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Sample records for ultrasound therapy strengthening

  1. Effectiveness of using ultrasound therapy and manual therapy in the conservative treatment of calcaneal spur – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twarowska Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcaneal spur is a pathology of the fibrocartilage enthesis of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia or a pathology of the mixed enthesis of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle. Ultrasound therapy is commonly applied in the conservative treatment of a calcaneal spur. Foot muscle strengthening exercises, stretching exercises and soft tissue therapy are indicated as effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to compare and assess the effects of ultrasound therapy and selected techniques of manual therapy on pain level and functional state in patients with calcaneal spur.

  2. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound for therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John M. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Williams, Ross [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Sheeran, Paul S. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Milot, Laurent [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bjarnason, Georg A. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Toronto, and Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Burns, Peter N., E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative imaging is a crucial component of the assessment of therapies that target the vasculature of angiogenic or inflamed tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) using microbubble contrast offers the advantages of being sensitive to perfusion, non-invasive, cost effective and well suited to repeated use at the bedside. Uniquely, it employs an agent that is truly intravascular. This papers reviews the principles and methodology of DCE-US, especially as applied to anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. Reproducibility is an important attribute of such a monitoring method: results are discussed. More recent technical advances in parametric and 3D DCE-US imaging are also summarised and illustrated.

  3. A REVIEW OF LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND FOR CANCER THERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, ANDREW K. W.; SEHGAL, CHANDRA M.

    2015-01-01

    The literature describing the use of low-intensity ultrasound in four major areas of cancer therapy was reviewed - sonodynamic therapy, ultrasound mediated chemotherapy, ultrasound mediated gene delivery and antivascular ultrasound therapy. Each technique consistently resulted in the death of cancer cells and the bioeffects of ultrasound were primarily attributed to thermal actions and inertial cavitation. In each therapeutic modality, theranostic contrast agents composed of microbubbles played a role in both therapy and vascular imaging. The development of these agents is important as it establishes a therapeutic-diagnostic platform which can monitor the success of anti-cancer therapy. Little attention, however, has been given to either the direct assessment of the underlying mechanisms of the observed bioeffects or to the viability of these therapies in naturally occurring cancers in larger mammals; if such investigations provided encouraging data there could be a prompt application of a therapy technique in treating cancer patients. PMID:25728459

  4. Outcome in hyperglycemic stroke with ultrasound-augmented thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S R; Hill, M D; Alexandrov, A V; Molina, C A; Kent, T A

    2006-08-22

    Hyperglycemia independently predicts poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke. CLOTBUST (Combined Lysis Of Thrombus in Brain ischemia using transcranial Ultrasound and Systemic tPA) demonstrated that ultrasound-augmented thrombolysis improves recanalization and 24-hour outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that ultrasound would preferentially benefit hyperglycemic patients, and reviewed CLOTBUST with respect to admission glucose and good outcome. We found that ultrasound's benefit on 90-day outcome was primarily apparent at higher glucose levels, suggesting that ultrasound therapy may improve outcome following hyperglycemic stroke.

  5. Efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound and exercise therapy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Findings of the study revealed no significant difference in VAS, ROM and WOMAC scores in the study and control groups. Conclusions: This study confirms that therapeutic ultrasound is of no additional benefit to exercise therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis. Key words: Ultrasound; Exercise; ...

  6. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  7. Ultrasound-based guidance of intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Albert Y.C.; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy M.; Enke, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    In ultrasound-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer, ultrasound imaging ascertains the anatomical position of patients during x-ray therapy delivery. The ultrasound transducers are made of piezoelectric ceramics. The same crystal is used for both ultrasound production and reception. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound devices capture and correlate series of 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode images. The transducers are often arranged in a convex array for focusing. Lower frequency reaches greater depth, but results in low resolution. For clear image, some gel is usually applied between the probe and the skin contact surface. For prostate positioning, axial and sagittal scans are performed, and the volume contours from computed tomography (CT) planning are superimposed on the ultrasound images obtained before radiation delivery at the linear accelerator. The planning volumes are then overlaid on the ultrasound images and adjusted until they match. The computer automatically deduces the offset necessary to move the patient so that the treatment area is in the correct location. The couch is translated as needed. The currently available commercial equipment can attain a positional accuracy of 1-2 mm. Commercial manufacturer designs differ in the detection of probe coordinates relative to the isocenter. Some use a position-sensing robotic arm, while others have infrared light-emitting diodes or pattern-recognition software with charge-couple-device cameras. Commissioning includes testing of image quality and positional accuracy. Ultrasound is mainly used in prostate positioning. Data for 7825 daily fractions of 234 prostate patients indicated average 3D inter-fractional displacement of about 7.8 mm. There was no perceivable trend of shift over time. Scatter plots showed slight prevalence toward superior-posterior directions. Uncertainties of ultrasound guidance included tissue inhomogeneities, speckle noise, probe pressure, and inter

  8. [Focused ultrasound therapy: current status and potential applications in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E; Aubry, J-F; Delattre, J-Y; Boch, A-L

    2013-12-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is an innovative approach for tissue ablation, based on high intensity focused ultrasound beams. At the focus, HIFU induces a temperature elevation and the tissue can be thermally destroyed. In fact, this approach has been tested in a number of clinical studies for the treatment of several tumors, primarily the prostate, uterine, breast, bone, liver, kidney and pancreas. For transcranial brain therapy, the skull bone is a major limitation, however, new adaptive techniques of phase correction for focusing ultrasound through the skull have recently been implemented by research systems, paving the way for HIFU therapy to become an interesting alternative to brain surgery and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. CLINICAL FIELD NOTE - ULTRASOUND THERAPY: GETTING IT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Incorporating this vital information has led to a turn around in the evidence of ultrasound research ... in clinical practice, there has not been enough research evidence to support its .... Parameters: 1W/cm , 50% duty cycle (pulsed), 15 minutes,. 2 with a 5cm ... New England Journal of Medicine 317: 141-145. Gam, A.N., F.

  10. Ultrasound-guided interventional therapy for recurrent ovarian chocolate cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided interventional therapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. The 198 patients enrolled in this study were divided into three groups. In group 1, the saline washing group, the cavity of the cyst was washed thoroughly with warm saline. In group 2, the ethanol short-time retention group, after washing with saline, the cyst was injected with 95% ethanol with a volume of half of the fluid aspirated from the cyst. Ten minutes later, the rest of the ethanol was aspirated. In group 3, the ethanol retention group, the procedures were the same as with the ethanol short-time retention group, except that 95% of the ethanol was retained in the cyst. An ultrasound examination was performed in the third, sixth and 12th months after therapy. The chocolate cyst cure rate was significantly higher in the ethanol retention group (96%, 66/69) than in the ethanol short-time retention group (82%, 56/68) and no case was cured in the first group (saline washing). We conclude that ultrasound-guided injection and 95% ethanol retention are an effective therapy for the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Thermal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Comet assay reveals DNA strand breaks induced by ultrasonic cavitation in vitro, Ultrasound in medicine & biology 1995; 21: 841-8. 3. Dalecki D...doxorubicin, focused ultrasound , HIFU, prostate cancer I. INTRODUCTION Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pFUS) is able to create acoustic cavitation ... ultrasound for breast cancer therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chang Ming (Charlie) Ma, Ph.D

  12. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-07-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood-brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood-brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that will

  13. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood–brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood–brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that

  14. WE-H-209-01: Advances in Ultrasound Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynynen, K. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed. Finally, some of the recent clinical and preclinical results for the treatment of brain disease will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: Introduce FUS therapy principles and modern techniques Discuss use of FUS for drug delivery Cover the technology required to deliver FUS and monitor therapy Present clinical examples of the uses of these techniques This research was supported by funding from The Canada Research Chair Program, Grants from CIHR and NIH (no. EB003268).; K. Hynynen, Canada Foundation for Innovation; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation; Canada Research Chair Program; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Ontario Research Fund; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute; The Weston Brain Institute; Harmonic Medical; Focused Ultrasound Instruments.

  15. WE-H-209-01: Advances in Ultrasound Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynynen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed. Finally, some of the recent clinical and preclinical results for the treatment of brain disease will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: Introduce FUS therapy principles and modern techniques Discuss use of FUS for drug delivery Cover the technology required to deliver FUS and monitor therapy Present clinical examples of the uses of these techniques This research was supported by funding from The Canada Research Chair Program, Grants from CIHR and NIH (no. EB003268).; K. Hynynen, Canada Foundation for Innovation; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation; Canada Research Chair Program; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Ontario Research Fund; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute; The Weston Brain Institute; Harmonic Medical; Focused Ultrasound Instruments

  16. Integrated ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for simultaneous temperature and cavitation monitoring during focused ultrasound therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound can be used to noninvasively produce different bioeffects via viscous heating, acoustic cavitation, or their combination, and these effects can be exploited to develop a wide range of therapies for cancer and other disorders. In order to accurately localize and control these different effects, imaging methods are desired that can map both temperature changes and cavitation activity. To address these needs, the authors integrated an ultrasound imaging array into an MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system to simultaneously visualize thermal and mechanical effects via passive acoustic mapping (PAM) and MR temperature imaging (MRTI), respectively. The system was tested with an MRgFUS system developed for transcranial sonication for brain tumor ablation in experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and a phantom-filled ex vivo macaque skull. In experiments on cavitation-enhanced heating, 10 s continuous wave sonications were applied at increasing power levels (30-110 W) until broadband acoustic emissions (a signature for inertial cavitation) were evident. The presence or lack of signal in the PAM, as well as its magnitude and location, were compared to the focal heating in the MRTI. Additional experiments compared PAM with standard B-mode ultrasound imaging and tested the feasibility of the system to map cavitation activity produced during low-power (5 W) burst sonications in a channel filled with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. When inertial cavitation was evident, localized activity was present in PAM and a marked increase in heating was observed in MRTI. The location of the cavitation activity and heating agreed on average after registration of the two imaging modalities; the distance between the maximum cavitation activity and focal heating was -3.4 ± 2.1 mm and -0.1 ± 3.3 mm in the axial and transverse ultrasound array directions, respectively. Distortions and other MRI issues introduced small uncertainties in the PAM

  17. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  18. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare

  19. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  20. The science of ultrasound therapy for fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Rocca Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing involves a complex interplay of cellular processes, culminating in bridging of a fracture gap with bone. Fracture healing can be compromised by numerous exogenous and endogenous patient factors, and intense research is currently going on to identify modalities that can increase the likelihood of successful healing. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proposed as a modality that may have a benefit for increasing reliable fracture healing as well as perhaps increasing the rate of fracture healing. We conducted a review to establish basic scince evidence of therapeutic role of lipus in fracture healing. An electronic search without language restrictions was accomplished of three databases (PubMed, Embase, Cinahl for ultrasound-related research in osteocyte and chondrocyte cell culture and in animal fracture models, published from inception of the databases through December, 2008. Studies deemed to be most relevant were included in this review. Multiple in vitro and animal in vivo studies were identified. An extensive body of literature exists which delineates the mechanism of action for ultrasound on cellular and tissue signaling systems that may be related to fracture healing. Research on LIPUS in animal fracture models has demonstrated promising results for acceleration of fracture healing and for promotion of fracture healing in compromised tissue beds. A large body of cellular and animal research exists which reveals that LIPUS may be beneficial for accelerating normal fracture healing or for promoting fracture healing in compromised tissue beds. Further investigation of the effects of LIPUS in human fracture healing is warranted for this promising new therapy.

  1. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schad, Kelly C; Hynynen, Kullervo, E-mail: khynynen@sri.utoronto.c [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-09-07

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 {mu}m in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 x 10{sup 6} droplets mL{sup -1}. The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  2. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, Kelly C; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 μm in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 x 10 6 droplets mL -1 . The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  3. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Kelly C.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-09-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 µm in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 × 106 droplets mL-1. The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  4. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's ...

  5. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  6. Ultrasound motion tracking for radiation therapy; Ultraschallbewegungstracking fuer die Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bildgestuetzte Medizin MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Schwaab, J. [Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    In modern radiotherapy the radiation dose can be applied with an accuracy in the range of 1-2 mm provided that the exact position of the target is known. If, however, the target (the tumor) is located in the lungs or the abdomen, respiration or peristalsis can cause substantial movement of the target. Various methods for intrafractional motion detection and compensation are currently under consideration or are already applied in clinical practice. Sonography is one promising option, which is now on the brink of clinical implementation. Ultrasound is particularly suited for this purpose due to the high soft tissue contrast, real-time capability, the absence of ionizing radiation and low acquisition costs. Ultrasound motion tracking is an image-based approach, i.e. the target volume or an adjacent structure is directly monitored and the motion is tracked automatically on the ultrasound image. Diverse algorithms are presently available that provide the real-time target coordinates from 2D as well as 3D images. Definition of a suitable sonographic window is not, however, trivial and a gold standard for positioning and mounting of the transducer has not yet been developed. Furthermore, processing of the coordinate information in the therapy unit and the dynamic adaptation of the radiation field are challenging tasks. It is not clear whether ultrasound motion tracking will become established in the clinical routine although all technical prerequisites can be considered as fulfilled, such that exciting progress in this field of research is still to be expected. (orig.) [German] In der modernen Strahlentherapie kann die Dosis mit einer Genauigkeit von 1-2 mm appliziert werden, sofern die Position der Zielstruktur genau bekannt ist. Liegt diese Zielstruktur (der Tumor) jedoch in der Lunge oder im Abdomen, koennen u. a. die Atmung oder die Peristaltik zu einer substanziellen Bewegung des Zielvolumens fuehren. Verschiedene Methoden zur intrafraktionellen Bewegungsdetektion

  7. Potential mechanism in sonodynamic therapy and focused ultrasound induced apoptosis in sarcoma 180 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Bing

    2009-12-01

    Sonodynamic therapy employs a combination of ultrasound and a sonosensitizer to enhance the cytotoxic effect of ultrasound and promote apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of ultrasound and hematoporphyrin is still unclear. In this study, we investigated mechanism of the induction of apoptosis by sonodynamic therapy in Sarcoma 180 cells. The cell suspension was treated by 1.75-MHz focused continuous ultrasound at an acoustic power (I(SATA)) of 1.4+/-0.07 W/cm(2) for 3 min in the absence or presence of 20 microg/ml hematoporphyrin. The proportion of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry. We then analyzed the reactive oxygen species generation and localization by confocal microscopy. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the expression of caspase-8, caspase-9, poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase, and nuclear factor-kappaB. The findings of our study indicate that ultrasound treatment induced the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB as an early stress response. When cells were pretreated with hematoporphyrin, the initial response to the therapy was the formation of (1)O(2) in the mitochondria. Our results primarily demonstrate that the mechanisms of induction of apoptosis by ultrasound and hematoporphyrin-sonodynamic therapies are very different. Our findings can provide a basis for explaining the synergistic effect of ultrasound and hematoporphyrin.

  8. NMR guided focused ultrasound for myoma therapy - results from the first radiology-gynecology expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin; David, M.; Kroencke, T.; Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin

    2013-01-01

    The contribution on the results from the first radiology-gynecology expert meeting concerning NMR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for myoma therapy covers the following topics: structural prerequisites for MRgFUS therapy; required examinations before MRgFUS therapy; indication for MRgFUS therapy; success criteria for the MRgFUS therapy; contraindications; MRgFUS therapy for patients that want to have children; side effects and complications of MRgFUS therapy; post-examination after MRgFUS therapy.

  9. Combined photothermal therapy and magneto-motive ultrasound imaging using multifunctional nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Ma, Li L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Qu, Min; Joshi, Pratixa; Chen, Raeanna M.; Johnston, Keith P.; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2010-02-01

    Photothermal therapy is a laser-based non-invasive technique for cancer treatment. Photothermal therapy can be enhanced by employing metal nanoparticles that absorb the radiant energy from the laser leading to localized thermal damages. Targeting of nanoparticles leads to more efficient uptake and localization of photoabsorbers thus increasing the effectiveness of the treatment. Moreover, efficient targeting can reduce the required dosage of photoabsorbers; thereby reducing the side effects associated with general systematic administration of nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles, due to their small size and response to an external magnetic field gradient have been proposed for targeted drug delivery. In this study, we investigate the applicability of multifunctional nanoparticles (e.g., magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles) and magneto-motive ultrasound imaging for image-guided photothermal therapy. Magneto-motive ultrasound imaging is an ultrasound based imaging technique capable of detecting magnetic nanoparticles indirectly by utilizing a high strength magnetic field to induce motion within the magnetically labeled tissue. The ultrasound imaging is used to detect the internal tissue motion. Due to presence of the magnetic component, the proposed multifunctional nanoparticles along with magneto-motive ultrasound imaging can be used to detect the presence of the photo absorbers. Clearly the higher concentration of magnetic carriers leads to a monotonic increase in magneto-motive ultrasound signal. Thus, magnetomotive ultrasound can determine the presence of the hybrid agents and provide information about their location and concentration. Furthermore, the magneto-motive ultrasound signal can indicate the change in tissue elasticity - a parameter that is expected to change significantly during the photothermal therapy. Therefore, a comprehensive guidance and assessment of the photothermal therapy may be feasible through magneto-motive ultrasound imaging and

  10. Segmentation of tumor ultrasound image in HIFU therapy based on texture and boundary encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Menglong; Quan, Long; Yang, Yan; Qin, Qianqing; Zhu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy to detect the tumor precisely with less manual intervention for enhancing the therapy efficiency. Ultrasound image segmentation becomes a difficult task due to signal attenuation, speckle effect and shadows. This paper presents an unsupervised approach based on texture and boundary encoding customized for ultrasound image segmentation in HIFU therapy. The approach oversegments the ultrasound image into some small regions, which are merged by using the principle of minimum description length (MDL) afterwards. Small regions belonging to the same tumor are clustered as they preserve similar texture features. The mergence is completed by obtaining the shortest coding length from encoding textures and boundaries of these regions in the clustering process. The tumor region is finally selected from merged regions by a proposed algorithm without manual interaction. The performance of the method is tested on 50 uterine fibroid ultrasound images from HIFU guiding transducers. The segmentations are compared with manual delineations to verify its feasibility. The quantitative evaluation with HIFU images shows that the mean true positive of the approach is 93.53%, the mean false positive is 4.06%, the mean similarity is 89.92%, the mean norm Hausdorff distance is 3.62% and the mean norm maximum average distance is 0.57%. The experiments validate that the proposed method can achieve favorable segmentation without manual initialization and effectively handle the poor quality of the ultrasound guidance image in HIFU therapy, which indicates that the approach is applicable in HIFU therapy. (paper)

  11. Ultrasound-mediated microbubble enhancement of radiation therapy studied using three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J J; El Kaffas, Ahmed; Lai, Priscilla; Al Mahrouki, Azza; Lee, Justin; Iradji, Sara; Tran, William Tyler; Giles, Anoja; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Tumor responses to high-dose (>8 Gy) radiation therapy are tightly connected to endothelial cell death. In the study described here, we investigated whether ultrasound-activated microbubbles can locally enhance tumor response to radiation treatments of 2 and 8 Gy by mechanically perturbing the endothelial lining of tumors. We evaluated vascular changes resulting from combined microbubble and radiation treatments using high-frequency 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in a breast cancer xenograft model. We compared treatment effects and monitored vasculature damage 3 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after treatment delivery. Mice treated with 2 Gy radiation and ultrasound-activated microbubbles exhibited a decrease in vascular index to 48 ± 10% at 24 hours, whereas vascular indices of mice treated with 2 Gy radiation alone or microbubbles alone were relatively unchanged at 95 ± 14% and 78 ± 14%, respectively. These results suggest that ultrasound-activated microbubbles enhance the effects of 2 Gy radiation through a synergistic mechanism, resulting in alterations of tumor blood flow. This novel therapy may potentiate lower radiation doses to preferentially target endothelial cells, thus reducing effects on neighboring normal tissue and increasing the efficacy of cancer treatments. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhann Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. Methods This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Results Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. Conclusion The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer ...

  15. pH/Ultrasound Dual-Responsive Gas Generator for Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Therapeutic Inertial Cavitation and Sonodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianhua; Zhang, Wanxia; Yang, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Hao, Yongwei; Zhang, Hongling; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2018-03-01

    Herein, a pH/ultrasound dual-responsive gas generator is reported, which is based on mesoporous calcium carbonate (MCC) nanoparticles by loading sonosensitizer (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)) and modifying surface hyaluronic acid (HA). After pinpointing tumor regions with prominent targeting efficiency, HMME/MCC-HA decomposes instantaneously under the cotriggering of tumoral inherent acidic condition and ultrasound (US) irradiation, concurrently accompanying with CO 2 generation and HMME release with spatial/temporal resolution. Afterward, the CO 2 bubbling and bursting effect under US stimulus results in cavitation-mediated irreversible cell necrosis, as well as the blood vessel destruction to further occlude the blood supply, providing a "bystander effect." Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species generated from HMME can target the apoptotic pathways for effective sonodynamic therapy. Thus, the combination of apoptosis/necrosis with multimechanisms consequently results in a remarkable antitumor therapeutic efficacy, simultaneously minimizing the side effects on major organs. Moreover, the echogenic property of CO 2 make the nanoplatform as a powerful ultrasound contrast agent to identify cancerous lesions. Based on the above findings, such all-in-one drug delivery platform of HMME/MCC-HA is utilized to provide the US imaging guidance for therapeutic inertial cavitation and sonodynamic therapy simultaneously, which highlights possibilities of advancing cancer theranostics in biomedical fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completed. Young children may need additional preparation. When scheduling an ultrasound for yourself or your child, ask ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  17. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  18. Low-Frequency Ultrasound Therapy in Combination Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE.E. LAVRINENKO

    2013-04-01

    Results. The beginning of therapeutic effect was observed after 2 procedures of the ultrasound exposure. The maximum effect is appeared after 8–10 treatment sessions. The positive dynamics of complex treatment is improving the general state of health, a disappearance of asthenization, and a decrease in the symptoms of cardiovascular disorders, achieving faster compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. The course of treatment contributed to the hyperglycemia reduction in patients with newly detected type 2 DM. After ultrasound treatment, the authors noted a positive dynamics of clinical symptoms: an improvement of the general health status, a decrease in fatigue, an improvement of psycho-emotional indices, disappearance of pain in the right upper quadrant, and a decrease in liver size in all the patients under study. Conclusions. The use of low-frequency ultrasound therapy on cutaneous projection of the liver in patients with type 2 DM promotes the normalization both fasting and postprandial glycemia. The effect of low-frequency ultrasound on cutaneous projection of the liver is significantly decreasing parameters that characterize the pancreatic insulin synthesizing function (immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM and a BMI > 25 kg/m2. Low-frequency ultrasound reduces the glucagon secretion and thereby positively affects the hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ultrasound therapy can be used in the complex treatment of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM.

  19. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  20. Feasibility study of local ultrasound hyperthermia in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.G.; Straube, W.; Emami, B.; Perez, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a retrospective analysis of patients treated at Washington University for recurrent or persistent cancer with Ultrasound Hyperthermia between October 1984 and June 1986. Fifteen of 102 lesions were treated during this time period with Ultrasound Hyperthermia instead of microwave hyperthermia due to the size of the lesion needing heat at depths greater than 4 cm. Also, the patients' lesion could not be implanted for interstitial microwave hyperthermia. Fourteen of the treated patients received concomitant radiotherapy, while one received concomitant Bleomycin. There were 79 total hyperthermia treatments delivered, of which 67 achieved a therapeutic temperature of 43 0 C for 60 minutes. During 15/79 treatments, patients experienced pain; of which 11/15 lead to poor heating. Only one treatment of the twelve poor treatments was secondary to technical difficulties. Complete local control was accomplished in seven patients, a partial response in four patients. The results of therapeutic heating and its relationship to the site of treatment and local control are presented, along with phantom studies of Ultrasound microwave hyperthermia reemphasizing the feasibility of using Ultrasound Hyperthermia

  1. Thin-film sparse boundary array design for passive acoustic mapping during ultrasound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Christian M; Kozick, Richard J; Hurrell, Andrew; Smith, Penny Probert; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2012-10-01

    A new 2-D hydrophone array for ultrasound therapy monitoring is presented, along with a novel algorithm for passive acoustic mapping using a sparse weighted aperture. The array is constructed using existing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrasound sensor technology, and is utilized for its broadband characteristics and its high receive sensitivity. For most 2-D arrays, high-resolution imagery is desired, which requires a large aperture at the cost of a large number of elements. The proposed array's geometry is sparse, with elements only on the boundary of the rectangular aperture. The missing information from the interior is filled in using linear imaging techniques. After receiving acoustic emissions during ultrasound therapy, this algorithm applies an apodization to the sparse aperture to limit side lobes and then reconstructs acoustic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Experiments show verification of the theoretical point spread function, and cavitation maps in agar phantoms correspond closely to predicted areas, showing the validity of the array and methodology.

  2. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-07

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  3. Insufficient scientific evidence for efficacy of widely used electrotherapy, laser therapy, and ultrasound treatment in physiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch Health Council recently published a report on the efficacy of electrotherapy, laser therapy and ultrasound treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. The assessment was based on three systematic reviews, including 169 randomized clinical trials, and focused on a best-evidence synthesis.

  4. WE-G-12A-01: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); O' Neill, B [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    More and more emphasis is being made on alternatives to invasive surgery and the use of ionizing radiation to treat various diseases including cancer. Novel screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of response to treatment are also hot areas of research and new clinical technologies. Ultrasound(US) has gained traction in all of the aforementioned areas of focus. Especially with recent advances in the use of ultrasound to noninvasively treat various diseases/organ systems. This session will focus on covering MR-guided focused ultrasound and the state of the art clinical applications, and the second speaker will survey the more cutting edge technologies e.g. Focused Ultrasound (FUS) mediated drug delivery, principles of cavitation and US guided FUS. Learning Objectives: Fundamental physics and physical limitations of US interaction with tissue and nanoparticles The alteration of tissue transport using focused ultrasound US control of nanoparticle drug carriers for targeted release The basic principles of MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery and therapy the current state of the art clinical applications of MRgFUS requirements for quality assurance and treatment planning.

  5. Noninvasive treatment of deep venous thrombosis using pulsed ultrasound cavitation therapy (histotripsy) in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Owens, Gabe; Gurm, Hitinder S; Ives, Kimberly; Myers, Daniel D; Xu, Zhen

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated histotripsy as a noninvasive, image-guided method of thrombolysis in a porcine model of deep vein thrombosis. Histotripsy therapy uses short, high-intensity, focused ultrasound pulses to cause mechanical breakdown of targeted soft tissue by acoustic cavitation, which is guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. This is an in vivo feasibility study of histotripsy thrombolysis. Acute thrombi were formed in the femoral vein of juvenile pigs weighing 30-40 kg by balloon occlusion with two catheters and thrombin infusion. A 10-cm-diameter 1-MHz focused transducer was used for therapy. An 8-MHz ultrasound imager was used to align the clot with the therapy focus. Therapy consisted of five cycle pulses delivered at a rate of 1 kHz and peak negative pressure between 14 and 19 MPa. The focus was scanned along the long axis of the vessel to treat the entire visible clot during ultrasound exposure. The targeted region identified by a hyperechoic cavitation bubble cloud was visualized via ultrasound during treatment. Thrombus breakdown was apparent as a decrease in echogenicity within the vessel in 10 of 12 cases and in 7 cases improved flow through the vein as measured by color Doppler. Vessel histology found denudation of vascular endothelium and small pockets of hemorrhage in the vessel adventitia and underlying muscle and fatty tissue, but perforation of the vessel wall was never observed. The results indicate histotripsy has potential for development as a noninvasive treatment for deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavitation and contrast: the use of bubbles in ultrasound imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, E P; Coussios, C C

    2010-01-01

    Microbubbles and cavitation are playing an increasingly significant role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents have been in clinical use now for more than two decades, stimulating the development of a range of new contrast-specific imaging techniques which offer substantial benefits in echocardiography, microcirculatory imaging, and more recently, quantitative and molecular imaging. In drug delivery and gene therapy, microbubbles are being investigated/developed as vehicles which can be loaded with the required therapeutic agent, traced to the target site using diagnostic ultrasound, and then destroyed with ultrasound of higher intensity energy burst to release the material locally, thus avoiding side effects associated with systemic administration, e.g. of toxic chemotherapy. It has moreover been shown that the motion of the microbubbles increases the permeability of both individual cell membranes and the endothelium, thus enhancing therapeutic uptake, and can locally increase the activity of drugs by enhancing their transport across biologically inaccessible interfaces such as blood clots or solid tumours. In high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery and lithotripsy, controlled cavitation is being investigated as a means of increasing the speed and efficacy of the treatment. The aim of this paper is both to describe the key features of the physical behaviour of acoustically driven bubbles which underlie their effectiveness in biomedical applications and to review the current state of the art.

  7. Ultrasound-responsive gene-activated matrices for osteogenic gene therapy using matrix-assisted sonoporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, N; Feichtinger, G A; Saha, S; Nuernberger, S; Heimel, P; Redl, H; McHale, A P

    2018-01-01

    Gene-activated matrix (GAM)-based therapeutics for tissue regeneration are limited by efficacy, the lack of spatiotemporal control and availability of target cells, all of which impact negatively on their translation to the clinic. Here, an advanced ultrasound-responsive GAM is described containing target cells that facilitates matrix-assisted sonoporation (MAS) to induce osteogenic differentiation. Ultrasound-responsive GAMs consisting of fibrin/collagen hybrid-matrices containing microbubbles, bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids together with C2C12 cells were treated with ultrasound either in vitro or following parenteral intramuscular implantation in vivo. Using direct measurement for alkaline phosphatase activity, von Kossa staining and immunohistochemical analysis for osteocalcin expression, MAS-stimulated osteogenic differentiation was confirmed in the GAMs in vitro 7 days after treatment with ultrasound. At day 30 post-treatment with ultrasound, ectopic osteogenic differentiation was confirmed in vivo using X-ray microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Osteogenic differentiation was indicated by the presence of ectopic bone structures in all animals treated with MAS. In addition, bone volumes in this group were statistically greater than those in the control groups. This novel approach of incorporating a MAS capability into GAMs could be exploited to facilitate ex vivo gene transfer with subsequent surgical implantation or alternatively provide a minimally invasive means of stimulating in situ transgene delivery for osteoinductive gene-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Subacute posteromedial impingement of the ankle in athletes: MR imaging evaluation and ultrasound guided therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiou, Christina; Robinson, Philip; O'Connor, Philip J.; Grainger, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To describe the use of MR imaging and efficacy of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the diagnosis and management of athletes with clinical posteromedial impingement of the ankle. A retrospective analysis of imaging findings on MR was undertaken in nine elite athletes with clinical posteromedial ankle impingement. MR studies from six professional athletes with posterolateral pain were also reviewed as an imaging control group. The two reviewing radiologists were blinded to the clinical details and the proportion of control and study subjects. The nine study athletes also underwent diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided injection of steroid and anaesthetic into the posteromedial capsular abnormality. Follow-up was by telephone interview. Posteromedial capsular thickening was seen only in athletes with posteromedial impingement (7/9). Posteromedial synovitis was present in all athletes with posteromedial impingement; however, posterior and posterolateral synovitis was also seen in these athletes. Mild posteromedial synovitis was present in two control athletes. Ultrasound identified abnormal posteromedial soft tissue thickening deep to tibialis posterior between the medial malleolus and talus in all nine athletes. After injection all athletes returned to their previous level of sport, with eight of the nine not experiencing any residual or recurrent symptoms. If MR imaging excludes significant coexistent abnormality, ultrasound can localise posteromedial soft tissue abnormality and guide injection therapy, allowing return to athletic activity without surgical intervention. (orig.)

