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Sample records for ultrasound study insuficiencia

  1. Obesity paradox and risk of sudden death in heart failure results from the MUerte Subita en Insuficiencia cardiaca (MUSIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelurrutia, Paloma; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Vazquez, Rafael; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Shamagian, Lillian Grigorian; Puig, Teresa; Ferrero, Andreu; Cinca, Juan; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    among patients with heart failure (HF), body mass index (BMI) has been inversely associated with mortality, giving rise to the so-called obesity paradox. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI and two modes of cardiac death: pump failure death and sudden death. nine hundred seventy-nine patients with mild to moderate chronic symptomatic HF from the MUSIC (MUerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) Study, a prospective, multicenter, and longitudinal study designed to assess risk predictors of cardiac mortality, were followed up during a median of 44 months. Independent predictors of death were identified by a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. higher BMI emerged as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-0.97, P = .0003) and pump failure death (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88-0.98, P = .004). Sudden death accounted for 45% of deaths in obese patients, 53% in overweight patients, and 37% in lean patients. No significant relationship between BMI and sudden death was observed (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02, P = .28). The only independent predictors of sudden death were prior history of myocardial infarction (HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.23-2.90, P = .004), hypertension (HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.05-2.63, P = .03), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96, P = .006), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.02, P = .048). the obesity paradox in HF affects all-cause mortality and pump failure death but not sudden death. The risk of dying suddenly was similar across BMI categories in this cohort of ambulatory patients with HF.

  2. Insuficiencia respiratoria aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Muñoz, Fernando R.

    2010-01-01

    La función respiratoria básica es el intercambio gaseoso de oxígeno y dióxido carbono; lo que implica un perfecto equilibrio y control entre los componentes del sistema respiratorio. a insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (IRA) es la incapacidad del sistema respiratorio de cumplir su función básica, que es el intercambio gaseoso de oxígeno y dióxido de carbono. Basic respiratory function is gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, which implies a perfect balance and control between the compo...

  3. Insuficiencia suprarrenal secundaria a paracoccidioidomicosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Oñate

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis se asocia en 10 a 15% de los casos con insuficiencia suprarrenal e, inclusive, puede ser la primera manifestación de la enfermedad. Para determinar la frecuencia de la anterior relación en nuestro medio, se revisó el archivo de historias clínicas del Servicio de Micología de la Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas y se encontró que de 207 pacientes con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis, 6 (2,9% presentaban insuficiencia suprarrenal. Los pacientes eran del sexo masculino con una edad promedio de 67,2 años (rango: 48-75 y la mayoría eran agricultores. El tiempo promedio de duración de los síntomas relacionados con la insuficiencia fue de 4,1 meses (rango: 2-6. Todos los pacientes habían perdido peso, tenían adinamia y, además, radiología pulmonar anormal. El tratamiento con itraconazol, prednisolona y fluorocortisona resultó en mejoría clínica y en disminución de los títulos de anticuerpos contra Paracocidioides brasiliensis. Puesto que se ha demostrado que las alteraciones morfológicas y funcionales de las glándulas suprarrenales pueden desaparecer si se inicia prontamente el tratamiento, sería de vital importancia detectar precozmente el hipoadrenalismo en pacientes provenientes de áreas endémicas para esta micosis y, de tal manera, evitar daños mayores y acortar el tratamiento esteroideo en los pacientes afectados.

  4. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Thierer

    2006-01-01

    La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los Betabloqueantes, vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la en...

  5. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Thierer, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los betabloqueantes vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la enzim...

  6. Discriminant validity study of Achilles enthesis ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito Molinero, María Rosa; de Miguel Mendieta, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    We want to know if the ultrasound examination of the Achilles tendon in spondyloarthritis is different compared to other rheumatic diseases. We studied 97 patients divided into five groups: rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, gout, chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis, exploring six elementary lesions in 194 Achilles entheses examined. In our study the total index ultrasonographic Achilles is higher in spondyloarthritis with significant differences. The worst elementary spondyloarthritis lesions for discriminations against other pathologies were calcification. This study aims to demonstrate the discriminant validity of Achilles enthesitis observed by ultrasound in spondyloarthritis compared with other rheumatic diseases that may also have ultrasound abnormalities such enthesis level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  7. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Thierer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los Betabloqueantes, vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora ejercen una influencia favorable, en tanto que el uso de glitazonas todavía es controversial. La insuficiencia cardíaca puede a su vez generar diabetes, debido a la activación del sistema nervioso simpático y al efecto del tratamiento. La comprensión adecuada de estos hechos es fundamental para tomar decisiones correctas y mejorar la suerte de los pacientes.

  8. Jaundice: a preliminary study with the ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Sun Jian; Liu Haiping; Luo Weiquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ultrasound in imaging diagnosis of jaundice. Methods: The changes of ultrasonography of 116 patients with jaundice were correlatively studied with the final diagnosis. Results: Hepatocellular jaundice was found in 27 cases out of 116; and obstructive jaundice was revealed in other 89 cases. The level of obstruction was correctly assessed by ultrasound in 94.2% of the patients. The primary lesion was successfully identified by ultrasound in 87.6% cases of obstructive jaundice. Misdiagnosis was made in 8 cases. Conclusion: Ultrasonography can confirm the obstructive jaundice. The level of obstruction can be precisely located and the primary lesions can be correctly identified in most cases. Better understanding the sonographic characteristics of benign disorder such as inflam-matory mass of caput of pancreas and inflammatory stricture of common bile duct results in a higher diagnostic accuracy. (authors)

  9. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's ...

  10. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completed. Young children may need additional preparation. When scheduling an ultrasound for yourself or your child, ask ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  11. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  12. Soporte nutricional en la insuficiencia renal aguda

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    O. Cristina Olivos, Dra.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA se presenta frecuentemente en distintas condiciones clínicas y es especialmente frecuente en unidades de cuidados intensivos. La presencia de IRA se considera como un factor de riesgo independiente de morbilidad y mortalidad hospitalaria. De ahí la importancia de evaluar los diversos factores determinantes de su evolución, entre los que cuenta la desnutrición calórico-proteica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la literatura más relevante hasta la actualidad en este tema.

  13. Insuficiencia renal crónica.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Zamudio, César

    2013-01-01

    La insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) se define como el deterioro lento y progresivo de las funciones renales debido a la destrucción irreversible de las nefronas. El resultado es un descenso gradual de la velocidad de filtración glomerular, de la función tubular y de la capacidad de reabsorción, que da lugar a la pérdida del control hidroelectrolítico, a trastornos aci­dobásicos y a problemas sistémicos. Suele producirse una progresión gradual hacia la uremia. Evoluciona en periodos de tiempo...

  14. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2003-03-01

    Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal

  15. A contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of benign and malignant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of benign and malignant breast tissue. S Barnard, E Leen, T Cooke, W Angerson. Abstract. Objective. To determine the diagnostic value of haemodynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessment in benign and malignant breast tissue, using histological examination as the reference ...

  16. Uso inadecuado de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada

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    Milena Duque Vizcaíno

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la práctica clínica, el número de pacientes que ingresa por insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada y recibe tratamiento antimicrobiano, supera la prevalencia descrita de infecciones (15,3 % como causa de descompensación. Objetivo: determinar el uso inadecuado de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en 184 pacientes que ingresaron con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca en el Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Joaquín Albarrán", entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2011. Se consideró inadecuada la utilización de antimicrobianos, en caso de ausencia de infección asociada a la insuficiencia cardiaca. Resultados: hubo un predominio de infección asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca de 40,8 % y se prescribió antimicrobianos al 69 % de estos pacientes. La prevalencia global de utilización inadecuada de antimicrobianos en la población estudiada fue del 32,6 %. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que existe la necesidad de mejorar la prescripción de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca.

  17. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND FINDING IN DENGUE FEVER

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    Sunita Bajaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dengue fever (DF is a viral haemorrhagic fever causing severe morbidity and mortality in affected patients. The aim of the study is to describe the role of ultrasonography (USG in the assessment of patients with Dengue fever, and its complications and to prove ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis during an epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study was conducted in 2016 comprising of 178 patients who were serologically positive for dengue, radiological investigations were conducted in all cases. RESULTS Out of 178 patients Males (N=117 are more effected subjects in the study. female: Male ratio is 1:2. Hepatomegaly 74.1% which is most common findings in study, 113 (63.4% had GB wall thickening 98 had ascites (55%, 32 had pleural effusion (17.9%. most commonly seen in the age group of 20-39 years. Hepatomegaly was the most common finding noted in 67 patients (37.6%, followed by GB wall thickening in 65 patients (36.1%. Hepatomegaly was more common in 0-19 is 56 patients with 31.4% years age group Ascites in >40 years age group (16.8%. Hepatomegaly was seen in most of the patients whose platelet count was <40,000. (94.7%. GB wall thickening (88.5% common findings seen in patients whose platelet count was <40,000. In patients with platelet count of 40,000-80,000, Ascites is most common finding (87.5%, followed by Splenomegaly (60.7%. In patients whose platelet count was 80,000-150,000, Ascites (50% was more common than Splenomegaly (45.8%. In three patients with platelet count more than 150,000, no sonological abnormality was detected. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound findings of hepatic changes, GB wall oedema, splenomegaly, ascites and pleural effusion in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of Dengue fever during an epidemic are diagnostic. Contributing in the differential diagnosis with other causes of febrile disease.

  18. Prehospital Ultrasound

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    Jen-Tang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a commonly used diagnostic tool in clinical conditions. With recent developments in technology, use of portable ultrasound devices has become feasible in prehospital settings. Many studies also proved the feasibility and accuracy of prehospital ultrasound. In this article, we focus on the use of prehospital ultrasound, with emphasis on trauma and chest ultrasound.

  19. Implicaciones del endotelio en la insuficiencia cardiaca

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    Beatriz Wills Sanín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El papel del endotelio en la insuficiencia cardíaca (IC ha sido el centro de intensa investigación, puesto que tiene importantes implicaciones sistémicas expresadas en su efecto vasomotor, hemostático e inflamatorio. Existen diferencias individuales en el patrón de la disfunción endotelial de acuerdo a la etiología y severidad de la IC. La disfunción endotelial tiene un importante valor pronóstico en la IC y, aunque aún necesitamos conocer más aspectos de relevancia clínica, es evidente que esta condición se relaciona con desenlaces negativos en estos pacientes. Estamos a la espera de nuevos agentes farmacéuticos dirigidos específicamente al endotelio vascular. En esta revisión, nuestro objetivo es ofrecer un análisis crítico y contemporáneo de la evidencia disponible sobre las consecuencias patológicas y pronóstico de las anomalías endoteliales que definen el inicio, la historia natural y, en última instancia, los desenlaces en la IC.

  20. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  1. Insuficiencia renal aguda obstructiva: Estudio de 42 pacientes

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    Isabel Caravia Pubillones

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 42 pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Cuidados Intensivos del Instituto de Nefrología con el diagnóstico de insuficiencia renal aguda obstructiva (IRAO, con 1 ó 2 riñones funcionantes. Los pacientes estudiados estaban entre la 5ta y la 7ma década de la vida, con una mayor incidencia en el sexo masculino. La causa más frecuente de IRAO fue la litiasis renal (47,62 %, seguida por las enfermedades tumorales que infiltraban los uréteres (28,57 %. Se empleó tratamiento médico en 9 pacientes y el resto (33 fueron sometidos a tratamiento quirúrgico. Las principales complicaciones fueron sépticas con un franco predominio de las infecciones del tractus urinario (38,5 %. Hubo 3 fallecidos, 2 de ellos por complicaciones cardiovasculares. Del total de insuficiencias renales agudas que se atendieron en nuestro Centro, el 10,6 % correspondió a IRAO. La efectividad del tratamiento quirúrgico empleado fue del 94,4 % de curación en los pacientes atendidosMedical records of 42 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Nephrology diagnosed as having acute obstructive renal failure with 1 or 2 kidneys functioning, were revised. Patients studied ware at the 5th and 7th decade of life with a greater incidence in males. The most frequent cause of acute obstructive renal failure was renal lithiasis (47.62 %, followed by tumor diseases which were infiltrating the ureters (28.57 %. Medical treatment was employed in 9 patients and the remaining (33 were submitted to surgical treatment. The main complications were septic with predominance of urinary tract infections (38.5 %. Three patients died, 2 of them as a result of cardiovascular complications. Of the total number of cases presenting with acute renal failure and treated in our center, 10.6 % had an acute obstructive renal failure. The effectiveness of the surgical treatment performed was 94.4 % of healing in patients treated for this

  2. A theoretical study of cylindrical ultrasound transducers for intracavitary hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.-L.; Fan, W.-C.; Yen, J.-Y.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Shieh, M.-J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the heating patterns and penetration depth when a cylindrical ultrasound transducer is employed for intracavitary hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: The present study employs a simulation program based on a simplified power deposition model for infinitely long cylindrical ultrasound transducers. The ultrasound power in the tissue is assumed to be exponentially attenuated according to the penetration depth of the ultrasound beam, and a uniform attenuation for the entire treatment region is also assumed. The distribution of specific absorption rate (SAR) ratio (the ratio of SAR for a point within the tissue to that for a specific point on the cavity surface) is used to determine the heating pattern for a set of given parameters. The parameters considered are the ultrasound attenuation in the tissue, the cavity size, and the transducer eccentricity. Results: Simulation results show that the ultrasound attenuation in the tissue, the cavity size, and the transducer eccentricity are the most influential parameters for the distribution of SAR ratio. A low frequency transducer located in a large cavity can produce a much better penetration. The cavity size is the major parameter affecting the penetration depth for a small cavity size, such as interstitial hyperthermia. The heating pattern can also be dramatically changed by the transducer eccentricity and radiating sector. In addition, for a finite length of cylindrical transducer, lower SAR ratio appears in the regions near the applicator's edges. Conclusion: The distribution of SAR ratio indicates the relationship between the treatable region and the parameters if an appropriate threshold of SAR ratio is taken. The findings of the present study comprehend whether or not a tumor is treatable, as well as select the optimal driving frequency, the appropriate cavity size, and the eccentricity of a cylindrical transducer for a specific treatment

  3. Comparative ultrasound study of acute lateral ankle ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The return to competitive level of sport dates were also documented and compared. A single blind randomised control study comparing the JSFB rehabilitation programme with conventional ankle rehabilitation programmes was used. Ultrasound examinations were done on all first time lateral ankle ligament injuries 72 ...

  4. Studies of nonlinear ultrasound propagation: safety considerations in the use of ultrasound for medical diagnosis - nonlinear propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, B.; Barnett, S.; Vella, G.

    1994-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is an established imaging modality without any documented harmful effects. New developments such as pulsed Doppler and intracavity investigations may result in increases in ultrasound exposures which could cause harm. Thermal mechanisms and cavitation may become relevant sources of bioeffects. The preliminary study described here investigates the distribution and amplitude of harmonics generated through nonlinear propagation of ultrasound in water. Knowledge of harmonic attenuation will help predict sites of enhanced heating and enable accurate modelling of clinical situations. This presentation is concerned with thermal safety guidelines, their relationship to a typical ultrasound beam profile for a single, medium focussed, transducer operating in water and possible sites of enhanced heating due to nonlinear propagation effects. Measurements were made of the amplitudes of the harmonics generated by the nonlinear propagation of ultrasound in water. The amplitudes of the harmonics were detected up to frequencies of 35 MHz and displayed using Fast Fourier Transform facilities within the oscilloscope. The nonlinearity parameter of the ultrasonic waveforms has been identified as an important factor in thermal effects of ultrasound interactions. The appearance of nonlinear distortion is shown to be dependant on the peak compressional pressure and distance from the ultrasound source. 20 refs., 2 figs

  5. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  6. Ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies: A radiohistopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambete, Neha; Kumar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies. Materials and Methods: Ten patients aged between 19 years and 40 years with periapical lesions associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth were selected and consented for the study. Pre-operative periapical radiographs were obtained. Measurements and provisional diagnoses of the apical areas were made by two specialist observers on two separate occasions. Preoperative ultrasound examinations with Doppler flowmetry were then performed and the images assessed by two specialist observers for the size, contents, vascular supply and a provisional diagnosis made as to whether the lesion was a cyst or granuloma. Endodontic surgery was performed including curettage of the apical tissues to enable histopathological investigation, which provided the gold standard diagnosis. All measurements and findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: Total 10 lesions were identified in 10 patients. On periapical radiographs, lesions were readily identified but observers were unable to differentiate granuloma from cyst using either modality. Where sufficient buccal cortical bone had been resorbed, ultrasound imaging was simple but underestimated the size of the lesions compared with periapical radiographs. In all cases, the ultrasound diagnosis agreed with the histopathological gold standard. Conclusion: Ultrasonography (USG) can provide accurate information about the nature of intraosseous lesions of the jaws before any surgical procedure. It is proposed that USG with Doppler flowmetry can provide an additional diagnostic tool without invasive surgery, where treatment option is nonsurgical. PMID:25657525

  7. Feasibility study of local ultrasound hyperthermia in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.G.; Straube, W.; Emami, B.; Perez, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a retrospective analysis of patients treated at Washington University for recurrent or persistent cancer with Ultrasound Hyperthermia between October 1984 and June 1986. Fifteen of 102 lesions were treated during this time period with Ultrasound Hyperthermia instead of microwave hyperthermia due to the size of the lesion needing heat at depths greater than 4 cm. Also, the patients' lesion could not be implanted for interstitial microwave hyperthermia. Fourteen of the treated patients received concomitant radiotherapy, while one received concomitant Bleomycin. There were 79 total hyperthermia treatments delivered, of which 67 achieved a therapeutic temperature of 43 0 C for 60 minutes. During 15/79 treatments, patients experienced pain; of which 11/15 lead to poor heating. Only one treatment of the twelve poor treatments was secondary to technical difficulties. Complete local control was accomplished in seven patients, a partial response in four patients. The results of therapeutic heating and its relationship to the site of treatment and local control are presented, along with phantom studies of Ultrasound microwave hyperthermia reemphasizing the feasibility of using Ultrasound Hyperthermia

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is ...

  9. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  10. MINERALIZACION OSEA EN PACIENTES CON INSUFICIENCIA HEPÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzo B, Santiago; Cordero, Jaime; Ceresa, Sergio; Buchel, Erwin; Gajardo L, Hector; Leiva B, Laura

    2004-01-01

    La insuficiencia hepática (IH) crónica altera la mineralización ósea (MO) de acuerdo a la etiología de la IH, debido a los problemas nutricionales agregados y por el tratamiento post transplante con inmunosupresores y glucocorticoides. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la mineralización ósea en niños con insuficiencia hepática secundaria a atresia de vías biliares y la dinámica ósea. La mineralización ósea se determinó en columna lumbar (L2-L4) mediante un densitómetro Lunar radiol...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to evaluate the: bladder seminal vesicles prostate Transrectal ultrasound, a special study usually done to provide detailed evaluation of the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ultrasound transducer into ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  13. HOSPITALIZACIONES EVITABLES POR INSUFICIENCIA CARDÍACA. VARIABLES RELACIONADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ruiz-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ingresos hospitalarios evitables por insuficiencia cardiaca (IC son un problema para los sistemas de salud, consumen recursos, generan morbilidades adicionales y alta mortalidad. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los factores de riesgo de las personas hospitalizadas por insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos: Se constituyó un grupo con médicos de atención primaria y hospitalaria. Se realizaron auditorías de las historias clínicas de 110 pacien - tes de la poblacion de la comarca del Aljarafe con mayores tasas de ingreso por insuficiencia cardiaca y estudio descriptivo y comparativo con T-Student y U-Mann Whitney para cuantitativas y λ 2 y Fisher para cualitativas. Resultados: Los pacientes que ingresaron por IC tenían 78,1 años (SD: 9,56 de media; 73 (66,4% fueron mujeres; un Índice Barthel de 45,0 de media; un 53,5% con grado III de la NYHA y 17 (15,5% institucionaliza - dos. El 70% presentaban 3-5 comorbilidades, hipertensión (87,3%, dislipe - mia (60,0% diabetes (57,3%, enfermedad renal crónica (56,4%, anemia (53,2% o fibrilación auricular (52,7%. Fallecieron al ingreso 23 (20,9% pacientes. Conclusiones: Los ingresos se dieron en personas mayores con múl - tiples enfermedades (hipertensión, diabetes, EPOC, enfermedad renal y escasa capacidad para actividades básicas de la vida diaria. El fallecimiento hospitalario se asoció a edad avanzada, ser mujer, menor uso de betabloqueantes y la no inclusión del paciente en el proceso asistencial.

