reduce the number of computer runs required for conventional statistical analysis. 7 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Depres, B.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.
2009-01-01
More than 150 researchers and engineers from universities and the industrial world met to discuss on the new methodologies developed around assessing uncertainty. About 20 papers were presented and the main topics were: methods to study the propagation of uncertainties, sensitivity analysis, nuclear data covariances or multi-parameter optimisation. This report gathers the contributions of CEA researchers and engineers
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom
Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.
2011-01-01
Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…
Large-uncertainty intelligent states for angular momentum and angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goette, Joerg B; Zambrini, Roberta; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M
2005-01-01
The equality in the uncertainty principle for linear momentum and position is obtained for states which also minimize the uncertainty product. However, in the uncertainty relation for angular momentum and angular position both sides of the inequality are state dependent and therefore the intelligent states, which satisfy the equality, do not necessarily give a minimum for the uncertainty product. In this paper, we highlight the difference between intelligent states and minimum uncertainty states by investigating a class of intelligent states which obey the equality in the angular uncertainty relation while having an arbitrarily large uncertainty product. To develop an understanding for the uncertainties of angle and angular momentum for the large-uncertainty intelligent states we compare exact solutions with analytical approximations in two limiting cases
[Influence of Uncertainty and Uncertainty Appraisal on Self-management in Hemodialysis Patients].
Jang, Hyung Suk; Lee, Chang Suk; Yang, Young Hee
2015-04-01
This study was done to examine the relation of uncertainty, uncertainty appraisal, and self-management in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and to identify factors influencing self-management. A convenience sample of 92 patients receiving hemodialysis was selected. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and medical records. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. The participants showed a moderate level of uncertainty with the highest score being for ambiguity among the four uncertainty subdomains. Scores for uncertainty danger or opportunity appraisals were under the mid points. The participants were found to perform a high level of self-management such as diet control, management of arteriovenous fistula, exercise, medication, physical management, measurements of body weight and blood pressure, and social activity. The self-management of participants undergoing hemodialysis showed a significant relationship with uncertainty and uncertainty appraisal. The significant factors influencing self-management were uncertainty, uncertainty opportunity appraisal, hemodialysis duration, and having a spouse. These variables explained 32.8% of the variance in self-management. The results suggest that intervention programs to reduce the level of uncertainty and to increase the level of uncertainty opportunity appraisal among patients would improve the self-management of hemodialysis patients.