  9. WE-H-209-00: Carson/Zagzebski Distinguished Lectureship: Image Guided Ultrasound Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed. Finally, some of the recent clinical and preclinical results for the treatment of brain disease will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: Introduce FUS therapy principles and modern techniques Discuss use of FUS for drug delivery Cover the technology required to deliver FUS and monitor therapy Present clinical examples of the uses of these techniques This research was supported by funding from The Canada Research Chair Program, Grants from CIHR and NIH (no. EB003268).; K. Hynynen, Canada Foundation for Innovation; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation; Canada Research Chair Program; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Ontario Research Fund; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute; The Weston Brain Institute; Harmonic Medical; Focused Ultrasound Instruments.

  10. Value of combined exercise and ultrasound as an adjunct to compression therapy in chronic venous leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab A.E Sallam

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion Combined prescription of exercises and ultrasound as an adjunct to compression therapy would be a more effective means of promoting chronic venous ulcer healing, when standard compression therapy have failed. It is safe, easy and well tolerated and should be considered as adjunctive therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers.

  11. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C. Branco

    2016-10-01

    Method: A randomised study design with thirty female participants between the ages of twenty and  thirty nine was selected. Group 1 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine. Group 2 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine as well as stretch and strengthening exercises i.e. stretching the pectoralis major muscles and strengthening the rhomboid, middle and inferior trapezius muscles. Group 3 (n = 10 received stretch and strengthening exercises. The stretch and strengthening exercises were performed in the consultation rooms to ensure that the participants were complying with the treatment and doing the exercises properly. The study consisted of seven consultations for Group 1 (they received treatment once a week for six weeks and for Groups 2 and 3 there were nineteen consultations (they received three treatments a week for six weeks. Objective data was recorded at the beginning of the first, fourth and seventh consultations for Group 1, and the first, tenth and nineteenth consultations for Groups 2 and 3. On the seventh consultation (for Group 1 and nineteenth consultation for Groups 2 and 3, only data collection was done. Objective data were obtained by using the Flexicurve® Ruler measurements for the angle of kyphosis. Visual analysis was done by taking lateral (sagittal view photographs at the beginning of the initial and final consultations. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant statistical changes for the intragroup results for all three groups. No significant statistical difference was found between the groups for the inter-group analysis. Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the

  12. Application of intravascular ultrasound in percutaneous coronary interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingping; Li Bao; An Jian; Yang Bin; Wang Zhongchao; Wang Rijun; Zhang Wutang; Lei Xinyu; Wang Huixian; Lu Lifang; Gao Yongli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)in demonstrating the characteristics of coronary plaque and in implanting the coronary stent. Methods: Before stent implantation, IVUS was used to observe the plaque character/sties(soft, fibrotic, calcified or mixed) as well as the eccentric degree in 28 patients with angiographically-proved single coronary branch lesion. The minimal luminal diameter, minimal cross-sectional area and plaque area were measured. After stent deployment the above measurements were repeated, and the location, symmetrical index and expansion of the stent were observed. Results: A total of 36 stents was implanted in 28 patients with coronary disease. After the procedure the minimal luminal diameter and the minimal cross-sectional area was increased, while the plaque area was decreased. The difference between the values before and after the stent implantation was statistically significant (P<0.01). IVUS after stent deployment found that in all cases the stent had a nice location and covered the lesion completely with no interlayer at its both ends. Excellent expansion of the stent was seen in 30 cases (83.3%). Insufficient expansion occurred in 3 cases and undesirable contact of the stent to the arterial wall was found in 3 cases (16.7%). In such circumstances, one size bigger low-compliance balloon dilatation was adopted, or the original balloon was used again with higher pressure (18-22 atm), in order to expand the stent once more, and good results accord with IVUS optimal criteria were obtained. Conclusions: IVUS can clearly demonstrate the pathological features of the coronary lesions, such as plaque type, eccentric degree, luminal diameter, cross-sectional area and plaque area, which are very helpful in guiding the selection of the proper stent before the procedure, and are also very useful in evaluating the location, expansion of the stent as well as the stent-to-wall contact condition after the procedure. (authors)

  13. Magnetic resonance guided focalized ultrasound thermo-ablation: A promising oncologic local therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannessi, A.; Doyen, J.; Leysalle, A.; Thyss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Pain management of bone metastases is usually made using systemic and local therapy. Even though radiations are nowadays the gold standard for painful metastases, innovations regarding minimally invasive treatment approaches have been developed because of the existing non-responder patients [1]. Indeed, cementoplasty and thermo-ablations like radiofrequency or cryotherapy have shown to be efficient on pain [2-4]. Among thermo-therapy, magnetic resonance guided focalized ultrasound is now a new non-invasive weapon for bone pain palliation. (authors)

  14. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Castello Branco

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the participants' posture. Therefore, in conclusion, Groups 2 and 3 treatment protocols can be used effectively to treat postural kyphosis but Group 2's treatment protocol, consisting of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, will yield the best results.

  15. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bothwell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP caring for overdose (OD patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods: This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five non-transparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1 Were pills present? YES/NO; (2 If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1-10, 11-25, >25. We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results: Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37 EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5% using water, 23/37 (62.1% using PEG, and

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Fiducial Marker Implantation for CyberKnife Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hong, Seong; Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hyun Jeong; Chang, Yun Woo; Chang, A Ram [Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Seok Beom [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and technical success rate of an ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantation in preparation for CyberKnife radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 270 percutaneous ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantations in 77 patients, which were performed from June 2008 through March 2011. Of 270 implantations, 104 were implanted in metastatic lymph nodes, 96 were in the liver, 39 were in the pancreas, and 31 were in the prostate. During and after the implantation, major and minor procedure-related complications were documented. We defined technical success as the implantation enabling adequate treatment planning and CT simulation. The major and minor complication rates were 1% and 21%, respectively. One patient who had an implantation in the liver suffered severe abdominal pain, biloma, and pleural effusion, which were considered as major complication. Abdominal pain was the most common complication in 11 patients (14%). Among nine patients who had markers inserted in the prostate, one had transient hematuria for less than 24 hours, and the other experienced transient voiding difficulty. Of the 270 implantations, 261 were successful (97%). The reasons for unsuccessful implantations included migration of fiducial markers (five implantations, 2%) and failure to discriminate the fiducial markers (three implantations, 1%). Among the unsuccessful implantation cases, six patients required additional procedures (8%). The symptomatic complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of fiducial markers are relatively low. However, careful consideration of the relatively higher rate of migration and discrimination failure is needed when performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantations of fiducial markers.

  17. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xu

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  18. Vectorization of ultrasound-responsive nanoparticles in placental mesenchymal stem cells for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Juan L; de la Torre, Paz; Victoria Cabañas, M; Manzano, Miguel; Grau, Montserrat; Flores, Ana I; Vallet-Regí, María

    2017-05-04

    A new platform constituted by engineered responsive nanoparticles transported by human mesenchymal stem cells is here presented as a proof of concept. Ultrasound-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylenimine to favor their effective uptake by decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The responsive-release ability of the designed nanoparticles is confirmed, both in vial and in vivo. In addition, this capability is maintained inside the cells used as carriers. The migration capacity of the nanoparticle-cell platform towards mammary tumors is assessed in vitro. The efficacy of this platform for anticancer therapy is shown against mammary tumor cells by inducing the release of doxorubicin only when the cell vehicles are exposed to ultrasound.

  19. TU-B-210-00: MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound Therapy in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    MR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), or alternatively high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), is approved for thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids and pain palliation in bone metastases. Ablation of malignant tumors is under active investigation in sites such as breast, prostate, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, and soft tissue. Hyperthermia therapy with MRgFUS is also feasible, and may be used in conjunction with radiotherapy and for local targeted drug delivery. MRI allows in situ target definition and provides continuous temperature monitoring and subsequent thermal dose mapping during HIFU. Although MRgHIFU can be very precise, treatment of mobile organs is challenging and advanced techniques are required because of artifacts in MR temperature mapping, the need for intercostal firing, and need for gated HIFU or tracking of the lesion in real time. The first invited talk, “MR guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Tumors in Bone and Soft Tissue”, will summarize the treatment protocol and review results from treatment of bone tumors. In addition, efforts to extend this technology to treat both benign and malignant soft tissue tumors of the extremities will be presented. The second invited talk, “MRI guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound – Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia”, will provide an overview of techniques that are in or near clinical trials for thermal ablation and hyperthermia, with an emphasis of applications in abdominal organs and breast, including methods for MRTI and tracking targets in moving organs. Learning Objectives: Learn background on devices and techniques for MR guided HIFU for cancer therapy Understand issues and current status of clinical MRg HIFU Understand strategies for compensating for organ movement during MRgHIFU Understand strategies for strategies for delivering hyperthermia with MRgHIFU CM - research collaboration with Philips.

  20. A 1372-element Large Scale Hemispherical Ultrasound Phased Array Transducer for Noninvasive Transcranial Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junho; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial therapy using high intensity focused ultrasound transducers has attracted high interest as a promising new modality for the treatments of brain related diseases. We describe the development of a 1372 element large scale hemispherical ultrasound phased array transducer operating at a resonant frequency of 306 kHz. The hemispherical array has a diameter of 31 cm and a 15.5 cm radius of curvature. It is constructed with piezoelectric (PZT-4) tube elements of a 10 mm in diameter, 6 mm in length and 1.4 mm wall thickness. Each element is quasi-air backed by attaching a cork-rubber membrane on the back of the element. The acoustic efficiency of the element is determined to be approximately 50%. The large number of the elements delivers high power ultrasound and offers better beam steering and focusing capability. Comparisons of sound pressure-squared field measurements with theoretical calculations in water show that the array provides good beam steering and tight focusing capability over an efficient volume of approximately 100x100x80 mm 3 with nominal focal spot size of approximately 2.3 mm in diameter at -6 dB. We also present its beam steering and focusing capability through an ex vivo human skull by measuring pressure-squared amplitude after phase corrections. These measurements show the same efficient volume range and focal spot sizes at -6 dB as the ones in water without the skull present. These results indicate that the array is sufficient for use in noninvasive transcranial ultrasound therapy.

  1. Understanding Acoustic Cavitation Initiation by Porous Nanoparticles: Toward Nanoscale Agents for Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Chattaraj, Rajarshi; Blum, Nicholas T; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2016-08-23

    Ultrasound is widely applied in medical diagnosis and therapy due to its safety, high penetration depth, and low cost. In order to improve the contrast of sonographs and efficiency of the ultrasound therapy, echogenic gas bodies or droplets (with diameters from 200 nm to 10 µm) are often used, which are not very stable in the bloodstream and unable to penetrate into target tissues. Recently, it was demonstrated that nanobubbles stabilized by nanoparticles can nucleate ultrasound responsive microbubbles under reduced acoustic pressures, which is very promising for the development of nanoscale (ultrasound agents. However, there is still very little understanding about the effects of nanoparticle properties on the stabilization of nanobubbles and nucleation of acoustic cavitation by these nanobubbles. Here, a series of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with sizes around 100 nm but with different morphologies were synthesized to understand the effects of nanoparticle porosity, surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and hydrophilic surface modification on acoustic cavitation inception by porous nanoparticles. The chemical analyses of the nanoparticles showed that, while the nanoparticles were prepared using the same silica precursor (TEOS) and surfactant (CTAB), they revealed varying amounts of carbon impurities, hydroxyl content, and degrees of silica crosslinking. Carbon impurities or hydrophobic modification with methyl groups is found to be essential for nanobubble stabilization by mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The acoustic cavitation experiments in the presence of ethanol and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) demonstrated that acoustic cavitation is predominantly nucleated by the nanobubbles stabilized at the nanoparticle surface not inside the mesopores. Finally, acoustic cavitation experiments with rough and smooth nanoparticles were suggested that a rough nanoparticle surface is needed to largely preserve surface nanobubbles after coating the surface with hydrophilic

  2. MRI-controlled interstitial ultrasound brain therapy: An initial in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Lipsman, Nir; Bronskill, Michael; Schwartz, Michael; Kucharczyk, Walter; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    The recent emergence at the clinical level of minimally-invasive focal therapy such as laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) has demonstrated promise in the management of brain metastasis [1], although control over the spatial pattern of heating is limited. Delivery of HIFU from minimally-invasive applicators enables high spatial control of the heat deposition in biological tissues, large treatment volumes and high treatment rate in well chosen conditions [2,3]. In this study, the feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound therapy in brain was studies in-vivo in a porcine model. A prototype system originally developed for transurethral ultrasound therapy [4,5,6] was used in this study. Two burr holes of 12 mm in diameter were created in the animal's skull to allow the insertion of the therapeutic ultrasound applicator (probe) into the brain at two locations (right and left frontal lobe). A 4-element linear ultrasound transducer (f = 8 MHz) was mounted at the tip of a 25-cm linear probe (6 mm in diameter). The target boundary was traced to cover in 2D a surface compatible with the treatment of a 2 cm brain tumor. Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in real-time based on MR-thermometry feedback control to optimize heat deposition at the target boundary [2,4,5]. Two MRT-controlled ultrasound brain treatments per animal have been performed using a maximal surface acoustic power of 10W.cm-2. In all cases, it was possible to increase accurately the temperature of the brain tissues in the targeted region over the 55°C threshold necessary for the creation of irreversible thermal lesion. Tissue changes were visible on T1w contrast-enhanced images immediately after treatment. These changes were also evident on T2w FSE images taken 2 hours after the 1st treatment and correlated well with the temperature image. On average, the targeted volume was 4.7 ± 2.3 cm3 and the 55°C treated volume was 6.7 ± 4.4 cm3. The volumetric

  3. The feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with low-dose external beam radiotherapy as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer following hormonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Yi; Wang, Guo-Min; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Xu, Ye-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Chen, Bing

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively. CT/MR imaging showed the primary tumours and pelvic lymph node metastases visibly shrank or even disappeared after HIFU+LRT treatment. There were significant differences among four groups with regard to overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves (P = 0.018 and 0.015). Further comparison between each pair of groups suggested that the long-term DSS of the HIFU+LRT group was higher than those of the other three groups, but there was no significant difference between the HIFU+LRT group and the CRT group. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model showed that both HIFU+LRT and CRT were independently associated with DSS (P = 0.001 and 0.035) and had protective effects with regard to the risk of death. Compared with CRT, HIFU+LRT significantly decreased incidences of radiation-related late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade ≥ II. In conclusion, long-term survival of patients with advanced PCa benefited from strengthening local control of primary tumour and regional lymph node metastases after HT. As an alternative to CRT, HIFU+LRT showed good efficacy and better safety.

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ...

  5. Experimental investigations of an endoluminal ultrasound applicator for MR-guided thermal therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter; Plata, Juan; Chen, Henry; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris

    2017-03-01

    An MR-guided endoluminal ultrasound applicator has been proposed for palliative and potential curative thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. Minimally invasive ablation or hyperthermia treatment of pancreatic tumor tissue would be performed with the applicator positioned in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen, and sparing of the luminal tissue would be achieved with a water-cooled balloon surrounding the ultrasound transducers. This approach offers the capability of conformal volumetric therapy for fast treatment times, with control over the 3D spatial deposition of energy. Prototype endoluminal ultrasound applicators have been fabricated using 3D printed fixtures that seat two 3.2 or 5.6 MHz planar or curvilinear transducers and contain channels for wiring and water flow. Spiral surface coils have been integrated onto the applicator body to allow for device localization and tracking for therapies performed under MR guidance. Heating experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom in a 3T MR scanner were performed and demonstrated capability of the prototype to perform volumetric heating through duodenal luminal tissue under real-time PRF-based MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Additional experiments were performed in ex vivo pig carcasses with the applicator inserted into the esophagus and aimed towards liver or soft tissue surrounding the spine under MR guidance. These experiments verified the capacity of heating targets up to 20-25 mm from the GI tract. Active device tracking and automated prescription of imaging and temperature monitoring planes through the applicator were made possible by using Hadamard encoded tracking sequences to obtain the coordinates of the applicator tracking coils. The prototype applicators have been integrated with an MR software suite that performs real-time device tracking and temperature monitoring.

  6. EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND REMISSION CRITERIA IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING TOCILIZUMAB THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Aleksandrovna Osipyants; D E Karateev; E Yu Panasyuk; G V Lukina; A V Smirnov; S I Glukhova; E N Aleksandrova; A V Volkov; E L Nasonov

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to study the association of ultrasound (US) remission criteria with the clinical and laboratory indicators of inflammatory activity, functional status, and X-ray changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during tocilizumab (TCZ) therapy.Subjects and methods. The trial included 36 patients with RA (meeting the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria) who had received TCZ for 6 months. The authors made a clinical and laboratory assessment of RA activity (DAS28-C...

  7. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Cancer Therapy--harnessing its non-linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Gail ter

    2008-01-01

    In medicine in general, and for cancer treatments in particular, there is a drive to find effective non-invasive therapies. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) represents one such technique. In principle, it is simple--a high energy ultrasound beam is brought to a tight focus within a target which may lie several centimetres below the skin surface (for example, in a tumour of the liver), and is used to destroy a selected tissue volume. The main mechanism for cell killing in a HIFU beam is heat. Ultrasound energy absorption is frequency dependent, the higher frequencies being absorbed most strongly. Significant thermal advantage may therefore be gained from non-linear propagation, which generates higher harmonics, in tissue. Acoustic cavitation and thermal exsolution of gas (boiling) also contribute to tissue damage. This activity leads to the local mechanical disruption of cells. In addition, the non-linear oscillation of these bubbles leads to enhanced energy deposition. The acoustic emissions from such bubbles are characteristic of their behaviour and may be correlated to some extent with the appearance of the disruption produced. The more widespread clinical acceptance of HIFU is awaiting faster, and more efficient, energy delivery and treatment monitoring. A better understanding of the nonlinear aspects of HIFU propagation in tissue is thus important if this technique is to benefit more patients

  8. Temporal regularization of ultrasound-based liver motion estimation for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, Tuathan P., E-mail: tuathan.oshea@icr.ac.uk; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS foundation Trust, Sutton, London SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound-based motion estimation is an expanding subfield of image-guided radiation therapy. Although ultrasound can detect tissue motion that is a fraction of a millimeter, its accuracy is variable. For controlling linear accelerator tracking and gating, ultrasound motion estimates must remain highly accurate throughout the imaging sequence. This study presents a temporal regularization method for correlation-based template matching which aims to improve the accuracy of motion estimates. Methods: Liver ultrasound sequences (15–23 Hz imaging rate, 2.5–5.5 min length) from ten healthy volunteers under free breathing were used. Anatomical features (blood vessels) in each sequence were manually annotated for comparison with normalized cross-correlation based template matching. Five sequences from a Siemens Acuson™ scanner were used for algorithm development (training set). Results from incremental tracking (IT) were compared with a temporal regularization method, which included a highly specific similarity metric and state observer, known as the α–β filter/similarity threshold (ABST). A further five sequences from an Elekta Clarity™ system were used for validation, without alteration of the tracking algorithm (validation set). Results: Overall, the ABST method produced marked improvements in vessel tracking accuracy. For the training set, the mean and 95th percentile (95%) errors (defined as the difference from manual annotations) were 1.6 and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 and 9.1 mm, respectively, for IT). For each sequence, the use of the state observer leads to improvement in the 95% error. For the validation set, the mean and 95% errors for the ABST method were 0.8 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound-based motion estimation has potential to monitor liver translation over long time periods with high accuracy. Nonrigid motion (strain) and the quality of the ultrasound data are likely to have an impact on tracking

  9. Contrast ultrasound-guided photothermal therapy using gold nanoshelled microcapsules in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shumin [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Ordos Center Hospital, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017000 (China); Dai, Zhifei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ke, Hengte [Nanomedicine and Biosensor Laboratory, School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qu, Enze [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Kuo [Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100019 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test whether dual functional gold nano-shelled microcapsules (GNS-MCs) can be used as an ultrasound imaging enhancer and as an optical absorber for photothermal therapy (PTT) in a rodent model of breast cancer. Methods: GNS-MCs were fabricated with an inner air and outer gold nanoshell spherical structure. Photothermal cytotoxicity of GNS-MCs was tested with BT474 cancer cells in vitro and non-obese diabetes-SCID (NOD/SCID) mice with breast cancer. GNS-MCs were injected into the tumor under ultrasound guidance and treated with near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. The photothermal ablative effectiveness of GNS-MCs was evaluated by measuring the surface and internal temperature of the tumor as well as the size of the tumor using histological confirmation. Results: NIR laser irradiation resulted in significant tumor cell death in GNS-MCs-treated BT474 cells in vitro. GNS-MCs were able to serve as an ultrasound enhancer to guide the intratumoral injection of GNS-MCs and ensure their uniform distribution. In vivo studies revealed that NIR laser irradiation increased the intratumoral temperature to nearly 70 °C for 8 min in GNS-MCs-treated mice. Tumor volumes decreased gradually and tumors were completely ablated in 6 out of 7 mice treated with GNS-MCs and laser irradiation by 17 days after treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided PTT with theranostic GNS-MCs is a promising technique for in situ treatment of breast cancer.

  10. Interference-free ultrasound imaging during HIFU therapy, using software tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram (Inventor); Held, Robert (Inventor); Sikdar, Siddhartha (Inventor); Managuli, Ravi (Inventor); Zderic, Vesna (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method for obtaining a composite interference-free ultrasound image when non-imaging ultrasound waves would otherwise interfere with ultrasound imaging. A conventional ultrasound imaging system is used to collect frames of ultrasound image data in the presence of non-imaging ultrasound waves, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The frames are directed to a processor that analyzes the frames to identify portions of the frame that are interference-free. Interference-free portions of a plurality of different ultrasound image frames are combined to generate a single composite interference-free ultrasound image that is displayed to a user. In this approach, a frequency of the non-imaging ultrasound waves is offset relative to a frequency of the ultrasound imaging waves, such that the interference introduced by the non-imaging ultrasound waves appears in a different portion of the frames.

  11. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu; Qin, Qianqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Precisely and efficiently locating a tumor with less manual intervention in ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is one of the keys to guaranteeing the therapeutic result and improving the efficiency of the treatment. The segmentation of ultrasound images has always been difficult due to the influences of speckle, acoustic shadows, and signal attenuation as well as the variety of tumor appearance. The quality of HIFU guidance images is even poorer than that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound images because the ultrasonic probe used for HIFU guidance usually obtains images without making contact with the patient’s body. Therefore, the segmentation becomes more difficult. To solve the segmentation problem of ultrasound guidance image in the treatment planning procedure for HIFU therapy, a novel region-based segmentation method for uterine fibroids in HIFU guidance images is proposed. Methods: Tumor partitioning in HIFU guidance image without manual intervention is achieved by a region-based split-and-merge framework. A new iterative multiple region growing algorithm is proposed to first split the image into homogenous regions (superpixels). The features extracted within these homogenous regions will be more stable than those extracted within the conventional neighborhood of a pixel. The split regions are then merged by a superpixel-based adaptive spectral clustering algorithm. To ensure the superpixels that belong to the same tumor can be clustered together in the merging process, a particular construction strategy for the similarity matrix is adopted for the spectral clustering, and the similarity matrix is constructed by taking advantage of a combination of specifically selected first-order and second-order texture features computed from the gray levels and the gray level co-occurrence matrixes, respectively. The tumor region is picked out automatically from the background regions by an algorithm according to a priori

  12. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: dongz@whu.edu.cn; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Qin, Qianqing [State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Precisely and efficiently locating a tumor with less manual intervention in ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is one of the keys to guaranteeing the therapeutic result and improving the efficiency of the treatment. The segmentation of ultrasound images has always been difficult due to the influences of speckle, acoustic shadows, and signal attenuation as well as the variety of tumor appearance. The quality of HIFU guidance images is even poorer than that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound images because the ultrasonic probe used for HIFU guidance usually obtains images without making contact with the patient’s body. Therefore, the segmentation becomes more difficult. To solve the segmentation problem of ultrasound guidance image in the treatment planning procedure for HIFU therapy, a novel region-based segmentation method for uterine fibroids in HIFU guidance images is proposed. Methods: Tumor partitioning in HIFU guidance image without manual intervention is achieved by a region-based split-and-merge framework. A new iterative multiple region growing algorithm is proposed to first split the image into homogenous regions (superpixels). The features extracted within these homogenous regions will be more stable than those extracted within the conventional neighborhood of a pixel. The split regions are then merged by a superpixel-based adaptive spectral clustering algorithm. To ensure the superpixels that belong to the same tumor can be clustered together in the merging process, a particular construction strategy for the similarity matrix is adopted for the spectral clustering, and the similarity matrix is constructed by taking advantage of a combination of specifically selected first-order and second-order texture features computed from the gray levels and the gray level co-occurrence matrixes, respectively. The tumor region is picked out automatically from the background regions by an algorithm according to a priori

  13. Lipid nano-bubble combined with ultrasound for anti-keloids therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Qing; Li, Zhou-Na; Wang, Qi-Ming; Jin, Hong-Yan; Gao, Zhonggao; Jin, Zhe-Hu

    2018-03-01

    Keloids were characterized by excessive growth of fibrous tissues, and shared several pathological characteristics with cancer. They did put physical and emotional stress on patients in that keloids could badly change appearance of patients. N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) showed cytotoxic activity on a wide variety of invasive-growth cells. Our work was aim to prepare N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide-loaded lipid microbubbles (4HPR-LM) combined with ultrasound for anti-keloid therapy. 4HPR-loaded liposomes (4HPR-L) were first prepared by film evaporation method, and then 4HPR-LM were manufactured by mixing 4HPR-L and perfluoropentane (PFP) with ultrasonic cavitation method. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency 4HPR-LM were 113 nm and 95%, respectively. The anti-keloids activity of 4HPR-LM was assessed with BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous xenograft keloids model. 4HPR-LM, combined with ultrasound, could significantly induce apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts in vitro and inhibited growth of keloids in vivo. Thus, 4HPR-LM could be considered as a promising agent for anti-keloids therapy.

  14. Targeted therapy of animal eyes with tumors by laser-generated focused ultrasound (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa; Luo, Wei; Demirci, Hakan; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation therapy based on high-amplitude focused ultrasound (e.g., Histotripsy) has shown great promise in clinical trials. The technique realizes localized treatments of tissues and diseased cells by controlling cavitation zones, which can be even smaller than its acoustic spot sizes. Also, the short pressure pulse used in the technique can minimize the unwanted heat accumulation, which the conventional piezoelectric transducers suffer from due to low operating frequencies and relatively long acoustic pulses. However, this modality requires bulky system composed of array of piezoelectric elements and electric amplifiers in order to obtain high pressure amplitude. Moreover, especially when treating an area much smaller than the acoustic spot size, this approach may be vulnerable to nucleation sites within the focal volume, which can potentially induce cavitation and thus enlarge the total treatment area. Here, we show targeted cell-level therapy by using laser generated ultrasound. By employing a concave lens coated by a carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composite, high-amplitude acoustic pressure can be obtained at a tight focal spot (small focal spot, comparable to cavitation zone, lead to controlled cavitation treatment. Such feature can be exploited for treating intraocular tumors but without harming other parts of the eye (e.g. healthy retina and choroid) and therefore preserve the vision of the patients. We demonstrate that the localized disruption effects can be used for cell-level surgery to remove cells and to kill cells. Some experimental examples are shown using animal eyeballs.

  15. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Vivianne Carvalho; Crivelaro, Cinthia Nicoletti; Ferla, Luciane Zacchi; Pelozo, Gisele Marques; Azevedo, Juliana; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Nogueira, Caroline; Guidi, Renata Michelini; Grecco, Clóvis; Sant'Ana, Estela

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus ® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments. Twenty healthy women aged 20-40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1) and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2). Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used. Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group ( P <0.05) and in the buttocks ( P <0.05) and the posterior thigh areas ( P <0.05) in the G2. All the treated areas in both groups showed reduction in cellulite degree in the buttocks, G1 ( P <0.05) and G2 ( P <0.05), and in posterior thigh areas, G1 ( P <0.05) and G2 ( P <0.05). Optimal improvement of skin firmness (G1, P <0.0001; G2, P =0.0034) in the treated areas was observed in both groups. We conclude that the synergistic effects of the Combined Therapy (nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current) might be a good option with noninvasive body contouring treatment for improving the aspect of the cellulite, skin firmness and localized fat. If used in association with the whole-body vibratory platform, the results can be better, especially in the treatment of localized fat. Further studies with larger sample size should be performed to confirm these results.

  16. Strengthening the systemic ties that bind: integrating common factors into marriage and family therapy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Eli A; Blow, Adrian J; Sprenkle, Douglas H; Davis, Sean D

    2015-04-01

    Specific models guide the training of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) as they offer both structure and organization for both therapists and clients. Learning models may also benefit therapists-in-training by instilling confidence and preventing atheoretical eclecticism. The moderate common factors perspective argues that models are essential, but should not be taught as "the absolute truth," given there is no evidence for relative efficacy of one empirically validated model versus another, and no single model works in all instances. The following article provides a blueprint for infusing a common factors perspective into MFT programmes by reviewing innovations in course design, outlining specific teaching strategies, and highlighting potential implementation challenges. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  18. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  19. Multi-Channel RF System for MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yak, Nicolas; Asselin, Matthew; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy is an approach to treating localized prostate cancer which targets precise deposition of thermal energy within a confined region of the gland. This treatment requires a system incorporating a heating applicator with multiple planar ultrasound transducers and associated RF electronics to control individual elements independently in order to achieve accurate 3D treatment. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a prototype multi-channel system capable of controlling 16 independent RF signals for a 16-element heating applicator. The main components are a control computer, microcontroller, and a 16-channel signal generator with 16 amplifiers, each incorporating a low-pass filter and transmitted/reflected power detection circuit. Each channel can deliver from 0.5 to 10 W of electrical power and good linearity from 3 to 12 MHz. Harmonic RF signals near the Larmor frequency of a 1.5 T MRI were measured to be below -30 dBm and heating experiments within the 1.5 T MR system showed no significant decrease in SNR of the temperature images. The frequency and power for all 16 channels could be changed in less than 250 ms, which was sufficiently rapid for proper performance of the control algorithms. A common backplane design was chosen which enabled an inexpensive, modular approach for each channel resulting in an overall system with minimal footprint.