  14. Insuficiencia renal aguda inducida por mordedura de serpiente Bothrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Aroca Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mujer de 58 años de edad, remitida a urgencias por presentar cuadro clínico de insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA secundaria a mordedura de serpiente (Bothrops Atrox. Ingresa hipotensa con elevación de azoados e hiperkalemia, ecografía renal dentro de parámetros normales. Se maneja terapia dialítica con lo cual presenta mejoría clínica. En este reporte se detallan aspectos del diagnóstico, manejo clínico y posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos que explican el daño renal.

  15. Study of wet incineration of organic matters under ultrasounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Gaurez, F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potentiality of power ultrasound for minimizing the volumes of solid waste and effluents generated by the spent nuclear fuel refining industry. In the first part, the advantages of power ultrasound for the decontamination of ion exchange resins (IER) is demonstrated: 1) sonication allows to remove 100 % of the 137 Cs and more than 20 % of the 60 Co initially present in the contaminated resins, 2) the decontamination is fast, 3) very simple experimental conditions are necessary (water, air or argon as saturating gas and weak electric intensity). The study of different chemical and sono-chemical parameters shows that decontamination seems to be related to the effects induced by cavitation: micro-streaming and solid erosion or disruption. In the second part, the selectivity of power ultrasound for the elimination of nitrogen (nitrate, nitro) aliphatic derivatives diluted in the PUREX process solvent is established. The nitrogen derivatives of butane or dodecane are removed under sonication while the solvent is scarcely damaged. The nitrogen derivatives of butane are quickly eliminated according to a thermal way in the cavitation bubble. A great number of kinetic data have been obtained and the influence of different parameters has been studied. The mechanisms are complex and initiated mainly by the homolytic cleavage of the O-N bond of butyl nitrate or nitrite and the C-N bond of nitrobutane. The elimination of nitrogen derivatives of dodecane is slower than the four-carbon component one. This preliminary kinetic study was difficult as the kinetic order was undetermined and a steady state concentration was reached after a short time of sonication. Unlike the four-carbon derivatives, the decomposition rate was not controlled by the boiling point of the long-chain derivatives. Nevertheless, good carbon balance (dodecane is the major product) has been obtained and led to potential mechanisms. (author) [fr

  16. Ultrasound evaluation of the abductor hallucis muscle: Reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Wayne A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Abductor hallucis muscle (AbdH plays an integral role during gait and is often affected in pathological foot conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within and between-session intra-tester reliability using diagnostic ultrasound of the dorso-plantar thickness, medio-lateral width and cross-sectional area, of the AbdH in asymptomatic adults. Methods The AbdH muscles of thirty asymptomatic subjects were imaged and then measured using a Philips HD11 Ultrasound machine. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to calculate both within and between session intra-tester reliability. Results The within-session reliability results demonstrated for dorso-plantar thickness an ICC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.99–0.99; medio-lateral width an ICC: of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92–0.97 and cross-sectional area an ICC of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.98–0.99. Between-session reliability results demonstrated for dorso-plantar thickness an ICC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.98; medio-lateral width an ICC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96 and for cross-sectional area an ICC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.88. Conclusion Diagnostic ultrasound has the potential to be a reliable tool for evaluating the AbdH muscle in asymptomatic subjects. Subsequent studies may be conducted to provide a better understanding of the AbdH function in foot and ankle pathologies.

  17. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  18. [Diagnosis. Radiological study. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Because of its low cost, availability in primary care and ease of interpretation, simple X-ray should be the first-line imaging technique used by family physicians for the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, this technique should only be used if there are sound indications and if the results will influence decision-making. Despite the increase of indications in patients with rheumatological disease, the role of ultrasound in patients with osteoarthritis continues to be limited. Computed tomography (CT) is of some -although limited- use in osteoarthritis, especially in the study of complex joints (such as the sacroiliac joint and facet joints). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has represented a major advance in the evaluation of joint cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with osteoarthritis but, because of its high cost and diagnostic-prognostic yield, this technique should only be used in highly selected patients. The indications for ultrasound, CT and MRI in patients with osteoarthritis continue to be limited in primary care and often coincide with situations in which the patient may require hospital referral. Patient safety should be bourne in mind. Patients should be protected from excessive ionizing radiation due to unnecessary repeat X-rays or inadequate views or to requests for tests such as CT, when not indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound-mediated microbubble enhancement of radiation therapy studied using three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J J; El Kaffas, Ahmed; Lai, Priscilla; Al Mahrouki, Azza; Lee, Justin; Iradji, Sara; Tran, William Tyler; Giles, Anoja; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Tumor responses to high-dose (>8 Gy) radiation therapy are tightly connected to endothelial cell death. In the study described here, we investigated whether ultrasound-activated microbubbles can locally enhance tumor response to radiation treatments of 2 and 8 Gy by mechanically perturbing the endothelial lining of tumors. We evaluated vascular changes resulting from combined microbubble and radiation treatments using high-frequency 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in a breast cancer xenograft model. We compared treatment effects and monitored vasculature damage 3 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after treatment delivery. Mice treated with 2 Gy radiation and ultrasound-activated microbubbles exhibited a decrease in vascular index to 48 ± 10% at 24 hours, whereas vascular indices of mice treated with 2 Gy radiation alone or microbubbles alone were relatively unchanged at 95 ± 14% and 78 ± 14%, respectively. These results suggest that ultrasound-activated microbubbles enhance the effects of 2 Gy radiation through a synergistic mechanism, resulting in alterations of tumor blood flow. This novel therapy may potentiate lower radiation doses to preferentially target endothelial cells, thus reducing effects on neighboring normal tissue and increasing the efficacy of cancer treatments. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  1. MULTISCAN--a Scandinavian multicenter second trimester obstetric ultrasound and serum screening study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F S; Valentin, L; Salvesen, K A

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the detection rates of second trimester ultrasound screening for neural tube defects (NTD), abdominal wall defects (AWD) and Down's syndrome (DS) in low risk populations at tertiary centers, and to compare the ultrasound screening detection rates with those that were obtainable by b...

  2. Digital breast tomosynthesis versus mammography and breast ultrasound: a multireader performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, Fabienne; Malhaire, Caroline; Tardivon, Anne; Dromain, Clarisse; Balleyguier, Corinne S.; Breucq, Catherine; Steyaert, Luc; Baldan, Enrica; Drevon, Harir

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of single-view breast tomosynthesis (BT) with that of dual-view mammography (MX); to assess the benefit of adding the craniocaudal (CC) mammographic view to BT, and of adding BT to MX plus breast ultrasound, considered to be the reference work-up. One hundred and fifty-five consenting patients with unresolved mammographic and/or ultrasound findings or breast symptoms underwent conventional work-up plus mediolateral oblique-view BT of the affected breast. The final study set in 130 patients resulted in 55 malignant and 76 benign and normal cases. Seven breast radiologists rated the cases through five sequential techniques using a BIRADS-based scale: MX, MX + ultrasound, MX + ultrasound + BT, BT, BT + MX(CC). Multireader, multicase receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and performance of the techniques was assessed from the areas under ROC curves. The performance of BT and of BT + MX(CC) was tested versus MX; the performance of MX + ultrasound + BT tested versus MX + ultrasound. Tomosynthesis was found to be non-inferior to mammography. BT + MX(CC) did not appear to be superior to MX, and MX + ultrasound + BT not superior to MX + ultrasound. Overall, none of the five techniques tested outperformed the others. Further clinical studies are needed to clarify the role of BT as a substitute for traditional work-up in the diagnostic environment. (orig.)

  3. Interventional ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSonnenberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters and several case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: The Interplay of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in the Planning and Execution of Interventional Procedures: Ulltrasound Guided Biopsy; Interventioal Genitourinary Sonography; Diagnosis and Treatment of Pericardial Effusion Using Ultrasonic Guidance; and New Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures--Cholecystostomy, Pancreatography, Gastrostomy

  4. Ultrasound stethoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis we repmi the many evaluation studies with the hand-held ultrasound device in the assessment of different cardiac pathologies and in different clinical settings. The reason for using the tetm "ultrasound stethoscopy" is that these devices are augmenting our

  5. Ultrasound cervical length in predicting preterm birth: Prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health problem. It is associated with a 15–20 per cent mortality rate and remains responsible for 75 per cent of perinatal deaths in foetuses without anomalies. Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of cervical length measured in the first trimester (11–14 Weeks of amenorrhea “WA” and the second trimester (20–24 Weeks of amenorrhea” WA” in an asymptomatic population of singleton pregnancies to assess the risk of spontaneous preterm birth compared to the digital assessment. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study involving 117 asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies between January and December 2015. Results In our study, the clinical examination had a low positive predictive value and a low sensibility for screening women at risk of preterm delivery. Cervical length less than 35mm between 12–14WA and 30mm between 22–24WA predicts the occurrence of preterm birth with a high sensitivity (Se, and specificity (Sp. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound screening of preterm delivery is now highly recommended.

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and ...

  9. Comparative study of ultrasound imaging, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in gynecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hisaaki; Hoshihara, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Mitsunao; Suda, Yoshio; Takenaka, Eiichi; Sasa, Hidenori.

    1989-01-01

    We studied 18 patients who were operated at the National Defense Medical College Hospital and confirmed by pathological diagnosis. We compared ultrasound imaging, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the patients. MRI was useful to diagnose enlargement of the uterine cavity and a small amount of ascites and to understand orientation of the pelvic organs. Ultrasound imaging is the most useful examination to diagnose gynecological diseases. But when it is difficult to diagnose by ultrasound imaging alone, we should employ either CT or MRI, or preferably both. (author)

  10. Comparación de cambios clínicos y hemodinámicos en pacientes con insuficiencia venosa mixta según tipo de manejo.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Diaz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Existen varias causas de la insuficiencia venosa profunda, la insuficiencia venosa superficial es una de ellas; por tal motivo, una intervención activa de la insuficiencia superficial ya sea cirugía convencional, esclerosis o radiofrecuencia mejora el reflujo del sistema venoso profundo. En nuestro medio no se acostumbra a intervenir los pacientes con insuficiencia venosa mixta bajo la creencia de exacerbar la enfermedad o generar complicaciones. Se pretende documentar los cambios clínicos y ...

  11. Knee ultrasound from research to real practice: a systematic literature review of adult knee ultrasound assessment feasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltea, Alexandra; Berghea, Florian; Gudu, Tania; Ionescu, Ruxandra

    2016-12-05

    To identify and analyse existing data regarding knee ultrasound (US) feasibility in clinical practice. Material and methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the terms: ("knee") AND ("ultrasound" OR "ultrasonography") AND ("feasibility" OR "pilot" OR "proof of concept"). Feasibility studies regarding knee US or US aided maneuver involving knee joint, published during 2005-2015, were selected and evaluated against a complex framework constructed around mandatory key areas for feasibility studies: acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, adaptation, integration and expansion. One hundred and fifty-nine publications were identified, of which 9 were included in the final analysis: 6 dealt with the development and implementation of novel US scores, while the rest focused on implementing MSUS in clinical practice, evaluating the usefulness of articular cartilage US assessment and the feasibility of sonography for intra-articular knee injections, respectively. Six studies quantified feasibility as time spent for the evaluation, with only two addressing areassuch as acceptability, implementation and practicality, although none of these systematically assessed all feasibility domains. Knee US feasibility is still poorly addressed; the time required for US assessment is the main area addressed. This information gap should be properly addressed in future works, in order to ensure the right place for this technique.

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  13. Reparación de la insuficiencia mitral funcional mediante abordaje del aparato subvalvular. Resultados a medio plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Pedraz-Prieto

    2017-07-01

    Conclusiones: El abordaje del aparato subvalvular en la reparación de la insuficiencia mitral funcional se presenta como una alternativa válida en el tratamiento de este tipo de insuficiencia, ofreciendo buenos resultados en lo que a evolución postoperatoria y tasa de recidiva a medio plazo se refiere.

  14. Anatomic factors affecting the use of ultrasound to predict vocal fold motion: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maheer M; Huang, Benjamin; Goins, Allie; Hackman, Trevor G

    2018-04-13

    Ultrasonography is a well-established modality for visualization of head and neck anatomy. Using ultrasound to detect vocal fold mobility has been described before, but no study has evaluated factors affecting the exam reliability. The aim of the study is to determine anatomic factors influencing the reliability of ultrasound to detect vocal fold motion. Methods and materials Patients underwent ultrasound evaluation and flexible laryngoscopy to assess vocal fold motion from August 2015 to March 2016. Length, accuracy, and clarity of ultrasound examination were assessed, compared to flexible laryngoscopy. For patients with prior neck CT scan imaging, laryngeal anatomy was independently assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist. A total of 23 patients, 21 with bilateral vocal fold motion and two with unilateral paralysis, were enrolled. Vocal folds were visible in 19 patients (82%). Eight patients (42%) had good/excellent view and 11 patients (58%) had fair/difficult view. The ultrasound correctly detected absent movement of the vocal fold in the two patients with unilateral paralysis. A total of 19 patients had CT scans, and a linear correlation (r 2  = 0.65) was noted between the anterior thyroid cartilage angle measured on CT and the grade of view on ultrasound. Ultrasound was able to detect vocal fold motion in 82% of randomly screened patients. Ease of detection of vocal fold motion correlated with the anterior thyroid angle. Further studies are warranted to investigate the reproducibility of our results and how this might impact use of ultrasound for detection of vocal fold motion in the operative setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Saeed Nadhim

    2014-01-01

    To study the usefulness of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever and to determine the common ultrasound findings early in the course of the disease. Abdominal ultrasound examination was performed within the first week of initiation of symptoms in 350 cases with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever. Subsequent ultrasound follow-up examination was done 15 days later (beginning of the third week). All the patients proved to have positive Widal test and Sallmonella culture. The study was performed in Erbil-Iraq from the period January 1993 to October 2010. The following ultrasound findings were reported: hepatomegaly (31.4%), prominent intrahepatic bile ducts (64.85%), splenomegaly (100%), mesenteric lymphadenopathy (42.85%), bowel wall thickening (35.71%), acalculous cholecystitis (16.28%), perforations (1.14%), and ascites in (3.4%). The current study showed that the findings are typical enough to justify initiation of treatment for typhoid fever when serology is equivocal and culture is negative, and is fairly safe to say that normal ultrasound examination early in the course of febrile illness rules out typhoid fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries in planes that ... a special study usually done to provide detailed evaluation of the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ...

  17. Antenatal hydronephrosis: Negative predictive value of normal postnatal ultrasound - a 5-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorthy, I.; Joshi, N.; Cook, J.V. E-mail: jcook@epsom-sthelier.nhs.uk; Warren, M

    2003-12-01

    AIM: To determine whether normal postnatal ultrasound, as part of a strict screening protocol for the detection and follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis, effectively excludes the majority of babies with congenital urinary tract abnormalities that would otherwise present with a urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all babies who had postnatal follow-up of antenatally detected hydronephrosis over a 5-year period at our institution, a district general Trust with a specialist paediatric unit. We then studied all babies presenting with urinary tract infection before their first birthday to our institution over the same period. By cross-referencing these two study groups we were able to determine which babies developed a urinary tract infection having been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five babies had postnatal follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis. Of these, 284 were investigated with ultrasound alone. In the same 5-year period, 230 babies presented with urinary tract infection before their first birthday. Only three of these babies had been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. The negative predictive value of a normal postnatal ultrasound was therefore 98.9% (281/284) for babies who subsequently presented with a urinary tract infection before their first birthday. CONCLUSION: Careful antenatal and postnatal ultrasound with strict protocols is effective in detecting congenital renal tract abnormalities. Infants discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound are highly unlikely to still have an undetected urinary tract abnormality. We suggest that all babies with antenatal hydronephrosis are started on prophylactic antibiotics at birth, pending further investigation. All babies without features of severe obstruction antenatally should have their postnatal ultrasound delayed for a month. We recommend selective use of micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG

  18. Antenatal hydronephrosis: Negative predictive value of normal postnatal ultrasound - a 5-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, I.; Joshi, N.; Cook, J.V.; Warren, M.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether normal postnatal ultrasound, as part of a strict screening protocol for the detection and follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis, effectively excludes the majority of babies with congenital urinary tract abnormalities that would otherwise present with a urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all babies who had postnatal follow-up of antenatally detected hydronephrosis over a 5-year period at our institution, a district general Trust with a specialist paediatric unit. We then studied all babies presenting with urinary tract infection before their first birthday to our institution over the same period. By cross-referencing these two study groups we were able to determine which babies developed a urinary tract infection having been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five babies had postnatal follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis. Of these, 284 were investigated with ultrasound alone. In the same 5-year period, 230 babies presented with urinary tract infection before their first birthday. Only three of these babies had been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. The negative predictive value of a normal postnatal ultrasound was therefore 98.9% (281/284) for babies who subsequently presented with a urinary tract infection before their first birthday. CONCLUSION: Careful antenatal and postnatal ultrasound with strict protocols is effective in detecting congenital renal tract abnormalities. Infants discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound are highly unlikely to still have an undetected urinary tract abnormality. We suggest that all babies with antenatal hydronephrosis are started on prophylactic antibiotics at birth, pending further investigation. All babies without features of severe obstruction antenatally should have their postnatal ultrasound delayed for a month. We recommend selective use of micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG

  19. [Detection of small for gestational age fetuses during third trimester ultrasound. A monocentric observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronnet, V; Kayem, G; Mandelbrot, L; Sibiude, J

    2016-09-01

    Fetus small for gestational age (SGA) screening rate is evaluated around 21,7 % in France. Recommendations were developed to improve the efficiency of ultrasound conducted in the third trimester (T3), because neonatal consequences can be significant. This study aims to evaluate screening of SGA during T3 ultrasound and to describe causes for failure and differences with the recommendations of CNGOF. All children born between 2011 and 2012 with a birth weight below the 3rd percentile were included in this observational, retrospective, monocentric study. We noted that the diagnosis of SGA was placed on file. Then, as recommended by the CNGOF, we calculated estimated fetal weight (EFW) with Hadlock 3 and Hadlock 4, and the corresponding percentiles, using the biometrics from the ultrasound report. We thus could evaluate a new screening rate with SGA fetus identified through this technique. A total of 142 patients were included. By calculating correctly all EFW and checking abdominal circumference percentiles, the screening rate of SGA fetuses with T3 ultrasound increased from 40 % to 50 % and the overall screening rate (clinical and ultrasound) from 54 % to 66 %. By following the recommendations we found a real improvement in fetal SGA screening rates to T3 ultrasound with a potential benefit for their care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic study on apoptosis induction into cancer cells U-937 and EL-4 by ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shinichi; Udagawa, Yoshiko; Oku, Yumiko; Fujii, Takuma; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Norimichi

    2006-12-22

    Recently, the low invasive cancer treatments with small aftereffects have been considered. We are studying on the suppression methods of cancer cell proliferation with ultrasound. Cancer cells of mouse T lymphoma (EL-4) have been used in our study. The human histitocytic lymphoma cells (U-937) was used in this time. The cancer cells were cultured in a culture medium of RPMI1640. The standing wave acoustic field was formed in a water tank of our ultrasound exposure system by a vibrating plate driven with a Langevine type transducer. The U-937 and EL-4 were exposed to ultrasound in the acoustic field with spatial average acoustic intensity of 350 mW/cm(2) at 150 kHz. The viable rate of EL-4 decreased with the lapse of culture time after ultrasound exposure. U-937 did not show the remarkable decrease tendency. The proliferation of U-937 which exposed to ultrasound with 700 mW/cm(2) was suppressed. It can be thought that apoptosis was induced in the cancer cells in this condition. We observed the morphological change on the U-937 exposed to ultrasound with this condition. The morphological changes by apoptosis like the shrink of cells, formation of apoptotic bodies etc. can be observed with an optical microscope and a phase contrast microscope.

  1. Pulmonary ultrasound elastography: a feasibility study with phantoms and ex-vivo tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Xie, Hua; Paluch, Kamila; Stanton, Douglas; Ramachandran, Bharat

    2013-03-01

    Elastography has become widely used for minimally invasive diagnosis in many tumors as seen with breast, liver and prostate. Among different modalities, ultrasound-based elastography stands out due to its advantages including being safe, real-time, and relatively low-cost. While lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among both men and women, the use of ultrasound elastography for lung cancer diagnosis has hardly been investigated due to the limitations of ultrasound in air. In this work, we investigate the use of static-compression based endobronchial ultrasound elastography by a 3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer for lung cancer diagnosis. A water-filled balloon was designed to 1) improve the visualization of endobronchial ultrasound and 2) to induce compression via pumping motion inside the trachea and bronchiole. In a phantom study, we have successfully generated strain images indicating the stiffness difference between the gelatin background and agar inclusion. A similar strain ratio was confirmed with Philips ultrasound strain-based elastography product. For ex-vivo porcine lung study, different tissue ablation methods including chemical injection, Radio Frequency (RF) ablation, and direct heating were implemented to achieve tumor-mimicking tissue. Stiff ablated lung tissues were obtained and detected with our proposed method. These results suggest the feasibility of pulmonary elastography to differentiate stiff tumor tissue from normal tissue.

  2. Choroid metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Color doppler ultrasound study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganado, T.; Torre, S. de la; Contreras, E.; Hernandez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most common causes of intraocular metastases are breast and lung cancers, although many other neoplasms can metastasize to the eye. Most of the metastases are located in the posterior pole and the choroid is more often involved than the retina. We present a case of a choroidal metastasis from a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, associated with a massive subretinal hemorrhage. Findings with color Doppler ultrasound are emphasized. (Author) 9 refs

  3. Entrenamiento físico en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fletcher, RN, MN, FAAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardíaca constituye una prioridad esencial en el ámbito de la salud, tanto en Norteamérica como en Sud-américa, donde incluso se llega a las hospitalizaciones cuando el diagnóstico principal presenta condiciones graves. Hay una relación directamente proporcional entre prevalencia de insuficiencia cardíaca y edad. Sin embargo, la mortalidad por insuficiencia cardíaca está en declinación debido a los avances médicos, administración de medicamentos, e intervenciones no farmacológicas. Una de estas intervenciones es, el entrenamiento físico o el ejercicio, los cuales están siendo ampliamente aceptados por la comunidad médica como una opción viable en el manejo médico de pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca permanente. Tanto los ejercicios aeróbicos como de fuerza han demostrado ser eficaces en este tipo de pacientes. Actualmente la evidencia no sólo respalda el ejercicio para mejorar o mantener la función física en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca, sino también la calidad de vida en general. Muchos estudios han demostrado que el ejercicio en la población mejora el carácter de las personas y el bienestar general reconocido por ellas mismas. Aunque los beneficios al miocardio producidos por el ejercicio pueden ser mínimos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca, los beneficios periféricos que dan como resultado una mejor capacidad física y la conservación de la independencia son muy significativos. Basados en la evidencia científica existente en el ámbito del ejercicio y la insuficiencia cardíaca, los médicos que trabajan con esta población tienen la información necesaria para recomendar prescripciones de ejercicios. Actualmente, diversas declaraciones de puntos de vista médicos confirman el ejercicio como una modalidad segura y efectiva para pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca.

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  5. ultrasound studies of superfluid 3He in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vegvar, P.G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasound propagation in superfluid helium-three in magnetic fields of up to 94 kG are reported. The experiments were performed on an adiabatic nuclear demagnetization cryostat using a sensitive radio frequency spectrometer. In addition to observing the expected collective mode splittings, an anomaly near the A-two transition was intensively investigated. The effect is interpreted in terms of a first order transformation in the superfluid I-texture driven by the second order bulk phase transition at the point. Numerical computations give fair agreement with the experimental data

  6. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy in cervical spine: sonoanatomic study of a new technique in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, S.-H.; Derby, R.; Yang, S.N.; Lee, J.E.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop an ultrasound-guided technique for radiofrequency (RF) cervical medial branch neurotomy and to validate the accuracy of this new method. Materials and methods: Five non-embalmed, fresh cadavers were used; three male and two female cadavers with a median age at death of 67.2 years (range 50-84 years). This study was conducted in two parts. First, two of the cadavers were used to define the sonographic target point for RF cervical medial branch neurotomy using high-resolution ultrasound (12 to 5 MHz). The needles were guided to five consecutive cervical medial branches in the cadavers under ultrasound guidance. Subsequently, the position of the ultrasound-guided needle was verified using C-arm fluoroscopy. Ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy was performed to the C5 medial branches in all five cadavers. In the three cadavers not used in the first part of the study, ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy without C-arm fluoroscopic confirmation was performed to the C3-C7 medial branches. The accuracy of neurotomy was assessed by pathological examination of the cervical medial branches obtained through cadaver dissection. Results: In all five cadavers, the sonographic target point was identified in all C3-C7 segments with the 12 to 5 MHz linear transducer. In all 20 needle placements for the first and second cadavers, C-arm fluoroscopy validated proper needle tip positions. In all five cadavers, successful neurotomy was pathologically confirmed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch neurotomy was successfully performed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches in five cadavers. However, before eliminating fluoroscopic validation of final needle tip positioning, the technique should be validated in symptomatic patients

  7. A 3D ultrasound study of sinus tract formation in hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of hidradenitis suppurativa allows the study of both the lesion morphology and evolution. Hidradenitis lesions of different stages were studied using 3D ultrasound in a cross sectional pilot study. A total of 25 HS patients (18 female/ 7 male, aged 18-46 year-old) and 10 healthy controls (5...... female/5 male, aged 21-49 year-old) were studied. All patients were referred by dermatologists. All examinations were performed on the right axilla and compared with both controls and the skin outside the lesional areas. 3D ultrasound images demonstrated enlargement of the deepest portion of the hair...

  8. Study of retrobulbar hemodynamics in diabetes via color doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the changes of retrobulbar hemodynamics in diabetes via color doppler ultrasound. METHODS: Totally 80 patients(160 eyeswith eye diseases in type 2 diabetes from June 2010 to May 2013 in our hospital were enrolled as research group. By fundus photography and direct ophthalmoscopy, patients were assigned to diabetes without retinopathy group(DNR subgroup, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy group(NPDR subgroupand proliferative diabetic retinopathy group(PDR subgroup. Of 60 healthy patients(120 eyesover the same period were chosen as control group. The doppler parameters of central retinal artery(CRA, posterior ciliary artery(PCAand ophthalmic artery(OAwere measured.RESULTS: There were significant differences on circulatory parameters of CRA, PCA and OA between both groups(PPPCONCLUSION: The monitoring of retinal blood flow and analysis of blood spectrum morphology via color doppler ultrasound can effectively evaluate the degree of diabetic retinopathy lesions, especially before DR vascular disease. Early detection can reveal the hemodynamic change pattern of DR, facilitating the prevention of diabetic eye complications and improvement of the quality of life.

  9. Ultrasound study of ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguesa, C.; Muro, D.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the role of ultrasound in the study of acute ovarian pain in pre adolescent and adolescent girls. B-mode ultrasound was employed to study 40 ovarian lesions in 37 girls between the age of 6 and 17 years complaining of acute pelvic pain of ovarian origin. Thirteen of the lesions were also assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. We found 25 cases of hemorrhagic cysts, 8 of simple cyst and 7 of ovarian torsion. Surgical and pathological correlation was established in 17 cases (7 cases hemorrhagic cyst, 3 of simple cysts and 7 of ovarian torsion). The remaining lesions are being followed by clinical and ultrasonographic monitoring. Simple and hemorrhagic cysts presenting the so called hematocrit effect are easily diagnosed by B-mode ultrasound. The ultrasonographic features of torsion and certain hemorrhagic cysts are similar on occasion, and surgery and histologic assessment are necessary for the definitive diagnosis. Doppler ultrasound provides no additional information to aid in the diagnosis of these lesions. (Author) 28 refs

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  14. Monitoring Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Using Ultrasound Morpho-Textural Muscle Biomarkers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Payá, Jacinto J; Ríos-Díaz, José; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vázquez-Costa, Juan F; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The need is increasing for progression biomarkers that allow the loss of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to be monitored in clinical trials. In this prospective longitudinal study, muscle thickness, echointensity, echovariation and gray level co-occurrence matrix textural features are examined as possible progression ultrasound biomarkers in ALS patients during a 5-mo follow-up period. We subjected 13 patients to 3 measurements for 20 wk. They showed a significant loss of muscle, an evident tendency to loss of thickness and increased echointensity and echovariation. In regard to textural parameters, muscle heterogeneity tended to increase as a result of the neoformation of non-contractile tissue through denervation. Considering some limitations of the study, the quantitative muscle ultrasound biomarkers evaluated showed a promising ability to monitor patients affected by ALS. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound-guided block of the suprascapular nerve - a volunteer study of a new proximal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C; Steen-Hansen, C; Lund, J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The standard approach for the suprascapular nerve block is deep in the supraspinous fossa. However, with this approach, the suprascapular nerve is difficult to visualize by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe a new method to visualize and selectively block the suprascapu......BACKGROUND: The standard approach for the suprascapular nerve block is deep in the supraspinous fossa. However, with this approach, the suprascapular nerve is difficult to visualize by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe a new method to visualize and selectively block...... the suprascapular nerve in a more superficial and proximal location. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers were included. We located the brachial plexus in transverse section with ultrasound, and by longitudinal slide, we identified the departure of the suprascapular nerve from the superior trunk. The suprascapular...

  16. Estrategias en la prevención de la insuficiencia cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukasovig R. José Luis, MD, FACC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 1 a 2% de la población adulta tiene insuficiencia cardíaca, llegando a valores sobre el 10% en mayores de 70 años de edad. Una adecuada estrategia en la prevención de la Insuficiencia Cardíaca implica tener un manejo precoz en aquellas etiologías que la producen tales como: hipertensión arterial, enfermedad coronaria, valvulopatías y miocardiopatías. La hipertensión arterial es la primera causa de insuficiencia cardíaca en Chile y se expresa principalmente a través de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda y disfunción diastólica. La enfermedad coronaria genera insuficiencia cardíaca por medio de infarto al miocardio y la isquemia miocárdica sostenida (tejido hibernado, para evitar el compromiso ventricular deben controlarse rigurosamente los factores de riesgo de enfermedad coronaria. En caso de presentarse una obstrucción coronaria aguda se debe reestablecer el flujo coronario a la brevedad para disminuir la necrosis de miocitos. Actualmente las valvulopatías están siendo intervenidas cada vez más precozmente con el fin de evitar la remodelación ventricular patológica irreversible. En relación a las miocardiopatías se debe enfatizar en la necesidad de una detección precoz de la toxicidad por drogas antineoplásicas (ej antraciclinas, del mismo modo debemos preocuparnos de factores emergentes que conducen a insuficiencia cardíaca, ejemplo obesidad.

  17. Impact of a 2-Day Critical Care Ultrasound Course during Fellowship Training: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vi Am Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Despite the increasing utilization of point-of-care critical care ultrasonography (CCUS, standards establishing competency for its use are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day CCUS course implementation on ultrasound-naïve critical care medicine (CCM fellows. Methods. Prospective evaluation of the impact of a two-day CCUS course on eight CCM fellows’ attitudes, proficiency, and use of CCUS. Ultrasound competency on multiple organ systems was assessed including abdominal, pulmonary, vascular, and cardiac systems. Subjects served as self-controls and were assessed just prior to, within 1 week after, and 3 months after the course. Results. There was a significant improvement in CCM fellows’ written test scores, image acquisition ability, and pathologic image interpretation 1 week after the course and it was retained 3 months after the course. Fellows also had self-reported increased confidence and usage of CCUS applications after the course. Conclusions. Implementation of a 2-day critical care ultrasound course covering general CCUS and basic critical care echocardiography using a combination of didactics, live models, and ultrasound simulators is effective in improving critical care fellows’ proficiency and confidence with ultrasound use in both the short- and long-term settings.

  18. Real-time ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia: a prospective observational study of a new approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, P H

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the subarachnoid space has traditionally been achieved by either a blind landmark-guided approach or using prepuncture ultrasound assistance. To assess the feasibility of performing spinal anaesthesia under real-time ultrasound guidance in routine clinical practice we conducted a single center prospective observational study among patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery. A spinal needle was inserted unassisted within the ultrasound transducer imaging plane using a paramedian approach (i.e., the operator held the transducer in one hand and the spinal needle in the other). The primary outcome measure was the success rate of CSF acquisition under real-time ultrasound guidance with CSF being located in 97 out of 100 consecutive patients within median three needle passes (IQR 1-6). CSF was not acquired in three patients. Subsequent attempts combining landmark palpation and pre-puncture ultrasound scanning resulted in successful spinal anaesthesia in two of these patients with the third patient requiring general anaesthesia. Median time from spinal needle insertion until intrathecal injection completion was 1.2 minutes (IQR 0.83-4.1) demonstrating the feasibility of this technique in routine clinical practice.

  19. Acute pyelonephritis in pediatric age: comparative study between power Doppler ultrasound scan and DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, M. D.; Sanguesa, C.; Otero, M. C.; Piqueras, A. I.; Lloret, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of power Doppler (PD) Ultrasound Scan in the study of acute pyelonephritis (APN). To compare ultrasound scan results with those obtained with renal gammagraphy (DMSA). To relate the findings to the clinical criteria and to determine the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the serial micturition cystography (SMC). Prospective study of 92 patients (ages between 1 month and 10 years) with suspected clinical PNA. All children were initially subjected to PD ultrasound scan and DMSA. Those under 3 years old were also subjected to SMC for the study of VUR. PNA in the PD ultrasound scan was manifested by decrease in vascularisation and in the DMSA by decrease in caption in the affected zones. 87 renal units (RU) with PNA foci were detected. Conformity between the PD ultrasound scan and DMSA was 157 RU (92%): 52 positives, 22 negatives with PNA and 83 normal RU. The sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 65.5% and 69.0%. 51 SMC were performed, with VUR being detected in 18 (13 bilateral and 5 unilateral), in which the sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 65.5% and 69.0%. 51 SMC were performed, with VUR being detected in 18 (13 bilateral and 5 unilateral), in which the sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 80% and 85%, respectively. Mode B ultrasound scan and PD can replace DMSA in the initial study of PPNA. It is non-invasive, simple, economical and just as reliable as DMSA in expert hands. it can also postpone by up to 6 months the need to perform DMSA for detection of permanent renal damage. (Author) 22 refs

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may produce minimal discomfort. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Most ultrasound examinations ...

  3. Babinet's principle in the Fresnel regime studied using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitachi, Akira; Takata, Momo

    2010-07-01

    The diffraction of ultrasound by a circular disk and an aperture of the same size has been investigated as a demonstration of Babinet's principle in the Fresnel regime. The amplitude and the phase of the diffracted ultrasonic waves are measured and a graphical treatment of the results is performed by drawing vectors in the complex plane. The results verify Babinet's principle. It is also found that the incident wave is π /2 behind the phase of the wave passing through on the central axis of a circular aperture. Because both waves travel the same path and the same distance, they should be in phase. This paradox has previously been regarded as a defect of Fresnel's theory.

  4. Can ultrasound abdomen help in early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus? an observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Aamir, M.O.; Imdad, Z.U.H.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease. Similarly, ultrasound findings of fatty change and renal crystals are commonly seen on ultrasound. In the personal observation of the main author over the past so many years it was noticed that Diabetes Mellitus, Fatty liver and renal crystals all sit well together. This study tries to establish a relationship between diabetes mellitus renal echogenic foci and fatty liver. This study is first of its kind, as nobody has ever before investigated an association between the renal echogenic foci and fatty liver in relation to diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at Radiology Department Combined Military Hospital, Kohat From 2nd June 2013 to 30th May 2014. Three hundred patients were collected on the basis of having fatty liver and renal echogenic foci on ultrasound and three hundred more patients were collected who had no fatty liver or renal echogenic foci on ultrasound. Their labs were done for diabetes mellitus. Results: The patients having renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver had 83% positive rate of being diabetics, while patients with no fatty liver and no echogenic foci on ultrasonography had only 0.6% Positive rate of being diabetics. Conclusion: Our results provided the first demonstration of an association between renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver with the diabetes mellitus. Thus ultrasound examination of abdomen can be helpful in its early diagnosis if we make a protocol of doing fasting and random blood sugars in all those patients who have positive renal echogenic foci and fatty liver on their ultrasound examination. (author)

  5. Diagnostic ultrasound imaging for lateral epicondylalgia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heales, Luke James; Broadhurst, Nathan; Mellor, Rebecca; Hodges, Paul William; Vicenzino, Bill

    2014-11-01

    Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is clinically diagnosed as pain over the lateral elbow that is provoked by gripping. Usually, LE responds well to conservative intervention; however, those who fail such treatment require further evaluation, including musculoskeletal ultrasound. Previous studies of musculoskeletal ultrasound have methodological flaws, such as lack of assessor blinding and failure to control for participant age, sex, and arm dominance. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic use of blinded ultrasound imaging in people with clinically diagnosed LE compared with that in a control group matched for age, sex, and arm dominance. Participants (30 with LE and 30 controls) underwent clinical examination as the criterion standard test. Unilateral LE was defined as pain over the lateral epicondyle, which was provoked by palpation, resisted wrist and finger extension, and gripping. Controls without symptoms were matched for age, sex, and arm dominance. Ultrasound investigations were performed by two sonographers using a standardized protocol. Grayscale images were assessed for signs of tendon pathology and rated on a four-point ordinal scale. Power Doppler was used to assess neovascularity and rated on a five-point ordinal scale. The combination of grayscale and power Doppler imaging revealed an overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 47%. The positive and negative likelihood ratios for combined grayscale and power Doppler imaging were 1.69 and 0.21, respectively. Although ultrasound imaging helps confirm the absence of LE, when findings are negative for tendinopathic changes, the high prevalence of tendinopathic changes in pain-free controls challenges the specificity of the measure. The validity of ultrasound imaging to confirm tendon pathology in clinically diagnosed LE requires further study with strong methodology.

  6. Study on a New Ultraviolet Sterilizer to the Surface Disinfection of the Ultrasound Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui Qiu; Chen, Yu Hao; Yi, Liang; Yin, Jin; Gao, Qiong; Song, Jiang Nan; Li, Shi Kang; Chen, Pei Hou; Guo, Gui Ping

    2018-02-01

    We studied the disinfection effect of a new ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer and its utilization on ultrasound probe surfaces. Carrier quantitative germicidal tests, simulated on-the-spot trials, and organic substance influence tests were used to carry out experimental observation. Artificially infected probes were disinfected using the sterilizer or a germicidal lamp for comparison. The total number and types of bacteria were determined and identified. Our results demonstrated the sterilizer had the best disinfection effect among three different disinfection methods in hospital. The sterilizer has been used in a hospital setting for 2 years with no notable damage to the ultrasound probe instrument. It has the advantages of fast disinfection, high disinfection effect, and good compatibility with the ultrasound instrument, worthy of being a promoted application in medical institutions. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound Mediated Microbubbles Destruction Augmented Sonolysis: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hai; Zhu, Qiong; Gao, Yunhua; Xia, Hongmei; Tan, Kaibin; He, Ying; Liu, Zheng; Xu, Yali

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction (UMMD) assisted sonolysis in both the in vitro and in vivo clots. Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) and lipid microbubbles (MBs) were used in whole blood clots and divided into the control, TUS group, and TUS + MB group. Thrombolytic rates and microscopy were performed. Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and angiography were performed to evaluate the recanalization rates and flow scores in femoral arterial thrombus (FAT) in rabbits. FAT were dyed with H&E. The average thrombolytic ratios of TUS + MB group were significantly higher than those of TUS group and the control group (both P cavitation via UMMD.

  8. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Yang, Oh Nam

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women

  9. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Mokpo Science University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women.

  10. The Agreement between Auscultation and Lung Ultrasound in Hemodialysis Patients: The LUST Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Claudia; Gargani, Luna; Sicari, Rosa; Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Ekart, Robert; Fliser, Danilo; Covic, Adrian; Siamopoulos, Kostas; Stavroulopoulos, Aristeidis; Massy, Ziad A; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Caiazza, Alberto; Bachelet, Thomas; Slotki, Itzchak; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Coudert-Krier, Marie-Jeanne; Rossignol, Patrick; Gueler, Faikah; Hannedouche, Thierry; Panichi, Vincenzo; Wiecek, Andrzej; Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Klinger, Marian; Hojs, Radovan; Seiler-Mussler, Sarah; Lizzi, Fabio; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Balafa, Olga; Shavit, Linda; Tripepi, Rocco; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Picano, Eugenio; London, Gérard Michel; Zoccali, Carmine

    2016-11-07

    Accumulation of fluid in the lung is the most concerning sequela of volume expansion in patients with ESRD. Lung auscultation is recommended to detect and monitor pulmonary congestion, but its reliability in ESRD is unknown. In a subproject of the ongoing Lung Water by Ultra-Sound Guided Treatment to Prevent Death and Cardiovascular Complications in High Risk ESRD Patients with Cardiomyopathy Trial, we compared a lung ultrasound-guided ultrafiltration prescription policy versus standard care in high-risk patients on hemodialysis. The reliability of peripheral edema was tested as well. This study was on the basis of 1106 pre- and postdialysis lung ultrasound studies (in 79 patients) simultaneous with standardized lung auscultation (crackles at the lung bases) and quantification of peripheral edema. Lung congestion by crackles, edema, or a combination thereof poorly reflected the severity of congestion as detected by ultrasound B lines in various analyses, including standard regression analysis weighting for repeated measures in individual patients (shared variance of 12% and 4% for crackles and edema, respectively) and κ-statistics (κ ranging from 0.00 to 0.16). In general, auscultation had very low discriminatory power for the diagnosis of mild (area under the receiver operating curve =0.61), moderate (area under the receiver operating curve =0.65), and severe (area under the receiver operating curve =0.68) lung congestion, and the same was true for peripheral edema (receiver operating curve =0.56 or lower) and the combination of the two physical signs. Lung crackles, either alone or combined with peripheral edema, very poorly reflect interstitial lung edema in patients with ESRD. These findings reinforce the rationale underlying the Lung Water by Ultra-Sound Guided Treatment to Prevent Death and Cardiovascular Complications in High Risk ESRD Patients with Cardiomyopathy Trial, a trial adopting ultrasound B lines as an instrument to guide interventions aimed at

  11. Performance of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gout in a Multi-Center Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogdie, Alexis; Taylor, William J; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional stu...