  20. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for prostate thermal therapies: MRI compatibility and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, E B; Hynynen, K

    1998-12-01

    A 62 element MRI-compatible linear phased array was designed and constructed to investigate the feasibility of using transrectal ultrasound for the thermal therapeutic treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. An aperiodic design technique developed in a previous study was used in the design of this array, which resulted in reduced grating lobe levels by using an optimized random distribution of unequally sized elements. The element sizes used in this array were selected to be favorable for both grating lobe levels as determined by array aperiodicity and array efficiency as determined by width to thickness ratios. The heating capabilities and MRI compatibility of the array were tested with in vivo rabbit thigh muscle heating experiments using MRI temperature monitoring. The array produced therapeutic temperature elevations in vivo at depths of 3-6 cm and axial locations up to 3 cm off the central axis and increased the size of the heated volume with electronic scanning of a single focus. The ability of this array to be used for ultrasound surgery was demonstrated by creating necrosed tissue lesions in vivo using short high-power sonications. The ability of the array to be used for hyperthermia was demonstrated by inducing therapeutic temperature elevations for longer exposures. Based on the acoustic and heating performance of this array, it has the potential to be clinically useful for delivering thermal therapies to the prostate and other target volumes close to body cavities.

  1. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11±3.80, 0.67±4.67, and 2.71±6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98±5.13, 0.27±3.35, and 1.00±4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage and rectal

  2. Gallbladder ascariasis in Kosovo - focus on ultrasound and conservative therapy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Toro, Halim; Spahiu, Lidvana; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu-Konjusha, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2018-01-13

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common intestinal infections in developing countries, including Kosovo. In contrast to migration to the bile duct, migration of the worm to the gallbladder, due to the narrow and tortuous nature of the cystic duct, is rare. When it does occur, it incites acalculous cholecystitis. This case series describes a 16-month-old Albanian girl, a 22-month-old Albanian girl, a 4-year-old Albanian girl, and a 10-year-old Albanian boy. Here we report our experience with gallbladder ascariasis including clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. Fever, diarrhea and vomiting, dehydration, pale appearance, and weakness were the manifestations of the primary disease. In all patients, a physical examination revealed reduced turgor and elasticity of the skin. Abdomen was at the level of the chest, soft, with minimal palpatory pain. The liver and spleen were not palpable. A laboratory examination was not specific except for eosinophilia. There were no pathogenic bacteria in coproculture but Ascaris was found in all patients. At an ultrasound examination in all cases we found single, long, linear echogenic structure without acoustic shadowing containing a central, longitudinal anechoic tube with characteristic movement within the gallbladder. Edema of the gallbladder wall was suggestive of associated inflammation. There were no other findings on adjacent structures and organs. All patients received mebendazole 100 mg twice a day for 3 days. They also received symptomatic therapy for gastroenteritis. Because of elevated markers of inflammation all patients were treated with antibiotics, assuming acute cholecystitis, although ultrasound was able to confirm cholecystitis in only two of our four patients. Since the length of stay was dependent on the primary pathology it was 7 to 10 days. At control ultrasounds on 14th day, third and sixth month, all patients were free of ascariasis. Gallbladder ascariasis should be considered in

  3. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11{+-}3.80, 0.67{+-}4.67, and 2.71{+-}6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98{+-}5.13, 0.27{+-}3.35, and 1.00{+-}4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage

  4. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Vivianne Carvalho; Crivelaro, Cinthia Nicoletti; Ferla, Luciane Zacchi; Pelozo, Gisele Marques; Azevedo, Juliana; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Nogueira, Caroline; Guidi, Renata Michelini; Grecco, Clóvis; Sant’Ana, Estela

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments. Subjects and methods Twenty healthy women aged 20–40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1) and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2). Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used. Results Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group (Pcellulite degree in the buttocks, G1 (Ptreatment for improving the aspect of the cellulite, skin firmness and localized fat. If used in association with the whole-body vibratory platform, the results can be better, especially in the treatment of localized fat. Further studies with larger sample size should be performed to confirm these results. PMID:29731654

  5. Wound healing treatment by high frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and combined therapy modifies the immune response in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciele I. G. Korelo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic high-frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and a combination of the two have been used as potential interventions in the soft tissue healing process, but little is known about their effect on the immune system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic high frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and the combined therapy of the two on the size of the wound area, peritoneal macrophage function, CD4+ and CD8+, T lymphocyte populations, and plasma concentration of interleukins (ILs. METHOD: Sixty-five Wistar rats were randomized into five groups, as follows: uninjured control (C, group 1, lesion and no treatment (L, group 2, lesion treated with ultrasound (LU, group 3, lesion treated with microcurrent (LM, group 4, and lesion treated with combined therapy (LUM, group 5. For groups 3, 4 and 5, treatment was initiated 24 hours after surgery under anesthesia and each group was allocated into three different subgroups (n=5 to allow for the use of the different therapy resources at on days 3, 7 and 14 Photoplanimetry was performed daily. After euthanasia, blood was collected for immune analysis. RESULTS: Ultrasound increased the phagocytic capacity and the production of nitric oxide by macrophages and induced the reduction of CD4+ cells, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the plasma concentration of IL-1β. Microcurrent and combined therapy decreased the production of superoxide anion, nitric oxide, CD4+-positive cells, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and IL-1β concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic high-frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and combined therapy changed the activity of the innate and adaptive immune system during healing process but did not accelerate the closure of the wound.

  6. Preliminary assessment of one-dimensional MR elastography for use in monitoring focused ultrasound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Le; Glaser, Kevin J; Rouviere, Olivier; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Chen, Shigao; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L; Felmlee, Joel P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess a fast technique that measures tissue stiffness and temperature during focused ultrasound thermal therapy (FUS). A one-dimensional (1D) MR elastography (MRE) pulse sequence was evaluated for the purpose of obtaining rapid measurements of thermally induced changes in tissue stiffness and temperature for monitoring FUS treatments. The accuracy of the 1D measurement was studied by comparing tissue displacements measured by 1D MRE with those measured by the well-established 2D MRE pulse sequence. The reproducibility of the 1D MRE measurement was assessed, in gel phantoms and ex vivo porcine tissue, for varied FUS intensity levels (31.5-199.9 W cm -2 ) and over a range of displacements at the focus (0.1-1 μm). Temperature elevations in agarose gel phantoms were measured using 1D MRE and calibrated using fiberoptic-thermometer-based measurements. The 1D MRE displacement measurements are highly correlated with those obtained with the 2D technique (R 2 = 0.88-0.93), indicating that 1D MRE can successfully measure tissue displacement. Ten repeated trials at each FUS power level yielded a minimum detectable displacement change of 0.2 μm in phantoms and 0.4 μm in tissue (at 95% confidence level). The 1D MRE temperature measurements correlated well with temperature changes measured simultaneously with fiberoptic thermometers (R 2 = 0.97). The 1D MRE technique is capable of detecting tissue displacements as low as 0.4 μm, which is an order of magnitude smaller than 5 μm displacements expected during FUS therapy (Le et al 2005 AIP Conf. Proc.: Ther. Ultrasound 829 186-90). Additionally, 1D MRE was shown to provide adequate measurements of temperature elevations in tissue. These findings indicate that 1D MRE may be an effective tool for monitoring FUS treatments

  7. SU-E-J-114: Towards Integrated CT and Ultrasound Guided Radiation Therapy Using A Robotic Arm with Virtual Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K; Zhang, Y; Sen, H; Lediju Bell, M; Goldstein, S; Kazanzides, P; Iordachita, I; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Currently there is an urgent need in Radiation Therapy for noninvasive and nonionizing soft tissue target guidance such as localization before treatment and continuous monitoring during treatment. Ultrasound is a portable, low cost option that can be easily integrated with the LINAC room. We are developing a cooperatively controlled robot arm that has high intrafraction reproducibility with repositioning of the ultrasound probe. In this study, we introduce virtual springs (VS) to assist with interfraction probe repositioning and we compare the soft tissue deformation introduced by VS to the deformation that would exist without them. Methods: Three metal markers were surgically implanted in the kidney of one dog. The dog was anesthetized and immobilized supine in an alpha cradle. The reference ultrasound probe position and force to ideally visualize the kidney was defined by an experienced ultrasonographer using the Clarity ultrasound system and robot sensor. For each interfraction study, the dog was removed from the cradle and re-setup based on CBCT with bony anatomy alignment to mimic regular patient setup. The ultrasound probe was automatically returned to the reference position using the robot. To accommodate the soft tissue anatomy changes between each setup the operator used the VS feature to adjust the probe and obtain an ultrasound image that matched the reference image. CBCT images were acquired and each interfraction marker location was compared with the first interfraction Result. Results: Analysis of the marker positions revealed that the kidney was displaced by 18.8 ± 6.4 mm without VS and 19.9 ± 10.5 mm with VS. No statistically significant differences were found between two procedures. Conclusion: The VS feature is necessary to obtain matching ultrasound images, and they do not introduce further changes to the tissue deformation. Future work will focus on automatic VS based on ultrasound feedback. Supported in part by: NCI R01 CA161613

  8. SU-E-J-114: Towards Integrated CT and Ultrasound Guided Radiation Therapy Using A Robotic Arm with Virtual Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K; Zhang, Y; Sen, H; Lediju Bell, M; Goldstein, S; Kazanzides, P; Iordachita, I; Wong, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Currently there is an urgent need in Radiation Therapy for noninvasive and nonionizing soft tissue target guidance such as localization before treatment and continuous monitoring during treatment. Ultrasound is a portable, low cost option that can be easily integrated with the LINAC room. We are developing a cooperatively controlled robot arm that has high intrafraction reproducibility with repositioning of the ultrasound probe. In this study, we introduce virtual springs (VS) to assist with interfraction probe repositioning and we compare the soft tissue deformation introduced by VS to the deformation that would exist without them. Methods: Three metal markers were surgically implanted in the kidney of one dog. The dog was anesthetized and immobilized supine in an alpha cradle. The reference ultrasound probe position and force to ideally visualize the kidney was defined by an experienced ultrasonographer using the Clarity ultrasound system and robot sensor. For each interfraction study, the dog was removed from the cradle and re-setup based on CBCT with bony anatomy alignment to mimic regular patient setup. The ultrasound probe was automatically returned to the reference position using the robot. To accommodate the soft tissue anatomy changes between each setup the operator used the VS feature to adjust the probe and obtain an ultrasound image that matched the reference image. CBCT images were acquired and each interfraction marker location was compared with the first interfraction Result. Results: Analysis of the marker positions revealed that the kidney was displaced by 18.8 ± 6.4 mm without VS and 19.9 ± 10.5 mm with VS. No statistically significant differences were found between two procedures. Conclusion: The VS feature is necessary to obtain matching ultrasound images, and they do not introduce further changes to the tissue deformation. Future work will focus on automatic VS based on ultrasound feedback. Supported in part by: NCI R01 CA161613

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  11. 3D perfused brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy and imaging: design, construction and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, José M; Jarosz, Boguslaw J

    2015-01-01

    Thermal therapy has emerged as an independent modality of treating some tumors. In many clinics the hyperthermia, one of the thermal therapy modalities, has been used adjuvant to radio- or chemotherapy to substantially improve the clinical treatment outcomes. In this work, a methodology for building a realistic brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound low dose-rate thermal therapy of the brain is proposed. A 3D brain phantom made of the tissue mimicking material (TMM) had the acoustic and thermal properties in the 20–32 °C range, which is similar to that of a brain at 37 °C. The phantom had 10–11% by mass of bovine gelatin powder dissolved in ethylene glycol. The TMM sonicated at 1 MHz, 1.6 MHz and 2.5 MHz yielded the amplitude attenuation coefficients of 62  ±  1 dB m −1 , 115  ±  4 dB m −1 and 175  ±  9 dB m −1 , respectively. The density and acoustic speed determination at room temperature (∼24 °C) gave 1040  ±  40 kg m −3 and 1545  ±  44 m s −1 , respectively. The average thermal conductivity was 0.532 W m −1  K −1 . The T1 and T2 values of the TMM were 207  ±  4 and 36.2  ±  0.4 ms, respectively. We envisage the use of our phantom for treatment planning and for quality assurance in MRI based temperature determination. Our phantom preparation methodology may be readily extended to other thermal therapy technologies. (paper)

  12. EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND REMISSION CRITERIA IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING TOCILIZUMAB THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aleksandrovna Osipyants

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the association of ultrasound (US remission criteria with the clinical and laboratory indicators of inflammatory activity, functional status, and X-ray changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA during tocilizumab (TCZ therapy.Subjects and methods. The trial included 36 patients with RA (meeting the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria who had received TCZ for 6 months. The authors made a clinical and laboratory assessment of RA activity (DAS28-CRP, and SDAI, functional impairments (HAQ index and US verification of wrist joint synovitis (a Voluson-i device, GE, 4-13-MHz linear transducer at baseline and 6 months after therapy. No signs of grey-scale (B-mode and power Doppler (PD synovitis (B = 0; PD = 0 or minimal B-mode synovitis, and not more one PD hypervascular signal (В ≤1; PD ≤1 were arbitrarily taken as US remission criteria. Destruction changes were evaluated by hand and foot X-ray using the Sharp method modified by van der Heijde (SHS.Results. After 6 months of therapy, about 80% of the patients in clinical remission retained moderate or significant synovitis, as evidenced by US studies. There were no clinical differences in clinical activity indices and functional impairments between the patients who were and were not in US remission (p > 0.05. The 12-month follow-up SHS score was significantly higher with the preservation of 6-month therapy signs of B-mode synovitis and PD hypervascularization (of not more than one signal than that in US remission (p < 0.05. There was no relationship of X-ray progression to the clinical and functional statuses (p > 0.05.Conclusion. Subclinical synovitis is observed even in clinical remission of RA. Destruction progression is significantlyrelated to synovitis persistence, as shown by ultrasonography.

  13. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canela VC

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vivianne Carvalho Canela,1 Cinthia Nicoletti Crivelaro,1 Luciane Zacchi Ferla,1 Gisele Marques Pelozo,1 Juliana Azevedo,2 Richard Eloin Liebano,3 Caroline Nogueira,4,5 Renata Michelini Guidi,4,5 Clóvis Grecco,4 Estela Sant’Ana4 1Ibramed Center for Education and Advanced Training (CEFAI, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 2CDE Medical Imaging Department, Brazilian College of Radiology (CBR, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; 4Research, Development and Innovation Department, Ibramed Research Group (IRG, IBRAMED, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 5Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background and objectives: Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments.Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women aged 20–40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1 and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2. Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used.Results: Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group (P<0.05 and in the buttocks (P<0.05 and the posterior thigh areas (P<0.05 in the G2. All the treated areas in both groups showed reduction in cellulite degree in the

  14. Transcranial cavitation-mediated ultrasound therapy at sub-MHz frequency via temporal interference modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Power, Chanikarn; Zhang, Yongzhi; Miller, Eric L.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Sub-megahertz transmission is not usually adopted in pre-clinical small animal experiments for focused ultrasound (FUS) brain therapy due to the large focal size. However, low frequency FUS is vital for preclinical evaluations due to the frequency-dependence of cavitation behavior. To maximize clinical relevance, a dual-aperture FUS system was designed for low-frequency (274.3 kHz) cavitation-mediated FUS therapy. Combining two spherically curved transducers provides significantly improved focusing in the axial direction while yielding an interference pattern with strong side lobes, leading to inhomogeneously distributed cavitation activities. By operating the two transducers at slightly offset frequencies to modulate this interference pattern over the period of sonication, the acoustic energy was redistributed and resulted in a spatially homogenous treatment profile. Simulation and pressure field measurements in water were performed to assess the beam profiles. In addition, the system performance was demonstrated in vivo in rats via drug delivery through microbubble-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption. This design resulted in a homogenous treatment profile that was fully contained within the rat brain at a clinically relevant acoustic frequency.

  15. MO-AB-210-02: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammet, S.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  16. MO-AB-210-01: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  17. MO-AB-210-02: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammet, S. [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  18. MO-AB-210-01: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z. [University of Chicago (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  19. Disruption of tumor neovasculature by microbubble enhanced ultrasound: a potential new physical therapy of anti-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Gao, Shunji; Zhao, Yang; Li, Peijing; Liu, Jia; Li, Peng; Tan, Kaibin; Xie, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is of vital importance to the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The angiogenesis is featured with a defective, leaky and fragile vascular construction. Microbubble enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) cavitation is capable of mechanical disruption of small blood vessels depending on effective acoustic pressure amplitude. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation combining high-pressure amplitude pulsed ultrasound (US) and circulating microbubble could potentially disrupt tumor vasculature. A high-pressure amplitude, pulsed ultrasound device was developed to induce inertial cavitation of circulating microbubbles. The tumor vasculature of rat Walker 256 was insonated percutaneously with two acoustic pressures, 2.6 MPa and 4.8 MPa, both with intravenous injection of a lipid microbubble. The controls were treated by the ultrasound only or sham ultrasound exposure. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and histology were performed to assess tumor circulation and pathological changes. The CEUS results showed that the circulation of Walker 256 tumors could be completely blocked off for 24 hours in 4.8 MPa treated tumors. The CEUS gray scale value (GSV) indicated that there was significant GSV drop-off in both of the two experimental groups but none in the controls. Histology showed that the tumor microvasculature was disrupted into diffuse hematomas accompanied by thrombosis, intercellular edema and multiple cysts formation. The 24 hours of tumor circulation blockage resulted in massive necrosis of the tumor. MEUS provides a new, simple physical method for anti-angiogenic therapy and may have great potential for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound therapy for recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, William J; Foremann, Phil; Mozen, Neal; Massey, Joi; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Meneses, Patricio

    2005-08-01

    An estimated 15% of patients with diabetes will develop a foot ulcer sometime in their life, making them 30 to 40 times more likely to undergo amputation due to a non-healing foot ulcer than the non-diabetic population. To determine the safety and efficacy of a new, non-contact, kilohertz ultrasound therapy for the healing of recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers - as well as to evaluate the impact on total closure and quantitative bacterial cultures and the effect on healing of various levels of sharp/surgical debridement - a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in hospital-based and private wound care clinics. Patients (55 met criteria for efficacy analysis) received standard of care, which included products that provide a moist environment, offloading diabetic shoes and socks, debridement, wound evaluation, and measurement. The "therapy" was either active 40 KHz ultrasound delivered by a saline mist or a "sham device" which delivered a saline mist without the use of ultrasound. After 12 weeks of care, the proportion of wounds healed (defined as complete epithelialization without drainage) in the active ultrasound therapy device group was significantly higher than that in the sham control group (40.7% versus 14.3%, P = 0.0366, Fisher's exact test). The ultrasound treatment was easy to use and no difference in the number and type of adverse events between the two treatment groups was noted. Of interest, wounds were debrided at baseline followed by a quantitative culture biopsy. The results of these cultures demonstrated a significant bioburden (greater than 10(5)) in the majority of cases, despite a lack of clinical signs of infection. Compared to control, this therapeutic modality was found to increase the healing rate of recalcitrant, diabetic foot ulcers.

  1. Application of a drug delivery system using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles for anti-angiogenic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Sachiko; Kodama, Tetsuya; Sato, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The drug delivery system using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles is a molecular delivery approach using the mechanism of sonoporation. With sonoporation, an endothelium-derived negative-feedback regulator of angiogenesis, Vasohibin-1 (VASH1), was introduced specifically into tumor vessels. We found VASH1 in tumor vessels induce normalization of tumor vessels and inhibited tumor growth. A recent topic regarding tumor angiogenesis is vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are abnormal or immature that cause hyperpermeability and impaired blood flow. Tumor vascular normalization improves blood flow and tissue hypoxia, which increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and reduce tumor cell malignancy. In this review, application of drug delivery system using ultrasound for an anti-angiogenic therapy, a tumor vessel normalization therapy to treat cancer, is summarized. (author)

  2. Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Cognitive Functions of Rats with Depression-Like Disorders Induced by Ultrasound Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, V M; Zubkov, E A; Morozova, A Y; Gorlova, A V; Pavlov, D A; Inozemtsev, A N; Chekhonin, V P

    2017-09-01

    We studied the effect of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive functions in rats with depression-like disorder caused by exposure to ultrasound of varying frequency (20-45 kHz). Object recognition and Morris water-maze tests revealed no negative effects of the therapy on memory. Moreover, positive effect of therapy was demonstrated that manifested in amelioration of memory disturbances in depression-like disorders in these behavioral tests. The results of this study do not support the idea about side effects of electroconvulsive therapy, in particular, development of transient amnesia, and are a prerequisite for a more thorough study of internal mechanisms of the effect of the therapy on cognitive sphere.

  3. The comparison of manual lymph drainage and ultrasound therapy on the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeop; Han, Ji-Su; Jang, Eun-Ji; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Hong, Ji-Heon; Lee, Sang-Sook; Lee, Dong-Geol; Yu Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    One of the major symptoms when women are wearing high heels for a long time is leg swelling. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of manual lymph drainage with ultrasound therapy. The forty-five healthy women of twenties were participated in this study and divided randomly into three groups; manual lymph drainage group (n=15), ultrasound therapy group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Swelling was measured before wearing the high heels (10 cm-height), after one-hour of wearing the high heels, wearing the high heels of one-hour after the intervention of 15 minutes. Also swelling was calculated by using a tape measure, volumeter and body composition analyzer. Statistical analysis of the comparison between the three groups was performed by one-way ANOVA. Also comparison to the mean value in swelling according to the time was performed by repeated measure ANOVA. As the result of this study, a significant changes have emerged within each of manual lymph drainage, ultrasound therapy and control group (p 0.05). But the mean value of manual lymph drainage group showed the tendency of fast recovering before causing swelling. Therefore, we consider that the clinical treatment of manual lymph drainage and ongoing studies will be made since manual lymph drainage is very effective in releasing the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels and standing for a long time at work.

  4. Thermal therapy for breast tumors by using a cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning: a preliminary numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C-S; Ju, K-C; Cheng, T-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Lin, W-L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a 1 MHz cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning to produce uniform heating for breast tumor thermal therapy. The breast was submerged in water and surrounded by the cylindrical ultrasound phased array. A multifocus pattern was generated and electrically scanned by the phased array to enlarge the treatment lesion in single heating. To prevent overheating normal tissues, a large planning target volume (PTV) would be divided into several planes with several subunits on each plane and sequentially treated with a cooling phase between two successive heatings of the subunit. Heating results for different target temperatures (T tgt ), blood perfusion rates and sizes of the PTV have been studied. Furthermore, a superficial breast tumor with different water temperatures was also studied. Results indicated that a higher target temperature would produce a slightly larger thermal lesion, and a higher blood perfusion rate would not affect the heating lesion size but increase the heating time significantly. The acoustic power deposition and temperature elevations in ribs can be minimized by orienting the acoustic beam from the ultrasound phased array approximately parallel to the ribs. In addition, a large acoustic window on the convex-shaped breast surface for the proposed ultrasound phased array and the cooling effect of water would prevent the skin overheating for the production of a lesion at any desired location. This study demonstrated that the proposed cylindrical ultrasound phased array can provide effective heating for breast tumor thermal therapy without overheating the skin and ribs within a reasonable treatment time

  5. Physical therapy clinic therapeutic ultrasound equipment as a source for bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Henry G; Levine, David; Tillman, Larry

    2014-10-01

    A procedure commonly used in physical therapy (PT) clinics is therapeutic ultrasound (US). This equipment and associated gel comes in contact with patient skin, potentially serving as a reservoir for bacteria. In this study, we sampled US heads, gel bottle tips and gel from nine outpatient PT clinics in Southeastern Tennessee. Samples were collected using sterile swabs. At the microbiology laboratory, these swabs were used to inoculate mannitol salt agar and CHROM-MRSA agar (for Staphylococcal species) and tryptic soy broth to determine non-specific bacterial contamination. US heads, gel bottle tips and gel had variable levels of contamination. Tips of gel bottles had the highest contamination, with 52.7% positive for non-specific bacterial contamination and 3.6% positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Contamination of gel by non-specific bacteria was found in 14.5% of bottles sampled. US heads (35.5% of those sampled) had non-specific bacterial contamination, with no MRSA detected. Disinfecting US heads after initial swabbing resulted in removal of 90.9% of non-specific contamination. Gel storage at temperatures below 40 °C was found to encourage the growth of mesophilic bacteria. This study demonstrates the need for better cleaning and storage protocols for US heads and gel bottles in PT clinics.

  6. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound imaging in ablation therapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2009-12-31

    The success rate of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on correct targeting via an imaging technique. However, RF electrode insertion is not completely accurate for residual HCC nodules because B-mode ultrasound (US), color Doppler, and power Doppler US findings cannot adequately differentiate between treated and viable residual tumor tissue. Electrode insertion is also difficult when we must identify the true HCC nodule among many large regenerated nodules in cirrhotic liver. Two breakthroughs in the field of US technology, harmonic imaging and the development of second-generation contrast agents, have recently been described and have demonstrated the potential to dramatically broaden the scope of US diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Contrast-enhanced harmonic US imaging with an intravenous contrast agent can evaluate small hypervascular HCC even when B-mode US cannot adequately characterize tumor. Therefore, contrast-enhanced harmonic US can facilitate RF ablation electrode placement in hypervascular HCC, which is poorly depicted by B-mode US. The use of contrast-enhanced harmonic US in ablation therapy for liver cancer is an efficient approach.

  7. Pulsed ultrasound therapy accelerates the recovery of skeletal muscle damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saturnino-Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy (UST and antibothropic polyvalent antivenom (PAV on the regeneration of mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following damage by Bothrops jararacussu venom. Animals (Swiss male and female mice weighing 25.0 ± 5.0 g; 5 animals per group received a perimuscular injection of venom (1 mg/kg and treatment with UST was started 1 h later (1 min/day, 3 MHz, 0.3 W/cm², pulsed mode. Three and 28 days after injection, muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy. The venom caused complete degeneration of muscle fibers. UST alone and combined with PAV (1.0 mL/kg partially protected these fibers, whereas muscles receiving no treatment showed disorganized fascicules and fibers with reduced diameter. Treatment with UST and PAV decreased the effects of the venom on creatine kinase content and motor activity (approximately 75 and 48%, respectively. Sonication of the venom solution immediately before application decreased the in vivo and ex vivo myotoxic activities (approximately 60 and 50%, respectively. The present data show that UST counteracts some effects of B. jararacussu venom, causing structural and functional improvement of the regenerated muscle after venom injury.

  8. Quantitative head ultrasound measurements to determine thresholds for preterm neonates requiring interventional therapies following intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Jessica; Fenster, Aaron; Salehi, Fateme; Romano, Walter; Lee, David S. C.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    Dilation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure and without treatment, can lead to death. Clinically, 2D ultrasound (US) through the fontanelles ('soft spots') of the patients are serially acquired to monitor the progression of the ventricle dilation. These images are used to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ('ventricle tap', VT) might be indicated for a patient; however, quantitative measurements of the growth of the ventricles are often not performed. There is no consensus on when a neonate with PHVD should have an intervention and often interventions are performed after the potential for brain damage is quite high. Previously we have developed and validated a 3D US system to monitor the progression of ventricle volumes (VV) in IVH patients. We will describe the potential utility of quantitative 2D and 3D US to monitor and manage PHVD in neonates. Specifically, we will look to determine image-based measurement thresholds for patients who will require VT in comparison to patients with PHVD who resolve without intervention. Additionally, since many patients who have an initial VT will require subsequent interventions, we look at the potential for US to determine which PHVD patients will require additional VT after the initial one has been performed.

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  10. HematoPorphyrin Monomethyl Ether polymer contrast agent for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual-modality imaging-guided synergistic high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sijing; Lu, Min; Ding, Xiaoya; Chen, Fei; He, Xuemei; Xu, Chunyan; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Qi; Hao, Lan; Zou, Jianzhong

    2016-08-18

    This study is to prepare a hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules (HMME/PLGA), which could not only function as efficient contrast agent for ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also as a synergistic agent for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Sonosensitizer HMME nanoparticles were integrated into PLGA microcapsules with the double emulsion evaporation method. After characterization, the cell-killing and cell proliferation-inhibiting effects of HMME/PLGA microcapsules on ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were assessed. The US/PA imaging-enhancing effects and synergistic effects on HIFU were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. HMME/PLGA microcapsules were highly dispersed with well-defined spherical morphology (357 ± 0.72 nm in diameter, PDI = 0.932). Encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency were 58.33 ± 0.95% and 4.73 ± 0.15%, respectively. The HMME/PLGA microcapsules remarkably killed the SKOV3 cells and inhibited the cell proliferation, significantly enhanced the US/PA imaging results and greatly enhanced the HIFU ablation effects on ovarian cancer in nude mice by the HMME-mediated sono-dynamic chemistry therapy (SDT). HMME/PLGA microcapsules represent a potential multifunctional contrast agent for HIFU diagnosis and treatment, which might provide a novel strategy for the highly efficient imaging-guided non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy for cancers by SDT in clinic.

  11. Advances in ultrasound-targeted microbubble-mediated gene therapy for liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cuiyuan; Zhang, Hong; Bai, Ruidan

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic fibrosis develops as a wound-healing scar in response to acute and chronic liver inflammation and can lead to cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. The condition arises due to increased synthesis and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and is a common pathological sequela of chronic liver disease. Excessive deposition of ECM in the liver causes liver dysfunction, ascites, and eventually upper gastrointestinal bleeding as well as a series of complications. However, fibrosis can be reversed before developing into cirrhosis and has thus been the subject of extensive researches particularly at the gene level. Currently, therapeutic genes are imported into the damaged liver to delay or prevent the development of liver fibrosis by regulating the expression of exogenous genes. One technique of gene delivery uses ultrasound targeting of microbubbles combined with therapeutic genes where the time and intensity of the ultrasound can control the release process. Ultrasound irradiation of microbubbles in the vicinity of cells changes the permeability of the cell membrane by its cavitation effect and enhances gene transfection. In this paper, recent progress in the field is reviewed with emphasis on the following aspects: the types of ultrasound microbubbles, the construction of an ultrasound-mediated gene delivery system, the mechanism of ultrasound microbubble-mediated gene transfer and the application of ultrasound microbubbles in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  12. Advances in ultrasound-targeted microbubble-mediated gene therapy for liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiyuan Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis develops as a wound-healing scar in response to acute and chronic liver inflammation and can lead to cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. The condition arises due to increased synthesis and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM and is a common pathological sequela of chronic liver disease. Excessive deposition of ECM in the liver causes liver dysfunction, ascites, and eventually upper gastrointestinal bleeding as well as a series of complications. However, fibrosis can be reversed before developing into cirrhosis and has thus been the subject of extensive researches particularly at the gene level. Currently, therapeutic genes are imported into the damaged liver to delay or prevent the development of liver fibrosis by regulating the expression of exogenous genes. One technique of gene delivery uses ultrasound targeting of microbubbles combined with therapeutic genes where the time and intensity of the ultrasound can control the release process. Ultrasound irradiation of microbubbles in the vicinity of cells changes the permeability of the cell membrane by its cavitation effect and enhances gene transfection. In this paper, recent progress in the field is reviewed with emphasis on the following aspects: the types of ultrasound microbubbles, the construction of an ultrasound-mediated gene delivery system, the mechanism of ultrasound microbubble–mediated gene transfer and the application of ultrasound microbubbles in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  13. High intensity focused ultrasound technology, its scope and applications in therapy and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenix, Christopher Peter; Togtema, Melissa; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Curiel, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, inexpensive and wide-spread diagnostic tool capable of producing real-time non-invasive images without significant biological effects. However, the propagation of higher energy, intensity and frequency ultrasound waves through living tissues can induce thermal, mechanical and chemical effects useful for a variety of therapeutic applications. With the recent development of clinically approved High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) systems, therapeutic ultrasound is now a medical reality. Indeed, HIFU has been used for the thermal ablation of pathological lesions; localized, minimally invasive ultrasound-mediated drug delivery through the transient formation of pores on cell membranes; the temporary disruption of skin and the blood brain barrier; the ultrasound induced break-down of blood clots; and the targeted release of drugs using ultrasound and temperature sensitive drug carriers. This review seeks to engage the pharmaceutical research community by providing an overview on the biological effects of ultrasound as well as highlighting important therapeutic applications, current deficiencies and future directions.

  14. 3D-printed adaptive acoustic lens as a disruptive technology for transcranial ultrasound therapy using single-element transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimbourg, Guillaume; Houdouin, Alexandre; Deffieux, Thomas; Tanter, Mickael; Aubry, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    The development of multi-element arrays for better control of the shape of ultrasonic beams has opened the way for focusing through highly aberrating media, such as the human skull. As a result, the use of brain therapy with transcranial-focused ultrasound has rapidly grown. Although effective, such technology is expensive. We propose a disruptive, low-cost approach that consists of focusing a 1 MHz ultrasound beam through a human skull with a single-element transducer coupled with a tailored silicone acoustic lens cast in a 3D-printed mold and designed using computed tomography-based numerical acoustic simulation. We demonstrate on N  =  3 human skulls that adding lens-based aberration correction to a single-element transducer increases the deposited energy on the target 10 fold.

  15. Analytical and numerical calculations of optimum design frequency for focused ultrasound therapy and acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, A Sanlı

    2011-10-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy relies on acoustic power absorption by tissue. The stronger the absorption the higher the temperature increase is. However, strong acoustic absorption also means faster attenuation and limited penetration depth. Hence, there is a trade-off between heat generation efficacy and penetration depth. In this paper, we formulated the acoustic power absorption as a function of frequency and attenuation coefficient, and defined two figures of merit to measure the power absorption: spatial peak of the acoustic power absorption density, and the acoustic power absorbed within the focal area. Then, we derived "rule of thumb" expressions for the optimum frequencies that maximized these figures of merit given the target depth and homogeneous tissue type. We also formulated a method to calculate the optimum frequency for inhomogeneous tissue given the tissue composition for situations where the tissue structure can be assumed to be made of parallel layers of homogeneous tissue. We checked the validity of the rules using linear acoustic field simulations. For a one-dimensional array of 4cm acoustic aperture, and for a two-dimensional array of 4×4cm(2) acoustic aperture, we found that the power absorbed within the focal area is maximized at 0.86MHz, and 0.79MHz, respectively, when the target depth is 4cm in muscle tissue. The rules on the other hand predicted the optimum frequencies for acoustic power absorption as 0.9MHz and 0.86MHz, respectively for the 1D and 2D array case, which are within 6% and 9% of the field simulation results. Because radiation force generated by an acoustic wave in a lossy propagation medium is approximately proportional to the acoustic power absorption, these rules can be used to maximize acoustic radiation force generated in tissue as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary results on the feasibility of using ultrasound to monitor intrafractional motion during radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, Eenas A.; Erickson, Beth; Noid, George; Li, X. Allen; Ehlers, Christopher; Quiroz, Francisco; Cooper, David T.; Lachaine, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Substantial intrafraction organ motion during radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor for accurate delivery of RT. The aim of this work is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the intrafractional motion of the pancreas or surrounding structures using ultrasound for RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and 4DCT data were acquired on ten pancreatic cancer patients during radiation therapy process in a prospective study. In addition, TAUS and MRI were collected for five healthy volunteers. The portal vein (PV) and the head of the pancreas (HP) along with other structures were contoured on these images. Volume changes, distance between the HP and PV, and motion difference between the HP and PV were measured to examine whether PV can be used as a motion surrogate for HP. TAUS images were acquired and processed using a research version of the Clarity autoscan ultrasound system (CAUS). Motion monitoring was performed with the ultrasound probe mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. Video segments of the monitoring sessions were captured. Results: On TAUS, PV is better visualized than HP. The measured mean volume deviation for all patients for the HP and PV was 1.4 and 0.6 ml, respectively. The distance between the HP and PV was close to a constant with 0.22 mm mean deviation throughout the ten breathing phases. The mean of the absolute motion difference for all patients was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in LR, 1.5 ± 0.5 mm in AP, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in SI, suggesting that the PV is a good surrogate for HP motion estimation. By using this surrogate, the HP motion tracking using TAUS was demonstrated. Conclusions: Large intrafractional organ motion due to respiratory and/or bowel motion is a limiting factor in administering curative radiation doses to pancreatic tumors. The authors investigate the use of real-time ultrasound to track pancreas motion. Due to the poor visibility of the pancreas head on an

  17. Preliminary results on the feasibility of using ultrasound to monitor intrafractional motion during radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omari, Eenas A.; Erickson, Beth; Noid, George; Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Ehlers, Christopher; Quiroz, Francisco [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Cooper, David T.; Lachaine, Martin [Elekta Ltd., Montreal, Québec H3A 2J5 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Substantial intrafraction organ motion during radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor for accurate delivery of RT. The aim of this work is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the intrafractional motion of the pancreas or surrounding structures using ultrasound for RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and 4DCT data were acquired on ten pancreatic cancer patients during radiation therapy process in a prospective study. In addition, TAUS and MRI were collected for five healthy volunteers. The portal vein (PV) and the head of the pancreas (HP) along with other structures were contoured on these images. Volume changes, distance between the HP and PV, and motion difference between the HP and PV were measured to examine whether PV can be used as a motion surrogate for HP. TAUS images were acquired and processed using a research version of the Clarity autoscan ultrasound system (CAUS). Motion monitoring was performed with the ultrasound probe mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. Video segments of the monitoring sessions were captured. Results: On TAUS, PV is better visualized than HP. The measured mean volume deviation for all patients for the HP and PV was 1.4 and 0.6 ml, respectively. The distance between the HP and PV was close to a constant with 0.22 mm mean deviation throughout the ten breathing phases. The mean of the absolute motion difference for all patients was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in LR, 1.5 ± 0.5 mm in AP, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in SI, suggesting that the PV is a good surrogate for HP motion estimation. By using this surrogate, the HP motion tracking using TAUS was demonstrated. Conclusions: Large intrafractional organ motion due to respiratory and/or bowel motion is a limiting factor in administering curative radiation doses to pancreatic tumors. The authors investigate the use of real-time ultrasound to track pancreas motion. Due to the poor visibility of the pancreas head on an

  18. Copper oxide loaded PLGA nanospheres: towards a multifunctional nanoscale platform for ultrasound-based imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Or; Weitz, Iris S.; Sivan, Sarit S.; Abu-Khalla, Hiba; Benguigui, Madeleine; Shaked, Yuval; Azhari, Haim

    2018-05-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are increasingly becoming the subject of investigation exploring their potential use for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Recent work has demonstrated their anticancer potential, as well as contrast agent capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and through-transmission ultrasound. However, no capability of CuO-NPs has been demonstrated using conventional ultrasound systems, which, unlike the former, are widely deployed in the clinic. Furthermore, in spite of their potential as multifunctional nano-based materials for diagnosis and therapy, CuO-NPs have been delayed from further clinical application due to their inherent toxicity. Herein, we present the synthesis of a novel nanoscale system, composed of CuO-loaded PLGA nanospheres (CuO-PLGA-NS), and demonstrate its imaging detectability and augmented heating effect by therapeutic ultrasound. The CuO-PLGA-NS were prepared by a double emulsion (W/O/W) method with subsequent solvent evaporation. They were characterized as sphere-shaped, with size approximately 200 nm. Preliminary results showed that the viability of PANC-1, human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was not affected after 72 h exposure to CuO-PLGA-NS, implying that PLGA masks the toxic effects of CuO-NPs. A systematic ultrasound imaging evaluation of CuO-PLGA-NS, using a conventional system, was performed in vitro and ex vivo using poultry heart and liver, and also in vivo using mice, all yielding a significant contrast enhancement. In contrast to CuO-PLGA-NS, neither bare CuO-NPs nor blank PLGA-NS possess these unique advantageous ultrasonic properties. Furthermore, CuO-PLGA-NS accelerated ultrasound-induced temperature elevation by more than 4 °C within 2 min. The heating efficiency (cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C) was increased approximately six-fold, demonstrating the potential for improved ultrasound ablation. In conclusion, CuO-PLGA-NS constitute a versatile platform, potentially useful for

  19. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  20. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  1. MR-Guided Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhancement of Gene Therapy Combined With Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ultrasound . J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 72 1926-1932, (1982) (7) Neppiras E A. Acoustic cavitation . Physics reports 61(3): 159-251, (1980) (8) ter Haar G R, Daniels...Guided Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhancement of 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...failing to This work is aimed to study MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) enhancement of gene therapy for Prostate Cancer. The

  2. First steps towards ultrasound-based motion compensation for imaging and therapy: calibration with an optical system and 4D PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchwaab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Target motion, particularly in the abdomen, due to respiration or patient movement is still a challenge in many diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Hence, methods to detect and compensate this motion are required. Diagnostic ultrasound represents a non-invasive and dose-free alternative to fluoroscopy, providing more information about internal target motion than respiration belt or optical tracking.The goal of this project is to develop an ultrasound based motion tracking for real time motion correction in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging, notably in 4D positron emission tomography (PET. In this work, a workflow is established to enable the transformation of ultrasound tracking data to the coordinates of the treatment delivery or imaging system – even if the ultrasound probe is moving due to respiration. It is shown that the ultrasound tracking signal is equally adequate for 4D PET image reconstruction as the clinically used respiration belt and provides additional opportunities in this concern. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the ultrasound probe being within the PET field of view generally has no relevant influence on the image quality. The accuracy and precision of all the steps in the calibration workflow for ultrasound tracking based 4D PET imaging are found to be in an acceptable range for clinical implementation. Eventually, we show in vitro that an ultrasound based motion tracking in absolute room coordinates with a moving US-transducer is feasible.

  3. Anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism detected by Doppler ultrasound in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga, Nobuyuki Mizunuma, Eiji Shinozaki, Satoshi Matsusaka, Masato Ozaka, Mariko Ogura, Keisho Chin, Toshiharu Yamaguchi Department of Gastroenterology, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan Background: Doppler ultrasound imaging is useful for management of venous thromboembolism associated with a subclavicular implantable central venous access system in patients receiving bevacizumab (Bev. We investigated the efficacy and safety of our anticoagulant regimen based on Doppler findings.Methods: Patients aged ≤75 years with metastatic colorectal cancer, no history of thromboembolism, and no prior use of Bev received chemotherapy plus Bev. Doppler ultrasound imaging of the deep venous system to detect thrombosis was performed after the first course of Bev and repeated after the third course in patients with asymptomatic thrombosis. Indications for anticoagulant therapy in patients with asymptomatic thrombosis were as follows: enlarging thrombus (E, thrombus >40 mm in diameter (S, thrombus involving the superior vena cava (C, and decreased blood flow (V.Results: Among 79 patients enrolled in this study, asymptomatic thrombosis was detected in 56 patients (70.9% by Doppler ultrasound imaging after the first course of Bev and there was no thrombus in 23 patients (29.1%. Of these 56 patients, 11 (19.6% received anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, including eight after the first course and three after follow-up imaging. S + V was observed in four of 11 patients (36.4%, as well as V in two (18.2%, S + V + C in one (9.1%, E + S + V in one (9.1%, E + C in one (9.1%, E in one (9.1%, and C in one (9.1%. All patients resumed chemotherapy, including seven who resumed Bev. Improvement or stabilization of thrombi was achieved in ten patients (90.9%. Only one patient had symptomatic thromboembolism. Mild bleeding due to anticoagulant therapy occurred in six patients (54.5%, but there were no treatment

  4. SU-G-JeP3-08: Robotic System for Ultrasound Tracking in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlemann, I [University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Luebeck (Germany); Jauer, P; Schweikard, A; Ernst, F [University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For safe and accurate real-time tracking of tumors for IGRT using 4D ultrasound, it is necessary to make use of novel, high-end force-sensitive lightweight robots designed for human-machine interaction. Such a robot will be integrated into an existing robotized ultrasound system for non-invasive 4D live tracking, using a newly developed real-time control and communication framework. Methods: The new KUKA LWR iiwa robot is used for robotized ultrasound real-time tumor tracking. Besides more precise probe contact pressure detection, this robot provides an additional 7th link, enhancing the dexterity of the kinematic and the mounted transducer. Several integrated, certified safety features create a safe environment for the patients during treatment. However, to remotely control the robot for the ultrasound application, a real-time control and communication framework has to be developed. Based on a client/server concept, client-side control commands are received and processed by a central server unit and are implemented by a client module running directly on the robot’s controller. Several special functionalities for robotized ultrasound applications are integrated and the robot can now be used for real-time control of the image quality by adjusting the transducer position, and contact pressure. The framework was evaluated looking at overall real-time capability for communication and processing of three different standard commands. Results: Due to inherent, certified safety modules, the new robot ensures a safe environment for patients during tumor tracking. Furthermore, the developed framework shows overall real-time capability with a maximum average latency of 3.6 ms (Minimum 2.5 ms; 5000 trials). Conclusion: The novel KUKA LBR iiwa robot will advance the current robotized ultrasound tracking system with important features. With the developed framework, it is now possible to remotely control this robot and use it for robotized ultrasound tracking

  5. SU-G-JeP3-08: Robotic System for Ultrasound Tracking in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlemann, I; Jauer, P; Schweikard, A; Ernst, F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For safe and accurate real-time tracking of tumors for IGRT using 4D ultrasound, it is necessary to make use of novel, high-end force-sensitive lightweight robots designed for human-machine interaction. Such a robot will be integrated into an existing robotized ultrasound system for non-invasive 4D live tracking, using a newly developed real-time control and communication framework. Methods: The new KUKA LWR iiwa robot is used for robotized ultrasound real-time tumor tracking. Besides more precise probe contact pressure detection, this robot provides an additional 7th link, enhancing the dexterity of the kinematic and the mounted transducer. Several integrated, certified safety features create a safe environment for the patients during treatment. However, to remotely control the robot for the ultrasound application, a real-time control and communication framework has to be developed. Based on a client/server concept, client-side control commands are received and processed by a central server unit and are implemented by a client module running directly on the robot’s controller. Several special functionalities for robotized ultrasound applications are integrated and the robot can now be used for real-time control of the image quality by adjusting the transducer position, and contact pressure. The framework was evaluated looking at overall real-time capability for communication and processing of three different standard commands. Results: Due to inherent, certified safety modules, the new robot ensures a safe environment for patients during tumor tracking. Furthermore, the developed framework shows overall real-time capability with a maximum average latency of 3.6 ms (Minimum 2.5 ms; 5000 trials). Conclusion: The novel KUKA LBR iiwa robot will advance the current robotized ultrasound tracking system with important features. With the developed framework, it is now possible to remotely control this robot and use it for robotized ultrasound tracking

  6. Ultrasound Assessment of Carotid Plaque Echogenicity Response to Statin Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Pranvera; Jashari, Fisnik; Bajraktari, Gani; Wester, Per; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in a systematic review and meta-analysis model the effect of statin therapy on carotid plaque echogenicity assessed by ultrasound. Methods: We have systematically searched electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Center Register) up to April, 2015, for studies evaluating the effect of statins on plaque echogenicity. Two researchers independently determined the eligibility of studies evaluating the effect of statin therapy on carotid plaque echogenicity that used ultrasound and grey scale median (GSM) or integrated back scatter (IBS). Results: Nine out of 580 identified studies including 566 patients’ carotid artery data were meta-analyzed for a mean follow up of 7.2 months. A consistent increase in the echogenicity of carotid artery plaques, after statin therapy, was reported. Pooled weighted mean difference % (WMD) on plaque echogenicity after statin therapy was 29% (95% CI 22%–36%), p < 0.001, I2 = 92.1%. In a meta-regression analysis using % mean changes of LDL, HDL and hsCRP as moderators, it was shown that the effects of statins on plaque echogenicity were related to changes in hsCRP, but not to LDL and HDL changes from the baseline. The effect of statins on the plaque was progressive; it showed significance after the first month of treatment, and the echogenicity continued to increase in the following six and 12 months. Conclusions: Statin therapy is associated with a favorable increase of carotid plaque echogenicity. This effect seems to be dependent on the period of treatment and hsCRP change from the baseline, independent of changes in LDL and HDL. PMID:25984600

  7. Efficacy of Ablation Therapy for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism by Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous Thermoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfeng; Qian, Linxue; Zu, Yuan; Wei, Ying; Hu, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the value of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave thermoablation to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). One hundred and thirty-eight parathyroid glands from 56 patients with SHPT were ablated in this study. All the parathyroid glands were evaluated by real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound before, during and after ablation. Changes in serum parathyroid hormone (sPTH) levels were measured before treatment and at 1 h, 1 wk, 1 mo and 6 mo after thermoablation treatment. All 56 cases had a 1-mo follow-up, and 34 cases had a 6-mo follow-up. The sPTH level of the 54 cases 1 mo after ablation was significantly lower than that before (p 0.05). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave thermoablation is a feasible and effective non-surgical alternative treatment for SHPT patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold’s Tyson de Sousa; Moreira dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and ...

  12. Microbubbles in macrocysts - Contrast-enhanced ultrasound assisted sclerosant therapy of a congenital macrocystic lymphangioma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Zapke, Maren; Fahlbusch, Fabian; von Goessel, Heiko; Rascher, Wolfgang; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    Congenital cystic lymphangiomas are benign malformations due to a developmental disorder of lymphatic vessels. Besides surgical excision, sclerosant therapy of these lesions by intracavitary injection of OK-432 (Picibanil®), a lyophilized mixture of group A Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common therapeutical option. For an appropriate application of OK-432, a detailed knowledge about the structure and composition of the congenital cystic lymphangioma is essential. SonoVue® is a commercially available contrast agent commonly used in sonography by intravenous and intracavitary application. Here we report the case of 2 month old male patient with a large thoracic congenital cystic lymphangioma. Preinterventional imaging of the malformation was performed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intracavitary application of SonoVue® immediately followed by a successful sclerotherapy with OK-432. Contrast agent-enhanced ultrasound imaging offers a valuable option to preinterventionally clarify the anatomic specifications of a congenital cystic lymphangioma in more detail than by single conventional sonography. By the exact knowledge about the composition and especially about the intercystic communications of the lymphangioma sclerosant therapy becomes safer and more efficient.

  13. High power phased array prototype for clinical high intensity focused ultrasound : applications to transcostal and transcranial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, M; Aubry, J -F; Tanter, M; Marquet, F; Montaldo, G; Boch, A -L; Kujas, M; Seilhean, D; Fink, M

    2007-01-01

    Bursts of focused ultrasound energy three orders of magnitude more intense than diagnostic ultrasound became during the last decade a noninvasive option for treating cancer from breast to prostate or uterine fibroid. However, many challenges remain to be addressed. First, the corrections of distortions induced on the ultrasonic therapy beam during its propagation through defocusing obstacles like skull bone or ribs remain today a technological performance that still need to be validated clinically. Secondly, the problem of motion artifacts particularly important for the treatment of abdominal parts becomes today an important research topic. Finally, the problem of the treatment monitoring is a wide subject of interest in the growing HIFU community. For all these issues, the potential of new ultrasonic therapy devices able to work both in Transmit and Receive modes will be emphasized. A review of the work under achievement at L.O.A. using this new generation of HIFU prototypes on the monitoring, motion correction and aberrations corrections will be presented.

  14. Laser-Activated Polymeric Microcapsules for Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy: In Vitro Feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajoinie, Guillaume; van Rooij, Tom; Skachkov, Ilya; Blazejewski, Emilie; Veldhuis, Gert; de Jong, Nico; Kooiman, Klazina; Versluis, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric microcapsules with a light-absorbing dye incorporated in their shell can generate vapor microbubbles that can be spatiotemporally controlled by pulsed laser irradiation. These contrast agents of 6–8 μm in diameter can circulate through the vasculature, offering possibilities for ultrasound

  15. Ultrasound-guided subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate for the management of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a prospective comparative study with rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, G; Bianchi, P; Porcellini, G

    2013-06-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The literature evidence suggests that a combination of overuse and extrinsic compression may induce chronic RC tendinopathy. Aim of the current study was to compare the results of subacromial sodium hyaluronate injections with rehabilitation therapy. We enrolled 48 patients (M/F: 26/22; mean age: 50 years; shoulder right/left: 29/19) with persistent shoulder pain for at least 4 months. Exclusion criteria were as follows: RC tear, calcifying tendinitis, glenohumeral instability, osteoarthritis, rheumatic diseases, physical therapy and/or injection in the previous 4 months, shoulder surgery, anesthetic nerve block, trauma, and severe medical diseases. The included subjects received either two ultrasound-guided subacromial hyaluronic acid (HA) injections (25 patients, HA group) at baseline and 14 days, or underwent rehabilitation therapy (23 patients, Physio group) including active shoulder mobilization, soft tissue stretching and humeral head positioner and propeller muscles strengthening for 30 days (3 sessions every week). Clinical assessment of shoulder function was performed with visual analog scale score for pain (0-100), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and Constant-Murley Score (CS). Overall, patients were examined at baseline, week 2, week 4, week 12, and week 24. Statistical significance was set at 5 % (p  0.05), week 12 (p > 0.05), and week 24 (p > 0.05). CS and OSS in the HA group increased significantly at week 2 (p  0.05). A significant improvement of CS and OSS we found in the Physio group at week 2 (p  0.05). Subacromial HA injections could be an effective and safe alternative treatment for patients suffering from RC tendinopathy. We believe that the results of this study are encouraging but not lasting and we might suppose that a series of three to four subacromial sodium hyaluronate injections could provide good mid- and long-term clinical benefits.

  16. Progetto EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetria per terapie ultrasonore. Confronto tra metodi di misura - EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetry for ultrasound therapy. Intercomparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Durando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La mancanza di una definizione della dose ultrasonora rende di fatto impossibile la valutazione della più appropriata “quantità” energia ceduta ai tessuti dal fascio ultrasonoro emesso da un trasduttore durante una terapia. Il progetto di ricerca “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy”, finanziato dal programma di ricerca EURAMET EMRP, aveva tra i suoi principali obiettivi, oltre al confronto interlaboratorio che validasse le capacità metrologiche dei laboratori partecipanti, la ricerca della definizione di dose ultrasonora che consentisse la definizione di un piano terapeutico specifico per ogni paziente. ------ Standardized and traceable dose has not yet been developed for medical ultrasound applications. This means that the ‘amount’ of ultrasound required for a particular therapy cannot be calculated and that the ‘amount’ actually delivered quantified. The aim of EURAMET EMRP project “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy” project was developing the metrological infrastructure (definitions, validated measurement and modelling methods which underpins the specification of dose for therapeutic ultrasound applications allowing appropriate treatment planning and risk assessment.

  17. Echocardiographic assessment with right ventricular function improvement following ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy in submassive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Charles; Gonzalez, Lorena; Duchman, Stanley M; Varon, Joseph; Bechara, Carlos F; Cheung, Mathew; Lin, Peter H

    2018-06-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism. Methods Clinical records of 46 patients with submassive pulmonary embolism who underwent ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed pulmonary thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator, from 2007 to 2017, were analyzed. All patients experienced clinical symptoms with computed tomography evidence of pulmonary thrombus burden. Right ventricular dysfunction was present in all patients by echocardiographic finding of right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio > 0.9. Treatment outcome, procedural complications, right ventricular pressures, and thrombus clearance were evaluated. Follow-up evaluation included echocardiographic assessment of right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio at one month, six months, and one year. Results Technical success was achieved in all patients ( n = 46, 100%). Our patients received an average of 18.4 ± 4.7 mg of tissue plasminogen activator using ultrasound-accelerated thrombolytic catheter with an average infusion time of 16.5± 5.4 h. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (100%). Significant reduction of mean pulmonary artery pressure occurred following the treatment, which decreased from 36 ± 8 to 21 ± 5 mmHg ( p right ventricular dysfunction based on echocardiographic assessment. The right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio decreased from 1.32 ± 0.18 to 0.91 ± 0.13 at the time of hospital discharge ( p right ventricular function remained improved at 6 months and 12 months of follow-up, as right ventricle-to-left ventricle ratio were 0.92 ± 0.14 ( p right ventricular function in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism.

  18. Non-invasive estimation of temperature using diagnostic ultrasound during HIFU therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, O.; Wilkens, V.

    2017-03-01

    The use of HIFU for thermal ablation of human tissues requires safe real-time monitoring of the lesion formation during the treatment to avoid damage of the surrounding healthy tissues and to control temperature rise. Besides MR imaging, several methods have been proposed for temperature imaging using diagnostic ultrasound, and echoshift estimation (using speckle tracking) is the most promising and commonly used technique. It is based on the thermal dependence of the ultrasound echo that accounts for two different physical phenomena: local change in speed of sound and thermal expansion of the propagating medium due to changes in temperature. In our experiments we have used two separate transducers: HIFU exposure was performed using a 1.06 MHz single element focusing transducer of 64 mm aperture and 63.2 mm focal length; the ultrasound diagnostic probe of 11 MHz operated in B-mode for image guidance. The temperature measurements were performed in an agar-based tissue-mimicking phantom. To verify the obtained results, numerical modeling of the acoustic and temperature fields was carried out using KZK and Pennes Bioheat equations, as well as measurements with thermocouples were performed.

  19. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  20. Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Banach (Maciej); C. Serban (Corina); A. Sahebkar (Amirhossein); D.P. Mikhailidis (Dimitri P.); S. Ursoniu (Sorin); K.K. Ray (Kausik K.); J. Rysz (Jacek); P.P. Toth (Peter); P. Muntner (Paul); S. Mosteoru (Svetlana); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) imaging is an innovative tool for the morphological evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis. Evidence for the effects of statin therapy on VH-IVUS parameters have been inconclusive. Consequently, we performed a systematic

  1. Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, Maciej; Serban, Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Ursoniu, Sorin; Ray, Kausik K.; Rysz, Jacek; Toth, Peter P.; Muntner, Paul; Mosteoru, Svetlana; García-García, Hector M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) imaging is an innovative tool for the morphological evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis. Evidence for the effects of statin therapy on VH-IVUS parameters have been inconclusive. Consequently, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  3. Additional Effect of Static Ultrasound and Diadynamic Currents on Myofascial Trigger Points in a Manual Therapy Program for Patients With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    To assess the additional effect of static ultrasound and diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in a manual therapy program to treat individuals with chronic neck pain. A single-blind randomized trial was conducted. Both men and women, between ages 18 and 45, with chronic neck pain and active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius were included in the study. Subjects were assigned to 3 different groups: group 1 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy; group 2 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and static ultrasound; group 3 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and diadynamic currents. Individuals were assessed before the first treatment session, 48 hours after the first treatment session, 48 hours after the tenth treatment session, and 4 weeks after the last session. There was no group-versus-time interaction for Numeric Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and skin temperature (F-value range, 0.089-1.961; P-value range, 0.106-0.977). Moreover, we found no differences between groups regarding electromyographic activity (P > 0.05). The use of static ultrasound or diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius associated with a manual therapy program did not generate greater benefits than manual therapy alone.