  12. An experimental system for the study of ultrasound exposure of isolated blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokarczyk, Anna; Rivens, Ian; van Bavel, E.; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; ter Haar, Gail

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system designed for the study of the effects of diagnostic or therapeutic ultrasound exposure on isolated blood vessels in the presence or absence of intraluminal contrast agent is described. The system comprised several components. A microscope was used to monitor vessel size (and

  13. Alfabetización en salud en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca atendidos en atención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Santesmases-Masana

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: La alfabetización en salud permite explicar la actitud de los pacientes hacia el régimen terapéutico que requiere la insuficiencia cardiaca. En los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca, los médicos y enfermeras de atención primaria han de tener en cuenta los factores que facilitan la comprensión de la información de salud.

  14. Acorrelation study between histological results and thyroid ultrasound findings. The TI-RADS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moncó Fernández, Carlos; Serrano-Moreno, Clara; Donnay-Candil, Sergio; Carrero-Alvaro, Juan

    2018-04-01

    There are several classifications based on thyroid ultrasound for selecting suspected malignant thyroid nodules. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) classification proposed by Horvath in 2009 includes 6 categories. To assess the sensitivity of the TI-RADS classification for diagnosing thyroid nodules. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy at our hospital (n=263) from September 2013 to December 2015. After thyroidectomy, histological results were correlated to the ultrasound findings reported. Of the 263 study patients, 75 (28.5%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer and 188 (71.5%) with benign disease. Correlation of histological results with preoperative ultrasound reports showed an initial sensitivity of 65%. After excluding 15 patients diagnosed with occult microcarcinoma, sensitivity increased to 81.6%. The ultrasound images from 11 false negatives cases were then reassessed by a radiologist who knew histological diagnosis and reclassified 10 of them as TI-RADS≥4. This procedure could have increased sensitivity up to 98.3%. Although the sensitivity initially found in our study using the TI-RADS scale was relatively low, the value markedly improved when patients with occult microcarcinoma were excluded. Thus, use of the TI-RADS scale would allow for an adequate selection of patients amenable to fine needle aspiration of the nodule. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of ultrasound, digital, and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavathu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate in vivo the efficacy of ultrasound, digital and conventional radiography in identifying periapical lesions. To compare the results of the above imaging modalities with histopathology, which is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 15 and 45 years with periapical lesions associated with maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth indicated for endodontic surgery or extraction were selected for the study. Pre-operatively, conventional, digital periapical radiography and ultrasonography were done and interpreted. Endodontic surgery or extraction was performed including curettage of apical tissue to enable histopathological investigation, which provided the gold standard diagnosis. All measurements and findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: In conventional and digital radiography, the periapical lesions were readily identified but observers were unable to differentiate granuloma from cyst using these modalities only. But ultrasonography was able to give the true nature of the periapical pathology. All the cases diagnosed by ultrasound were confirmed with histopathology, and maximal number of cases diagnosed by ultrasound correlated with the histopathological diagnosis. Conclusion: The present study confirms that ultrasound is a promising and reliable imaging technique for differentiating periapical lesions i.e., periapical cysts and granulomas. Based on the echo texture of their contents and the presence of vascularity using color Doppler, periapical cyst and granulomas can be readily identified. The present study is further applicable for the evaluation of periapical lesions of the posterior teeth and evaluation of other jaw lesions.

  16. Gallblader varices in children with portal cavernoma: duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Lopez, A.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of varices in the gallbladder wall, observed by duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound, in children with cavernoma of the portal vein. Nineteen patients with portal hypertension were studied prospectively by duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound: 12 of the patients had developed a cavernoma of the portal vein. The presence of peri vesicular varices was assessed in the group of patients with portal cavernoma. Duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound disclosed the presence of varices in gallbladder wall in nine of the 12 patients (75%). The varices appeared as anechoic and serpiginous areas, and Doppler ultrasound revealed slowed venous flow. However, the three patients in whom gallbldder varices were not detected presented collateral gastric ciculation and spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Gallbladder varices are common in children with portal vein cavernoma; they present hepatopetal flow. Their developments is not related to the size of the portal cavernoma, the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, or endoscopic obliteration of gastric and esophageal varices. The detection of gallbladder varices in patients with portal hypertension who are to undergo biliary surgery is highly important for the surgeon, helping to avoid perioperative complications. (Author) 15 refs

  17. Insuficiencia renal aguda con necrosis tubular aguda secundaria a picadura masiva de abejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Aroca - Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leñador de 46 años consulta al servicio de nefrología, de la Clínica Renal de la Costa en Barranquilla, con episodio de insuficiencia renal aguda 48 horas después de haber sufrido múltiples picaduras por abejas africanizadas. Durante su estancia hospitalaria presentó incremento de enzimas musculares (AST LDH, y de pruebas de función renal, motivo por el cual fue dializado en varias ocasiones. Con mejoría total, se decide egresar y manejar ambulatoriamente. Se concluye que el caso se trata de una insuficiencia renal por necrosis tubular aguda por rabdomiolisis debida a la picadura múltiple de abejas africanizadas.

  18. Comportamientos y capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDITH ARREDONDO HOLGUÍN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir comportamientos y capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca de una clínica cardiovascular de Medellín entre noviembre de 2007 y mayo de 2008. Es un estudio descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo. La muestra fue de 206 adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca diagnosticados por sintomatología clínica, fracción de eyección menor o igual a 40%. Se usaron para la recolección de datos la Escala Capacidad de Agencia de Autocuidado desarrollada por Isemberg y Evers et ál. (1993, traducida por Gallego, que mide el nivel de agencia de autocuidado, y la Escala Comportamientos de Autocuidado validada en Colombia en 2007 por Arredondo, que mide la frecuencia de comportamientos de autocuidado de adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca en la solicitud de ayuda, adaptación a vivir con la enfermedad y el régimen terapéutico, modificación del autoconcepto y aceptación de sí mismo, vivir con efectos de la insuficiencia cardiaca y el tratamiento. Concluye que el mayor número de pacientes eran hombres; que factores básicos condicionantes como el apoyo de la familia, desempeño de un trabajo, afiliación al sistema de salud, nivel socioeconómico y acceso a un nivel educativo fueron importantes para los pacientes. La frecuencia de comportamientos de autocuidado fue media en los adultos en la mayoría de las dimensiones y el nivel de agencia fue alto y muy alto. Igualmente se concluyó que no hay una correlación entre agencia y comportamientos de autocuidado. Lo que plantea que los adultos tienen el conocimiento pero no han tomado la decisión de realizar acciones de autocuidado.

  19. Tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardíaca: nuevas estrategias terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Herreros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardíaca es uno de los problemas de salud de mayor relevancia por su incidencia creciente y sus repercusiones sociales, económicas y sobre todo humanas. El trasplante cardíaco es un abordaje excelente y un tratamiento consolidado para estos pacientes. Sin embargo, la desproporción entre el número de pacientes con una insuficiencia cardíaca terminal y los donantes potenciales restringe el trasplante a aquellos pacientes sin otras posibilidades de tratamiento y ha generado alternativas terapéuticas para mejorar el pronóstico y los síntomas de estos pacientes con alto riesgo. El interés creciente del estudio de la reversibilidad de varias formas de insuficiencia cardíaca terminal y la aplicación de la biología al tratamiento de estos pacientes ha inducido el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas, diseñadas para integrar la biología y las nuevas tecnologías médicas, para así intervenir sobre los modelos biomecánicos, moleculares y neurohormonales de la insuficiencia cardíaca. Estos tratamientos incluyen la cardiomioplastia celular, la ingeniería tisular, la cirugía de restauración del ventrículo izquierdo, la inmunoadsorción y la constricción mecánica pasiva ventricular como puente a la recuperación. La integración de estos abordajes puede ofrecer alternativas válidas al trasplante cardíaco.

  20. Efectividad de la electromagnetoterapia en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia venosa crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Onelia Díaz Rivadeneira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental prospectivo, con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la electromagnetoterapia en pacientes con insuficiencia venosa crónica, atendidos en el Hospital Universitario “Manuel Ascunce Doménech” de Camagüey, en la etapa comprendida desde febrero hasta agosto de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 135 pacientes que acudieron al servicio de Angiología con insuficiencia venosa crónica y la muestra se formó con 42 pacientes mayores de 18 años diagnosticados, seleccionados según muestreo aleatorio simple. Se aplicó magnetoterapia en los puntos E36 (+, E41 (-, Vb34 (+, Vb39 (-, el tiempo de duración fue de quince minutos cada sesión, una vez al día durante quince sesiones. La totalidad de los pacientes presentaron pesadez, prurito y edema. Predominó la desaparición del prurito a partir de la quinta sesión de magnetoterapia; la pesadez, el edema y el dolor fueron disminuyendo en el transcurso del tratamiento. La calidad de vida al finalizar el tratamiento fue buena. No se encontraron reacciones adversas. El tratamiento con electromagnetoterapia fue efectivo en los pacientes con insuficiencia venosa crónica

  1. Are ultrasound-guided ophthalmic blocks injurious to the eye? A comparative rabbit model study of two ultrasound devices evaluating intraorbital thermal and structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palte, Howard D; Gayer, Steven; Arrieta, Esdras; Scot Shaw, Eric; Nose, Izuru; Lee, Elizabete; Arheart, Kristopher L; Dubovy, Sander; Birnbach, David J; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-07-01

    Since Atkinson's original description of retrobulbar block in 1936, needle-based anesthetic techniques have become integral to ophthalmic anesthesia. These techniques are unfortunately associated with rare, grave complications such as globe perforation. Ultrasound has gained widespread acceptance for peripheral nerve blockade, but its translation to ocular anesthesia has been hampered because sonic energy, in the guise of thermal or biomechanical insult, is potentially injurious to vulnerable eye tissue. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined guidelines for safe use of ultrasound for ophthalmic examination, but most ultrasound devices used by anesthesiologists are not FDA-approved for ocular application because they generate excessive energy. Regulating agencies state that ultrasound examinations can be safely undertaken as long as tissue temperatures do not increase >1.5°C above physiological levels. Using a rabbit model, we investigated the thermal and mechanical ocular effects after prolonged ultrasonic exposure to single orbital- and nonorbital-rated devices. In a dual-phase study, aimed at detecting ocular injury, the eyes of 8 rabbits were exposed to continuous 10-minute ultrasound examinations from 2 devices: (1) the Sonosite Micromaxx (nonorbital rated) and (2) the Sonomed VuMax (orbital rated) machines. In phase I, temperatures were continuously monitored via thermocouples implanted within specific eye structures (n = 4). In phase II the eyes were subjected to ultrasonic exposure without surgical intervention (n = 4). All eyes underwent light microscopy examinations, followed at different intervals by histology evaluations conducted by an ophthalmic pathologist. Temperature changes were monitored in the eyes of 4 rabbits. The nonorbital-rated transducer produced increases in ocular tissue temperature that surpassed the safe limit (increases >1.5°C) in the lens of 3 rabbits (at 5.0, 5.5, and 1.5 minutes) and cornea of 2 rabbits (both at 1

  2. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  3. Experimental study on ablating goat liver tissue with ultrasound imaging guided percutaneous irreversible electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the proper method of percutaneous irreversible electroporation(IRE to ablate goat liver tissue under ultrasonic guidance,and observe the features of ultrasound imaging and histological changes.Methods The pulse electric fields(PEFs with permanent duration(100 μs,frequency(1Hz,voltage(2000V and pulses(120 pieces were applied to the electrodes,and the electrodes were placed into goats’ liver under ultrasound guidance through the animal skin to the target area.The treated area was observed by real-time ultrasound scanning,and the histopathological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE staining under light microscope at the time of 0h and 24h after IRE ablation.The circumscribed ablated area was compared with that of finite element modeling(FEM calculation method.Results Ultrasound imaging guidance was accurate in focusing on the target area.Imaging captured by the ultrasound after IRE procedure was quite different from that of the normal liver imaging.Complete hepatic cell death with a sharp demarcation between the ablated zone and the non-ablated zone was well visualized 24 hours after the procedure.Necrospy-based measurement demonstrated a high consistence with FEM-anticipated ablation zones.Conclusion With real-time monitoring by ultrasonography and well-controlled ablation of the target tissue,percutaneous IRE can provide a novel and unique ablative method for cancer treatment.The present paper provides a fundamental experimental work for future studies on clinical application of IRE.

  4. Study of cell killing effect on S180 by ultrasound activating protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Bing; Liu, Quan Hong; Wang, Pan; Tang, Wei; Hao, Qiao

    2008-04-01

    The present study was initiated to investigate the potential biological mechanism of cell killing effect on isolate sarcoma 180 (S180) cells induced by ultrasound activating protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). S180 cells were exposed to ultrasound for 30s duration, at a frequency of 2.2 MHz and an acoustic power of 3 W/cm(2) in the presence of 120 microM PPIX. The viability of cells was evaluated using trypan blue staining. The generation of oxygen free radicals in cell suspensions was detected immediately after treatment using a reactive oxygen detection kit. A copper reagent colorimetry method was used to measure the level of FFAs released into cell suspensions by the process of cell damage induced by ultrasound and PPIX treatment. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activities of key antioxidant enzymes (i.e., SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) in S180 tumor cells. Treatment with ultrasound and PPIX together increased the cell damage rate to 50.91%, while treatment with ultrasound alone gave a cell damage rate to 24.24%, and PPIX alone kept this rate unchanged. Colorimetry and enzymatic chemical methods showed that the level of FFAs in cell suspension increased significantly after the treatment, while the activity of all the above enzymes decreased in tumor cells at different levels, and were associated with the generation of oxygen free radicals in cell suspension after treatment. The results indicate that oxygen free radicals may play an important role in improving the membrane lipid peroxidation, degrading membrane phospholipids to release FFAs, and decreasing the activities of the key antioxidant enzymes in cells. This biological mechanism might be involved in mediating the effects on S180 cells and resulting in the cell damage seen with SDT.

  5. Intravascular ultrasound-guided optimized stent deployment. Immediate and 6 months clinical and angiographic results from the Multicenter Ultrasound Stenting in Coronaries Study (MUSIC Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaegere, P; Mudra, H; Figulla, H; Almagor, Y; Doucet, S; Penn, I; Colombo, A; Hamm, C; Bartorelli, A; Rothman, M; Nobuyoshi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Voudris, V; DiMario, C; Makovski, S; Hausmann, D; Rowe, S; Rabinovich, S; Sunamura, M; van Es, G A

    1998-08-01

    A study was set up to validate the safety and feasibility of intravascular ultrasound-guided stenting without subsequent anticoagulation, and its impact on the 6 months restenosis rate. The study was designed to be multicentred, prospective, and observational. One hundred and sixty-one patients with stable angina and a de novo coronary artery lesion were enrolled. In four patients, the implantation of a Palmaz-Schatz (with spiral bridge) stent had failed. One of these four patients died 3 days following bypass surgery. In two other patients, intravascular ultrasound assessment was not performed. One hundred and twenty-five of the remaining 155 patients (81%) were treated with aspirin (100 mg x day(-1)), because all three criteria for optimized stent expansion were met. Twenty-two of the remaining 38 patients (25%), in whom at least one criterion was not met were treated with aspirin and acenocoumarol (3 months, INR 2.5-3.5), while 16 patients only received aspirin. Stent thrombosis was documented in two patients (1.3%) for which repeat angioplasty was performed. During the hospital stay, there were no deaths or Q-wave myocardial infarctions. Five patients (3.2%) sustained a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period (198+/-38 days, complete for all patients, except one), one patient (0.6%) sustained a Q-wave myocardial infarction, one (0.6%) underwent bypass surgery, and repeat angioplasty was performed in nine patients (5.7%). In two of the nine patients, repeat angioplasty involved another lesion. Therefore, the target lesion revascularization rate during follow-up was 4.5% (seven patients). At quantitative coronary angiography, the minimal lumen diameter (mean+/-SD) increased from 1.12+/-0.34 mm before to 2.89+/-0.35 mm after stenting. Repeat angiography at 6 months was performed in 144 patients (92%). The minimal lumen diameter at follow-up was 2.12+/-0.67 mm. Restenosis (diameter stenosis of 50% or more) was documented in 12 patients or 8

  6. First-in-Human Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With a VEGFR2-Specific Ultrasound Molecular Contrast Agent (BR55) in Prostate Cancer: A Safety and Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenge, Martijn; Tranquart, François; Mannaerts, Christophe K; de Reijke, Theo M; van de Vijver, Marc J; Laguna, M Pilar; Pochon, Sibylle; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2017-07-01

    BR55, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-specific ultrasound molecular contrast agent (MCA), has shown promising results in multiple preclinical models regarding cancer imaging. In this first-in-human, phase 0, exploratory study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of the MCA for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men using clinical standard technology. Imaging with the MCA was performed in 24 patients with biopsy-proven PCa scheduled for radical prostatectomy using a clinical ultrasound scanner at low acoustic power. Safety monitoring was done by physical examination, blood pressure and heart rate measurements, electrocardiogram, and blood sampling. As first-in-human study, MCA dosing and imaging protocol were necessarily fine-tuned along the enrollment to improve visualization. Imaging data were correlated with radical prostatectomy histopathology to analyze the detection rate of ultrasound molecular imaging with the MCA. Imaging with MCA doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mL/kg was adequate to obtain contrast enhancement images up to 30 minutes after administration. No serious adverse events or clinically meaningful changes in safety monitoring data were identified during or after administration. BR55 dosing and imaging were fine-tuned in the first 12 patients leading to 12 subsequent patients with an improved MCA dosing and imaging protocol. Twenty-three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. A total of 52 lesions were determined to be malignant by histopathology with 26 (50%) of them seen during BR55 imaging. In the 11 patients that were scanned with the improved protocol and underwent radical prostatectomy, a total of 28 malignant lesions were determined: 19 (68%) were seen during BR55 ultrasound molecular imaging, whereas 9 (32%) were not identified. Ultrasound molecular imaging with BR55 is feasible with clinical standard technology and demonstrated a good safety profile. Detectable levels of the MCA can be reached in patients

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a pelvic ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are ... Ultrasound page for more information . Ultrasound examinations can help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently ... pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . Ultrasound examinations can help diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: ...

  11. Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Jae-Youn; Lim, Yeong Min; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yang, Woo-In; Sung, Jung-Hoon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Cho, Seung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that investigated the correlation between insulin resistance (IR) and the coronary artery remodeling. The aim of the study is to investigate the association of IR measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and coronary artery remodeling evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods A total of 298 consecutive patients who received percutaneous coronary interventions under IVUS guidance were retrospectively enrolled. The val...

  12. Registro Nacional de Internación por Insuficiencia Cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Borracci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónLa insuficiencia cardíaca representa una de las principales causas de internación con una tasa elevada de complicaciones y cuyo enfoque no parece que haya mejorado en los últimos años.ObjetivosConocer el perfil epidemiológico y clínico, analizar las medidas terapéuticas y la evolución durante la internación y a los 3 meses de pacientes admitidos por insuficiencia cardíaca descompensada.Material y métodosRegistro prospectivo, multicéntrico de pacientes internados por insuficiencia cardíaca descompensada en 31 centros de todo el país que aceptaron la invitación a participar del registro. Se analizaron variables vinculadas con la presentación y la evolución hospitalaria y a los 90 días.ResultadosSe incluyeron 736 pacientes, mediana de edad 74 años (64-82, 41% mujeres, 75% hipertensos, 27% diabéticos, 20% infarto previo, 30% fibrilación auricular crónica, 17% insuficiencia renal crónica, 18% EPOC. Sólo el 29% era de etiología isquémico-necrótica. El 47% había tenido internación en el último año por insuficiencia cardíaca. Las causas de descompensación más frecuentes fueron infecciones, suspensión del tratamiento y transgresión alimentaria.Las formas graves de presentación (shock cardiogénico, edema agudo de pulmón, anasarca representaron el 30%. El 60% de los pacientes se internaron en área crítica. La mediana de permanencia fue de 7 (5-11 días. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue del 8%. A los 90 días, la reinternación fue del 24,5% y la mortalidad posalta fue del 12,8%.ConclusionesEl presente registro confirma que se trata de una población de edad avanzada con una incidencia alta de comorbilidades. Muchas descompensaciones ocurren por factores prevenibles. La tasa de complicaciones es elevada y no se redujo en la última década.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:33-39.