  4. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  5. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, William H; Diederich, Chris J; Shu, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t 43 ) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  6. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  7. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ji, Tianlong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Iordachita, Iulian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A. [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  8. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai; Ji, Tianlong; Iordachita, Iulian; Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  9. Ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blocks combined with pharmacological and occupational therapy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): a pilot case series ad interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Karin; Feldmann, Robert E; Brascher, Anne-Kathrin; Benrath, Justus

    2014-12-01

    This preliminary and retrospective pilot case series examines a treatment concept consisting of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) combined with pharmacological and occupational therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the hand. Efficacy of combined treatment concepts and safety of ultrasound-guided SGB have not been sufficiently investigated yet. A total number of 156 blocks were evaluated in 16 patients with CRPS in a retrospective analysis. All patients received pharmacotherapy and a standard regimen of occupational therapy offered simultaneously to the SGBs. Changes in both spontaneous and evoked pain levels were assessed by numerical pain rating score before and after the last blockade of a series. Side effects were documented. The overall mean pain reduction was 63.2% regarding spontaneous and 45.3% regarding evoked pain. Mild complications, such as hoarseness or dysphagia, occurred in 13.5% of the blocks (21 SGBs). Serious complications, such as plexus paresis or accidental puncture of vessels or other structures, did not occur. Time between symptom onset and start of treatment did not affect the extent of pain reduction. The combination of ultrasound-guided SGB and simultaneous pharmacological and occupational therapy showed encouraging treatment results under conditions of this pilot case series. Assessment of efficacy of this combined treatment concept and safety of ultrasound-guided SGB require further prospective clinical studies with larger number of participants. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  11. Transurethral ultrasound applicators with dynamic multi-sector control for prostate thermal therapy: In vivo evaluation under MR guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, Adam M.; Diederich, Chris J.; Rieke, Viola; Nau, William H.; Pauly, Kim Butts; Bouley, Donna; Sommer, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and performance of a multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound applicator for prostate thermal therapy, with potential to provide dynamic angular and length control of heating under MR guidance without mechanical movement of the applicator. Test configurations were fabricated, incorporating a linear array of two multi-sectored tubular transducers (7.8-8.4 MHz, 3 mm OD, 6 mm length), with three 120 deg. independent active sectors per tube. A flexible delivery catheter facilitated water cooling (100 ml min -1 ) within an expandable urethral balloon (35 mm longx10 mm diameter). An integrated positioning hub allows for rotating and translating the transducer assembly within the urethral balloon for final targeting prior to therapy delivery. Rotational beam plots indicate ∼90 deg. - 100 deg. acoustic output patterns from each 120 deg. transducer sector, negligible coupling between sectors, and acoustic efficiencies between 41% and 53%. Experiments were performed within in vivo canine prostate (n=3), with real-time MR temperature monitoring in either the axial or coronal planes to facilitate control of the heating profiles and provide thermal dosimetry for performance assessment. Gross inspection of serial sections of treated prostate, exposed to TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) tissue viability stain, allowed for direct assessment of the extent of thermal coagulation. These devices created large contiguous thermal lesions (defined by 52 deg. C maximum temperature, t 43 =240 min thermal dose contours, and TTC tissue sections) that extended radially from the applicator toward the border of the prostate (∼15 mm) during a short power application (∼8-16 W per active sector, 8-15 min), with ∼200 deg. or 360 deg. sector coagulation demonstrated depending upon the activation scheme. Analysis of transient temperature profiles indicated progression of lethal temperature and thermal dose contours

  12. A multi-frequency sparse hemispherical ultrasound phased array for microbubble-mediated transcranial therapy and simultaneous cavitation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lulu; O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Jones, Ryan M; An, Ran; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-12-21

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) phased arrays show promise for non-invasive brain therapy. However, the majority of them are limited to a single transmit/receive frequency and therefore lack the versatility to expose and monitor the treatment volume. Multi-frequency arrays could offer variable transmit focal sizes under a fixed aperture, and detect different spectral content on receive for imaging purposes. Here, a three-frequency (306, 612, and 1224 kHz) sparse hemispherical ultrasound phased array (31.8 cm aperture; 128 transducer modules) was constructed and evaluated for microbubble-mediated transcranial therapy and simultaneous cavitation mapping. The array is able to perform effective electronic beam steering over a volume spanning (-40, 40) and (-30, 50) mm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. The focal size at the geometric center is approximately 0.9 (2.1) mm, 1.7 (3.9) mm, and 3.1 (6.5) mm in lateral (axial) pressure full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1224, 612, and 306 kHz, respectively. The array was also found capable of dual-frequency excitation and simultaneous multi-foci sonication, which enables the future exploration of more complex exposure strategies. Passive acoustic mapping of dilute microbubble clouds demonstrated that the point spread function of the receive array has a lateral (axial) intensity FWHM between 0.8-3.5 mm (1.7-11.7 mm) over a volume spanning (-25, 25) mm in both the lateral and axial directions, depending on the transmit/receive frequency combination and the imaging location. The device enabled both half and second harmonic imaging through the intact skull, which may be useful for improving the contrast-to-tissue ratio or imaging resolution, respectively. Preliminary in vivo experiments demonstrated the system's ability to induce blood-brain barrier opening and simultaneously spatially map microbubble cavitation activity in a rat model. This work presents a tool to investigate optimal strategies for non

  13. Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer

  14. Highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational control for MRI-guided prostatic thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Anthony B [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Diederich, Chris J [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nau, William H [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gill, Harcharan [Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Bouley, Donna M [Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Daniel, Bruce [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Rieke, Viola [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Butts, R Kim [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Sommer, Graham [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-01-21

    Transurethral ultrasound applicators with highly directional energy deposition and rotational control were investigated for precise treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and adenocarcinoma of the prostate (CaP). Two types of catheter-based applicators were fabricated, using either sectored tubular (3.5 mm OD x 10 mm) or planar transducers (3.5 mm x 10 mm). They were constructed to be MRI compatible, minimally invasive and allow for manual rotation of the transducer array within a 10 mm cooling balloon. In vivo evaluations of the applicators were performed in canine prostates (n 3) using MRI guidance (0.5 T interventional magnet). MR temperature imaging (MRTI) utilizing the proton resonance frequency shift method was used to acquire multiple-slice temperature overlays in real time for monitoring and guiding the thermal treatments. Post-treatment T1-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stained tissue sections were used to define regions of tissue coagulation. Single sonications with the tubular applicator ) produced coagulated zones covering a wedge of the prostate extending from 1-2 mm outside the urethra to the outer boundary of the gland (16 mm radial coagulation). Single sonications with the planar applicator (15-20 W, 10 min, {approx}8 MHz) generated thermal lesions of {approx}30 extending to the prostate boundary. Multiple sequential sonications (sweeping) of a planar applicator (12 W with eight rotations of 30 each) demonstrated controllable coagulation of a 270 contiguous section of the prostate extending to the capsule boundary. The feasibility of using highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational capabilities to selectively coagulate regions of the prostate while monitoring and controlling the treatments with MRTI was demonstrated in this study.

  15. Exercise therapy after ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections in patients with subacromial pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Karen; Christensen, Robin; Rosager, Sara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS) accounts for around 50 % of all cases of shoulder pain. The most commonly used treatments are glucocorticosteroid (steroid) injections and exercise therapy; however, despite treatment SAPS patients often experience relapse of their symptoms. Therefore...... the clinical effect of combining steroid and exercise therapy is highly relevant to clarify. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate if exercise therapy added to steroid injection in patients with SAPS will improve the effect of the injection therapy on shoulder pain. METHODS......: In this two-arm randomized trial running over 26 weeks, patients with unilateral shoulder pain (> 4 weeks) and thickened subacromial bursa (> 2 mm on US) were included. At baseline all participants received two steroid injections into the painful shoulder with an interval of one week. Subsequently they were...

  16. Music Therapy on Anxiety, Stress and Maternal-fetal Attachment in Pregnant Women During Transvaginal Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The finding provides evidence for use of nursing intervention in prenatal care unit to reduce pregnant women's anxiety. Further research is necessary to test the benefits of music therapy with different frequency and duration.

  17. The efficacy of ultrasound-guided extracorporeal shockwave therapy in patients with cervical spondylosis and nuchal ligament calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tz-Yan Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT on the rehabilitation of cervical spondylosis with nuchal ligament (NL calcification under X-ray and ultrasound guidance. Sixty patients with cervical spondylosis and calcification of NL were selected and randomly assigned to three groups: A, B, and C. Patients in Group A received rehabilitation with 20 minutes of hot packs and underwent 15 minutes of intermittent cervical traction three times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in Group B received the same rehabilitation as those in Group A and ESWT (2000 impulses, 0.27 mJ/mm2 over the calcified NL guided by X-ray image. Patients in Group C received the same treatment as those in Group B, but the ESWT was guided by musculoskeletal sonography. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by: changes in range of motion (ROM of the cervical spine including flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation; visual analog pain scale; and Neck Disability Index before and after treatment and at follow up 3 months later. We found a significant reduction in pain in each treated group after treatment and at follow up. However, patients in Groups B and C showed more improvements in ROM and neck pain relief after treatment and a decrease in Neck Disability Index. Furthermore, patients in Group C showed better cervical ROM at follow up than Group B. ESWT is an adjuvant treatment in the management of cervical spondylosis with calcification of NL and ultrasound-guided ESWT results in more functional improvements.

  18. Experimental verification of a two-dimensional respiratory motion compensation system with ultrasound tracking technique in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lai-Lei; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Liao, Ai-Ho; Kuo, Chia-Chun; Yu, Hsiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Liang; Tien, Der-Chi; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong

    2018-05-01

    This study proposed respiratory motion compensation system (RMCS) combined with an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) to compensate for respiration-induced tumor motion during radiotherapy, and to address the problem of inaccurate radiation dose delivery caused by respiratory movement. This study used an ultrasound imaging system to monitor respiratory movements combined with the proposed UITA and RMCS for tracking and compensation of the respiratory motion. Respiratory motion compensation was performed using prerecorded human respiratory motion signals and also sinusoidal signals. A linear accelerator was used to deliver radiation doses to GAFchromic EBT3 dosimetry film, and the conformity index (CI), root-mean-square error, compensation rate (CR), and planning target volume (PTV) were used to evaluate the tracking and compensation performance of the proposed system. Human respiratory pattern signals were captured using the UITA and compensated by the RMCS, which yielded CR values of 34-78%. In addition, the maximum coronal area of the PTV ranged from 85.53 mm 2 to 351.11 mm 2 (uncompensated), which reduced to from 17.72 mm 2 to 66.17 mm 2 after compensation, with an area reduction ratio of up to 90%. In real-time monitoring of the respiration compensation state, the CI values for 85% and 90% isodose areas increased to 0.7 and 0.68, respectively. The proposed UITA and RMCS can reduce the movement of the tracked target relative to the LINAC in radiation therapy, thereby reducing the required size of the PTV margin and increasing the effect of the radiation dose received by the treatment target. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined passive acoustic mapping and magnetic resonance thermometry for monitoring phase-shift nanoemulsion enhanced focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crake, Calum; Meral, F. Can; Burgess, Mark T.; Papademetriou, Iason T.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2017-08-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has the potential to enable precise, image-guided noninvasive surgery for the treatment of cancer in which tumors are identified and destroyed in a single integrated procedure. However, success of the method in highly vascular organs has been limited due to heat losses to perfusion, requiring development of techniques to locally enhance energy absorption and heating. In addition, FUS procedures are conventionally monitored using MRI, which provides excellent anatomical images and can map temperature, but is not capable of capturing the full gamut of available data such as the acoustic emissions generated during this inherently acoustically-driven procedure. Here, we employed phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) embedded in tissue phantoms to promote cavitation and hence temperature rise induced by FUS. In addition, we incorporated passive acoustic mapping (PAM) alongside simultaneous MR thermometry in order to visualize both acoustic emissions and temperature rise, within the bore of a full scale clinical MRI scanner. Focal cavitation of PSNE could be resolved using PAM and resulted in accelerated heating and increased the maximum elevated temperature measured via MR thermometry compared to experiments without nanoemulsions. Over time, the simultaneously acquired acoustic and temperature maps show translation of the focus of activity towards the FUS transducer, and the magnitude of the increase in cavitation and focal shift both increased with nanoemulsion concentration. PAM results were well correlated with MRI thermometry and demonstrated greater sensitivity, with the ability to detect cavitation before enhanced heating was observed. The results suggest that PSNE could be beneficial for enhancement of thermal focused ultrasound therapies and that PAM could be a critical tool for monitoring this process.

  20. The effect of androgen deprivation on the early changes in prostate volume following transperineal ultrasound guided interstitial therapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Richard; Broderick, Gregory A; Arger, Peter; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Epperson, Robert D; Arjomandy, Bijan; Kassaee, Alireza

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the change in volume of the prostate as a result of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation prior to prostate implant and in the early postimplant period following transperineal ultrasound guided palladium-103 brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine men received 3 to 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy followed by treatment planning ultrasound followed 4 to 8 weeks later by palladium-103 implant of the prostate. All patients had clinical and radiographic stage T1c-T2b adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A second ultrasound study was carried out 11 to 13 days following the implant to determine the change in volume of the prostate as a result of the implant. The prehormonal and preimplant volumes were compared to the postimplant volume to determine the effect of hormones and brachytherapy on prostate volume. Results: The median decrease in prostate volume as a result of androgen deprivation was 33% among the 54 patients with prostate volume determinations prior to hormonal therapy. The reduction in volume was greatest in the quartile of men with the largest initial gland volume (59%) and least in the quartile of men with smallest glands (10%). The median reduction in prostate volume between the treatment planning ultrasound and the follow-up study after implant was 3%, but 23 (33%) patients had an increase in prostate volume, including 16 (23%) who had an increase in volume >20%; 11 of these patients (16%) had an increase in volume >30%. The time course of development and resolution of this edema is not known. The severity of the edema was not related to initial or preimplant prostate volume or duration of hormonal therapy. Conclusions: Prostate edema may significantly affect the dose delivered to the prostate following transperineal ultrasound guided brachytherapy. The effect on the actual delivered dose will be greater when shorter lived isotopes are used. It remains to be observed whether this edema will

  1. Non-invasive treatment efficacy evaluation for high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy using magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gepu; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Although the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been demonstrated to be a non-invasive treatment technology for tumor therapy, the real-time temperature monitoring is still a key issue in the practical application. Based on the temperature-impedance relation, a fixed-point magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement technology of treatment efficacy evaluation for tissue thermocoagulation during HIFU therapy is developed with a sensitive indicator of critical temperature monitoring in this study. With the acoustic excitation of a focused transducer in the magnetoacoustic tomography with the magnetic induction system, the distributions of acoustic pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, and acoustic source strength in the focal region are simulated, and the treatment time dependences of the peak amplitude and the corresponding amplitude derivative under various acoustic powers are also achieved. It is proved that the strength peak of acoustic sources is generated by tissue thermocoagulation with a sharp conductivity variation. The peak amplitude of the transducer collected magnetoacoustic signal increases accordingly along with the increase in the treatment time under a fixed acoustic power. When the temperature in the range with the radial and axial widths of about ±0.46 mm and ±2.2 mm reaches 69 °C, an obvious peak of the amplitude derivative can be achieved and used as a sensitive indicator of the critical status of treatment efficacy. The favorable results prove the feasibility of real-time non-invasive temperature monitoring and treatment efficacy evaluation for HIFU ablation using the magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement, and might provide a new strategy for accurate dose control during HIFU therapy.

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  6. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel...... with the foot ultrasound scanner reduced precision errors by half (p quantitative ultrasound measurements is feasible. (E-mail: m.daugschies@rad.uni-kiel.de) (C) 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology....

  7. Simultaneous delivery of electron beam therapy and ultrasound hyperthermia using scanning reflectors: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moros, Eduardo G.; Straube, William L.; Klein, Eric E.; Yousaf, Muhammed; Myerson, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of simultaneously delivering external electron beam radiation and superficial hyperthermia using a scanning ultrasound reflector-array system (SURAS) was experimentally investigated and demonstrated. Methods and Materials: A new system uses a scanning reflector to distribute the acoustic energy from a planar ultrasound array over the surface of the target volume. External photon/electron beams can be concurrently delivered with hyperthermia by irradiating through the scanning reflectors. That is, this system enables the acoustic waves and the radiation beams to enter the target volume from the same direction. Reflectors were constructed of air-equivalent materials for maximum acoustic reflection and minimum radiation attenuation. Acoustically, the air reflectors were compared to brass reflectors (assumed ideal) for reflectivity and specular quality using several single transducers ranging in frequency from 0.68 to 4.8 MHz. The relative reflectivity was determined from acoustic power measurements using a force-balance technique. The specular quality was assessed by comparing the acoustic pressure fields reflected by air reflectors with those reflected by brass reflectors. Also, acoustic pressure fields generated by a SURAS prototype for two different arrays (2.24 and 4.5 MHz) were measured to investigate field distribution variations as a function of the distance separating the array and the scanning reflector. All pressure fields were measured with a hydrophone in a degassed water tank. Finally, to determine the effect of the air reflectors on electron dose distributions, these were measured using film in a water-equivalent solid phantom after passage of a 20 MeV electron beam through the SURAS. These measurements were performed with the reflector scanning continuously across the electron beam and at rest within the electron beam. Results: The measurements performed using single ultrasound transducers showed that the air reflectors had

  8. Gold nanoparticle nucleated cavitation for enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, J. R.; Cowell, D. M. J.; Freear, S.

    2018-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or focused ultrasound surgery is a non-invasive technique for the treatment of cancerous tissue, which is limited by difficulties in getting real-time feedback on treatment progress and long treatment durations. The formation and activity of acoustic cavitation, specifically inertial cavitation, during HIFU exposures has been demonstrated to enhance heating rates. However, without the introduction of external nuclei its formation an activity can be unpredictable, and potentially counter-productive. In this study, a combination of pulse laser illumination (839 nm), HIFU exposures (3.3 MHz) and plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNR) was demonstrated as a new approach for the guidance and enhancement of HIFU treatments. For imaging, short duration HIFU pulses (10 μs) demonstrated broadband acoustic emissions from AuNR nucleated cavitation with a signal-to-noise ranging from 5-35 dB for peak negative pressures between 1.19-3.19  ±  0.01 MPa. In the absence of either AuNR or laser illumination these emissions were either not present or lower in magnitude (e.g. 5 dB for 3.19 MPa). Continuous wave (CW) HIFU exposures for 15 s, were then used to generate thermal lesions for peak negative pressures from 0.2-2.71  ±  0.01 MPa at a fluence of 3.4 mJ cm-2 . Inertial cavitation dose (ICD) was monitored during all CW exposures, where exposures combined with both laser illumination and AuNRs resulted in the highest level of detectable emissions. This parameter was integrated over the entire exposure to give a metric to compare with measured thermal lesion area, where it was found that a minimum total ICD of 1.5 × 103 a.u. was correlated with the formation of thermal lesions in gel phantoms. Furthermore, lesion area (mm2) was increased for equivalent exposures without either AuNRs or laser illumination. Once combined with cancer targeting AuNRs this approach could allow for the future theranostic use of HIFU, such as

  9. Application of Ultrasound to Selectively Localize Nanodroplets for Targeted Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dayton

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-coated perfluorocarbon nanodroplets are submicrometer-diameter liquid-filled droplets with proposed applications in molecularly targeted therapeutics and ultrasound (US imaging. Ultrasonic molecular imaging is unique in that the optimal application of these agents depends not only on the surface chemistry, but also on the applied US field, which can increase receptor-ligand binding and membrane fusion. Theory and experiments are combined to demonstrate the displacement of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the direction of US propagation, where a traveling US wave with a peak pressure on the order of megapascals and frequency in the megahertz range produces a particle translational velocity that is proportional to acoustic intensity and increases with increasing center frequency. Within a vessel with a diameter on the order of hundreds of micrometers or larger, particle velocity on the order of hundreds of micrometers per second is produced and the dominant mechanism for droplet displacement is shown to be bulk fluid streaming. A model for radiation force displacement of particles is developed and demonstrates that effective particle displacement should be feasible in the microvasculature. In a flowing system, acoustic manipulation of targeted droplets increases droplet retention. Additionally, we demonstrate the feasibility of US-enhanced particle internalization and therapeutic delivery.

  10. MO-DE-202-01: Image-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2016-06-15

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  11. MO-DE-202-01: Image-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, K.

    2016-01-01

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  12. Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Gland Pathologies After Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy to Treat Malignancy During Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollert, André, E-mail: andre.lollert@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Gies, Christina; Laudemann, Katharina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Faber, Jörg [Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Jacob-Heutmann, Dorothee [Department of Radio-oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); König, Jochem [Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Düber, Christoph; Staatz, Gundula [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between treatment of malignancy by radiation therapy during childhood and the occurrence of thyroid gland pathologies detected by ultrasonography in follow-up examinations. Methods and Materials: Reductions of thyroid gland volume below 2 standard deviations of the weight-specific mean value, occurrence of ultrasonographically detectable thyroid gland pathologies, and hypothyroidism were retrospectively assessed in 103 children and adolescents 7 months to 20 years of age (median: 7 years of age) at baseline (1997-2013) treated with chemoradiation therapy (with the thyroid gland dose assessable) or with chemotherapy alone and followed by ultrasonography and laboratory examinations through 2014 (median follow-up time: 48 months). Results: A relevant reduction of thyroid gland volume was significantly correlated with thyroid gland dose in univariate (P<.001) and multivariate analyses for doses above 2 Gy. Odds ratios were 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-9.2; P=.046) for medium doses (2-25 Gy) and 14.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-160; P=.027) for high doses (>25 Gy). Thyroid gland dose was significantly higher in patients with thyroid gland pathologies during follow-up (P=.03). Univariate analysis revealed significant correlations between hypothyroidism and thyroid gland dose (P<.001). Conclusions: Ultrasonographically detectable changes, that is, volume reductions, pathologies, and hypothyroidism, after malignancy treatment during childhood are associated with thyroid gland dose. Both ultrasonography and laboratory follow-up examinations should be performed regularly after tumor therapy during childhood, especially if the treatment included radiation therapy.

  13. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with endoscopic ultrasound for the treatment of esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Timothy A.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2000-05-01

    In 1995, PDT was approved for palliative use in patients with esophageal cancer. We report our experience using PDT to treat esophageal cancer patients previously treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In our series, nine patients referred for PDT with persistent esophageal cancer after chemo-radiation therapy. We found: (1) All patients were men with a mean age of 63 years and eight out of nine had adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus; (2) All patients required endoscopic dilation after PDT; (3) At a mean follow up of 4 months, two T2N0 patients had no demonstrable tumor and all three T3N0 patients had greater than 50% tumor reduction (the partially responsive T3N0 patients will be offered repeat PDT); (4) Patients with metastatic disease (T3N1 or M1) had effective dysphagia palliation. Thus, PDT is safe and effective in ablating all or most tumor in patients with persistent esophageal cancer after chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  14. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  15. A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluvol, Nathan; Sheikh, Allison; Kornecki, Anat; Del Rey Fernandez, David; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided needle biopsies are currently used to provide a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer; however, difficulties in tumor targeting exist as the ultrasound (United States) scan plane and biopsy needle must remain coplanar throughout the procedure to display the actual needle tip position. The additional time associated with aligning and maintaining this coplanar relationship results in increased patient discomfort. Biopsy procedural efficiency is further hindered since needle pathway interpretation is often difficult, especially for needle insertions at large depths that usually require multiple reinsertions. The authors developed a system that would increase the speed and accuracy of current breast biopsy procedures using readily available two-dimensional (2D) US technology. This system is composed of a passive articulated mechanical arm that attaches to a 2D US transducer. The arm is connected to a computer through custom electronics and software, which were developed as an interface for tracking the positioning of the mechanical components in real time. The arm couples to the biopsy needle and provides visual guidance for the physician performing the procedure in the form of a real-time projected needle pathway overlay on an US image of the breast. An agar test phantom, with stainless steel targets interspersed randomly throughout, was used to validate needle trajectory positioning accuracy. The biopsy needle was guided by both the software and hardware components to the targets. The phantom, with the needle inserted and device decoupled, was placed in an x-ray stereotactic mammography (SM) machine. The needle trajectory and bead target locations were determined in three dimensions from the SM images. Results indicated a mean needle trajectory accuracy error of 0.75±0.42 mm. This is adequate to sample lesions that are <2 mm in diameter. Chicken tissue test phantoms were used to compare core needle biopsy procedure times between experienced radiologists

  16. Reduced quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cournil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone status in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART is poorly documented in resource-limited settings. We compared bone mineral density between HIV-infected patients and control subjects from Dakar, Senegal. METHODS: A total of 207 (134 women and 73 men HIV-infected patients from an observational cohort in Dakar (ANRS 1215 and 207 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population were enrolled. Bone mineral density was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus, an alternative to the reference method (i.e. dual X-absorptiometry, often not available in resource-limited countries. RESULTS: Mean age was 47.0 (±8.5 years. Patients had received ART for a median duration of 8.8 years; 45% received a protease inhibitor and 27% tenofovir; 84% had undetectable viral load. Patients had lower body mass index (BMI than controls (23 versus 26 kg/m(2, P<0.001. In unadjusted analysis, QUS bone mineral density was lower in HIV-infected patients than in controls (difference: -0.36 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.59;-0.12, P = 0.003. Adjusting for BMI, physical activity, smoking and calcium intake attenuated the difference (-0.27, CI: -0.53;-0.002, P = 0.05. Differences in BMI between patients and controls explained a third of the difference in QUS bone mineral density. Among patients, BMI was independently associated with QUS bone mineral density (P<0.001. An association between undetectable viral load and QUS bone density was also suggested (β = 0.48, CI: 0.02;0.93; P = 0.04. No association between protease inhibitor or tenofovir use and QUS bone mineral density was found. CONCLUSION: Senegalese HIV-infected patients had reduced QUS bone mineral density in comparison with control subjects, in part related to their lower BMI. Further investigation is needed to clarify the clinical significance of these observations.

  17. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for local treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Role of partial rib resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hui; Zhou Kun; Zhang Lian; Jin Chengbin; Peng Song; Yang Wei; Li Kequan; Su Haibing; Chen Wenzhi; Bai Jin; Wu Feng; Wang, Zhibiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It has long been known that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can kill tissue through coagulative necrosis. However, it is only in recent years that practical clinical applications are becoming possible. Since the ribs have strong reflections to ultrasonic beams, they may affect the deposition of ultrasound energy, decreasing the efficacy of HIFU treatment and increasing the chance of adverse events when the intra-abdominal tumours concealed by ribs are treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of partial rib resection on the efficacy and safety of HIFU treatment. Methods: This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee at Chongqing University of Medical Sciences. An informed consent form was obtained from each patient and family member. A total of 16 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), consisting of 13 males and 3 females, were studied. All patients had the successful HIFU treatment. To create a better acoustic pathway for HIFU treatment, all of the 16 patients had the ribs that shield the tumour mass to be removed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the efficacy of HIFU treatment. Results: Sixteen cases had 23 nodules, including 12 cases with a single nodule, 1 case with 2 nodules, 3 cases with 3 nodules. The mean diameter of tumours was 7.0 ± 2.1 cm (5-10 cm). According to TNM classification, 9 patients were diagnosed as stage II, 4 patients were stage III, and 3 patients were stage IV. Follow-up imaging showed an absence of tumour blood supply and shrinkage of all treated lesions. The survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 100%, 83.3%, 69.4%, 55.6%, and 55.6%, respectively. No serious complications were observed in the patients treated with HIFU. Conclusion: Partial rib resection can create a better acoustic pathway of HIFU therapy. Even though it is an invasive treatment, this measure offers patients an improved prospect of complete tumour ablation when no other treatment is

  18. Regression of gastric malt-lymphoma under specific therapy may be predict by endoscopic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Băncilă, Ion; Stoia, Răzvan; Gheorghe, Liana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dobre, Camelia; Brescan, Raluca

    2004-06-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas represent a relatively new described class of rare lymphomas, characterized by an indolent course and favourable outcome with specific therapy. Gastric MALT lymphomas are associated with chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. We report the case of a 67 year old man admitted for an 8-month history of epigastric pain, anorexia and progressive weight loss. He was diagnosed with low-grade primary gastric MALT lymphoma by endoscopy, histopathological examination of gastric mucosa (light microscopy and immunohistochemistry) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The patient received a 2-week course of anti-HP therapy and chemotherapy with Chlorambucil 0.1 mg/kg/day was started. During the follow-up, continuous improvement of clinical status, endoscopic and EUS appearance was noted. We conclude that, facing the trend toward nonsurgical treatment modalities for primary gastric lymphoma, EUS appears an important tool for staging the disease and defining cases suitable for anti-HP, radio- and chemotherapy, as well as for the detection of local recurrence.

  19. Proton Therapy as Salvage Treatment for Local Relapse of Prostate Cancer Following Cryosurgery or High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Letter, Haley P.; Bryant, Curtis; Nichols, Romaine C.; Henderson, Randal H.; Mendenhall, William M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Williams, Christopher R.; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence of prostate cancer after cryosurgery (CS) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging problem for which optimal management is unknown. Proton therapy (PT) may offer advantages over other local therapeutic options. This article reviews a single institution's experience using PT for salvage of local recurrent disease after HIFU or CS. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 21 consecutive patients treated with salvage PT following a local recurrence of prostate cancer after CS (n=12) or HIFU (n=9) between January 2007 and July 2014. Patients were treated to a median dose of 74 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]; range: 74-82 Gy[RBE]) and 8 patients received androgen deprivation therapy with radiation therapy. Patients were evaluated for quality of life (QOL) by using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite questionnaire and toxicity by using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, weekly during treatment, every 6 months for 2 years after treatment, and then annually. Results: Median follow-up was 37 months (range: 6-95 months). The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) rate was 77%. The 3-year grade 3 toxicity rate was 17%; however, 2 of these patients had pre-existing grade 3 GU toxicities from their HIFU/CRYO prior to PT. At 1 year, bowel summary, urinary incontinence, and urinary obstructive QOL scores declined, but only the bowel QOL score at 12 months met the minimally important difference threshold. Conclusions: PT achieved a high rate of bPFS with acceptable toxicity and minimal changes in QOL scores compared with baseline pre-PT functions. Although most patients have done fairly well, the study size is small, follow-up is short, and early results suggest that outcomes with PT for salvage after HIFU or CS failure are inferior to outcomes with PT given in the de novo setting with respect to disease control, toxicity, and QOL.

  20. Proton Therapy as Salvage Treatment for Local Relapse of Prostate Cancer Following Cryosurgery or High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, Adam L. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Letter, Haley P.; Bryant, Curtis; Nichols, Romaine C.; Henderson, Randal H.; Mendenhall, William M.; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Williams, Christopher R. [Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence of prostate cancer after cryosurgery (CS) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging problem for which optimal management is unknown. Proton therapy (PT) may offer advantages over other local therapeutic options. This article reviews a single institution's experience using PT for salvage of local recurrent disease after HIFU or CS. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 21 consecutive patients treated with salvage PT following a local recurrence of prostate cancer after CS (n=12) or HIFU (n=9) between January 2007 and July 2014. Patients were treated to a median dose of 74 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]; range: 74-82 Gy[RBE]) and 8 patients received androgen deprivation therapy with radiation therapy. Patients were evaluated for quality of life (QOL) by using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite questionnaire and toxicity by using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, weekly during treatment, every 6 months for 2 years after treatment, and then annually. Results: Median follow-up was 37 months (range: 6-95 months). The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) rate was 77%. The 3-year grade 3 toxicity rate was 17%; however, 2 of these patients had pre-existing grade 3 GU toxicities from their HIFU/CRYO prior to PT. At 1 year, bowel summary, urinary incontinence, and urinary obstructive QOL scores declined, but only the bowel QOL score at 12 months met the minimally important difference threshold. Conclusions: PT achieved a high rate of bPFS with acceptable toxicity and minimal changes in QOL scores compared with baseline pre-PT functions. Although most patients have done fairly well, the study size is small, follow-up is short, and early results suggest that outcomes with PT for salvage after HIFU or CS failure are inferior to outcomes with PT given in the de novo setting with respect to disease control, toxicity, and QOL.

  1. Prehospital Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a commonly used diagnostic tool in clinical conditions. With recent developments in technology, use of portable ultrasound devices has become feasible in prehospital settings. Many studies also proved the feasibility and accuracy of prehospital ultrasound. In this article, we focus on the use of prehospital ultrasound, with emphasis on trauma and chest ultrasound.