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: ...

  14. A Study of Laser-generated Ultrasound for Evaluation of Thickness Reduction in Piping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyung Chul; Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Jun Hyun; Kang, Seung Hyun

    2005-01-01

    In carbon steel pipes of nuclear power plants, local wall thinning may result from erosion-corrosion or FAC(Flow Accelerated Corrosion) damage. Local wall thinning is one of the major causes for the structural fracture of these pipes. Therefore, assessment of local wall thinning due to corrosion is an important issue in nondestructive evaluation for the integrity of nuclear power plants. In this study, laser-generated ultrasound technique was employed to evaluate local wall thinning due to corrosion. Guided waves were generated in the thermoelastic regime using a Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser with an linear array slit. Time-frequency analysis of ultrasonic waveforms using wavelet transform and FRT(Fast Fourier Transform) allowed the identification of generated guided wave modes by comparison with the theoretical dispersion curves. This study shows some experimental results about optimization of generating laser ultrasound using various linear array slits.

  15. High-intensity focused ultrasound to treat primary hyperparathyroidism: a feasibility study in four patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovatcheva, Roussanka D; Vlahov, Jordan D; Shinkov, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with primary hyperparathyroidism either decline or are not candidates for surgical parathyroidectomy. There are drawbacks to medical therapy as well as percutaneous ethanol injection as alternative therapies for primary hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, in this pilot study, our aim...... was to test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a newly developed noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technique for the nonsurgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism....

  16. Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem histologic evaluation of tooth germs: an observational, transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Mariana; Felino, António; Nogueira, Rosete; Valente, Francisco; Braga, Ana Cristina; Vaz, Paula

    2015-05-12

    Hypodontia is the most frequent developmental anomaly of the orofacial complex, and its detection in prenatal ultrasound may indicate the presence of congenital malformations, genetic syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities. To date, only a few studies have evaluated the histological relationship of human tooth germs identified by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography. In order to analyze whether two-dimensional ultrasonography of tooth germs may be successfully used for identifying genetic syndromes, prenatal ultrasound images of fetal tooth germs obtained from a Portuguese population sample were compared with histological images obtained from fetal autopsies. Observational, descriptive, transversal study. The study protocol followed the ethical principles outlined by the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Dental Medicine, University of Porto (FMDUP, Porto, Portugal) and of the Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho (CHVNG/EPE, Porto, Portugal) as well as by the CGC Genetics Embryofetal Pathology Laboratory. Eighty-five fetuses examined by prenatal ultrasound screening from May 2011 to August 2012 had an indication for autopsy following spontaneous fetal death or medical termination of pregnancy. Of the 85 fetuses, 37 (43.5%) were randomly selected for tooth germ evaluation by routine histopathological analysis. Fetuses who were up to 30 weeks of gestation, and whose histological pieces were not representative of all maxillary tooth germs was excluded. Twenty four fetus between the 13(th) and 30(th) weeks of gestation fulfilled the parameters to autopsy. Twenty four fetuses were submitted to histological evaluation and were determined the exact number, morphology, and mineralization of their tooth germs. All tooth germs were identifiable with ultrasonography as early as the 13(th) week of gestation. Of the fetuses autopsied, 41.7% had hypodontia (29.1% maxillary hypodontia and 20.9% mandibular hypodontia). This

  17. Laser-enhanced cavitation during high intensity focused ultrasound: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Huizhong; Zhang, Ti; Yang, Xinmai

    2013-01-01

    Laser-enhanced cavitation during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was studied in vivo using a small animal model. Laser light was employed to illuminate the sample concurrently with HIFU radiation. The resulting cavitation was detected with a passive cavitation detector. The in vivo measurements were made under different combinations of HIFU treatment depths, laser wavelengths, and HIFU durations. The results demonstrated that concurrent light illumination during HIFU has the potentia...

  18. An experimental system for the study of ultrasound exposure of isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarczyk, Anna; Rivens, Ian; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; Ter Haar, Gail; Van Bavel, E

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system designed for the study of the effects of diagnostic or therapeutic ultrasound exposure on isolated blood vessels in the presence or absence of intraluminal contrast agent is described. The system comprised several components. A microscope was used to monitor vessel size (and thus vessel functionality), and potential leakage of intraluminal 70 kDa FITC-dextran fluorescence marker. A vessel chamber allowed the mounting of an isolated vessel whilst maintaining its viability, with pressure regulation for the control of intraluminal pressure and induction of flow for the infusion of contrast microbubbles. A fibre-optic hydrophone sensor mounted on the vessel chamber using a micromanipulator allowed pre-exposure targeting of the vessel to within 150 µm, and monitoring of acoustic cavitation emissions during exposures. Acoustic cavitation was also detected using changes in the ultrasound drive voltage and by detection of audible emissions using a submerged microphone. The suitability of this system for studying effects in the isolated vessel model has been demonstrated using a pilot study of 6 sham exposed and 18 high intensity focused ultrasound exposed vessels, with or without intraluminal contrast agent (SonoVue) within the vessels. (paper)

  19. Ultrasound analysis of mental artery flow in elderly patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Marina G; Tucunduva Neto, Raul R C M; Cortes, Arthur R G; Aoki, Eduardo M; Arita, Emiko S; Freitas, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    Mental artery flow decreases with age and may have an aetiological role in alveolar ridge atrophy. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with alterations of mental artery flow, assessed by ultrasonography. This case-control study was conducted on elderly patients (aged above 60 years) at the beginning of dental treatment. Intraoral B-mode Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess mental artery flow. The cases were defined as patients with a weak/absent ultrasound signal, whereas the controls presented a strong ultrasound signal. Demographics and radiographic findings (low bone mineral density on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and mandibular cortical index on panoramic radiographs) were analysed as risk factors for weak/absent ultrasound signal and were calculated as adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression. In addition, the Student's t-test was used to compare the mean alveolar bone height of the analysed groups. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 30 ultrasound examinations (12 cases and 18 controls) were analysed. A weak/absent mental artery pulse strength was significantly associated with edentulism (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI = 0.86-15.63; p = 0.046). In addition, there was a significant difference in alveolar bone height between edentulous cases and controls (p = 0.036). Within the limitations of this study, the present results indicate that edentulism is associated with diminished mental artery flow, which, in turn, affects alveolar bone height.

  20. Ultrasound analysis of mental artery flow in elderly patients: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Marina G; Tucunduva Neto, Raul R C M; Aoki, Eduardo M; Arita, Emiko S; Freitas, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental artery flow decreases with age and may have an aetiological role in alveolar ridge atrophy. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with alterations of mental artery flow, assessed by ultrasonography. Methods: This case–control study was conducted on elderly patients (aged above 60 years) at the beginning of dental treatment. Intraoral B-mode Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess mental artery flow. The cases were defined as patients with a weak/absent ultrasound signal, whereas the controls presented a strong ultrasound signal. Demographics and radiographic findings (low bone mineral density on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and mandibular cortical index on panoramic radiographs) were analysed as risk factors for weak/absent ultrasound signal and were calculated as adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression. In addition, the Student's t-test was used to compare the mean alveolar bone height of the analysed groups. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 30 ultrasound examinations (12 cases and 18 controls) were analysed. A weak/absent mental artery pulse strength was significantly associated with edentulism (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI = 0.86–15.63; p = 0.046). In addition, there was a significant difference in alveolar bone height between edentulous cases and controls (p = 0.036). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the present results indicate that edentulism is associated with diminished mental artery flow, which, in turn, affects alveolar bone height. PMID:26205777

  1. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Luo, X; Li, Q; Yin, N; Fu, X; Zhang, H; Qi, H

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery. Enrolled into this study between September 2011 and September 2013 were 12 patients who had been diagnosed with placenta accreta following vaginal delivery and who had stable vital signs. All patients were treated using an ultrasound-guided HIFU treatment system. As indication of the effectiveness of the treatment we considered decreased vascular index on color Doppler imaging, decrease in size of residual placenta compared with pretreatment size on assessment by three-dimensional ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis, reduced signal intensity and degree of enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging and avoidance of hysterectomy following treatment. To assess the safety of HIFU treatment, we recorded side effects, hemorrhage, infection, sex steroid levels, return of menses and subsequent pregnancy. Patients were followed up in this preliminary study until December 2013. The 12 patients receiving HIFU treatment had an average postpartum hospital stay of 6.8 days and an average period of residual placental involution of 36.9 days. HIFU treatment did not apparently increase the risk of infection or hemorrhage and no patient required hysterectomy. In all patients menstruation recommenced after an average of 80.2 days, and sex steroid levels during the middle luteal phase of the second menstrual cycle were normal. Two patients became pregnant again during the follow-up period. This preliminary study suggests that ultrasound-guided HIFU is a safe and effective non-invasive method to treat placenta accreta patients after vaginal delivery who have stable vital signs and desire to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Study on the Micro Crack Detection in Joints by Using Ultrasound Infrared Thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Seung Seok; Huh, Yong Hak; Lee, Bo Young; Jae Seong

    2012-01-01

    This study detected SCC defects of dissimilar metal welded(STS304 and SA106 Gr. b) pipes using the ultrasonic infrared thermography method and the lock-in image treatment method among infrared thermography method. The infrared excitement equipment has 250 Watt of output and 20 kHz of frequency. By using the ultrasound infrared thermography method, the internal defects of dissimilar metal weld joints of pipes used at nuclear power plants could get detected. By an actual PT test, it was observed that the cracks inside the pipe existed not as a single crack but rather as a multiple cracks within a certain area and generated a hot spot image of a broad area on the thermography image. In addition, UT technology could not easily defects detected by the width of 10 μm fine hair cracks. but, ultrasound infrared thermography technique was defect detected

  3. Ultrasound study of scrotal pathology presenting as acute scrotal pain in the emergency room setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, C.; Serrano, C.; Revilla, Y.; Miralles, M.; Pozo, G. del; Lopez, U.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this reports is to review the most significant ultrasonographic features of the clinical entries that most frequently present as acute scrotal pain in childhood. We review 145 cases of acute scrotal referred by the emergency unit to the Radiology Service over a four-year period (1992-1995). All the patients were studied by B-mode ultrasound and the great majority also underwent color duplex-Doppler ultrasound. A wide variety of diseases were recorded, comprised of epididymitis (n=38), epididymo-orchitis (n=24), hydrocele (n=26), testicular torsion (n=9), cord cyst (n=9), epididymal cyst (n=7), persisting peritoneal-vagina fistula (n=6), hydatid torsion (n=4), sheath hematoma (n=4), laceration (n=4), hematocele (n=3), varicocele (n=3), epididymal hematoma (n=2), testicular hematoma (n=2), tumor (n=2) and inguinoscrotal hernia (n=2). (Author) 20 refs

  4. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapa, Rafal Z., E-mail: rz.slapa@gmail.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A. [Endocrinology Department, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Bielanski Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Migda, Bartosz [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Otto, Maciej [Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, First Faculty of Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowski, Wiesław S. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients.

  5. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slapa, Rafal Z.; Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A.; Migda, Bartosz; Otto, Maciej; Jakubowski, Wiesław S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients

  6. Thrombolysis using multi-frequency high intensity focused ultrasound at MHz range: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Dingjie; Guo, Sijia; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) based thrombolysis has emerged as a promising drug-free treatment approach for ischemic stroke. The large amount of acoustic power required by this approach, however, poses a critical challenge to the future clinical translation. In this study, multi-frequency acoustic waves at MHz range (near 1.5 MHz) were introduced as HIFU excitations to reduce the required power for treatment as well as the treatment time. In vitro bovine blood clots weighing around 150 mg were treated by single-frequency and multi-frequency HIFU. The pulse length was 2 ms for all experiments except the ones where the duty cycle was changed. It was found that dual-frequency thrombolysis efficiency was statistically better than single-frequency under the same acoustic power and excitation condition. When varying the acoustic power but fixing the duty cycle at 5%, it was found that dual-frequency ultrasound can save almost 30% power in order to achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency. In the experiment where the duty cycle was increased from 0.5% to 10%, it was shown that dual-frequency ultrasound can achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency with only half of the duty cycle of single-frequency. Dual-frequency ultrasound could also accelerate the thrombolysis by a factor of 2–4 as demonstrated in this study. No significant differences were found between dual-frequencies with different frequency differences (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 MHz) and between dual-frequency and triple-frequency. The measured cavitation doses of dual-frequency and triple-frequency excitations were at about the same level but both were significantly higher than that of single-frequency. (paper)

  7. Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of malaria parasites and histopathological changes in the placenta are associated with a reduction in birth weight, principally due to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of studying early pregnancy placental volumes using three-dimensional (3D ultrasound in a malaria endemic area, as a small volume in the second trimester may be an indicator of intra-uterine growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods Placenta volumes were acquired using a portable ultrasound machine and a 3D ultrasound transducer and estimated using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL image analysis software package. Intra-observer reliability and limits of agreement of the placenta volume measurements were calculated. Polynomial regression models for the mean and standard deviation as a function of gestational age for the placental volumes of uninfected women were created and tested. Based on these equations each measurement was converted into a z -score. The z-scores of the placental volumes of malaria infected and uninfected women were then compared. Results Eighty-four women (uninfected = 65; infected = 19 with a posterior placenta delivered congenitally normal, live born, single babies. The mean placental volumes in the uninfected women were modeled to fit 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th centiles for 14-24 weeks' gestation. Most placenta volumes in the infected women were below the 50th centile for gestational age; most of those with Plasmodium falciparum were below the 10th centile. The 95% intra-observer limits of agreement for first and second measurements were ± 37.0 mL and ± 25.4 mL at 30 degrees and 15 degrees rotation respectively. Conclusion The new technique of 3D ultrasound volumetry of the placenta may be useful to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological constraints on foetal growth caused by malaria infection in early pregnancy.

  8. The effect of smartphone addiction on hand joints in psoriatic patients: an ultrasound-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megna, M; Gisonni, P; Napolitano, M; Orabona, G Dell'Aversano; Patruno, C; Ayala, F; Balato, N

    2018-01-01

    Distal interphalangeal (DIP) arthritis is a frequent form of psoriatic arthritis being often linked to nail psoriasis. Modern society is characterized by overuse of smartphones. Indeed, literature has recently focalized on research into smartphone addiction and health-related problems. As smartphone addiction is able to determine overuse and repeated movements of DIP joints and nails, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of smartphone use on hand joints of young psoriatic patients. An observational study involving four different groups such as non-smartphone-addicted (SA) psoriatic patients, SA psoriatic patients, non-SA controls and SA controls was performed. Each subject underwent an ultrasound examination of both hands by three independent and blinded to group assignment radiologists. A specific score was used to evaluate the inflammatory state of the analysed joints. The total ultrasound score was statistically significantly higher in SA controls respect to non-SA controls (3.4 vs. 1.4; P Smartphone overuse was found to be linked with higher signs of inflammation of musculoskeletal structures of hands joints in both psoriasis and controls through ultrasound examination. Therefore, smartphone overuse may be a factor which facilitate or speed up the possible development of psoriatic arthritis. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  11. Does use of a PACS increase the number of images per study? A case study in ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Steven; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Farn, James; Coleman, Beverly; Rowling, Susan; Langer, Jill; Jacobs, Jill; Arger, Peter; Pinheiro, Lisa; Klein, Wendy; Reber, Michele; Iyoob, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) in ultrasonography increased the number of images acquired per examination. The hypothesis that such an increase does occur was based on anecdotal information; this study sought to test the hypothesis. A random sample of all ultrasound examination types was drawn from the period 1998 through 1999. The ultrasound PACS in use (ACCESS; Kodak Health Information Systems, Dallas, TX) records the number of grayscale and color images saved as part of each study. Each examination in the sample was checked in the ultrasound PACS database,.and the number of grayscale and color images was recorded. The comparison film-based sample was drawn from the period 1994 through 1995. The number of examinations of each type selected was based on the overall statistics of the section; that is, the sample was designed to represent the approximate frequency with which the various examination types are done. For film-based image counts, the jackets were retrieved, and the number of grayscale and color images were counted. The number of images obtained per examination (for most examinations) in ultrasound increased with PACS use. This was more evident with some examination types (eg, pelvis). This result, however, has to be examined for possible systematic biases because ultrasound practice has changed over the time since the authors stopped using film routinely. The use of PACS in ultrasonography was not associated with an increase in the number of images per examination based solely on the use of PACS, with the exception of neonatal head studies. Increases in the number of images per study was otherwise associated with examinations for which changes in protocols resulted in the increased image counts.

  12. The clinical study of 2D and power doppler ultrasound in esophagus varix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Zhou Liang; Zhang Yucheng; Yang Minghua; Ruan Fenglian; Lu Haixia; Li Yue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of 2D and Power Doppler Ultrasound in diagnosing the abdominal esophageal varicose veins. Methods: 65 patients under suspicion with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis for esophageal varicose at esophagus in abdomen section were examined by 2D and Power Doppler Ultrasound.Among them, 35 patients suffered from esophageal varicose veins proved by gastroscopy and the rest did not. Results: On the power doppler imaging map, colored blood stream signals were showed in varicose veins while without signals in non-varicose veins.The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 91.4% and 100% respectively. On the two-dimensional image chart, non-echoes were represented in varicose veins. The anteroposterior diameter, right-left diameter, as well as the thickness of esophagus wall were larger in patients with varicose veins than those in non varicose veins cases (P<0.01). Conclusion: 2D combined with Power Doppler Ultrasound was of non-invasive, safe, sensitive and high specificity, which is a valuable and practical tool in diagnosing the esophageal varicose veins. (authors)

  13. THE VALUE OF BEDSIDE ULTRASOUND IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THYROTOXICOSIS AND THYROTOXIC CARDIAC EMERGENCIES- A SHORT-TERM STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Mushthaque P; Kunhi Kannan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many times in ICU patient’s thyrotoxicosis is suspected and its diagnosis is hindered by many fallacies of clinical examination and lab reports. This happens especially with cardiac emergencies. The role of Ultrasound examination of thyroid in ICU patients admitted for different causes needs to be studied elaborately. AIM To assess the thyrotoxic burden in the ICU of suspected thyroid disease in patients; find out the benefit of thyroid ultrasound in evaluating...

  14. In vivo demonstration of ultrasound power delivery to charge implanted medical devices via acute and survival porcine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziemski, Leon; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies are an important step in proving the utility and safety of an ultrasound based implanted battery recharging system. To this end an Ultrasound Electrical Recharging System (USER™) was developed and tested. Experiments in vitro demonstrated power deliveries at the battery of up to 600 mW through 10-15 mm of tissue, 50 mW of power available at tissue depths of up to 50 mm, and the feasibility of using transducers bonded to titanium as used in medical implants. Acute in vivo studies in a porcine model were used to test reliability of power delivery, temperature excursions, and cooling techniques. The culminating five-week survival study involved repeated battery charging, a total of 10.5h of ultrasound exposure of the intervening living tissue, with an average RF input to electrical charging efficiency of 20%. This study was potentially the first long term cumulative living-tissue exposure using transcutaneous ultrasound power transmission to an implanted receiver in situ. Histology of the exposed tissue showed changes attributable primarily due to surgical implantation of the prototype device, and no damage due to the ultrasound exposure. The in vivo results are indicative of the potential safe delivery of ultrasound energy for a defined set of source conditions for charging batteries within implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound-based scores as predictors for nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiasda, Jill; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Müller, Jörg A; Serttas, Michaela; Scheumann, Georg W F; Schrem, Harald; Jäger, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    Former studies evaluated echostructural and vascular patterns in ultrasound of the parathyroid gland to identify nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease. This prospective study aims to externally validate suggested ultrasound classifications. Parathyroid glands of 27 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy were prospectively analyzed. Ultrasound including Doppler imaging was performed 1 day prior to surgery. Ultrasound data were available for 70 parathyroid glands. Echostructural and vascular scores according to previous studies were applied calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Overall correctness, sensitivity, and specificity of the investigated scores were assessed with the Youden index method. The Doppler score introduced by Vulpio and colleagues based on characteristic blood flow patterns in parathyroid glands showed an AUROC of 0.749 for the prediction of nodular hyperplasia with an overall correctness of 72.8%. Other ultrasound classifications based on blood flow patterns, as well as echostructure of the parathyroid gland displayed AUROCs of secondary hyperparathyroidism was externally validated for the first time. Other ultrasound scores fail as prognostic models in this study population. Doppler sonography of the parathyroid gland has prognostic capability to identify nodular hyperplasia as surrogate marker for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism indicating the need for ablative or surgical treatment when failing conservative therapy.