  2. Rectal dose sparing with a balloon catheter and ultrasound localization in conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rakesh R.; Orton, Nigel; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Chappell, Rick; Ritter, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare the rectal wall and bladder volume in the high dose region with or without the use of a balloon catheter with both three-dimensional (3D)-conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy (CRT, IMRT) approaches in the treatment of prostate cancer. Material and methods: Five patients with a wide range of prostate volumes and treated with primary external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer were selected for analysis. Pinnacle TM treatment plans were generated utilizing a 3D conformal six-field design and an IMRT seven coplanar-field plan with a novel, three-step optimization and with ultrasound localization. Separate plans were devised with a rectal balloon deflated or air inflated with and without inclusion of the seminal vesicles (SV) in the target volume. The prescription dose was 76 Gy in 38 fractions of 2 Gy each. Cumulative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the planning target volume (PTV), rectal wall, and bladder with an inflated (60 cc air) or deflated balloon with and without SV included. The volumes of rectal wall and bladder above 60, 65, and 70 Gy with each treatment approach were evaluated. Results: Daily balloon placement was well-tolerated with good patient positional reproducibility. Inflation of the rectal balloon in all cases resulted in a significant decrease in the absolute volume of rectal wall receiving greater than 60, 65, or 70 Gy. The rectal sparing ratio (RSR), consisting of a structure's high dose volume with the catheter inflated, divided by the volume with the catheter deflated, was calculated for each patient with and without seminal vesicle inclusion for 3D-CRT and IMRT. For 3D-CRT, RSRs with SV included were 0.59, 0.59, and 0.56 and with SV excluded were 0.60, 0.58, and 0.54 at doses of greater than 60, 65, and 70 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for IMRT, the mean RSRs were 0.59, 0.59, and 0.63 including SV and 0.71, 0.66, and 0.67 excluding SV at these same dose levels

  3. Endovascular ultrasound for renal sympathetic denervation in patients with therapy-resistant hypertension not responding to radiofrequency renal sympathetic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiermaier, Thomas; Okon, Thomas; Fengler, Karl; Mueller, Ulrike; Hoellriegel, Robert; Schuler, Gerhard; Desch, Steffen; Lurz, Philipp

    2016-06-12

    Recent studies have reported a considerable number of non-responders after renal sympathetic de-nervation (RSD) with radiofrequency technology. Here we report our results of repeat RSD using ultrasound in these patients. A cohort study was performed in patients who underwent ultrasound RSD after non-response to RSD with radiofrequency. Non-response was defined as mean daytime systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or a reduction of ≤10 mmHg in ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) ≥6 months after radiofrequency denervation. ABPM was recorded at baseline, post radiofrequency RSD as well as at three and six months post ultrasound RSD. A total of 24 non-responders underwent retreatment with the ultrasound device at a mean 15.3±8.2 months after radiofrequency RSD. Ultrasound RSD was performed successfully in all patients without severe adverse events. Mean daytime systolic blood pressure changed from 161.7±14.6 mmHg at baseline to 158.5±9.5 mmHg post radiofrequency RSD and to 150.5±10.4 mmHg and 151.6±11.0 mmHg at three and six months, respectively, post ultrasound RSD (pmeasures analysis of variance). The main results of post hoc testing were as follows: baseline versus post radiofrequency RSD, p=0.83; baseline versus three months post ultrasound RSD, p=0.01; and baseline versus six months post ultrasound RSD, p=0.04. Ultrasound RSD appears to be safe and an effective therapeutic approach in patients not responding to previous RSD with radiofrequency technology.

  4. Concurrent Chemotherapy and Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy for the Treatment of Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: Initial Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Ihn; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Joo Ha [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential clinical value of concurrent chemotherapy and pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy (CCHT), as well as the safety of pulsed HIFU, for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. Twelve patients were treated with HIFU from October 2008 to May 2010, and three of them underwent CCHT as the main treatment (the CCHT group). The overall survival (OS), the time to tumor progression (TTP), the complications and the current performance status in the CCHT and non-CCHT groups were analyzed. Nine patients in the non-CCHT group were evaluated to determine why CCHT could not be performed more than twice. The OS of the three patients in the CCHT group was 26.0, 21.6 and 10.8 months, respectively, from the time of diagnosis. Two of them were alive at the time of preparing this manuscript with an excellent performance status, and one of them underwent a surgical resection one year after the initiation of CCHT. The TTP of the three patients in the CCHT group was 13.4, 11.5 and 9.9 months, respectively. The median OS and TTP of the non-CCHT group were 10.3 months and 4.4 months, respectively. The main reasons why the nine patients of the non-CCHT group failed to undergo CCHT more than twice were as follows: pancreatitis (n = 1), intolerance of the pain during treatment (n = 4), palliative use of HIFU for pain relief (n = 1) and a poor physical condition due to disease progression (n = 3). No major complications were encountered except one case of pancreatitis. This study shows that CCHT is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a pelvic ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are ... Ultrasound page for more information . Ultrasound examinations can help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently ... pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . Ultrasound examinations can help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: ...

  10. MRI tracing non-invasive TiO2-based nanoparticles activated by ultrasound for multi-mechanism therapy of prostatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pu; Song, Dongkui

    2018-03-01

    To reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and achieve effective and safe therapy for prostate cancer, herein a simple but multi-functional TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA system activated by ultrasound was developed for the MRI-guided multi-mechanism therapy of prostate cancer. TiO2 nanoparticles served as a sonosensitizer as well as a nanocarrier with the pH-responsive release of DOX. The doping of Gd was not only able to endow the TiO2 with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ability, but also further improve the sonodynamic ability of the TiO2. The characterization of the as-prepared TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA showed sensitive pH-responsive drug release, high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, T 1-MRI contrast performance and excellent biocompatibility. The cytotoxicity assay in vitro showed cell death up to 91.68% after 48 h incubation induced by the TiO2:Gd@DOX + ultrasound group. Meanwhile, in the in vivo synergistic therapy studies, the tumor sizes of all the nanomedicine groups were smaller than for the free DOX (V:V 0 = 4.2). More importantly, the body showed nearly no weight loss. This safety was also confirmed by the H&E staining, biodistribution experiment and serum biochemistry results. Altogether, TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA significantly reduced the side effects of DOX, augmented the levels of ROS and achieved effective and safe therapy, indicating its potential for the multi-mechanism therapy of prostate cancer. There is no conflict of interest in this study and no funding has been received for it. We received the approval of the Research Ethics Committee before conducting this study.

  11. Sonographic analysis of the intercostal spaces for the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sun; Park, Min Jung; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the widths of the intercostal spaces of the right inferior human rib cage through which high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy would be applied for treating liver cancer and to elucidate the demographic factors associated with intercostal space width. From March 2013 to June 2013, the widths of the intercostal spaces and the ribs at six areas of the right inferior rib cage (area 1, lowest intercostal space on anterior axillary line and the adjacent upper rib; area 2, second-lowest intercostal space on anterior axillary line and the adjacent upper rib; areas 3 and 4, lowest and second-lowest spaces on midaxillary line; areas 5 and 6, lowest and second-lowest spaces on posterior axillary line) were sonographically measured in 466 patients (214 men, 252 women; mean age, 53.0 years) after an abdominal sonographic examination. Demographic factors and the presence or absence of chronic liver disease were evaluated by multivariate analysis to investigate which factors influence intercostal width. The width of the intercostal space was 19.7 ± 3.7 mm (range, 9-33 mm) at area 1, 18.3 ± 3.4 mm (range, 9-33 mm) at area 2, 17.4 ± 4.0 mm (range, 7-33 mm) at area 3, 15.4 ± 3.5 mm (range, 5-26 mm) at area 4, 17.2 ± 3.7 mm (range, 7-28 mm) at area 5, and 14.5 ± 3.6 mm (range, 4-26 mm) at area 6. The corresponding widths of the ribs were 15.2 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8-22 mm), 14.5 ± 2.3 mm (range, 9-22 mm), 13.2 ± 2.0 mm (range, 9-20), 14.3 ± 2.2 mm (range, 9-20 mm), 15.0 ± 2.2 mm (range, 10-22 mm), and 15.1 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8-21 mm). Only female sex was significantly associated with the narrower intercostal width at areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 (regression coefficient, 1.124-1.885; p = 0.01-0.04). There was substantial variation in the widths of the intercostal spaces of the right inferior rib cage such that the anterior and inferior aspects of the intercostal space were relatively wider. Women had significantly narrower intercostal spaces

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  13. Pulsed ultrasounds accelerate healing of rib fractures in an experimental animal model: an effective new thoracic therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Clavo, Bernardino; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Rivero, José C; Travieso, María M; Fiuza, María D; Villar, Jesús; García-Castellano, José M; Hernández-Pérez, Octavio; Déniz, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Rib fractures are a frequent traumatic injury associated with a relatively high morbidity. Currently, the treatment of rib fractures is symptomatic. Since it has been reported that pulsed ultrasounds accelerates repair of limb fractures, we hypothesized that the application of pulsed ultrasounds will modify the course of healing in an animal model of rib fracture. We studied 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly assigned to different groups of doses (none, 50, 100, and 250 mW/cm(2) of intensity for 3 minutes per day) and durations (2, 10, 20, and 28 days) of treatment with pulsed ultrasounds. In every subgroup, we analyzed radiologic and histologic changes in the bone callus. In addition, we examined changes in gene expression of relevant genes involved in wound repair in both control and treated animals. Histologic and radiologic consolidation was significantly increased by pulsed ultrasound treatment when applied for more than 10 days. The application of 50 mW/cm(2) was the most effective dose. Only the 100 and 250 mW/cm(2) doses were able to significantly increase messenger RNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 and -3, and vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and collagen type II-alpha 1. Our findings indicate that pulsed ultrasound accelerates the consolidation of rib fractures. This study is the first to show that pulsed ultrasound promotes the healing of rib fractures. From a translational point of view, this easy, cheap technique could serve as an effective new therapeutic modality in patients with rib fractures. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  15. 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy: validation of numerical simulations and demonstration in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2010-11-21

    MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3D. The specific aims of this work were to demonstrate the accuracy and repeatability of producing large volumes of thermal coagulation (>10 cc) that conform to 3D human prostate shapes in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom, and to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which numerical simulations predict these 3D heating volumes under carefully controlled conditions. Eleven conformal 3D experiments were performed in a tissue-mimicking phantom within a 1.5T MR imager to obtain non-invasive temperature measurements during heating. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of transurethral devices with up to five 3.5 × 5 mm active transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 or 8.0 MHz with surface acoustic intensities of up to 10 W cm(-2). Simulations were informed by transducer surface velocity measurements acquired with a scanning laser vibrometer enabling improved calculations of the acoustic pressure distribution in a gel phantom. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. The 3D heating patterns produced in vitro were shaped very accurately to the prostate target volumes, within the spatial resolution of the MRI thermometry images. The volume of the treatment difference falling outside ± 1 mm of the target boundary was, on average, 0.21 cc or 1.5% of the prostate volume. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean ± stdev [min, max]): 0.5 ± 0.4 [-1.0, 2.1] and -0.05 ± 0.4 [-1.2, 1.4] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted within -0.3 ± 1.6 °C and 0

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams ... pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic organs early ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... size, shape and consistency (whether the object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also help identify: ... fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams ... are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound is most often performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries ... page How is the procedure performed? Transabdominal: For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is used to evaluate the: bladder seminal vesicles prostate Transrectal ultrasound, a special study usually done to provide detailed evaluation of the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ultrasound transducer into ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... questions or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) and the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends the sound waves into ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ... structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ... sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... help to distract the child and make the time pass quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound exams in which the transducer ... in the sperm or urine following the procedure. After an ultrasound examination, you should be able to ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries ... abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or sonohysterography for patients with infertility. In ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  2. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartbeat can be seen as an ongoing ultrasound movie. Ultrasound devices also use Doppler, a special application ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also help identify: palpable masses such as ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian ... In children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently used to evaluate the ... vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam may be part of ...

  10. MO-DE-210-05: Improved Accuracy of Liver Feature Motion Estimation in B-Mode Ultrasound for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, T; Bamber, J; Harris, E [The Institute of Cancer Research & Royal Marsden, Sutton and London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In similarity-measure based motion estimation incremental tracking (or template update) is challenging due to quantization, bias and accumulation of tracking errors. A method is presented which aims to improve the accuracy of incrementally tracked liver feature motion in long ultrasound sequences. Methods: Liver ultrasound data from five healthy volunteers under free breathing were used (15 to 17 Hz imaging rate, 2.9 to 5.5 minutes in length). A normalised cross-correlation template matching algorithm was implemented to estimate tissue motion. Blood vessel motion was manually annotated for comparison with three tracking code implementations: (i) naive incremental tracking (IT), (ii) IT plus a similarity threshold (ST) template-update method and (iii) ST coupled with a prediction-based state observer, known as the alpha-beta filter (ABST). Results: The ABST method produced substantial improvements in vessel tracking accuracy for two-dimensional vessel motion ranging from 7.9 mm to 40.4 mm (with mean respiratory period: 4.0 ± 1.1 s). The mean and 95% tracking errors were 1.6 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 mm and 9.1 mm, respectively for naive incremental tracking). Conclusions: High confidence in the output motion estimation data is required for ultrasound-based motion estimation for radiation therapy beam tracking and gating. The method presented has potential for monitoring liver vessel translational motion in high frame rate B-mode data with the required accuracy. This work is support by Cancer Research UK Programme Grant C33589/A19727.

  11. Effect of body mass index on shifts in ultrasound-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for abdominal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Wang, Samuel J.; Siddiqi, Ather; Wong, Adrian; Thomas, Charles R.; Fuss, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated whether corrective shifts determined by daily ultrasound-based image-guidance correlate with body mass index (BMI) of patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for abdominal malignancies. The utility of daily image-guidance, particularly for patients with BMI > 25.0, is examined. Materials and methods: Total 3162 ultrasound-directed shifts were performed in 86 patients. Direction and magnitude of shifts were correlated with pretreatment BMI. Bivariate statistical analysis and analysis of set-up correction data were performed using systematic and random error calculations. Results: Total 2040 daily alignments were performed. Average 3D vector of set-up correction for all patients was 12.1 mm/fraction. Directional and absolute shifts and 3D vector length were significantly different between BMI cohorts. 3D displacement averaged 4.9 mm/fraction and 6.8mm/fraction for BMI ≤ 25.0 and BMI > 25.0, respectively. Systematic error in all axes and 3D vector was significantly greater for BMI > 25.0. Differences in random error were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Set-up corrections derived from daily ultrasound-based IG-IMRT of abdominal tumors correlated with BMI. Daily image-guidance may improve precision of IMRT delivery with benefits assessed for the entire population, particularly patients with increased habitus. Requisite PTV margins suggested in the absence of daily image-guidance are significantly greater in patients with BMI > 25.0.

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  13. SU-D-210-05: The Accuracy of Raw and B-Mode Image Data for Ultrasound Speckle Tracking in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, T; Bamber, J; Harris, E [The Institute of Cancer Research & Royal Marsden, Sutton and London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For ultrasound speckle tracking there is some evidence that the envelope-detected signal (the main step in B-mode image formation) may be more accurate than raw ultrasound data for tracking larger inter-frame tissue motion. This study investigates the accuracy of raw radio-frequency (RF) versus non-logarithmic compressed envelope-detected (B-mode) data for ultrasound speckle tracking in the context of image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: Transperineal ultrasound RF data was acquired (with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer operating at a 12 Hz frame rate) from a speckle phantom moving with realistic intra-fraction prostate motion derived from a commercial tracking system. A normalised cross-correlation template matching algorithm was used to track speckle motion at the focus using (i) the RF signal and (ii) the B-mode signal. A range of imaging rates (0.5 to 12 Hz) were simulated by decimating the imaging sequences, therefore simulating larger to smaller inter-frame displacements. Motion estimation accuracy was quantified by comparison with known phantom motion. Results: The differences between RF and B-mode motion estimation accuracy (2D mean and 95% errors relative to ground truth displacements) were less than 0.01 mm for stable and persistent motion types and 0.2 mm for transient motion for imaging rates of 0.5 to 12 Hz. The mean correlation for all motion types and imaging rates was 0.851 and 0.845 for RF and B-mode data, respectively. Data type is expected to have most impact on axial (Superior-Inferior) motion estimation. Axial differences were <0.004 mm for stable and persistent motion and <0.3 mm for transient motion (axial mean errors were lowest for B-mode in all cases). Conclusions: Using the RF or B-mode signal for speckle motion estimation is comparable for translational prostate motion. B-mode image formation may involve other signal-processing steps which also influence motion estimation accuracy. A similar study for respiratory-induced motion

  14. Comparison of the Efficacy of Dry Needling and High-Power Pain Threshold Ultrasound Therapy with Clinical Status and Sonoelastography in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridici, Rifat; Yetisgin, Alparslan; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Bozdogan, Erol; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Kilicaslan, Nihat; Boyaci, Nurefsan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of high-power pain threshold (HPPT) ultrasound therapy applied to the trigger points and dry needling (DN) in myofascial pain syndrome. Sixty-one patients were randomly assigned to an HPPT (n = 30) and dry needling (n = 31) groups. The primary outcome measures were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), both at 1 week and 4 weeks after treatment. The secondary outcome measures were the number of painful trigger points, range of the tragus-acromioclavicular joint, the Short Form-36, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and sonoelastographic tests after a 1-week treatment. More improvement was seen in anxiety in the HPPT group (P 0.05). A decrease in tissue stiffness was only seen in the HPPT group (P pain syndrome. Although a significant decrease was shown in tissue stiffness with HPPT, neither of these treatments had an apparent superiority.

  15. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies Joint Committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer N; Provenzano, David; Peng, Philip; Eichenberger, Urs; Lee, Sang Chul; Nicholls, Barry; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in pain medicine for interventional axial, nonaxial, and musculoskeletal pain procedures is rapidly evolving and growing. Because of the lack of specialty-specific guidelines for ultrasonography in pain medicine, an international collaborative effort consisting of members of the Special Interest Group on Ultrasonography in Pain Medicine from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies developed the following recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures. The purpose of these recommendations is to define the required skills for performing ultrasound-guided pain procedures, the processes for appropriate education, and training and quality improvement. Training algorithms are outlined for practice- and fellowship-based pathways. The previously published American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy education and teaching recommendations for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia served as a foundation for the pain medicine recommendations. Although the decision to grant ultrasound privileges occurs at the institutional level, the committee recommends that the training guidelines outlined in this document serve as the foundation for educational training and the advancement of the practice of ultrasonography in pain medicine.

  16. Investigation of power and frequency for 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy with a dual frequency multi-element transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Transurethral ultrasound therapy uses real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature feedback to enable the 3D control of thermal therapy accurately in a region within the prostate. Previous canine studies showed the feasibility of this method in vivo. The aim of this study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining targeting accuracy, by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. Simulations and validation experiments in gel phantoms were used, with a collection of nine 3D realistic target prostate boundaries obtained from previous preclinical studies, where multi-slice MR images were acquired with the transurethral device in place. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on temperature feedback at the prostate boundary. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimised interdependently, as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency. The concept of dual frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the third harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. Numerical modelling enabled assessment of the effects of several acoustic parameters on treatment outcomes. The range of treatable prostate radii extended with increasing power, and tended to narrow with decreasing frequency. Reducing the frequency from 8 MHz to 4 MHz or increasing the surface acoustic power from 10 to 20 W/cm(2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. A dual frequency configuration of 4/12 MHz with 20 W/cm(2) ultrasound intensity exposure can treat entire prostates up to 40 cm(3) in volume within 30 min. The interdependence between power and frequency may, however, require integrating multi-parametric functions in the controller for future optimisations.

  17. Focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer in the elderly: a feasibility study with 10 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine B. El Fegoun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of prostate cancer control and complication rates, in the elderly, after focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 1997 and March 2000, patients with localized prostate cancer were included into a focal therapy protocol. Inclusion criteria were: PSA < 10 ng/mL, < 3 positive biopsies with only 1 lobe involved, clinical stage < T2a, Gleason score < 7 (3+4, negative CT scan and bone scan. Hemi-ablation of the prostate was performed with the Ablatherm(R device. Survival, complication rates and urinary continence were evaluated. Control biopsies were performed at 1 year. Treatment failure was defined as a positive biopsy or need for salvage therapy. RESULTS: Twelve patients with a mean age 70 years were included. Median follow-up was 10 years. Control prostate biopsies were negative in 11/12 (91% patients. Overall survival was 83% (10/12 and cancer specific survival was 100% at 10 years. Two patients died from other causes. Recurrence free survival was 90% (95% CI; 0.71-1 at 5 years, and 38% (95% CI; 0.04-0.73 at 10 years. Five patients had salvage therapy with repeat HIFU (n = 1 or hormonal therapy (n = 4 and all salvage patients were alive at 10 years. No patients developed lymph node or bone metastasis. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. International Prostate Symptom Score was stable at 1 year. Complications included two urinary tract infections and one episode of acute urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS: Hemi-prostate ablation with HIFU can be safely performed in selected elderly patients with adequate long-term cancer control and low complication rates. Results from larger prospective studies using improved imaging techniques and extensive biopsy protocols are awaited.

  18. Therapeutic response assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound therapy for uterine fibroid: Utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Ren Xiaolong; Zhang Jun; He Guangbin; Zheng Minjuan; Tian Xue; Li Li; Zhu Ting; Zhang Min; Wang Lei; Luo Wen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (ceUS) in the assessment of the therapeutic response to high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in patients with uterine fibroid. Materials and methods: Sixty-four patients with a total of 64 uterine fibroids (mean: 5.3 ± 1.2 cm; range: 3.2-8.9 cm) treated with HIFU ablation under the ultrasound guidance were evaluated with ceUS after receiving an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) within 1 week after intervention. We obtained serial ceUS images during the time period from beginning to 5 min after the initiation of the bolus contrast injection. All of the patients underwent a contrast enhanced MRI (ceMRI) and ultrasound guided needle puncture biopsy within 1 week after HIFU ablation. And as a follow-up, all of the patients underwent US at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after HIFU treatment. The volume change was observed and compared to pre- and post-HIFU ablation. The results of the ceUS were compared with those of the ceMRI in terms of the presence or absence of residual unablated tumor and pathologic change in the treated lesions. Results: On ceUS, diagnostic accuracy was 100%, while residual unablated tumors were found in three uterine fibroids (4.7%) and failed treatment was found in eight uterine fibroids (12.5%). All the 11 fibroids were subjected to additional HIFU ablation. Of the 58 ablated fibroids without residual tumors on both the ceUS and ceMRI after the HIFU ablation, the volumes of all the fibroids decreased in different degrees during the 1 year follow-up USs. And histologic examinations confirmed findings of necrotic and viable tumor tissue, respectively. Conclusion: CEUS is potentially useful for evaluating the early therapeutic effect of percutaneous HIFU ablation for uterine fibroids

  19. Validation of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound in predicting outcomes of antiangiogenic therapy for solid tumors: the French multicenter support for innovative and expensive techniques study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassau, Nathalie; Bonastre, Julia; Kind, Michèle; Vilgrain, Valérie; Lacroix, Joëlle; Cuinet, Marie; Taieb, Sophie; Aziza, Richard; Sarran, Antony; Labbe-Devilliers, Catherine; Gallix, Benoit; Lucidarme, Olivier; Ptak, Yvette; Rocher, Laurence; Caquot, Louis-Michel; Chagnon, Sophie; Marion, Denis; Luciani, Alain; Feutray, Sylvaine; Uzan-Augui, Joëlle; Coiffier, Benedicte; Benastou, Baya; Koscielny, Serge

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) has been used in single-center studies to evaluate tumor response to antiangiogenic treatments: the change of area under the perfusion curve (AUC), a criterion linked to blood volume, was consistently correlated with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response. The main objective here was to do a multicentric validation of the use of DCE-US to evaluate tumor response in different solid tumor types treated by several antiangiogenic agents. A secondary objective was to evaluate the costs of the procedure. This prospective study included patients from 2007 to 2010 in 19 centers (8 teaching hospitals and 11 comprehensive cancer centers). All patients treated with antiangiogenic therapy were eligible. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations were performed at baseline as well as on days 7, 15, 30, and 60. For each examination, a perfusion curve was recorded during 3 minutes after injection of a contrast agent. Change from baseline at each time point was estimated for each of 7 fitted criteria. The main end point was freedom from progression (FFP). Criterion/time-point combinations with the strongest correlation with FFP were analyzed further to estimate an optimal cutoff point. A total of 1968 DCE-US examinations in 539 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up was 1.65 years. Variations from baseline were significant at day 30 for several criteria, with AUC having the most significant association with FFP (P = 0.00002). Patients with a greater than 40% decrease in AUC at day 30 had better FFP (P = 0.005) and overall survival (P = 0.05). The mean cost of each DCE-US was 180&OV0556;, which corresponds to $250 using the current exchange rate. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a new functional imaging technique that provides a validated criterion, namely, the change of AUC from baseline to day 30, which is predictive of tumor progression in a large multicenter cohort. Because of its low cost, it

  20. Fusion of Ultrasound Tissue-Typing Images with Multiparametric MRI for Image-guided Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    otherwise. Statement of Authorship Category 1 (a) Conception and Design Yuefeng Wang; Tian Liu; Peter J. Rossi; Deborah Watkins-Bruner; Wayland Hsiao...Group (N = 18) Age 62.3 (7.7) 60.7 (7.3) Gender Female 2 (12.5) 4 (22.2) Male 14 (87.5) 14 (77.8) Primary tumor site Head (orbit) 0 (0) 1 (5.6) Larynx 1... gender , primary tumor site, histol- ogy, stage, and chemotherapy—are summarized in Table 1 for both acute- and late-toxicity groups. Ultrasound Images and

  1. Case Study of Oriental Medicine Treatment with Acupotomy Therapy of the Peroneal Nerve Palsy through Ultrasound Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sungha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to estimate clinical effects of Oriental Medicine Treatment with acupotomy therapy of Peroneal nerve Palsy. Methods: From 10th June, 2010 to 19th June, 2010, 1 female patient diagnosed as Peroneal nerve Palsy(clinical diagnosed was treated with general oriental medicine therapy (acupuncture, pharmacopuncture,moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy. Results: The patient's left foot drop was remarkably improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has notable effect in improving symptoms of peroneal nerve palsy. as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.

  2. Non-invasive transcranial ultrasound therapy based on a 3D CT scan: protocol validation and in vitro results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F; Pernot, M; Aubry, J-F; Montaldo, G; Tanter, M; Fink, M; Marsac, L

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive protocol for transcranial brain tissue ablation with ultrasound is studied and validated in vitro. The skull induces strong aberrations both in phase and in amplitude, resulting in a severe degradation of the beam shape. Adaptive corrections of the distortions induced by the skull bone are performed using a previous 3D computational tomography scan acquisition (CT) of the skull bone structure. These CT scan data are used as entry parameters in a FDTD (finite differences time domain) simulation of the full wave propagation equation. A numerical computation is used to deduce the impulse response relating the targeted location and the ultrasound therapeutic array, thus providing a virtual time-reversal mirror. This impulse response is then time-reversed and transmitted experimentally by a therapeutic array positioned exactly in the same referential frame as the one used during CT scan acquisitions. In vitro experiments are conducted on monkey and human skull specimens using an array of 300 transmit elements working at a central frequency of 1 MHz. These experiments show a precise refocusing of the ultrasonic beam at the targeted location with a positioning error lower than 0.7 mm. The complete validation of this transcranial adaptive focusing procedure paves the way to in vivo animal and human transcranial HIFU investigations.

  3. Non-invasive transcranial ultrasound therapy based on a 3D CT scan: protocol validation and in vitro results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquet, F; Pernot, M; Aubry, J-F; Montaldo, G; Tanter, M; Fink, M [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris VII, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Marsac, L [Supersonic Imagine, Les Jardins de la Duranne, 510 rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix-en-Provence (France)], E-mail: fabrice.marquet@espci.org

    2009-05-07

    A non-invasive protocol for transcranial brain tissue ablation with ultrasound is studied and validated in vitro. The skull induces strong aberrations both in phase and in amplitude, resulting in a severe degradation of the beam shape. Adaptive corrections of the distortions induced by the skull bone are performed using a previous 3D computational tomography scan acquisition (CT) of the skull bone structure. These CT scan data are used as entry parameters in a FDTD (finite differences time domain) simulation of the full wave propagation equation. A numerical computation is used to deduce the impulse response relating the targeted location and the ultrasound therapeutic array, thus providing a virtual time-reversal mirror. This impulse response is then time-reversed and transmitted experimentally by a therapeutic array positioned exactly in the same referential frame as the one used during CT scan acquisitions. In vitro experiments are conducted on monkey and human skull specimens using an array of 300 transmit elements working at a central frequency of 1 MHz. These experiments show a precise refocusing of the ultrasonic beam at the targeted location with a positioning error lower than 0.7 mm. The complete validation of this transcranial adaptive focusing procedure paves the way to in vivo animal and human transcranial HIFU investigations.

  4. Microbubbles combined with ultrasound therapy in ischemic stroke: A systematic review of in-vivo preclinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Auboire

    Full Text Available Microbubbles (MBs combined with ultrasound sonothrombolysis (STL appears to be an alternative therapeutic strategy for acute ischemic stroke (IS, but clinical results remain controversial.The aim of this systematic review is to identify the parameters tested; to assess evidence on the safety and efficacy on preclinical data on STL; and to assess the validity and publication bias.Pubmed® and Web of ScienceTM databases were systematically searched from January 1995 to April 2017 in French and English. We included studies evaluating STL on animal stroke model. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Data were extracted following a pre-defined schedule by two of the authors. The CAMARADES criteria were used for quality assessment. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The result showed that ultrasound parameters and types of MBs were heterogeneous among studies. Numerous positive outcomes on efficacy were found, but only four studies demonstrated superiority of STL versus recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator on clinical criteria. Data available on safety are limited.Quality assessment of the studies reviewed revealed a number of biases.Further in vivo studies are needed to demonstrate a better efficacy and safety of STL compared to currently approved therapeutic options.http://syrf.org.uk/protocols/.