  16. Detection of the Single-Session Complete Ablation Rate by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound during Ultrasound-Guided Laser Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the single-session complete ablation rate of ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation (LA for benign thyroid nodules. LA was performed in 90 patients with 118 benign thyroid nodules. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was used to evaluate complete nodule ablation one day after ablation. Thyroid nodule volumes, thyroid functions, clinical symptoms and complications were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after ablation. Results showed that all benign thyroid nodules successfully underwent LA. The single-session complete ablation rates for nodules with maximum diameters ≤2 cm, 2-3 cm and ≥3 cm were 93.4%, 70.3% and 61.1%, respectively. All nodule volumes significantly decreased than that one day after ablation (P0.05. Three patients had obvious pain during ablation; one (1.1% had recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, but the voice returned to normal within 6 months after treatment. Thus, ultrasound-guided LA can effectively inactivate benign thyroid nodules. LA is a potentially viable minimally invasive treatment that offers good cosmetic effects.

  17. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound study of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana D. Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the ultrasound characterization of the abdominal and pelvic regions of five maned wolves kept in captivity at the Triage Center of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Viçosa (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. This characterization included descriptions of ultrasonographic aspects and measurements of various structures using B-mode ultrasound. Biometric data were collected to assess the existence of significant linear correlations between these measurements and the measurements obtained by ultrasound. Additionally, hematological and serum biochemistry evaluations of the animals were performed. The ultrasound findings were similar to those available in the literature on domestic dogs, which were used for comparison as a result of the lack of published data regarding maned wolves. The latter species showed characteristics closely resembling those of the former, differing in the spleen and left renal cortex echogenicities, in the appearance of the prostatic and testicular regions and in the hepatic portal vein morphology. In the current study, the biometric values were similar to those previously published; however, no data regarding thoracic perimeter, modified crown-rump length or thoracic depth were found in the literature for this Canidae species. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a strong negative correlation between the modified crown-rump length and left renal length, between the modified crown-rump length and the right renal volume, between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the cranial pole of the left adrenal gland and between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the caudal pole of the left adrenal gland. Laboratory findings, including segmented neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts and the serum levels of glucose, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, urea, total protein, globulin, creatine phosphokinase, triglyceride, sodium

  18. Study on in-vessel ISI for JOYO. Ultrasound propagation characteristic in the core support plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Masahiko; Ara, Kuniaki; Hirabayashi, Masaru

    2005-03-01

    The report describes the feasibility study on the in-vessel inspection technique to be applied for the experimental fast reactor JOYO. The object of this examination is to confirm the integration of reactor structure under sodium environment by an immediate means. The core support plate which is an important structure supports the weight of the core assembly is selected to an object of the inspection. In the examination until last year, the core support plate inspection equipment concept which combined ultrasound sensor with manipulator was constructed. In this concept, the ultrasound sensor is accessed to a low-pressure plenum sidewall and integrity of the core support plate weld is inspected. In this study, the ultrasound propagation behavior was examined to confirm the range where the core support plate by this concept was able to be inspected. The outline result is shown follows. (1) Only the transverse wave can be generated in the structure material by reflecting the incidence longitudinal wave from the sensor in the wedge. The use of this transverse wave is effective in the core support plate inspection. (2) Because the attenuation of the ultrasound wave depends on the distance, the sensor is made to approach from the fuel rack in the reactor vessel about two places in the upper part of the core support plate weld far from low-pressure plenum. (3) It is necessary to evaluate the permeability of the ultrasound wave by the mock-up examination in consideration of a peculiar attenuation of the structural material, the reflectivity from defect, etc. (4) In the core support plate inspection of phenix reactor, a weld about 4m away from the sensor position is inspected by using the Lamb wave. In this inspection, because it was generated to echo according to the geometrical shape of the structure material, the evaluation method by the analysis to identify the echo from the defect was constructed, and it was verified by the mock-up examination. It is preferable that

  19. The comparative study of CT guided and ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Huang Yulian; Chen Jianye

    2005-01-01

    Objective: An comparative study of the interventional approach of CT guided and ultiasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection(PEI) in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst. Methods: CT guided PEI was performed in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst in 38 patients while ultrasound guided PEI was performed in 45 cases. Results: The puncture procedure of CT guided PEI was totally performed 83 times in treating 56 intra-abdominal cysts in 38 patients and CT guided PEI was unsuccessful in 6 patients. The puncture procedure of ultrasound guided PEI were performed 87 times in treating 71 intra-abdominal cysts in 55 patients and ultrasound guided PEI only failed only in 1 patient. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided PEI is superior to CT guided PEI in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst. (authors)

  20. Manejo terapéutico actual de la insuficiencia cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardíaca es un síndrome clínico complejo, en el cual ocurren alteraciones anatómicas y funcionales, que dan como resultado un deterioro de la función de bomba del miocardio ventricular (disfunción sistólica o una incapacidad para una correcta relajación y llenado (disfunción diastólica, y es el estadio final de muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. En el tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca, desde la atención primaria de salud, es tradicional el empleo de diuréticos y digitálicos, que logran alivio de los síntomas, pero con poco impacto sobre la mortalidad y la supervivencia. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica actualizada, empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed sobre los nuevos enfoques terapéuticos farmacológicos de la insuficiencia cardiaca, tanto por disfunción sistólica, como por disfunción diastólica. En la literatura se evidencia como se han revolucionado las bases del abordaje, tratamiento médico y pronóstico, al complementar el manejo tradicional de esta entidad (diuréticos, digitálicos y potasio e inotrópicos, con la introducción de nuevos grupos farmacológicos, como los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina II (IECA y los betabloqueadores (BB

  1. MRI-controlled interstitial ultrasound brain therapy: An initial in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Lipsman, Nir; Bronskill, Michael; Schwartz, Michael; Kucharczyk, Walter; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    The recent emergence at the clinical level of minimally-invasive focal therapy such as laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) has demonstrated promise in the management of brain metastasis [1], although control over the spatial pattern of heating is limited. Delivery of HIFU from minimally-invasive applicators enables high spatial control of the heat deposition in biological tissues, large treatment volumes and high treatment rate in well chosen conditions [2,3]. In this study, the feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound therapy in brain was studies in-vivo in a porcine model. A prototype system originally developed for transurethral ultrasound therapy [4,5,6] was used in this study. Two burr holes of 12 mm in diameter were created in the animal's skull to allow the insertion of the therapeutic ultrasound applicator (probe) into the brain at two locations (right and left frontal lobe). A 4-element linear ultrasound transducer (f = 8 MHz) was mounted at the tip of a 25-cm linear probe (6 mm in diameter). The target boundary was traced to cover in 2D a surface compatible with the treatment of a 2 cm brain tumor. Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in real-time based on MR-thermometry feedback control to optimize heat deposition at the target boundary [2,4,5]. Two MRT-controlled ultrasound brain treatments per animal have been performed using a maximal surface acoustic power of 10W.cm-2. In all cases, it was possible to increase accurately the temperature of the brain tissues in the targeted region over the 55°C threshold necessary for the creation of irreversible thermal lesion. Tissue changes were visible on T1w contrast-enhanced images immediately after treatment. These changes were also evident on T2w FSE images taken 2 hours after the 1st treatment and correlated well with the temperature image. On average, the targeted volume was 4.7 ± 2.3 cm3 and the 55°C treated volume was 6.7 ± 4.4 cm3. The volumetric

  2. 261. Cirugía reparadora de la insuficiencia aórtica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rey

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: Nuestra técnica de elección para la cirugía reparadora de la válvula aórtica es la plicatura central, siendo una técnica intuitiva y reproducible. En la insuficiencia aórtica asociada a aneurisma de raíz aórtica la técnica de elección es el remodeling de Yacoub con anillo Coroneo que da soporte anular y es una técnica duradera.

  3. Práctica 7. Fisioterapia en la insuficiencia venosa de miembros inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrià Iranzo, M. Àngels

    2011-01-01

    La fisioterapia en la insuficiencia venosa y sus complicaciones (trombosis venosa), sustenta su aplicación en la estimulación de los mecanismos favorecedores del retorno venoso. Entre las medidas favorecedoras del retorno venoso encontramos: el postural en declive, la respiración abdomino-diafragmática y torácica, el masaje deplectivo, la presoterapia neumática, las medidas de contención-compresión y la cinesiterapia. La fisioteràpia en la insuficiència venosa i les seues complicacions (tr...

  4. Efectos del entrenamiento interválico en personas con insuficiencia cardiaca

    OpenAIRE

    Rollán Díaz, Ibai

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer en profundidad la patología de la insuficiencia cardiaca (IC), así como el tratamiento de la misma a través del entrenamiento aeróbico interválico de alta intensidad (HIIT). La IC se define como el estado fisiopatológico y clínico en el cual el corazón es incapaz de aportar sangre de acuerdo a los requerimientos metabólicos periféricos o que lo hace con presiones de llenado elevadas (Jalil, 2012). Resulta de especial relevancia el tratamiento de dicha ...

  5. Formación continuada: Vivir con insuficiencia renal crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Periz, Lola; Force Sanmartín, Enriqueta

    1998-01-01

    Actualmente existen en España 27.000 enfermos afectados de insuficiencia renal crónica que requieren tratamiento sustitutivo de la función renal o que han sido trasplantados. Las terapias básicas sustitutivas de la función renal son la hemodiálisis y la diálisis peritoneal. Ambas son generalmente bien toleradas y aunque no exentas de complicaciones, permiten a los pacientes alcanzar una aceptable rehabilitación y calidad de vida. El trasplante renal es, teóricamente, la solución ideal, aunque...

  6. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Semi-Quantitative Knee Ultrasound and Knee Radiography with MRI: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlipská, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Lehenkari, Petri; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Roemer, Frank W.; Arokoski, Jari P.; Kaukinen, Päivi; Liukkonen, Esa; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tervonen, Osmo; Koski, Juhani M.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative musculoskeletal disease highly prevalent in aging societies worldwide. Traditionally, knee OA is diagnosed using conventional radiography. However, structural changes of articular cartilage or menisci cannot be directly evaluated using this method. On the other hand, ultrasound is a promising tool able to provide direct information on soft tissue degeneration. The aim of our study was to systematically determine the site-specific diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative ultrasound grading of knee femoral articular cartilage, osteophytes and meniscal extrusion, and of radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing and osteophytes, using MRI as a reference standard. Eighty asymptomatic and 79 symptomatic subjects with mean age of 57.7 years were included in the study. Ultrasound performed best in the assessment of femoral medial and lateral osteophytes, and medial meniscal extrusion. In comparison to radiography, ultrasound performed better or at least equally well in identification of tibio-femoral osteophytes, medial meniscal extrusion and medial femoral cartilage morphological degeneration. Ultrasound provides relevant additional diagnostic information on tissue-specific morphological changes not depicted by conventional radiography. Consequently, the use of ultrasound as a complementary imaging tool along with radiography may enable more accurate and cost-effective diagnostics of knee osteoarthritis at the primary healthcare level. PMID:26926836

  7. Alfabetización en salud en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca atendidos en atención primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Santesmases-Masana; Luis González-de Paz; Jordi Real; Alicia Borràs-Santos; Antoni Sisó-Almirall; Maria Dolors Navarro-Rubio

    2017-01-01

    Objetivos: Examinar el nivel de alfabetización en salud y los factores que la condicionan en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca visitados en atención primaria. Diseño: Estudio transversal multicéntrico. Emplazamiento: Diez centros de atención primaria del área metropolitana de Barcelona. Participantes: Pacientes con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca. Criterios de inclusión: visita al centro de salud en el último año, desplazarse al centro de manera autónoma y acceder a particip...

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two studies recently reported that computed tomography (CT) guided infiltration of the greater occipital nerve at its intermediate site allows a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief following procedure in occipital neuralgia and in various craniofacial pain syndromes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided intermediate site greater occipital nerve infiltration. Retrospective study. This study was conducted at the imaging department of a 1,409 bed university hospital. Local institutional review board approval was obtained and written consent was waived. In this retrospective study, 12 patients suffering from refractory occipital neuralgia or craniofacial pain syndromes were included between April and October 2014. They underwent a total of 21 ultrasound-guided infiltrations. Infiltration of the greater occipital nerve was performed at the intermediate site of the greater occipital nerve, at its first bend between obliqus capitis inferior and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anestetics and cortivazol. Technical success was defined as satisfactory diffusion of added iodinated contrast media in the fatty space between these muscles depicted on control CT scan. We also reported first data of immediate block test efficacy and initial clinical efficacy at 7 days, one month, and 3 months, defined by a decrease of at least 50% of visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Technical success rate was 95.24%. Patients suffered from right unilateral occipital neuralgia in 3 cases, left unilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, bilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, migraine in one case, cervicogenic headache in one case, tension-type headache in 2 cases, and cluster headache in one case. Block test efficacy was found in 93.3% (14/15) cases. Clinical efficacy was found in 80% of cases at 7 days, in 66.7% of cases at one month and in 60% of cases at 3 months. No major complications were noted. Some of the

  9. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabili, Marjan; Geist, Craig; Zderic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm 2 , and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm 2 (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety of this

  10. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabili, Marjan, E-mail: mnabili@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, 800 22nd Street NW, Room 5000, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Geist, Craig, E-mail: cgeist@mfa.gwu.edu, E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, The George Washington University, 2150 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Floor 2A, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Zderic, Vesna, E-mail: cgeist@mfa.gwu.edu, E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The George Washington University, 800 22nd Street NW, Room 6670, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm{sup 2}, and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm{sup 2} (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety

  11. Effectiveness of imaging-guided intra-articular injection: a comparison study between fluoroscopy and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Pereira, Daniele Freitas; da Luz, Karine Rodrigues; dos Santos, Marla Francisca; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Mitraud, Sonia de Aguiar Vilela; Rosenfeld, Andre; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Natour, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Compare the effectiveness of ultrasound and fluoroscopy to guide intra-articular injections (IAI) in selected cases. A prospective study in our outpatient clinics at the Rheumatology Division at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil, was conducted to compare the short-term (4 weeks) effectiveness of ultrasound and fluoroscopy-guided IAI in patients with rheumatic diseases. Inclusion criteria were: adults with refractory synovitis undergoing IAI with glucocorticoid. All patients had IAI performed with triamcinolone hexacetonide (20mg/ml) with varying doses according to the joint injected. A total of 71 rheumatic patients were evaluated (52 women, 44 whites). Mean age was 51.9 ± 13 years and 47 of them (66.2%) were on regular DMARD use. Analysis of the whole sample (71 patients) and hip sub-analysis (23 patients) showed that significant improvement was observed for both groups in terms of pain (P < 0.001). Global analysis also demonstrated better outcomes for patients in the FCG in terms of joint flexion (P < 0.001) and percentage change in joint flexion as compared to the USG. Likert scale score analyses demonstrated better results for the patients in the USG as compared to the FCG at the end of the study (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference between groups was observed for any other study variable. Imaging-guided IAI improves regional pain in patients with various types of synovitis in the short term. For the vast majority of variables, no significant difference in terms of effectiveness was observed between fluoroscopy and ultrasound guided IAI.

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound images can help ... tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging produces pictures of the internal organs and blood vessels located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ...

  14. Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study a kinetic model of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil assisted by ultrasound power. The model considered the biodiesel production process as a 2nd order reversible reaction, while its kinetic parameters were estimated using MATLAB, based on data extracted from Hingu, et al. [1]. The data represented experiments under low-frequency ultrasonic wave (20 kHz and variations of temperature, power, catalyst concentration, and alcohol-oil molar ratio. Statistical analysis showed that the proposed model fits well to the experimental data with a determination coefficient (R2 higher than 0.9.

  15. Numerical study of thermoviscous effects in ultrasound-induced acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical study of thermoviscous effects on the acoustic streaming flow generated by an ultrasound standing-wave resonance in a long straight microfluidic channel containing a Newtonian fluid. These effects enter primarily through the temperature and density dependence of the fluid...... viscosity. The resulting magnitude of the streaming flow is calculated and characterized numerically, and we find that even for thin acoustic boundary layers, the channel height affects the magnitude of the streaming flow. For the special case of a sufficiently large channel height, we have successfully...

  16. Morphological study of electrodeposited copper under the influence of ultrasound and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, A.; Ray, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature and cavitation on the electrochemistry principle were experimented here by adding the impact of sonication to synthesize ultrafine grained deposits at low temperatures. The X-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic studies confirmed the nanorange deposit. Scanning electron microscopy images have also confirmed the powdery and highly scattered deposits in silent conditions. Ultrasound was found to have a significant effect on the deposit morphology. The deposit obtained was compact, uniform and adherent. Energy dispersive spectroscopy result of the deposits revealed an oxidized silent deposit along with some adsorbed sulfur onto the electrode surface. In contrary the in situ cleaning associated with sonication has resulted in cleaner deposits.

  17. Ultrasound elastography as an adjuvant to conventional ultrasound in the preoperative assessment of axillary lymph nodes in suspected breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K., E-mail: kathryn.taylor@addenbrookes.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); O' Keeffe, S.; Britton, P.D.; Wallis, M.G. [Department of Radiology, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Treece, G.M.; Housden, J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Parashar, D.; Bond, S. [Cambridge Cancer Trials Centre, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cambridge Hub in Trials Methodology Research, MRC Biostatics Unit, University Forvie Site, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sinnatamby, R. [Department of Radiology, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aims: To compare the performance of ultrasound elastography with conventional ultrasound in the assessment of axillary lymph nodes in suspected breast cancer and whether ultrasound elastography as an adjunct to conventional ultrasound can increase the sensitivity of conventional ultrasound used alone. Materials and methods: Fifty symptomatic women with a sonographic suspicion for breast cancer underwent ultrasound elastography of the ipsilateral axilla concurrent with conventional ultrasound being performed as part of triple assessment. Elastograms were visually scored, strain measurements calculated and node area and perimeter measurements taken. Theoretical biopsy cut points were selected. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and compared for elastograms and conventional ultrasound images with surgical histology as the reference standard. Results: The mean age of the women was 57 years. Twenty-nine out of 50 of the nodes were histologically negative on surgical histology and 21 were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for conventional ultrasound were 76, 78, 70, and 81%, respectively; 90, 86, 83, and 93%, respectively, for visual ultrasound elastography; and for strain scoring, 100, 48, 58 and 100%, respectively. There was no significant difference between any of the node measurements Conclusions: Initial experience with ultrasound elastography of axillary lymph nodes, showed that it is more sensitive than conventional ultrasound in detecting abnormal nodes in the axilla in cases of suspected breast cancer. The specificity remained acceptable and ultrasound elastography used as an adjunct to conventional ultrasound has the potential to improve the performance of conventional ultrasound alone.

  18. Insuficiencia arterial periférica en adultos jóvenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix Patiño

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia arterial periférica, que en un altísimo porcentaje de casos es secundaria a procesos  degenerativos especialmente arteriosclerosis, es tal vez uno de los hallazgos clínicos más frecuentes en la población adulta de edad avanzada. Sus efectos, que van desde la simple molestia de la isquemia leve en los casos benignos, hasta la necrosis y gangrena de los casos severos, resultan en incapacidad y serias alteraciones funcionales. Bien conocida es la relación que existe entre esta condición y la diabetes y el tabaco. Pero en tanto que la insuficiencia arterial con isquemia de las extremidades inferiores es tan común en los grupos de edad avanzada, es un cuadro muy poco frecuente en individuos jóvenes. En este informe se presentan cinco pacientes jóvenes con cuadros de isquemia severa de las extremidades inferiores con características especiales que los hacen interesantes y motivo de esta discusión.