  5. Antiatherosclerotic effects of long-term maximally intensive statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome: insights from Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Philip J; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter; Raichlen, Joel S; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) display diffuse coronary atheroma instability and heightened risk of early and late recurrent coronary events. We compared the long-term antiatherosclerotic efficacy of high-intensity statins in patients with ACS when compared with stable disease. Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin (SATURN) used serial intravascular ultrasound measures of coronary atheroma volume in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The overall effect of high-intensity statins on the change in coronary percent atheroma volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/coronary revascularization) were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. When compared with non-ACS patients (n=678), patients with ACS (n=361) were younger, actively smoking, and have had a previous myocardial infarction (all P<0.001). At baseline, patients with ACS exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43.5±11 versus 45.8±11 mg/dL; P=0.002), a higher apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (0.90±0.24 versus 0.83±0.24; P<0.001) and greater percent atheroma volume (37.3±8.5% versus 35.9±8.1%; P=0.01) when compared with non-ACS patients. Despite similar achieved levels of lipid and inflammatory markers after high-intensity statin therapy, patients with ACS demonstrated greater percent atheroma volume regression than non-ACS patients (-1.46±0.14 versus -0.89±0.13; P=0.003). After propensity-weighted multivariable adjustment, baseline percent atheroma volume (P<0.001) and an ACS clinical presentation (P=0.02) independently associated with plaque regression. The 24-month major adverse cardiovascular events-free survival was similar between patients with ACS and non-ACS (90.6 versus 92.9%; P=0.25). Long-term high-intensity statin therapy caused greater plaque regression and comparable major adverse cardiovascular events rates in

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  7. Analysis of the spatial and temporal accuracy of heating in the prostate gland using transurethral ultrasound therapy and active MR temperature feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Tang, Kee; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Boyes, Aaron; Bronskill, Michael; Sugar, Linda; Appu, Sree; Klotz, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    A new MRI-guided therapy is being developed as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer utilizing high-intensity ultrasound energy to generate a precise region of thermal coagulation within the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the capability to produce a spatial heating pattern in the prostate that accurately matched the shape of a target region using transurethral ultrasound heating and active MR temperature feedback. Experiments were performed in a canine model (n = 9) in a 1.5 T MR imager using a prototype device comprising a single planar transducer operated under rotational control. The spatial temperature distribution, measured every 5 s with MR thermometry, was used to adjust the acoustic power and rotation rate in order to achieve a temperature of 55 0 C along the outer boundary of the target region. The results demonstrated the capability to produce accurate spatial heating patterns within the prostate gland. An average temperature of 56.2 ± 0.6 0 C was measured along the outer boundary of the target region across all experiments in this study. The average spatial error between the target boundary and the 55 0 C isotherm was 0.8 ± 0.7 mm (-0.2 to 3.2 mm), and the overall treatment time was ≤20 min for all experiments. Excellent spatial agreement was observed between the temperature information acquired with MRI and the pattern of thermal damage measured on H and E-stained tissue sections. This study demonstrates the benefit of adaptive energy delivery using active MR temperature feedback, and an excellent capability to treat precise regions within the prostate gland with this technology.

  8. Pulsed cavitational therapy using high-frequency ultrasound for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis in an in vitro model of human blood clot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudot, G.; Mirault, T.; Arnal, B.; Boisson-Vidal, C.; Le Bonniec, B.; Gaussem, P.; Galloula, A.; Tanter, M.; Messas, E.; Pernot, M.

    2017-12-01

    Post-thrombotic syndrome, a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis, can be reduced with early vein recanalization. Pulsed cavitational therapy (PCT) using ultrasound is a recent non-invasive approach. We propose to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency focused PCT for drug-free thrombolysis (thrombotripsy) in a realistic in vitro model of venous thrombosis. To reproduce venous thrombosis conditions, human whole blood was allowed to clot by stasis in silicone tubes (6 mm internal diameter) at a 30 cm H2O pressure, maintained during the whole experiment. We engineered an ultrasound device composed of dual 2.25 MHz transducers centered around a 6 MHz imaging probe. A therapeutic focus was generated at a 3.2 cm depth from the probe. Thrombotripsy was performed by longitudinally scanning the thrombus at three different speeds: 1 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 2 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 3 mm s-1 (n  =  12). Restored outflow was measured every three passages. Filters were placed to evaluate the debris size. Twenty-four occlusive thrombi, of 2.5 cm mean length and 4.4 kPa mean stiffness, were studied. Flow restoration was systematically obtained by nine subsequent passages (4.5 min maximum). By varying the device’s speed, we found an optimal speed of 1 mm s-1 to be efficient for effective recanalization with 90 s (three passages). Within 90 s, flow restoration was of 80, 62 and 74% at respectively 1, 2 and 3 mm s-1. For all groups, cavitation cloud drilled a 1.7 mm mean diameter channel throughout the clot. Debris analysis showed 92% of debris    200 µm.

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  11. Sonographic criteria for therapy follow-up in the course of ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid in hand osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauser, Andrea S.; Faschingbauer, Ralph; Kupferthaler, Karin; Feuchnter, Gudrun; Wick, Marius C.; Jaschke, Werner R.; Mur, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sonographic criteria, based on measurements of joint capsule distension and synovial hyperemia, during the course of repeated ultrasound (US)-guided intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) in hand osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients (28 females/5 males), with hand OA in 78 joints, were included in this study. Patients underwent sonographic evaluation at baseline and consecutively for 4 weeks at weekly US-guided intra-articular injections of HA (Hyalgan ® ). Measurements of joint thickening and joint inflammation were performed with Grey-scale and semi-quantitative Power-Doppler US (PDUS). Sonographic values were correlated with weekly patients self-assessment of pain for each treated joint. Results: The mean (SD) patients self-assessment of pain statistically significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased from the first [68.3(22.3)] to the last week [37.3(30.34)]. A steady pain relief could be noticed in 67 (86%) of all treated joints. Over the whole observation period, the mean (SD) joint thickening of all joints markedly decreased from 15.6 mm (5.3) to 13.1 mm (6.4) (p < 0.0001). The PDUS-score before initiation of HA treatment was statistically significantly higher than at the end of therapy (p < 0.0001). The decrease in pain statistically significantly correlated with the decrease of joint thickening and PDUS-score between baseline and the end of therapy (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate the meaningfulness of sonographic evaluation criteria including measurements of joint capsule distension and PDUS vascularization, both significantly correlating with the decrease of pain, during the therapy follow-up of US-guided intra-articular HA-injections in patients with hand OA.

  12. Functional and pathological improvements of the hearts in diabetes model by the combined therapy of bFGF-loaded nanoparticles with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Lu; Ru, Ao; Shen, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Xi; Jin, Rong-Rong; Zheng, Lei; Hawkins, Kyle; Charkrabarti, Subrata; Li, Xiao-Kun; Lin, Qian; Yu, Wen-Ze; Ge, Shuping; Lu, Cui-Tao; Wong, Ho Lun

    2014-07-28

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic patients and currently there is no effective means to reverse its pathological progress. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has shown promise as a molecular therapy for DCM, but its delivery is inefficient and non-specific. In the present study, a therapy combining nanoparticle (NP) carrier and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was reported the first time for bFGF delivery to the heart of diabetic rats. bFGF-loaded NP (bFGF-NP) were prepared with Poloxamer 188-grafted heparin copolymer using water-in-water technique, and the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and bioactivity of bFGF-NP were studied. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of bFGF-NP were evaluated with primary cultures of the left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocytes in vitro. Therapeutic effects of bFGF-NP/UTMD on the heart of DCM rats were studied by measuring LV systolic and diastolic functions, hemodynamic characteristics and indicators of cardiac remodeling including myocardial collagen volume fraction and capillary density. Results demonstrated that bFGF-NP showed good round morphology, efficient bFGF encapsulation and stable bioactivity of bFGF in vitro. bFGF-NP/UTMD combined treatment significantly enhanced the efficiency of bFGF cellular uptake (Pfunctions and tissue morphology in the DCM rats were observed in bFGF-NP/UTMD group. These were not achievable using free bFGF, bFGF-NP or UTMD treatment alone. Our results show that combining a non-viral vector with UTMD technique is an effective strategy to deliver bFGF to the heart, and the resulting growth factor therapy has demonstrated potential to reverse the progress of DCM by restoring the cardiac functions and even the structure of damaged cardiac tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to ...

  16. Interventional ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSonnenberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters and several case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: The Interplay of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in the Planning and Execution of Interventional Procedures: Ulltrasound Guided Biopsy; Interventioal Genitourinary Sonography; Diagnosis and Treatment of Pericardial Effusion Using Ultrasonic Guidance; and New Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures--Cholecystostomy, Pancreatography, Gastrostomy

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  19. Ultrasound stethoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis we repmi the many evaluation studies with the hand-held ultrasound device in the assessment of different cardiac pathologies and in different clinical settings. The reason for using the tetm "ultrasound stethoscopy" is that these devices are augmenting our

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not use any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  3. SU-E-J-65: Motion Difference Between the Pancreas and Nearby Veins for Pancreas Motion Monitoring Using Ultrasound During Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, E; Erickson, B; Li, X; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As it is generally difficult to outline the pancreas on an ultrasound b-mode image, visualized structures such as the portal or the splenic veins are assumed to have the same motion as the pancreas. These structures can be used as a surrogate for monitoring pancreas motion during radiation therapy (RT) delivery using ultrasound. To verify this assumption, we studied the motion difference between the head of the pancreas, the portal vein, the tail of the pancreas, and splenic vein. Methods: 4DCT data acquired during RT simulation were analyzed for a total of 5 randomly selected patients with pancreatic cancer. The data was sorted into 10 respiratory phases from 0% to 90% (0%: end of the inspiration, 50%: end of expiration) . The head of the pancreas (HP), tail of the pancreas (TP), portal vein (PV), and splenic vein (SV) were contoured on all 10 phases. The volume change and motion were measured in the left-right (LR), anterior-superior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Results: The volume change for all patients/phases were: 1.2 ± 3% for HP, 0.78 ± 1.6% for PV, 2.5 ± 2.9% for TP, and 0.53 ± 2.1% for SV. Motion for each structure was estimated from the centroid displacements due to the uniformity of the structures and the small volume change. The measured motion between HP and PV was: LR: 0.1 ± 0.17 mm, AP: 0.04 ± 0.1 mm, SI: 0.17 ± 0.16 mm and between TP and the PV was: LR: 0.05 ± 0.3 mm, AP: 0.1 ± 0.4 mm, SI: 0.01 ± 0.022 mm. Conclusion: There are small motion differences between the portal vein and the head of the pancreas, and the splenic vein and the tail of the pancreas. This suggests the feasibility of utilizing these features for monitoring the pancreas motion during radiation therapy

  4. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound with VEGFR2-Targeted Microbubbles for Monitoring Regorafenib Therapy Effects in Experimental Colorectal Adenocarcinomas in Rats with DCE-MRI and Immunohistochemical Validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Stefan Eschbach

    Full Text Available To investigate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS with VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles for monitoring therapy effects of regorafenib on experimental colon carcinomas in rats with correlation to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI and immunohistochemistry.Human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts (HT-29 were implanted subcutaneously in n = 21 (n = 11 therapy group; n = 10 control group female athymic nude rats (Hsd: RH-Foxn1rnu. Animals were imaged at baseline and after a one-week daily treatment with regorafenib or a placebo (10 mg/kg bodyweight, using CEUS with VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles and DCE-MRI. In CEUS tumor perfusion was assessed during an early vascular phase (wash-in area under the curve = WiAUC and VEGFR2-specific binding during a late molecular phase (signal intensity after 8 (SI8min and 10 minutes (SI10min, using a conventional 15L8 linear transducer (transmit frequency 7 MHz, dynamic range 80 dB, depth 25 mm. In DCE-MRI functional parameters plasma flow (PF and plasma volume (PV were quantified. For validation purposes, CEUS parameters were correlated with DCE-MRI parameters and immunohistochemical VEGFR2, CD31, Ki-67 and TUNEL stainings.CEUS perfusion parameter WiAUC decreased significantly (116,989 ± 77,048 a.u. to 30,076 ± 27,095a.u.; p = 0.005 under therapy with no significant changes (133,932 ± 65,960 a.u. to 84,316 ± 74,144 a.u.; p = 0.093 in the control group. In the therapy group, the amount of bound microbubbles in the late phase was significantly lower in the therapy than in the control group on day 7 (SI8min: 283 ± 191 vs. 802 ± 460 a.u.; p = 0.006; SI10min: 226 ± 149 vs. 645 ± 461 a.u.; p = 0.009. PF and PV decreased significantly (PF: 147 ± 58 mL/100 mL/min to 71 ± 15 mL/100 mL/min; p = 0.003; PV: 13 ± 3% to 9 ± 4%; p = 0.040 in the therapy group. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly fewer VEGFR2 (7.2 ± 1.8 vs. 17.8 ± 4.6; p < 0.001, CD31 (8.1 ± 3.0 vs. 20.8 ± 5.7; p < 0.001 and Ki-67 (318.7

  5. Does cognitive behavioral therapy strengthen the effect of bariatric surgery for obesity? Design and methods of a randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Linda; van Rongen, Sofie; van Hoeken, Daphne; Deen, Mathijs; Klaassen, René; Biter, L Ulas; Hoek, Hans W; van der Heiden, Colin

    2015-05-01

    (Extreme) obesity is a chronic harmful condition with high risk of medical comorbidities and negative social and emotional consequences. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention for obesity, but approximately 20 to 30% of the patients experience adverse outcomes after surgery and there is a need for augmentation of current treatment strategies. This study examines the added value of pre-operative cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focused on modification of thoughts and behaviors in terms of eating behavior and physical exercise as well as preparation for surgery and postoperative life style. We hypothesize that pre-operative CBT will result in better weight loss maintenance, reduction of maladaptive eating behavior and better adherence to postoperative lifestyle on the long term as compared to bariatric surgery alone. One hundred and twenty eight patients that are on a waiting list for bariatric surgery are randomly assigned to the control or treatment condition. Patients in the treatment condition receive 10 sessions of CBT before surgery aimed at modifying dysfunctional eating habits and behaviors and developing more rational weight and body-related beliefs in order to enable long term maintenance of a healthier lifestyle after surgery. Weight loss, eating behavior, eating disorders, depression, quality of life and psychological distress are assessed before and after treatment, as well as 1, 3, and 5 year following surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative analysis of analgesic efficacy of ultrasound and shock wave therapy in the treatment of patients with inflammation of the attachment of the plantar fascia in the course of calcaneal spurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Wrona, Jacek; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Troublesome heel spur is a nuisance condition that affects people of all ages. Treatment of patients with heel spur is a difficult and lengthy process requiring patience from both the patient and the therapist. Sometimes, the only and ultimate method of treatment is surgery, although spurs tend to recur. The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound and shock wave therapy in patients with heel spur. The cause of pain in the course of calcaneal spur is inflammation of the attachment of the plantar fascia, which plays an important role in the process of walking and is seriously strained during different types of movement. Treatment of patients is a difficult and lengthy process. The study was conducted on a group of 47 patients of both sexes, aged 38-60 years (mean 51.3) with a plantar calcaneal spur confirmed by X-ray images. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups using a simple randomization: Group 1-ultrasound therapy group (a series of ten treatments) and Group 2-the radial shock wave group (series of four treatments). In all patients, pain intensity was assessed three times: before therapy, after the first and second weeks of treatment. A version of Laitinen's pain assessment questionnaire and the Huskisson visual analogue scale (VAS) were used. Of the group of studied respondents, 47 patients of both sexes and aged 38-60 years (mean age 51.3) with a heel spur (confirmed on X-rays), who had pain for at least a month, were randomly included in the study. The patients were classified into: Group 1-US therapeutic group (a series of ten treatments) and Group 2-with RSWT (a series of five treatments). Pain intensity was assessed three times: before the treatment, after the first and second week of the treatment with the application of the VAS and the Leitinen Pain Questionnaire. However, a decrease in pain sensation was reported in all test intervals, and its largest decrease occurred in both groups within 1

  7. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  8. Food insecurity among students living with HIV: Strengthening safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food insecurity among students living with HIV: Strengthening safety nets at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa. ... of age and managed as part of the Campus Health Service antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme.

  9. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex. Similarly, fetal ultrasound isn't recommended solely for the purpose of producing keepsake videos or pictures. If your health care provider doesn' ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ... well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning may be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is located directly in front of the rectum, so the ultrasound exam is performed transrectally in order ... A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is smaller than the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A protective cover is placed ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... the child prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are reviewed. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? For ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. If a Doppler ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . ... move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such ... and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  2. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ... and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... be asked to drink water prior to the examination to fill your bladder. Leave jewelry at home ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... tip of the transducer is smaller than the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A ... both sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs ... or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child and make ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries in planes that ... a special study usually done to provide detailed evaluation of the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the examination process. To ensure a smooth experience, it often helps to explain the procedure to the ... on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule found during ... difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the ... tumors other disorders of the urinary bladder In children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a more in-depth investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... The ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite channel. ... performed over an area of tenderness, you may feel pressure or minor pain from the transducer. Once ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ... detect: uterine anomalies uterine scars endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses ... women, a pelvic ultrasound exam can help identify: kidney stones bladder tumors other disorders of the urinary ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls of the uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a ... and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and an ultrasound probe ... will share the results with you. In some cases, the radiologist may discuss results with you at ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls of the uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a more ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic organs early or delayed puberty in girls Pelvic ultrasound is ... sensitive to motion, and an active or crying child can prolong the examination process. To ensure a ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that ... the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  2. Standardization of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the evaluation of antiangiogenic therapies: the French multicenter Support for Innovative and Expensive Techniques Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassau, Nathalie; Chapotot, Louis; Benatsou, Baya; Vilgrain, Valérie; Kind, Michèle; Lacroix, Joëlle; Cuinet, Marie; Taieb, Sophie; Aziza, Richard; Sarran, Antony; Labbe, Catherine; Gallix, Benoît; Lucidarme, Olivier; Ptak, Yvette; Rocher, Laurence; Caquot, Louis Michel; Chagnon, Sophie; Marion, Denis; Luciani, Alain; Uzan-Augui, Joëlle; Koscielny, Serge

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe the standardization and dissemination of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) for the evaluation of antiangiogenic treatments in solid tumors across 19 oncology centers in France and to define a quality score to account for the variability of the evaluation criteria used to collect DCE-US data. This prospective Soutien aux Techniques Innovantes Coûteuses (Support for Innovative and Expensive Techniques) DCE-US study included patients with metastatic breast cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, renal cell carcinoma and patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma tumors treated with antiangiogenic therapy. The DCE-US method was made available across 19 oncology centers in France. Overall, 2339 DCE-US examinations were performed by 65 radiologists in 539 patients.One target site per patient was studied. Standardized DCE-US examinations were performed before treatment (day 0) and at days 7, 15, 30, and 60. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound data were transferred from the different sites to the main study center at the Institut Gustave-Roussy for analysis. Quantitative analyses were performed with a mathematical model to determine 7 DCE-US functional parameters using raw linear data. Radiologists had to evaluate 6 criteria that were potentially linked to the precision of the evaluation of these parameters: lesion size, target motion, loss of target, clear borders, total acquisition of wash-in, and vascular recognition imaging window adapted to the lesion size.Eighteen DCE-US examinations were randomly selected from the Soutien aux Techniques Innovantes Coûteuses (Support for Innovative and Expensive Techniques) database. Each examination was quantified twice by 8 engineers/radiologists trained to evaluate the perfusion parameters. The intraobserver variability was estimated on the basis of differences between examinations performed by the same radiologist. The mean coefficient of

  3. SU-F-J-215: Non-Thermal Pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: An in Vivo Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B; He, W; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: It has recently been shown that non-thermal pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has a cell-killing effect. The purpose of the study is to investigate the sonosensitizing effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) in non-thermal pHIFU cancer therapy. Methods: FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously in the flanks of nude mice. After one to two weeks, the tumors reached the volume of 112 ± 8 mm3 and were assigned randomly into a non-thermal pHIFU group (n=9) and a non-thermal sonodynamic therapy (pHIFU after 5-ALA administration) group (n=7). The pHIFU treatments (parameters: 1 MHz frequency; 25 W acoustic power; 0.1 duty cycle; 60 seconds duration) were delivered using an InSightec ExAblate 2000 system with a GE Signa 1.5T MR scanner. The mice in the non-thermal sonodynamic group received 5-ALA tail-vein injection 4 hours prior to the pHIFU treatment. The tumor growth was monitored using the CT scanner on a Sofie-Biosciences G8 PET/CT system. Results: The tumors in this study grew very aggressively and about 60% of the tumors in this study developed ulcerations at various stages. Tumor growth delay after treatments was observed by comparing the treated (n=9 in pHIFU group; n=7 in sonodynamic group) and untreated tumors (n=17). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the non-thermal pHIFU and non-thermal sonodynamic group. The mean normalized tumor volume of the untreated tumors on Day 7 after their first CT scans was 7.05 ± 0.54, while the normalized volume of the treated tumors on Day 7 after treatment was 5.89 ± 0.79 and 6.27 ± 0.47 for the sonodynamic group and pHIFU group, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, no significant sonosensitizing effects of 5-ALA were obtained on aggressive FaDu tumors despite apparent tumor growth delay in some mice treated with non-thermal sonodynamic therapy.

  4. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  5. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to screen for brain conditions associated with prematurity, such as bleeding or brain tissue damage as ... or crying child will slow the examination process. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound, ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  11. ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS OF VENOUSTHROMBOSIS IN THE COURSE OF PROPHYLACTIC DRUG THERAPY IN THE ACUTE PHASE OF TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Mezhebitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  INTRODUCTION. High risk of venous thrombosis in patients with multisystem trauma is associated with a number of precipitating factors, such as direct damage to vessels, prolonged immobilization, major changes in the hemostatic system, as well as possible surgical intervention.THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY. Analysis of the incidence, echosemiotics, and evolutionof venous thrombosis in the course of various prophylactic drug therapies in patients with polytrauma.METHODS. The results of leg veins ultrasonography in 610 patients with various prophylactic drugtherapies have been analyzed over time. Antiplatelet agentswere received by 314 patients of the first group, low molecular weight heparins — 186 patients of the second group, oral anticoagulants — 110 patients of the third group. THE RESulTS Evolved thromboses varied in frequency (52.5% in the first group, 15.6% in the 2nd group and 10% in the 3rd group, prevalence, nature of the proximal border, with an increase in the proportion of nonocclusive lesions in the 2nd and 3rd groups, as well as in start time and degree of recanalization.CONCLUSION. Low molecular weight heparins and oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of venous thrombosis by 3.3 and 5 times respectively, compared to the group of patients who did not receive anticoagulants in the early posttraumatic period; recanalization begins 1−2 weeks earlier with more effective restoration of the lumen. As the number of thromboses in the course of modern anticoagulants decreases, the proportion of non-occlusive thromboses including the floating onesgrows, requiring ultrasoundobservation. 

  12. Induction Therapy With Antithymocyte Globulin in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Transplantation Is Associated With Decreased Coronary Plaque Progression as Assessed by Intravascular Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbal, Babak; Cheng, Richard; Vanichsarn, Christopher; Patel, Jignesh K; Czer, Lawrence S; Chang, David H; Kittleson, Michelle M; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used as induction therapy after cardiac transplant for enhancing immunosuppression and delaying the initiation of nephrotoxic drugs. It is unknown if ATG induction is associated with decreased coronary plaque progression by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Patients transplanted between March 2010 and December 2012 with baseline and 1-year IVUS were included. All patients transplanted were included in a secondary analysis. Change in plaque progression was measured in a blinded fashion on matched coronary segments and contrasted between patients induced with ATG and those who were not. One hundred and three patients were included in IVUS arms. Mean age at transplant was 55.8 ± 12.6 years, and 33.0% were female. Patients induced with ATG were more sensitized (54.3% versus 14.3%). Plaque progression was attenuated in patients who received ATG by changes in maximal intimal area (1.0 ± 1.2 versus 2.3 ± 2.6 mm(2); P = 0.001), maximal percent stenosis (6.3 ± 7.9 versus 12.8 ± 12.3%; = 0.003), maximal intimal thickness (0.2 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.035), and plaque volume (0.5 ± 0.7 versus 1.0 ± 1.3 mm(3)/mm; P = 0.016). Rapid plaque progression by maximal percent stenosis (≥ 20%) occurred less frequently in the ATG arm (4.3% versus 26.3; P = 0.003). Survival (P = 0.242) and any treated rejection (P = 0.166) were not statistically different between groups. Patients receiving ATG had a higher rate of first-year infection (P = 0.003), perhaps related to increased intravenous antibiotic use immediately postoperatively, and a trend toward more biopsy-proven rejection (P = 0.073). Induction therapy with ATG is associated with reduced first-year coronary plaque progression as assessed by IVUS, despite an increased prevalence of sensitized patients with a trend toward more rejection. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. WE-D-210-04: Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in View of Non-Invasive Dosimetry in External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callens, M; Verboven, E; Van Den Abeele, K [Department of Physics, Wave Propagation and Signal Processing, KU Leuven KULAK, Kortrijk (Belgium); D’Agostino, E [DoseVue NV, Hasselt (Belgium); Pfeiffer, H [Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); D’hooge, J [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Bio-Medical Science Group, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA’s) based on gas-filled microbubbles encapsulated by an amphiphilic shell are well established as safe and effective echo-enhancers in diagnostic imaging. In view of an alternative application of UCA’s, we investigated the use of targeted microbubbles as radiation sensors for external beam radiation therapy. As radiation induces permanent changes in the microbubble’s physico-chemical properties, a robust measure of these changes can provide a direct or indirect estimate of the applied radiation dose. For instance, by analyzing the ultrasonic dispersion characteristics of microbubble distributions before and after radiation treatment, an estimate of the radiation dose at the location of the irradiated volume can be made. To increase the radiation sensitivity of microbubbles, polymerizable diacetylene molecules can be incorporated into the shell. This study focuses on characterizing the acoustic response and quantifying the chemical modifications as a function of radiation dose. Methods: Lipid/diacetylene microbubbles were irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam using dose levels in the range of 0–150 Gy. The acoustic response of the microbubbles was monitored by ultrasonic through-transmission measurements in the range of 500 kHz to 20 MHz, thereby providing the dispersion relations of the phase velocity, attenuation and nonlinear coefficient. In addition, the radiation-induced chemical modifications were quantified using UV-VIS spectroscopy. Results: UV-VIS spectroscopy measurements indicate that ionizing radiation induces the polymerization of diacetylenes incorporated in the microbubble shell. The polymer yield strongly depends on the shell composition and the radiation-dose. The acoustic response is inherently related to the visco-elastic properties of the shell and is strongly influenced by the shell composition and the physico-chemical changes in the environment. Conclusion: Diacetylene-containing microbubbles are

  14. Ultrasound in sports medicine-A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Gina M.; Wilson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article will discuss the aspects of sports medicine where ultrasound imaging has advantages when compared to MRI looking at the strengths and weaknesses of ultrasound in the context of diagnosis and management. It will also assess the use of ultrasound in therapy including guided injections and current thoughts on novel forms of treatment. We will particularly emphasise the role of ultrasound imaging in the management of injuries of tendon, ligament and muscle

  15. Application of analyzer based X-ray imaging technique for detection of ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles from a physical therapy unit

    OpenAIRE

    Izadifar, Zahra; Belev, George; Babyn, Paul; Chapman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background The observation of ultrasound generated cavitation bubbles deep in tissue is very difficult. The development of an imaging method capable of investigating cavitation bubbles in tissue would improve the efficiency and application of ultrasound in the clinic. Among the previous imaging modalities capable of detecting cavitation bubbles in vivo, the acoustic detection technique has the positive aspect of in vivo application. However the size of the initial cavitation bubble and the am...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within the body and then back again. Ultrasound ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within the body and then back again. Ultrasound ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the ... can help to identify and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally ... known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in which needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames ...

  10. Obstetrical ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics may provide fuel for legal action. While most legal implications of this relatively new imaging modality are purely speculative, some have already given rise to legal action. Several situations will likely provide a basis for the courts to find against the physician. The failure to perform a sonogram when clinically indicated will most likely be the strongest plaintiff argument. Other major concerns include the use and availability of state-of-the-art equipment, as well as interpretation of the scans by a trained physician. Obstetrical ultrasound is usually performed by a radiologist or obstetrician. However, many physicians performing these examinations have had little or no formal training in the field. While this is now being remedied by the respective board examines who require a certain amount of training, it may not be enough. When ultrasound-related cases reach the courts, the involved physicians will most likely be regarded as experts in the field and, therefore, will be held to a very high standard of care. This would be difficult to achieve without formal training. At the present time, the American Board of Radiology requires more training time in ultrasound than the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  11. Application of analyzer based X-ray imaging technique for detection of ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles from a physical therapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Zahra; Belev, George; Babyn, Paul; Chapman, Dean

    2015-10-19

    The observation of ultrasound generated cavitation bubbles deep in tissue is very difficult. The development of an imaging method capable of investigating cavitation bubbles in tissue would improve the efficiency and application of ultrasound in the clinic. Among the previous imaging modalities capable of detecting cavitation bubbles in vivo, the acoustic detection technique has the positive aspect of in vivo application. However the size of the initial cavitation bubble and the amplitude of the ultrasound that produced the cavitation bubbles, affect the timing and amplitude of the cavitation bubbles' emissions. The spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles, driven by 0.8835 MHz therapeutic ultrasound system at output power of 14 Watt, was studied in water using a synchrotron X-ray imaging technique, Analyzer Based Imaging (ABI). The cavitation bubble distribution was investigated by repeated application of the ultrasound and imaging the water tank. The spatial frequency of the cavitation bubble pattern was evaluated by Fourier analysis. Acoustic cavitation was imaged at four different locations through the acoustic beam in water at a fixed power level. The pattern of cavitation bubbles in water was detected by synchrotron X-ray ABI. The spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles driven by the therapeutic ultrasound system was observed using ABI X-ray imaging technique. It was observed that the cavitation bubbles appeared in a periodic pattern. The calculated distance between intervals revealed that the distance of frequent cavitation lines (intervals) is one-half of the acoustic wave length consistent with standing waves. This set of experiments demonstrates the utility of synchrotron ABI for visualizing cavitation bubbles formed in water by clinical ultrasound systems working at high frequency and output powers as low as a therapeutic system.

  12. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  13. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  14. Design of patient-specific focused ultrasound arrays for non-invasive brain therapy with increased trans-skull transmission and steering range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    The use of a phased array of ultrasound transducer elements to sonicate through the skull has opened the way for new treatments and the delivery of therapeutics beyond the blood-brain barrier. The limited steering range of current clinical devices, particularly at higher frequencies, limits the regions of the brain that are considered treatable by ultrasound. A new array design is introduced that allows for high levels of beam steering and increased transmission throughout the brain. These improvements are achieved using concave transducers normal to the outer-skull surface in a patient-specific configuration to target within the skull, so that the far-field of each beam is within the brain. It is shown that by using pulsed ultrasound waves timed to arrive in-phase at the desired target, sufficient levels of acoustic energy are delivered for blood-brain barrier opening throughout the brain.

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ... Ultrasound examinations are painless and easily tolerated by most patients. Ultrasound exams in which the transducer is ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ...

  19. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  1. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  2. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bani, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes.

  3. Effects of ultrasound therapy with taping PNF training and PNF training with taping in treatment and rehabilitation of sports injuries of high ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D L Charly Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that combining ultrasound with taping and PNF training with taping were found to be more beneficial in the treatment and rehabilitation of high ankle sprain injury. The combined effect of UT, PNF training, and taping may be explored by future researchers.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3- ...