  19. [Interscalene block for total shoulder arthroplasty: comparative study (ultrasound vs. neurostimulation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Terrazas, Gabriel Enrique; Ruiz-Suárez, Michell; Gaspar-Carrillo, Sandra Patricia; Valero-González, Fernando; Unzueta-Navarro, David; Encalada-Díaz, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Modern anesthesiology has integrated the use of ultrasonography as a tool that has displaced neurostimulation as a technique for locating peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to determine which procedure is more effective for guiding interscalene block for total shoulder arthroplasty. We carried out a comparative, prospective non-randomized study comprised of the group guided by neurostimulation interscalene block and the group guided by ultrasound. All patients in both groups were scheduled for total shoulder arthroplasty. Latency, degree of sensory and motor block, success rate, postoperative pain intensity at 6, 12, and 24 h, patient satisfaction and complications were measured. We included 110 patients, 55 per group. Patients were placed in beach chair position and the deltopectoral approach was used. There were no differences in demographic characteristics. Results for neurostimulation vs. ultrasound group: latency 19.11 ± 2.27 vs. 17.24 ± 1.42 min, p= 0.23. Block sensitivity in both groups was grade 0 motor block grade 0 in 76.4% and grade 1 in 23.6% vs. grade 0 to 100%. There was 100% success rate for both groups. Postoperative pain at 6 h was 0.13 ± 0.54 vs. 0.11 ± 0.13 p= 0.90, at 12 h 1.67 ± 1.15 vs. 1.65 ± 0.59 p= 0.89 and at 24 h 3.15 ± 1.66 vs. 2.99 ± 1.15 p= 0.78. Satisfaction 54.5% very satisfied and 45.5% satisfied 96.36% vs 3.6% very satisfied and satisfied. Complications 18.18% vs. 3.6% p= 0.023. Ultrasound-guided interscalene nerve block is the technique of choice in elective total shoulder arthroplasty.

  20. Ultrasound-guided plantar fascia release technique: a retrospective study of 46 feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Praveen K; Japour, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of anatomy at the surgical site. This technique uses small arthroscopic dissecting instruments through a 0.5-cm incision, allowing the surgeon to avoid the larger and more tissue-disruptive incision that is traditionally used for plantar heel spur resection and plantar fascia releases. Forty-one patients (46 feet) were selected for the study. The mean patient age was 47 years. Twenty-nine were considered obese with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2). Patients were functionally and subjectively evaluated 4 weeks after surgery using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle and Hindfoot Rating Scale. Results from the study show a significant improvement (P = .05 confidence level) 4 weeks postoperatively for the 41 patients (46 feet), compared to their preoperative condition. The mean pretest score was 33.6 (range 10-52); this score improved to 88.0 (range 50-100), 4 weeks postoperatively. There were no postoperative infections or complications. The ultrasound-guided plantar fascia release technique is a practical surgical procedure for the relief of chronic plantar fascia pain because the surgeon is able to clearly visualize the plantar fascia by ultrasound. In addition, there is minimal disruption to surrounding tissue because small instruments are passed through a small 0.5-cm incision. The traditional open method of heel spur surgery, in contrast, uses a larger skin incision of 3 to 5 cm, followed by larger instruments to dissect to the plantar fascia.

  1. Prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in ultrasound studies of dogs with hypercalcemia (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E; Bohannon, Laurie K; Feldman, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is commonly used to evaluate the cervical region in dogs with hypercalcemia due to suspected hyperparathyroidism. Incidental thyroid nodules may be detected during these studies, however little information has been published to guide clinical decision-making when this occurs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in hypercalcemic dogs undergoing cervical ultrasound at our hospital during the period of 2008-2013. Dogs with a palpable neck mass were excluded. Cervical ultrasound images for each dog were retrieved and reviewed by a board certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of patient outcome. Presence, number, and dimensions of thyroid nodules were recorded. Results of thyroid nodule aspirate, biopsy or necropsy were recorded from medical records when available. Ninety-one dogs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 14/91 (15%) dogs had at least one thyroid nodule. Mean (± standard deviation) thyroid gland nodule length, width, and height were 1.51 ± 0.74, 0.96 ± 0.73, and 0.75 ± 0.36 cm, respectively. A histologic diagnosis was available for the incidental thyroid lesions in eight dogs, including one dog with two nodules. Confirmed diagnoses for these nodules were thyroid cyst (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenoma (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenocarcinoma (2/9, 22%) and nodular hyperplasia (1/9, 11%). Findings indicated that incidental thyroid nodules may be present in hypercalcemic dogs with no palpable neck mass and no clinical signs of thyroid disease. Some of these nodules may be malignant and therefore a recommendation for cytology or biopsy may be justified. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. EX VIVO STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND PARAMETERS IN FATTY RABBIT LIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Kemmerer, Jeremy P.; Miller, Rita J.; Oelze, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than 30% of Americans, and with increasing problems of obesity in the United States, NAFLD is poised to become an even more serious medical concern. At present, accurate classification of steatosis (fatty liver) represents a significant challenge. In this study, the use of high-frequency (8 to 25 MHz) quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging to quantify fatty liver was explored. QUS is an imaging technique that can be used to quantify properties of tissue giving rise to scattered ultrasound. The changes in the ultrasound properties of livers in rabbits undergoing atherogenic diets of varying durations were investigated using QUS. Rabbits were placed on a special fatty diet for 0, 3, or 6 weeks. The fattiness of the livers was quantified by estimating the total lipid content of the livers. Ultrasonic properties, such as speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter coefficients, were estimated in ex vivo rabbit liver samples from animals that had been on the diet for varying periods. Two QUS parameters were estimated based on the backscatter coefficient: effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC), using a spherical Gaussian scattering model. Two parameters were estimated based on the backscattered envelope statistics (the k parameter and the μ parameter) according to the homodyned K distribution. The speed of sound decreased from 1574 to 1565 m/s and the attenuation coefficient increased from 0.71 to 1.27 dB/cm/MHz, respectively, with increasing fat content in the liver. The ESD decreased from 31 to 17 μm and the EAC increased from 38 to 63 dB/cm3 with increasing fat content in the liver. A significant increase in the μ parameter from 0.18 to 0.93 scatterers/mm3 was observed with increasing fat content in the liver samples. The results of this study indicate that QUS parameters are sensitive to fat content in the liver. PMID:23062376

  3. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, William H; Diederich, Chris J; Shu, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t 43 ) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams ... pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic organs early ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size, shape and consistency (whether the object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also help identify: ... fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams ... are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal ( transabdominal ) vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound is most often performed to evaluate the: uterus cervix ovaries ... page How is the procedure performed? Transabdominal: For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... questions or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) and the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends the sound waves into ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ... structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ... sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... help to distract the child and make the time pass quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound exams in which the transducer ... in the sperm or urine following the procedure. After an ultrasound examination, you should be able to ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound permits evaluation of the uterus and ovaries ... abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or sonohysterography for patients with infertility. In ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  10. Obstetrical Ultrasound

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    ... heartbeat can be seen as an ongoing ultrasound movie. Ultrasound devices also use Doppler, a special application ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also help identify: palpable masses such as ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian ... In children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound: abdominal, vaginal (for women), and rectal (for men). These exams are frequently used to evaluate the ... vaginal ( transvaginal / endovaginal ) for women rectal ( transrectal ) for men A Doppler ultrasound exam may be part of ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity-Focused Ultrasound for Palliation of Painful Skeletal Metastases: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael; Dennis, Kristopher; Huang, Yuexi; Mougenot, Charles; Chow, Edward; DeAngelis, Carlo; Coccagna, Jennifer; Sahgal, Arjun; Hynynen, Kullervo; Czarnota, Gregory; Chu, William

    2017-10-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites of metastases, with bone metastases-related pain representing a significant source of morbidity among patients with cancer. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound is a noninvasive, outpatient modality with the potential for treating painful bone metastases. The aim of this study is to report our initial experience with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound in the treatment of bone metastases and our preliminary analysis of urinary cytokine levels after therapy. This was a single-center pilot study of 10 patients with metastatic cancer to investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound for primary pain control in device-accessible skeletal metastases. Treatments were performed on a clinical magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system using a volumetric ablation technique. Primary efficacy was assessed using Brief Pain Inventory scores and morphine equivalent daily dose intake at 3 time points: before, day 14, and day 30 after the magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound treatment. Urine cytokines were measured 3 days before treatment and 2 days after the treatment. Of the 10 patients, 8 were followed up 14 days and 6 were followed up 30 days after the treatment. At day 14, 3 patients (37.5%) exhibited partial pain response and 4 patients (50%) exhibited an indeterminate response, and at day 30 after the treatment, 5 patients (83%) exhibited partial pain response. No treatment-related adverse events were recorded. Of the urine cytokines measured, only Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) demonstrated an overall decrease, with a trend toward statistical significance ( P = .078). Our study corroborates magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound as a feasible and safe modality as a primary, palliative treatment for painful bone metastases and contributes to the limited body of literature using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound for this clinical indication.

  18. Two sides of the same coin--an interview study of Swedish obstetricians' experiences using ultrasound in pregnancy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhman, Annika; Persson, Margareta; Edvardsson, Kristina; Lalos, Ann; Graner, Sophie; Small, Rhonda; Mogren, Ingrid

    2015-11-20

    The extended use of ultrasound that is seen in maternity care in most Western countries has not only affected obstetric care but also impacted on the conception of the fetus in relation to the pregnant woman. This situation has also raised concerns regarding the pregnant woman's reproductive freedom. The purpose of this study was to explore Swedish obstetricians' experiences and views on the role of obstetric ultrasound particularly in relation to clinical management of complicated pregnancy, and in relation to situations where the interests of maternal and fetal health conflict. A qualitative study design was applied, and data were collected in 2013 through interviews with 11 obstetricians recruited from five different obstetric clinics in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The theme that emerged in the analysis 'Two sides of the same coin' depicts the view of obstetric ultrasound as a very important tool in obstetric care while it also was experienced as having given rise to new and challenging issues in the management of pregnancy. This theme was built on three categories: I. Ultrasound is essential and also demanding; II. A woman's health interest is prioritised in theory, but not always in practice; and III. Ultrasound is rewarding but may also cause unwarranted anxiety. The widespread use of ultrasound in obstetric care has entailed new challenges for clinicians due to enhanced possibilities to diagnose and treat fetal conditions, which in turn might conflict with the health interests of the pregnant woman. There is a need for further ethical discussions regarding the obstetrician's position in management of situations where maternal and fetal health interests conflict. The continuing advances in the potential of ultrasound to impact on pregnancy management will also increase the need for adequate and appropriate information and counselling. Together with other health care professionals, obstetricians therefore need to develop

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  20. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids

  1. Evaluating the impact of a mandatory pre-abortion ultrasound viewing law: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Kimport, Katrina; Belusa, Elise K O; Johns, Nicole E; Laube, Douglas W; Roberts, Sarah C M

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-2013, Wisconsin abortion providers have been legally required to display and describe pre-abortion ultrasound images. We aimed to understand the impact of this law. We used a mixed-methods study design at an abortion facility in Wisconsin. We abstracted data from medical charts one year before the law to one year after and used multivariable models, mediation/moderation analysis, and interrupted time series to assess the impact of the law, viewing, and decision certainty on likelihood of continuing the pregnancy. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in the post-law period about their ultrasound experience and analyzed them using elaborative and modified grounded theory. A total of 5342 charts were abstracted; 8.7% continued their pregnancies pre-law and 11.2% post-law (p = 0.002). A multivariable model confirmed the law was associated with higher odds of continuing pregnancy (aOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01-1.50). Decision certainty (aOR = 6.39, 95% CI: 4.72-8.64) and having to pay fully out of pocket (aOR = 4.98, 95% CI: 3.86-6.41) were most strongly associated with continuing pregnancy. Ultrasound viewing fully mediated the relationship between the law and continuing pregnancy. Interrupted time series analyses found no significant effect of the law but may have been underpowered to detect such a small effect. Nineteen of twenty-three women interviewed viewed their ultrasound image. Most reported no impact on their abortion decision; five reported a temporary emotional impact or increased certainty about choosing abortion. Two women reported that viewing helped them decide to continue the pregnancy; both also described preexisting decision uncertainty. This law caused an increase in viewing rates and a statistically significant but small increase in continuing pregnancy rates. However, the majority of women were certain of their abortion decision and the law did not change their decision. Other factors were more significant in women's decision

  2. Ultrasound evaluation of intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia in hallux valgus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, César Calvo; Marín, Alejandro Garrido; Sanz, David Rodríguez; López, Daniel López; López, Patricia Palomo; Morales, Carlos Romero; Corbalán, Irene Sanz

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness reduction of the abductor hallucis (AbH) is shown in subjects with hallux valgus (HV). To date, other soft-tissue structures have not been researched in relation with HV. The aim of this study was to compare the CSA and thickness of the intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia (PF) between feet with and without HV. Therefore, a cross-sectional and case-control study was performed using B-mode with an iU22 Philips ultrasound system and a 5 to 17-MHz transducer. The CSA and thickness were measured for the AbH, flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and also the thickness for the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions. A convenience sample of 40 feet, 20 with HV and 20 without HV, was recruited from a clinical and research center. A multivariate regression analysis using linear regression was performed to evaluate the ultrasound imaging measurements (α = 0.05). Consequently, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (P plantar fascia thickness increase in favor of the HV group. On the contrary, the FDB thickness and CSA did not show statistically significant differences (P ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, the CSA and thickness of the AbH and FHB intrinsic plantar muscles are reduced, whereas the thickness of the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions are increased, in subjects with HV compared with those without HV.

  3. Tracked ultrasound calibration studies with a phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehl, Marie; Walsh, Ryan; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    In this study, spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound was compared by using a calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks and two 3-D printed N-wire phantoms. METHODS: The accuracy and variance of calibrations were compared under a variety of operating conditions. Twenty trials were performed using an electromagnetic tracking device with a linear probe and three trials were performed using varied probes, varied tracking devices and the three aforementioned phantoms. The accuracy and variance of spatial calibrations found through the standard deviation and error of the 3-D image reprojection were used to compare the calibrations produced from the phantoms. RESULTS: This study found no significant difference between the measured variables of the calibrations. The average standard deviation of multiple 3-D image reprojections with the highest performing printed phantom and those from the phantom made of LEGO® bricks differed by 0.05 mm and the error of the reprojections differed by 0.13 mm. CONCLUSION: Given that the phantom made of LEGO® bricks is significantly less expensive, more readily available, and more easily modified than precision-machined N-wire phantoms, it prompts to be a viable calibration tool especially for quick laboratory research and proof of concept implementations of tracked ultrasound navigation.

  4. Can Limited Education of Lung Ultrasound Be Conducted to Medical Students Properly? A Pilot Study

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    Jang Sun Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Lung ultrasonography (LUS is a useful examination to identify lung problems. Unfortunately, there are currently no LUS educational programs for medical students. We designed a brief LUS training course for medical students during the ED rotation. The purpose of training was improving cognitive and psychomotor learning domains, knowledge of ultrasound, knowledge of LUS, image acquisition, and image interpretation. Methods. Forty students in their fourth year of medical school were enrolled in this study. Student achievement was evaluated through examinations of cognitive and psychomotor skills. A survey was administered following the training. Results. The average test result was 42.1 ± 13.7 before training and 82.6 ± 10.7 after training. With respect to the assessment of LUS performance, the acceptable rates for right and left anterior chest wall scanning and right and left posterolateral scanning were 95%, 97.5%, 92.5%, and 100%, respectively. The students felt a high level of confidence in their ability to administer LUS to patients after training and they agreed that inclusion of LUS training in the medical school curriculum is necessary. Conclusion. This study showed that, among the medical students without ultrasound experience, limited LUS education to improve their knowledge, image acquisition, and interpretation ability was successful.

  5. Can Limited Education of Lung Ultrasound Be Conducted to Medical Students Properly? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyu Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is a useful examination to identify lung problems. Unfortunately, there are currently no LUS educational programs for medical students. We designed a brief LUS training course for medical students during the ED rotation. The purpose of training was improving cognitive and psychomotor learning domains, knowledge of ultrasound, knowledge of LUS, image acquisition, and image interpretation. Methods. Forty students in their fourth year of medical school were enrolled in this study. Student achievement was evaluated through examinations of cognitive and psychomotor skills. A survey was administered following the training. Results. The average test result was 42.1 ± 13.7 before training and 82.6 ± 10.7 after training. With respect to the assessment of LUS performance, the acceptable rates for right and left anterior chest wall scanning and right and left posterolateral scanning were 95%, 97.5%, 92.5%, and 100%, respectively. The students felt a high level of confidence in their ability to administer LUS to patients after training and they agreed that inclusion of LUS training in the medical school curriculum is necessary. Conclusion. This study showed that, among the medical students without ultrasound experience, limited LUS education to improve their knowledge, image acquisition, and interpretation ability was successful. PMID:28459070

  6. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

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    Huang, Chih-Chung, E-mail: cchuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Tsen [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals.

  7. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals

  8. Auscultation versus Point-of-care Ultrasound to Determine Endotracheal versus Bronchial Intubation: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Davinder; Frank, Ethan; Haughton, Robert; Schilling, John; Gimenez, Kimberly M; Banh, Esther; Rinehart, Joseph; Cannesson, Maxime

    2016-05-01

    Unrecognized malposition of the endotracheal tube (ETT) can lead to severe complications in patients under general anesthesia. The focus of this double-blinded randomized study was to assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound in verifying the correct position of the ETT and to compare it with the accuracy of auscultation. Forty-two adult patients requiring general anesthesia with ETT were consented. Patients were randomized to right main bronchus, left main bronchus, or tracheal intubation. After randomization, the ETT was placed via fiber-optic visualization. Next, the location of the ETT was assessed using auscultation by a separate blinded anesthesiologist, followed by an ultrasound performed by a third blinded anesthesiologist. Ultrasound examination included assessment of tracheal dilation via cuff inflation with air and evaluation of pleural lung sliding. Statistical analysis included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and interobserver agreement for the ultrasound examination (95% CI). In differentiating tracheal versus bronchial intubations, auscultation showed a sensitivity of 66% (0.39 to 0.87) and a specificity of 59% (0.39 to 0.77), whereas ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 93% (0.66 to 0.99) and specificity of 96% (0.79 to 1). Identification of tracheal versus bronchial intubation was 62% (26 of 42) in the auscultation group and 95% (40 of 42) in the ultrasound group (P = 0.0005) (CI for difference, 0.15 to 0.52), and the McNemar comparison showed statistically significant improvement with ultrasound (P auscultation in determining the location of ETT.

  9. Correction of systematic bias in ultrasound dating in studies of small-for-gestational-age birth: an example from the Iowa Health in Pregnancy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Saftlas, Audrey F; Wallis, Anne B; Yankowitz, Jerome; Triche, Elizabeth W; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2012-09-01

    The authors examined whether early ultrasound dating (≤20 weeks) of gestational age (GA) in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses may underestimate gestational duration and therefore the incidence of SGA birth. Within a population-based case-control study (May 2002-June 2005) of Iowa SGA births and preterm deliveries identified from birth records (n = 2,709), the authors illustrate a novel methodological approach with which to assess and correct for systematic underestimation of GA by early ultrasound in women with suspected SGA fetuses. After restricting the analysis to subjects with first-trimester prenatal care, a nonmissing date of the last menstrual period (LMP), and early ultrasound (n = 1,135), SGA subjects' ultrasound GA was 5.5 days less than their LMP GA, on average. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the extent to which ultrasound GA predicted LMP dating and to correct for systematic misclassification that results after applying standard guidelines to adjudicate differences in these measures. In the unadjusted model, SGA subjects required a correction of +1.5 weeks to the ultrasound estimate. With adjustment for maternal age, smoking, and first-trimester vaginal bleeding, standard guidelines for adjudicating differences in ultrasound and LMP dating underestimated SGA birth by 12.9% and overestimated preterm delivery by 8.7%. This methodological approach can be applied by researchers using different study populations in similar research contexts.

  10. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  11. Plantar fasciitis (fasciosis) treatment outcome study: plantar fascia thickness measured by ultrasound and correlated with patient self-reported improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, Jerry M; Park, Tae Soon

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasound, well recognized as an effective diagnostic tool, reveals a thickening of the plantar fascia in patients with plantar fasciitis/fasciosis disease. The authors hypothesized that ultrasound would also reveal a decrease in the plantar fascia thickness for patients undergoing treatment for the disease, a hypothesis that, heretofore, had been only tested on a limited number of subjects. They conducted a more statistically significant study that found that clinical treatment with injection and biomechanical correction does indeed diminish plantar fascia thickness as shown on ultrasound. The study also revealed that patients experience the most heightened plantar fascia tenderness toward the end of the day, and improvement in their symptomatic complaints were associated with a reduction in plantar fascia thickness. As a result, the authors conclude that office-based ultrasound can help diagnose and confirm plantar fasciitis/fasciosis through the measurement of the plantar fascia thickness. Because of the advantages of ultrasound--that it is non-invasive with greater patient acceptance, cost effective and radiation-free--the imaging tool should be considered and implemented early in the diagnosis and treatment of plantar fasciitis/fasciosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on text mining algorithm for ultrasound examination of chronic liver diseases based on spectral clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bingguo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasonography is an important examination for the diagnosis of chronic liver disease. The doctor gives the liver indicators and suggests the patient's condition according to the description of ultrasound report. With the rapid increase in the amount of data of ultrasound report, the workload of professional physician to manually distinguish ultrasound results significantly increases. In this paper, we use the spectral clustering method to cluster analysis of the description of the ultrasound report, and automatically generate the ultrasonic diagnostic diagnosis by machine learning. 110 groups ultrasound examination report of chronic liver disease were selected as test samples in this experiment, and the results were validated by spectral clustering and compared with k-means clustering algorithm. The results show that the accuracy of spectral clustering is 92.73%, which is higher than that of k-means clustering algorithm, which provides a powerful ultrasound-assisted diagnosis for patients with chronic liver disease.