  6. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with you lying on your back, possibly with your feet in stirrups similar to a gynecologic exam. Transrectal: ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... April 01, 2017 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were ...

  8. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Lee, Tae Hwa; Willmann, Jugen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB) mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.

  9. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Mullick Chowdhury

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.

  10. TH-AB-202-05: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): First Online Ultrasound-Guided MLC Tracking for Real-Time Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, S; Bruder, R; Schweikard, A [University of Luebeck, Luebeck, DE (United States); O’Brien, R; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Poulsen, P [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: While MLC tracking has been successfully used for motion compensation of moving targets, current real-time target localization methods rely on correlation models with x-ray imaging or implanted electromagnetic transponders rather than direct target visualization. In contrast, ultrasound imaging yields volumetric data in real-time (4D) without ionizing radiation. We report the first results of online 4D ultrasound-guided MLC tracking in a phantom. Methods: A real-time tracking framework was installed on a 4D ultrasound station (Vivid7 dimension, GE) and used to detect a 2mm spherical lead marker inside a water tank. The volumetric frame rate was 21.3Hz (47ms). The marker was rigidly attached to a motion stage programmed to reproduce nine tumor trajectories (five prostate, four lung). The 3D marker position from ultrasound was used for real-time MLC aperture adaption. The tracking system latency was measured and compensated by prediction for lung trajectories. To measure geometric accuracy, anterior and lateral conformal fields with 10cm circular aperture were delivered for each trajectory. The tracking error was measured as the difference between marker position and MLC aperture in continuous portal imaging. For dosimetric evaluation, 358° VMAT fields were delivered to a biplanar diode array dosimeter using the same trajectories. Dose measurements with and without MLC tracking were compared to a static reference dose using a 3%/3 mm γ-test. Results: The tracking system latency was 170ms. The mean root-mean-square tracking error was 1.01mm (0.75mm prostate, 1.33mm lung). Tracking reduced the mean γ-failure rate from 13.9% to 4.6% for prostate and from 21.8% to 0.6% for lung with high-modulation VMAT plans and from 5% (prostate) and 18% (lung) to 0% with low modulation. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound tracking was successfully integrated with MLC tracking for the first time and showed similar accuracy and latency as other methods while holding the

  11. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for analysis. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for analysis. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the transducer for analysis. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic ...

  20. Influence of ezetimibe in addition to high-dose atorvastatin therapy on plaque composition in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction assessed by serial Intravascular ultrasound with iMap: the OCTIVUS trial*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Mikkel; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Thayssen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of ezetimibe in addition to atorvastatin on plaque composition in patients with first-time ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction treated with primary percutaneous intervention. Methods: Eighty-seven patients were randomized ( 1: 1......) to ezetimibe 10mg or placebo in addition to Atorvastatin 80 mg. Intravascular ultrasound with iMap was performed at baseline and after 12 months in a non-infarctrelated artery. Primary endpoint was change in necrotic core (NC). Secondary endpoints were total atheroma volume (TAV) and percentage atheroma volume.......3 +/- 9.4% to 42.2 +/- 10.7 p - 0.07),p - 0.91 between groups. Conclusions: Ezetimibe in addition to atorvastatin therapy did not influence NC content, but was associated with regression of coronary atherosclerosis. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bradford J.; Yanof, J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kruecker, J.; Bauer, C.; Seip, R.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.

    2006-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  2. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  3. Therapeutic Ultrasound Examination of Follicular Reserve, and Ovarian Tissue Angiogenesis in Mice, 14 Days after Heterotopic Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Abtahi

    2014-06-01

    Results: The study results showed that the CD31 angiogenic factor was expressed more in the irradiated animals than in control group animals and ultrasound-therapy resulted in better follicular preservation. Conclusion: The ultrasound therapy can improve preservation of ovarian follicle .This is probably due to acceleration of angiogenesis and increase in production of growth factors by low intensity pulse ultrasound.

  4. Feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound therapy for ablating uterine fibroids in patients with bowel lies anterior to uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lian; Chen Wenzhi; Liu Yinjiang; Hu Xiao; Zhou Kun; Chen Li; Peng Song; Zhu Hui; Zou Huiling; Bai Jin; Wang Zhibiao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapeutic ablation of uterine fibroids in patients with bowel lies anterior to uterus. Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients with 23 uterine fibroids underwent MR imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, with a mean age of 39.4 ± 6.9 (20-49) years, with fibroids average measuring 6.0 ± 1.6 (range, 2.9-9.5) cm in diameter. After being compressed with a degassed water balloon on abdominal wall, MR imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment was performed under conscious sedation by using fentanyl and midazolam. This procedure was performed by a Haifu JM focused ultrasound tumour therapeutic system (JM2.5C, Chongqing Haifu Technology Co., Ltd., China), in combination with a 1.5-Tesla MRI system (Symphony, Siemens, Germany), which provides real-time guidance and control. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed to evaluate the efficacy of thermal ablation immediately and 3 months after HIFU treatment. The treatment time and adverse events were recorded. Results: The mean fibroid volume was 97.0 ± 78.3 (range, 12.7-318.3) cm 3 . According to the treatment plan, an average 75.0 ± 11.4% (range, 37.8-92.4%) of the fibroid volume was treated. The mean fibroid volume immediately after HIFU was 109.7 ± 93.1 (range, 11.9-389.6) cm 3 , slightly enlarged because of edema. The average non-perfused volume was 83.3 ± 71.7 (range, 7.7-282.9) cm 3 , the average fractional ablation, which was defined as non-perfused volume divided by the fibroid volume immediately after HIFU treatment, was 76.9 ± 18.7% (range, 21.0-97.0%). There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment volume and the non-perfused volume. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 months obtained in 12 patients, the fibroid volume decreased by 31.4 ± 29.3% (range, -1.9 to 60.0%) in average, with paired t

  5. Feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound therapy for ablating uterine fibroids in patients with bowel lies anterior to uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lian; Chen Wenzhi [Clinical Center for Tumour Therapy of 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400010 (China); Liu Yinjiang; Hu Xiao [National Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Medicine, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhou Kun [Clinical Center for Tumour Therapy of 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400010 (China); Chen Li [National Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Medicine, Chongqing 400010 (China); Peng Song; Zhu Hui [Clinical Center for Tumour Therapy of 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zou Huiling [National Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Medicine, Chongqing 400010 (China); Bai Jin [Institute of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang Zhibiao [Clinical Center for Tumour Therapy of 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400010 (China); National Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Medicine, Chongqing 400010 (China); Institute of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400016 (China)], E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapeutic ablation of uterine fibroids in patients with bowel lies anterior to uterus. Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients with 23 uterine fibroids underwent MR imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, with a mean age of 39.4 {+-} 6.9 (20-49) years, with fibroids average measuring 6.0 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2.9-9.5) cm in diameter. After being compressed with a degassed water balloon on abdominal wall, MR imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment was performed under conscious sedation by using fentanyl and midazolam. This procedure was performed by a Haifu JM focused ultrasound tumour therapeutic system (JM2.5C, Chongqing Haifu Technology Co., Ltd., China), in combination with a 1.5-Tesla MRI system (Symphony, Siemens, Germany), which provides real-time guidance and control. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed to evaluate the efficacy of thermal ablation immediately and 3 months after HIFU treatment. The treatment time and adverse events were recorded. Results: The mean fibroid volume was 97.0 {+-} 78.3 (range, 12.7-318.3) cm{sup 3}. According to the treatment plan, an average 75.0 {+-} 11.4% (range, 37.8-92.4%) of the fibroid volume was treated. The mean fibroid volume immediately after HIFU was 109.7 {+-} 93.1 (range, 11.9-389.6) cm{sup 3}, slightly enlarged because of edema. The average non-perfused volume was 83.3 {+-} 71.7 (range, 7.7-282.9) cm{sup 3}, the average fractional ablation, which was defined as non-perfused volume divided by the fibroid volume immediately after HIFU treatment, was 76.9 {+-} 18.7% (range, 21.0-97.0%). There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment volume and the non-perfused volume. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 months obtained in 12 patients, the fibroid volume decreased by 31.4 {+-} 29.3% (range, -1.9 to 60

  6. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkman Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunions occur in 5-10% of fractures and are characterized by the failure to heal without further intervention. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy has been developed as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of nonunions. We describe a systematic review on trials of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for healing of nonunions. We searched the electronic databases Medline and the Cochrane library for articles on ultrasound and healing of nonunions published up to 2008. Trials selected for the review met the following criteria: treatment of at least one intervention group with low intensity pulsed ultrasound; inclusion of patients (humans with one or more nonunions (defined as "established" or as a failure to heal for a minimum of eight months after initial injury; and assessment of healing and time to healing, as determined radiographically. The following data were abstracted from the included studies: sample size, ultrasound treatment characteristics, nonunion location, healing rate, time to fracture healing, fracture age, and demographic information. We found 79 potentially eligible publications, of which 14 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies were used for data abstraction. Healing rates averaged 87%, (range 65.6%-100% among eight trials. Mean time to healing was 146.5 days, (range 56-219 days. There is evidence from trials that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be an effective treatment for healing of nonunions. More homogeneous and larger controlled series are needed to further investigate its efficacy.

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sound waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue through which the sound travels. A small ... sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. top ... Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ...

  8. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... size, shape and consistency (whether the object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose a variety of conditions and to assess organ damage following ... the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart conditions, including valve problems and congestive ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... in infections With knowledge about the speed and volume of blood flow gained from a Doppler ultrasound ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... color picture. It can also convert blood flow information into a distinctive sound that can be heard ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ... ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... sonography is performed using the same transducer. Rarely, young children may need to be sedated in order ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ... structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... more extensive exams may take up to an hour. When the examination is complete, you may be ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... may produce minimal discomfort. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Most ultrasound examinations ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ... American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise ...

  15. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  17. Ultrasound-enhanced nanotherapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, N.; Nam, K.-H.; Christensen, D. A.; Kennedy, A. M.; Shea, J. E.; Scaife, C. L.

    2010-03-01

    The paper reports in vivo results of ultrasonic nanotherapy of orthotopically grown pancreatic cancer. Phase-shift paclitaxel (PTX) loaded perfluoropentane (PFP) nanoemusions combined with tumor-directed ultrasound have been used with a considerable success for tumor-targeted chemotherapy of gemcitabin (GEM)-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). The GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer proved sensitive to treatment by a micellar PTX formulation Genexol PM (GEN) andor nanodroplet PTX formulation ndGEN. Due to increased permeability of tumor blood vessels, drug-loaded nanodroplets accumulated in the tumor via passive targeting, which was confirmed by ultrasound imaging. Nanodroplets converted into microbubbles in situ under the action of tumor-directed 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound. The strongest therapeutic effect was observed for the combination therapy by PTX-loaded nanodroplets, GEM and ultrasound (ndGEN+GEM+ultrasound). This combination therapy resulted in a spectacular tumor regression and in some cases complete tumor resolution. Moreover, formation of metastases was dramatically decreased and ascitis generation was completely suppressed. However for all animal groups, local tumor recurrence was observed after the completion of the treatment indicating that some cancer cells survived the treatment. The recurrent tumors proved more resistant to the repeated therapy than initial tumors.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Application of Percutaneous Electrolysis as an Adjunct to Exercise and Manual Therapy for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Miguel-Valtierra, Lorena; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Arias-Buría, José L

    2018-05-16

    This randomized clinical trial compared the effects of adding US-guided percutaneous electrolysis into a program consisting of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related-disability, function and pressure sensitivity in subacromial pain syndrome. Fifty patients with subacromial pain syndrome were randomized into manual therapy and exercise or percutaneous electrolysis group. All patients received the same manual therapy and exercise program, one session per week for 5 consecutive weeks. Patients assigned to the electrolysis group also received the application of percutaneous electrolysis at each session. The primary outcome was Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). Secondary outcomes included pain, function (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index-SPADI) pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and Global Rating of Change (GROC). They were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3, and 6 months after treatment. Both groups showed similar improvements in the primary outcome (DASH) at all follow-ups (P=0.051). Subjects receiving manual therapy, exercise, and percutaneous electrolysis showed significantly greater changes in shoulder pain (P0.91) for shoulder pain and function at 3 and 6 months in favour of the percutaneous electrolysis group. No between-groups differences in PPT were found. The current clinical trial found that the inclusion of US-guided percutaneous electrolysis in combination with manual therapy and exercise resulted in no significant differences for related-disability (DASH) than the application of manual therapy and exercise alone in patients with subacromial pain syndrome. Nevertheless, differences were reported for some secondary outcomes such as shoulder pain and function (SPADI). Whether or not these effects are reliable should be addressed in future studies Perspective This study found that the inclusion of US-guided percutaneous electrolysis into a manual therapy and exercise program resulted in no significant differences for disability

  19. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  1. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, E.; Morley, P.

    1986-01-01

    This textbook on diagnostic ultrasound covers the main systems, with emphasis being placed on the clinical application of diagnostic ultrasound in everyday practice. It provides not only a textbook for postgraduates (particularly FRCR candidates), but also a reference work for practitioners of clinical ultrasound and clinicians generally

  2. Ultrasound applicability in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberena, Luciana da Silva; Brasil, Brunah de Castro; Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    To present recent studies that used the ultrasound in the fields of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, which evidence possibilities of the applicability of this technique in different subareas. A bibliographic research was carried out in the PubMed database, using the keywords "ultrasonic," "speech," "phonetics," "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences," "voice," "deglutition," and "myofunctional therapy," comprising some areas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The keywords "ultrasound," "ultrasonography," "swallow," "orofacial myofunctional therapy," and "orofacial myology" were also used in the search. Studies in humans from the past 5 years were selected. In the preselection, duplicated studies, articles not fully available, and those that did not present direct relation between ultrasound and Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were discarded. The data were analyzed descriptively and classified subareas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The following items were considered: purposes, participants, procedures, and results. We selected 12 articles for ultrasound versus speech/phonetics subarea, 5 for ultrasound versus voice, 1 for ultrasound versus muscles of mastication, and 10 for ultrasound versus swallow. Studies relating "ultrasound" and "Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences" in the past 5 years were not found. Different studies on the use of ultrasound in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were found. Each of them, according to its purpose, confirms new possibilities of the use of this instrument in the several subareas, aiming at a more accurate diagnosis and new evaluative and therapeutic possibilities.

  3. Thermal contribution of compact bone to intervening tissue-like media exposed to planar ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moros, Eduardo G [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Novak, Petr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Straube, William L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Kolluri, Prashant [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Myerson, Robert J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108 (United States)

    2004-03-21

    The presence of bone in the ultrasound beam path raises concerns, both in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because significant temperature elevations may be induced at nearby soft tissue-bone interfaces due the facts that ultrasound is (i) highly absorbed in bone and (ii) reflected at soft tissue-bone interfaces in various degrees depending on angle of incidence. Consequently, in ultrasonic thermal therapy, the presence of bone in the ultrasound beam path is considered a major disadvantage and it is usually avoided. However, based on clinical experience and previous theoretical studies, we hypothesized that the presence of bone in superficial unfocused ultrasound hyperthermia can actually be exploited to induce more uniform and enhanced (with respect to the no-bone situation) temperature distributions in superficial target volumes. In particular, we hypothesize that the presence of underlying bone in superficial target volume enhances temperature elevation not only by additional direct power deposition from acoustic reflection, but also from thermal diffusion from the underlying bone. Here we report laboratory results that corroborate previous computational studies and strengthen the above-stated hypothesis. Three different temperature measurement techniques, namely, thermometric (using fibre-optic temperature probes), thermographic (using an infrared camera) and magnetic resonance imaging (using proton resonance frequency shifts), were used in high-power short-exposure, and in low-power extended-exposure, experiments using a 19 mm diameter planar transducer operating at 1.0 and 3.3 MHz (frequencies of clinical relevance). The measurements were performed on three technique-specific phantoms (with and without bone inclusions) and experimental set-ups that resembled possible superficial ultrasound hyperthermia clinical situations. Results from all three techniques were in general agreement and clearly showed that significantly higher heating rates (greater

  4. Combination of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation and radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid disease. A 3-month follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, H.; Happel, C.; Koch, D.A.; Gruenwald, F. [Frankfurt University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2016-01-15

    Pilot studies of combined therapies treating benign nodular goiters reported promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of combined microwave ablation (MWA) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) with a special focus on thyroid function at the 3-month follow-up. 15 patients (median age: 55 years) with a large goiter and benign thyroid nodules or Graves' disease were treated with the combined therapy. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobuline (Tg) and, additionally, antibody levels against thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyrotropin receptors (TRAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) were measured at enrollment, post MWA and at the 3-month follow-up (3MFU). Furthermore, the goiter volume, I-131 dose and hospitalization time were analyzed to evaluate effectiveness. MWA was operated under local anesthesia with a system working in a wavelength field of 902 to 928 MHz. TSH, T4, T3 and Tg did not change at 3MFU, except for in two patients in whom the initial TSH levels improved to normal thyroid functioning levels at follow-up. One of the patients developed a high TRAb-level that receded back into the normal range. At 3MFU, the combined therapy showed a mean thyroid volume reduction of 26.4 ml ± 7.9 ml (30.5 % ± 4.6 % (p < 0.05)). By utilizing the combined therapy, administered activity could be reduced by 26.6 % ± 4.8 % (p < 0.05) and hospitalization time by 30.9 % ± 19.9 % (p < 0.05). The data confirmed the effectiveness of the combination of MWA with RIT. The combined therapy is an innovative and conservative approach and could become a safe alternative to surgery for the treatment of very large benign nodular goiters. Due to the short follow-up and the limited number of patients, further studies will be necessary.

  5. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  6. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  7. [Ultrasound physiotherapy treatment of prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talberg, P I; Andryukhin, M I; Mazina, S E; Nikolaev, A L

    2016-12-01

    Develop a method of treatment of prostatitis based on the use of a standard antibiotic, immunomodulatory therapy, and transrectal ultrasound physiotherapy. The dynamics of the accumulation of the antibiotic was investigated in male rats. Sonication was performed immediately before the administration of the antibiotic and its accumulation in the process at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min after dosing. The clinical study included 138 patients with chronic prostatitis. Patients of the experimental group, in addition to standard therapy, 10 sessions of transrectal ultrasound physical therapy was performed. The efficacy of treatment was assessed after 14 and 28 days after initiation. and its discussion. Experiments on laboratory animals have shown that the highest concentration and the residence time of antibiotic in the prostate tissue is noted ultrasonic treatment in the period of maximum blood concentration of the test drug. The data obtained allow to determine that the ultrasonic treatment must be performed considering the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic. In conducting clinical trials on day 14 of treatment and clinical manifestations of prostatitis bacterial microflora in prostatic secretions were no patients in both groups. In 15% of patients of the experimental group the number of leukocytes decreased to the normal range. After 28 days the amount of leukocytes was normal in 51% of patients in the control and 85% in the experimental group. In animal experiments defined the optimal time interval separating the moment of injection of the antibiotic from the beginning of sonication. Clinical studies have shown that the transrectal ultrasound exposure during the period of maximum concentration of the antibiotic in the blood, improves patient outcomes by 33.8%.

  8. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  9. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2013 Print this issue Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories Send us ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  10. Ultrasound image features of intravesical prostatic protrusion indicated failure of medication therapy of finasteride and doxazosin in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Yunkai; Liu, Jianping; Qi, Jun; Kang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is a type of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) adenoma, and it plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction in patients with lower urinary tract syndromes (LUTS/BPH). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of a combination therapy with finasteride and doxazosin on IPP in BPU/LUTS patients. A total of 322 BPH patients with enlarged prostatic volume as well as moderate to severe symptom scores were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the degree of IPP (IPP > 10 mm, 5-10 mm,  0.05). Failure rates of the medication differed significantly among the four groups. The study indicated that the combination therapy using finasteride and doxazosin could not reduce the degree of IPP. LUTS/BPH patients with IPP which contributes to the failure of medication tend to have a higher risk of progression.

  11. Concise biomarker for spatial-temporal change in three-dimensional ultrasound measurement of carotid vessel wall and plaque thickness based on a graph-based random walk framework: Towards sensitive evaluation of response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Weifu; Cheng, Jieyu

    2016-12-01

    Rapid progression in total plaque area and volume measured from ultrasound images has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. Since atherosclerosis is focal and predominantly occurring at the bifurcation, biomarkers that are able to quantify the spatial distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) change may allow for more sensitive detection of treatment effect. The goal of this paper is to develop simple and sensitive biomarkers to quantify the responsiveness to therapies based on the spatial distribution of VWT-Change on the entire 2D carotid standardized map previously described. Point-wise VWT-Changes computed for each patient were reordered lexicographically to a high-dimensional data node in a graph. A graph-based random walk framework was applied with the novel Weighted Cosine (WCos) similarity function introduced, which was tailored for quantification of responsiveness to therapy. The converging probability of each data node to the VWT regression template in the random walk process served as a scalar descriptor for VWT responsiveness to treatment. The WCos-based biomarker was 14 times more sensitive than the mean VWT-Change in discriminating responsive and unresponsive subjects based on the p-values obtained in T-tests. The proposed framework was extended to quantify where VWT-Change occurred by including multiple VWT-Change distribution templates representing focal changes at different regions. Experimental results show that the framework was effective in classifying carotid arteries with focal VWT-Change at different locations and may facilitate future investigations to correlate risk of cardiovascular events with the location where focal VWT-Change occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  13. Development of Flexible Capacitive Ultrasound Transducers and the Use of Ultrasound for Bone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Scott A.

    Ultrasound is a widely applicable technique for therapy in the biomedical arena. However, conventional ultrasound transducers are not conducive for non-planar surfaces. Therefore, we developed flexible transducers capable of performing ultrasound and evaluated their use in biomedical applications. Flexible capacitive ultrasound transducers based on micrometer-thick dielectric tapes were developed and fabricated. These transducers were able to be made by hand at low-cost while still demonstrating good tolerances in center operating frequency. Intensities of up to 120 mW/cm2 were recorded and operation was dependent upon the applied AC and DC voltages along with the thickness of the dielectric insulation. These capacitive ultrasound transducers were used to stimulate MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblast cells to investigate the effects of low-frequency ultrasound on osteogenic gene expression and anabolic signaling pathways. After stimulation by 94.5 kHz continuous wave ultrasound for 20 minutes, significant increases in the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and concentration of intracellular calcium were observed. Daily stimulation by ultrasound showed a trend of increased osteogenic gene expression across the phases of matrix deposition, maturation and calcification by osteoblasts. Finally, the heating of osteoblasts for stimulating osteoclastogenic responses was investigated. The application of increased temperatures of 42 and 47 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes showed significant increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio in media conditioned by osteoblasts. However, the altered RANKL/OPG ratio was not able to generate increases in osteoclastogenesis for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells culture in the condition media. This was possibly due to high overall osteoprotegerin expression, or unwanted inducement of M1 and M2 macrophage activation in the cell population. The overall work of this thesis demonstrates the development of novel capacitive transducers. These conformable

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ... 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  18. The Indian ultrasound paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude; Rosenblum, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s made prenatal ultrasound technology affordable and available to a large fraction of the population. As a result, ultrasound use amongst pregnant women rose dramatically in many parts of India. This paper provides evidence on the consequences of the expansion of prenatal ultrasound use on sex-selection. We exploit state-by-cohort variation in ultrasound use in India as a unique quasi-experiment. We find that sex-selective abortion of female...

  19. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  20. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  2. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  3. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatigue fracture of steel after mechanical and ultrasonic strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotskij, I.M.

    1978-01-01

    Fatigue fracture surfaces of samples after mechanical and ultrasonic strengthening have been studied metallographically and by electron fractography. Studied was the 40Kh steel hardened from 850 deg and then tempered at 180 deg or at 550 deg C. The ultrasound power was 25 kWt, the frequency was 20 kHz, the sample rotation velocity was 39.5 m/min. Mechanical and ultrasonic treatment was found to cause structural changes (formation of a white layer) and deformation of the material under the layer. The fatigue cracks were extending beyond the white layer; their propagation involved generation and coalescence of microcracks on account of segregation of carbides. It is concluded that mechanical and ultrasonic treatment should be used for increasing the fatigue strength of low and average strength materials rather than hardened or low-tempered ones

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  6. Impact of prenatal ultrasound consultation on maternal anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.; Ajmal, F.; Ahmed, H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether ultrasound consultation reduces maternal anxiety and increases feto-maternal attachment ( the desire to care for the fetus and care for self). Patients coming for routine obstetric ultrasound at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi were recruited in the study. The study was carried out over the period of two months from January-February 2007 in which sixty patients were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard care group or an ultrasound consultation group (30 patients in each arm). Both groups were required to fill a questionnaire before and after their ultrasound examination. The ultrasound consultation group in addition received counseling before they went in for the ultrasound regarding fetal development and maternal-fetal interaction. The two groups were then compared for difference of change in feto maternal attachment scores and change in anxiety levels regarding their pregnancies before and after the ultrasound. SPSS software (version 14) was used for compilation of the data and the statistical computations. Categorical data was compared using Chi-square test and continuous variables were analyzed with paired t-test. P value <0.05 was considered significant. A positive difference in feto-maternal attachment and reduction in anxiety levels was seen in both the groups but this difference was statistically significant in the ultrasound consultation group only. This study suggests that ultrasound examinations with prior consultation has a positive impact on patients as it strengthens bonding toward the fetus, reduces maternal anxiety and increases maternal investment in health during the pregnancy. (author)

  7. A brief history of ultrasound in rheumatology: where we were.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Walter; Filippucci, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography in the '70s was a well-known and widely used method within several medical specialties but not in rheumatology. Initial development of the field was led by radiologists who mainly investigated the potential of ultrasound in the assessment of large joints. In the late '80s, the first studies supporting the role of ultrasound in the detection of soft tissue changes and bone erosions in the hands of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were published. In the '90s, the dramatic improvement of spatial resolution due to the new generation high frequency probes opened up new avenues for the exploration of otherwise undetectable anatomical details. Ultrasound research during this period was enhanced by the growing use of colour Doppler and power Doppler and by the first prototypes of three dimensional ultrasound. Over the last 10 years, the buzz words in ultrasound research in rheumatology have been standardisation, early diagnosis and therapy monitoring.

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging ...

  9. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to image by ultrasound because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ...

  11. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  13. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  14. Evolution of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePaefgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods. It is a non-invasive, comparably inexpensive imaging method with a broad spectrum of applications, which can be increased even more by using bubbles as contrast agents. There are various different types of bubbles: filled with different gases, composed of soft- or hard-shell materials, and ranging in size from nano- to micrometers. These intravascular contrast agents enable functional analyses, e.g. to acquire organ perfusion in real-time. Molecular analyses are achieved by coupling specific ligands to the bubbles’ shell, which bind to marker molecules in the area of interest. Bubbles can also be loaded with or attached to drugs, peptides or genes and can be destroyed by ultrasound pulses to locally release the entrapped agent. Recent studies show that ultrasound contrast agents are also valuable tools in hyperthermia-induced ablation therapy of tumors, or can increase cellular uptake of locally released drugs by enhancing membrane permeability. This review summarizes important steps in the development of ultrasound contrast agents and introduces the current clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Additionally, an overview of the recent developments in ultrasound probe design for functional and molecular diagnosis as well as for drug delivery is given.

  15. Complementary therapies in social psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe

    three residential homes (n= 51 / 91 respondents - response rate 56 %) shows that the most common used complementary therapy is music therapy 43%, and only 10% of residents do not use these therapies at all. Overall, 43% of residents strongly agree, that these therapies strengthens their recovery process...

  16. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  17. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Bernard; Bing, Li; Chow, Tommy W S, E-mail: bcychiu@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: bingli5@student.cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: eetchow@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-09-07

    With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment

  19. Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Li Bing; Chow, Tommy W S

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment

  20. Impact of target volume coverage with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 98-05 guidelines for transrectal ultrasound guided permanent Iodine-125 prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Mitra, Raj K.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Das, Indra J.; Pinover, Wayne H.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; McNeeley, Shawn W.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the wide use of permanent prostate implants for the treatment of early stage prostate cancer, there is no consensus for optimal pre-implant planning guidelines that results in maximal post-implant target coverage. The purpose of this study was to compare post-implant target volume coverage and dosimetry between patients treated before and after Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 98-05 guidelines were adopted using several dosimetric endpoints. Materials and methods: Ten consecutively treated patients before the adoption of the RTOG 98-05 planning guidelines were compared with ten consecutively treated patients after implementation of the guidelines. Pre-implant planning for patients treated pre-RTOG was based on the clinical target volume (CTV) defined by the pre-implant TRUS definition of the prostate. The CTV was expanded in each dimension according to RTOG 98-05 and defined as the planning target volume. The evaluation target volume was defined as the post-implant computed tomography definition of the prostate based on RTOG 98-05 protocol recommendations. Implant quality indicators included V 100 , V 90 , V 100 , and Coverage Index (CI). Results: The pre-RTOG median V 100 , V 90 , D 90 , and CI values were 82.8, 88.9%, 126.5 Gy, and 17.1, respectively. The median post-RTOG V 100 , V 90 , D 90 , and CI values were 96.0, 97.8%, 169.2 Gy, and 4.0, respectively. These differences were all statistically significant. Conclusions: Implementation of the RTOG 98-05 implant planning guidelines has increased coverage of the prostate by the prescription isodose lines compared with our previous technique, as indicated by post-implant dosimetry indices such as V 100 , V 90 , D 90 . The CI was also improved significantly with the protocol guidelines. Our data confirms the validity of the RTOG 98-05 implant guidelines for pre-implant planning as it relates to enlargement of the CTV to ensure adequate margin between the CTV and the prescription isodose

  1. Measurement of ultrasound power using a calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, G.; Miqueleti, S.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the ultrasound power of a 1 MHz therapy equipment on the water using a calorimeter and a radiation force balance. For a range of 5 to 10 W, the results presented a normalized error less than 1, disclosing compatibility of the results from the developed system and the radiation force balance. The calorimetric method might be used as a faster and cheaper means for the verification of the ultrasonic power emitted by an equipment for physiotherapeutic treatment.

  2. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.; Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI

    1988-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography. (orig.)

  3. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Daniele; Quattrini Li, Alessandro; Freschi, Giancarlo; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2013-09-01

    In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs ... used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  6. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ovaries , and unborn child ( fetus ) in pregnant patients eyes thyroid and parathyroid glands scrotum (testicles) brain in ... Any portions that are not wiped off will dry quickly. The ultrasound gel does not usually stain ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Any portions that are not wiped off will dry quickly. The ultrasound gel does not usually stain ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... used to help physicians evaluate symptoms such as: pain swelling infection Ultrasound is a useful way of ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s also used to help guide ... and parathyroid glands scrotum (testicles) brain in infants hips in infants spine in infants Ultrasound is also ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...