  13. Insuficiencia renal aguda en pacientes de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Regional de Cuilapa, Santa Rosa, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Ajcalon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda, es una condición común en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de Adultos (UCIA y probablemente una consecuencia de la enfermedad crítica que se asocia a resultados clínicos adversos, altos costos y una mortalidad de más del 50%, sobre todo si se requiere tratamiento de reemplazo renal. El objetivo fue determinar la incidencia de insuficiencia renal aguda en pacientes ingresados a la UCIA. El estudio fue prospectivo, longitudinal, observacional, en 101 pacientes ingresados en la UCIA del Hospital Regional de Cuilapa. Se diagnosticaron 101 pacientes durante el periodo de estudio con insuficiencia renal aguda represento el 27.4% del total de pacientes internados (368 en el servicio en un año. La incidencia de mortalidad en pacientes que requieren terapia de reemplazo renal y se encuentran en ventilación mecánica es del 100%. Del total de pacientes estudiados, según la escala Akin, se encontró que el 49.5% de los pacientes correspondían a grado II, aunque el grado I también fue frecuente (29%, y que el 22 % de los pacientes correspondían a grado III. La patología que mayormente se asoció al desarrollo de insuficiencia renal aguda fue sepsis grave con un 31%, seguido de pacientes sometidos a cirugía mayor e hipovolemia con el 21 y 18% respectivamente. Se halló una incidencia aumentada de insuficiencia renal aguda comparado con estadísticas internacionales, cuya etiología fue mayormente causada por procesos sépticos.

  14. Hydrogel based tissue mimicking phantom for in-vitro ultrasound contrast agents studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Sergio; Distante, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound medical imaging (UMI) is the most widely used image analysis technique, and often requires advanced in-vitro set up to perform morphological and functional investigations. These studies are based on contrast properties both related to tissue structure and injectable contrast agents (CA). In this work, we present a three-dimensional structure composed of two different hydrogels reassembly the microvascular network of a human tissue. This phantom was particularly suitable for the echocontrastographic measurements in human microvascular system. This phantom has been characterized to present the acoustic properties of an animal liver, that is, acoustic impedance (Z) and attenuation coefficient (AC), in UMI signal analysis in particular; the two different hydrogels have been selected to simulate the target organ and the acoustic properties of the vascular system. The two hydrogels were prepared starting from cellulose derivatives to simulating the target organ parenchyma and using a PEG-diacrylate to reproduce the vascular system. Moreover, harmonic analysis was performed on the hydrogel mimicking the liver parenchyma hydrogel to evaluate the ultrasound (US) distortion during echographic measurement. The phantom was employed in the characterization of an experimental US CA. Perfect agreement was found when comparing the hydrogel acoustical properties materials with the corresponding living reference tissues (i.e., vascular and parenchimal tissue).

  15. Multimodal ultrasound tomography for breast imaging: a prospective study of clinical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, S; Dellas, S; Stieltjes, B; Bongartz, B

    2017-01-01

    To describe the clinical set-up and evaluate the feasibility of multimodal ultrasound tomography (MUT) for breast imaging. Thirty-two consecutive patients referred for breast imaging and 24 healthy volunteers underwent MUT. In the 32 patients, the examination discomfort was compared to that of mammography (n = 31), handheld ultrasound (HUS) (n = 27) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n = 4) on a scale from 1 (lowest discomfort) to 10 (highest discomfort). MUT investigation time was recorded. Findings automatically detected by MUT were correlated with conventional imaging and biopsy results. Breast MUT was well tolerated by all 56 participants; 55 bilateral exams were uneventful. During one exam, the digitalisation card failed and the exam was successfully repeated within three days. Mean examination discomfort was 1.6 (range = 1-5) for MUT, 1.5 (range = 1-5) for HUS, 5.3 (range = 3-7) for MRI, and 6.3 (range = 1-10) for mammography. MUT examination time was 38 ± 6 min (mean ± standard deviation). In the patients referred for breast imaging, MUT detected four lesions and indicated malignancy in three of these cases. These findings were confirmed by additional imaging and biopsy. MUT is feasible in a clinical context considering examination time and patient acceptance. These interesting initial diagnostic findings warrant further studies.

  16. Orbital Atherectomy Plaque Modification Assessment of the Femoropopliteal Artery Via Intravascular Ultrasound (TRUTH Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, Anvar; Zavlunova, Susanna; Attubato, Michael J; Martinsen, Brad J; Mintz, Gary S; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-10-01

    The Tissue Removal Assessment with Ultrasound of the SFA and Popliteal (TRUTH) study assessed the performance of the orbital atherectomy system (OAS) to treat femoropopliteal arteries, including determining its effect on plaque removal. Patients with symptomatic femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease were treated with the OAS followed by adjunctive balloon angioplasty (BA). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images were collected pre- and post-OAS and post-OAS BA. Patients were followed through 12 months post-procedure. Twenty-nine lesions were treated with OAS-BA in 25 patients. The mean maximum balloon inflation pressure was 5.2 ± 1.2 atm. Virtual histology IVUS (VH-IVUS) analysis revealed at the maximum calcium ablation site that calcium reduction was responsible for 86% of the lumen area increase. The minimum lumen area increased from 4.0 mm(2) to 9.1 mm(2) (<.0001), and the percentage of area stenosis decreased from 76.9% to 43.0% (<.0001) after OAS-BA. At 12 months, the target lesion revascularization rate was 8.2%, and ankle-brachial index and Rutherford classification improved significantly from baseline through follow-up. The VH-IVUS analysis reveals that OAS modifies the calcified component of the plaque burden. It is hypothesized that calcium modification by OAS changes the lesion compliance, allowing for low pressure adjunctive BA. The clinical outcomes were favorable through 12-month follow-up. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of primary hepatic angiosarcoma: A pitfall of non-enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Lv, Ke; Chang, Xiao-Yan; Xia, Yu; Yang, Zhi-Ying; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Tan, Li; Li, Jian-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. ► PHA appeared similar peripheral enhancement pattern in our series. ► Non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA unexpectedly demonstrated non-enhancement on CEUS. ► It may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. ► This interesting finding warrants further investigations, particularly on intratumoral hemodynamics. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA). Methods: The sonographic findings and CEUS images of PHA in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In our study, 3 cases of PHA (2 multiple nodules and 1 solitary mass) showed similar enhancement pattern on CEUS, characterized by remarkable central non-enhancement and peripheral irregular enhancement in the arterial and portal phase, and complete wash-out in the late phase. Furthermore, we unexpectedly found that abundant neoplastic tissues were present in the central area of non-enhancement on pathological evaluation. Based on literature review, we supposed that the unusual finding may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. Conclusion: CEUS could well depict PHA with some common features, which may provide valuable clues in diagnosis of this rare disease. And non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA could also demonstrate non-enhancement on CEUS, which warrant further investigations

  18. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Release: Study Upon Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrover, David, E-mail: dpetrover@yahoo.fr; Silvera, Jonathan, E-mail: silvera.jonathan@gmail.com [Imagerie Médicale Paris Centre Bachaumont-clinique Blomet RamsayGDS, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Baere, Thierry De, E-mail: Debaere@igr.fr [Gustave Roussy Institute (France); Vigan, Marie, E-mail: marie.vigan@gmail.com [Association pour la recherche en chirurgie de l’épaule et du coude, clinique Drouot (France); Hakimé, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com [Imagerie Médicale Paris Centre Bachaumont-clinique Blomet RamsayGDS, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2017-04-15

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the feasibility and 6 months clinical result of sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and median nerve decompression after ultra-minimally invasive, ultrasound-guided percutaneous carpal tunnel release (PCTR) surgery.MethodsConsecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in this descriptive, open-label study. The procedure was performed in the interventional radiology room. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 1 month. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was administered at baseline, 1, and 6 months.Results129 patients were enrolled. Significant decreases in mean symptom severity scores (3.3 ± 0.7 at baseline, 1.7 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.3 at Month 6) and mean functional status scores (2.6 ± 1.1 at baseline, 1.6 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.5 at Month 6) were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a complete section of all TCL and nerve decompression in 100% of patients. No complications were identified.ConclusionsUltrasound-guided PCTR was used successfully to section the TCL, decompress the median nerve, and reduce self-reported symptoms.

  19. The design of a focused ultrasound transducer array for the treatment of stroke: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, Daniel; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is capable of mechanically disintegrating blood clots at high pressures. Safe thrombolysis may require frequencies higher than those currently utilized by transcranial HIFU. Since the attenuation and focal distortion of ultrasound in bone increases at higher frequencies, resulting focal pressures are diminished. This study investigated the feasibility of using transcranial HIFU for the non-invasive treatment of ischemic stroke. The use of large aperture, 1.1–1.5 MHz phased arrays in targeting four clinically relevant vessel locations was simulated. Resulting focal sizes decreased with frequency, producing a maximum –3 dB depth of field and lateral width of 2.0 and 1.2 mm, respectively. Mean focal gains above an order of magnitude were observed in three of four targets and transducer intensities required to achieve thrombolysis were determined. Required transducer element counts are about an order of magnitude higher than what currently exists and so, although technically feasible, new arrays would need to be developed to realize this as a treatment modality for stroke. (paper)

  20. Ultrasound Mediated Microbubbles Destruction Augmented Sonolysis: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was aimed at exploring ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction (UMMD assisted sonolysis in both the in vitro and in vivo clots. Methods. Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS and lipid microbubbles (MBs were used in whole blood clots and divided into the control, TUS group, and TUS + MB group. Thrombolytic rates and microscopy were performed. Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI and angiography were performed to evaluate the recanalization rates and flow scores in femoral arterial thrombus (FAT in rabbits. FAT were dyed with H&E. Results. The average thrombolytic ratios of TUS + MB group were significantly higher than those of TUS group and the control group (both P<0.05. Clots had different pathological changes. Recanalization rates and flow scores in TUS + MB group were significantly higher than the control and TUS group. Flow scores and recanalization ratios were grade 0 in 0% of the control group, grade I in 25% of TUS group, and grade II or higher in 87.5% of TUS + MB group after 30 min sonolysis. Conclusions. Both the in vitro and in vivo sonolysis can be significantly augmented by the introduction of MBs without thrombolytic agents, which might be induced by the enhanced cavitation via UMMD.

  1. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Release: Study Upon Clinical Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrover, David; Silvera, Jonathan; Baere, Thierry De; Vigan, Marie; Hakimé, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the feasibility and 6 months clinical result of sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and median nerve decompression after ultra-minimally invasive, ultrasound-guided percutaneous carpal tunnel release (PCTR) surgery.MethodsConsecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in this descriptive, open-label study. The procedure was performed in the interventional radiology room. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 1 month. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was administered at baseline, 1, and 6 months.Results129 patients were enrolled. Significant decreases in mean symptom severity scores (3.3 ± 0.7 at baseline, 1.7 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.3 at Month 6) and mean functional status scores (2.6 ± 1.1 at baseline, 1.6 ± 0.4 at Month 1, 1.3 ± 0.5 at Month 6) were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a complete section of all TCL and nerve decompression in 100% of patients. No complications were identified.ConclusionsUltrasound-guided PCTR was used successfully to section the TCL, decompress the median nerve, and reduce self-reported symptoms.

  2. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  3. INSUFICIENCIA RENAL AGUDA CON UREMIA NORMAL EN PACIENTE MONO-RENO SECUNDARIA A PIELONEFRITIS AGUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:La insuficiencia renal aguda es un sindrome que característicamente cursa con niveles plasmáticos elevados de urea y creatinina. Sin embargo, hay situaciones clínicas en las cuales este sindrome puede cursar con un incremento de la creatininemia sin presentar elevación de la uremia.En este reporte presentamos un caso clínico de una insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal secundaria a una pielonefritis aguda en un paciente con riñón único. El paciente presentaba una elevada excreción fraccional de urea lo cual podía explicar su uremia normal pese a estar cursando una caída del filtrado gomerular. Dicha excreción de urea elevada fue interpretada como secundaria a una diabetes insipida nefrogénica y una alteración en el recirculado intra-renal de la urea ambos producto de la pielonefritis aguda. Concluimos que la pielonefritis aguda en un paciente mono-reno puede presentarse con un patrón de insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal. SUMMARYAcute renal failure is a syndrome that usually runs with an increase in creatinine and urea plasma levels. However, there are clinical situations in which this syndrome may run with an increase in plasma creatinine keeping normal the urea one.In this report we present a case of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea level secondary to an acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient. The patient had an increased fractional excretion of urea which could explain the normal plasma urea levels found despite of his reduced glomerular filtration. This increased urea excretion state was interpreted as a consequence of the nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and alteration of the intra-renal urea reciclying process that the acute pyelonephritis induced. In conclusion: Acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient can appear as a pattern of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea levels.

  4. INSUFICIENCIA RENAL AGUDA CON UREMIA NORMAL EN PACIENTE MONO-RENO SECUNDARIA A PIELONEFRITIS AGUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa insuficiencia renal aguda es un sindrome que característicamente cursa con niveles plasmáticos elevados de urea y creatinina. Sin embargo, hay situaciones clínicas en las cuales este sindrome puede cursar con un incremento de la creatininemia sin presentar elevación de la uremia. En este reporte presentamos un caso clínico de una insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal secundaria a una pielonefritis aguda en un paciente con riñón único. El paciente presentaba una elevada excreción fraccional de urea lo cual podía explicar su uremia normal pese a estar cursando una caída del filtrado gomerular. Dicha excreción de urea elevada fue interpretada como secundaria a una diabetes insipida nefrogénica y una alteración en el recirculado intra-renal de la urea ambos producto de la pielonefritis aguda. Concluimos que la pielonefritis aguda en un paciente mono-reno puede presentarse con un patrón de insuficiencia renal aguda con uremia normal.SUMMARYAcute renal failure is a syndrome that usually runs with an increase in creatinine and urea plasma levels. However, there are clinical situations in which this syndrome may run with an increase in plasma creatinine keeping normal the urea one. In this report we present a case of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea level secondary to an acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient. The patient had an increased fractional excretion of urea which could explain the normal plasma urea levels found despite of his reduced glomerular filtration. This increased urea excretion state was interpreted as a consequence of the nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and alteration of the intra-renal urea reciclying process that the acute pyelonephritis induced. In conclusion: Acute pyelonephritis in a single kidney patient can appear as a pattern of acute renal failure with normal plasma urea levels.

  5. The infiltration of the AC joint performed by one specialist: Ultrasound versus palpation a prospective randomized pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabeti-Aschraf, M., E-mail: manuel.sabeti-aschraf@meduniwien.ac.a [Vienna Medical School, Department for Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Ochsner, A. [Vienna Medical School, Department for Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Schueller-Weidekamm, C. [Vienna Medical School, Department for Radiology, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, M. [Vienna Medical School, Department for Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Funovics, Ph.T. [Vienna Medical School, Department for Radiology, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Skrbensky, G. von [Vienna Medical School, Department for Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Goll, A. [Vienna Medical School, Core Unit for Medical Statistics and Wien, Waehringer Guertel18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Schatz, K.D. [Vienna Medical School, Department for Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, AKH-Wien, Waehringer Guertel18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: The acromio-clavicular (AC) joint is very susceptible to degenerative processes that result in pain and functional impairment. One common modality of treatment has been local infiltration of the joint space. Although this procedure has produced notable positive results, needle misplacement occurs frequently. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of an intra articular infiltration by comparing precise needle placement into the joint space using high-resolution-ultrasound with the conventional palpation technique. Methods: This prospective and randomized pilot study analysed 20 patients who were assigned either to the 'ultrasound' or the 'palpation' group. Clinical examinations were performed before treatment and at 1 h, 1 week and 3 weeks after a single infiltration of local anaesthetic and corticoid carried out by one specialist. Results: In both groups significant improvement in pain and function was obtained up to one-week post injection. Function remained significantly improved until the last follow-up and did not differ between the two groups. The agent was administered in all patients into the joint space in the ultrasound group. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided infiltration of the AC joint is an easily achieved procedure without any complications. However, clinical follow-up did not differ between free-hand and ultrasound-guided AC joint space infiltration.

  6. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Siqueira, Daniel Emilio Dalledone; Jacobsen, Octavio Barcellos; Baracat, Jamal; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Menezes, Fabio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results: The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01). Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion: Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation. (author)

  7. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Siqueira, Daniel Emilio Dalledone; Jacobsen, Octavio Barcellos; Baracat, Jamal; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Menezes, Fabio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha, E-mail: alex_cantador@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2016-07-15

    Objective: To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results: The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01). Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion: Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation. (author)

  8. The infiltration of the AC joint performed by one specialist: Ultrasound versus palpation a prospective randomized pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabeti-Aschraf, M.; Ochsner, A.; Schueller-Weidekamm, C.; Schmidt, M.; Funovics, Ph.T.; Skrbensky, G. von; Goll, A.; Schatz, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The acromio-clavicular (AC) joint is very susceptible to degenerative processes that result in pain and functional impairment. One common modality of treatment has been local infiltration of the joint space. Although this procedure has produced notable positive results, needle misplacement occurs frequently. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of an intra articular infiltration by comparing precise needle placement into the joint space using high-resolution-ultrasound with the conventional palpation technique. Methods: This prospective and randomized pilot study analysed 20 patients who were assigned either to the 'ultrasound' or the 'palpation' group. Clinical examinations were performed before treatment and at 1 h, 1 week and 3 weeks after a single infiltration of local anaesthetic and corticoid carried out by one specialist. Results: In both groups significant improvement in pain and function was obtained up to one-week post injection. Function remained significantly improved until the last follow-up and did not differ between the two groups. The agent was administered in all patients into the joint space in the ultrasound group. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided infiltration of the AC joint is an easily achieved procedure without any complications. However, clinical follow-up did not differ between free-hand and ultrasound-guided AC joint space infiltration.

  9. Focused ultrasound subthalamotomy in patients with asymmetric Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Raul; Rodríguez-Rojas, Rafael; Del Álamo, Marta; Hernández-Fernández, Frida; Pineda-Pardo, Jose A; Dileone, Michele; Alonso-Frech, Fernando; Foffani, Guglielmo; Obeso, Ignacio; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; de Luis-Pastor, Esther; Vela, Lydia; Obeso, José A

    2018-01-01

    Ablative neurosurgery has been used to treat Parkinson's disease for many decades. MRI-guided focused ultrasound allows focal lesions to be made in deep brain structures without skull incision. We investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of unilateral subthalamotomy by focused ultrasound in Parkinson's disease. This prospective, open-label pilot study was done at CINAC (Centro Integral de Neurociencias), University Hospital HM Puerta del Sur in Madrid, Spain. Eligible participants had Parkinson's disease with markedly asymmetric parkinsonism. Patients with severe dyskinesia, history of stereotactic surgery or brain haemorrhage, a diagnosis of an unstable cardiac or psychiatric disease, or a skull density ratio of 0·3 or less were excluded. Enrolled patients underwent focused ultrasound unilateral subthalamotomy. The subthalamic nucleus was targeted by means of brain images acquired with a 3-Tesla MRI apparatus. Several sonications above the definitive ablation temperature of 55°C were delivered and adjusted according to clinical response. The primary outcomes were safety and a change in the motor status of the treated hemibody as assessed with part III of the Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS III) in both off-medication and on-medication states at 6 months. Adverse events were monitored up to 48 h after treatment and at scheduled clinic visits at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02912871. Between April 26 and June 14, 2016, ten patients with markedly asymmetric parkinsonism that was poorly controlled pharmacologically were enrolled for focused ultrasound unilateral subthalamotomy. By 6 months follow-up, 38 incidents of adverse events had been recorded, none of which were serious or severe. Seven adverse events were present at 6 months. Three of these adverse events were directly related to subthalamotomy: off-medication dyskinesia in the treated arm

  10. Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: a study on 30 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Successful brachial plexus blocks rely on proper techniques of nerve localization, needle placement, and local anesthetic injection. Standard approaches used today (elicitation of paresthesia or nerve-stimulated muscle contraction, unfortunately, are all "blind" techniques resulting in procedure-related pain and complications. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus blocks can potentially improve success and complication rates. This study presents the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks for the first time in Iran in adults and pediatrics. "n"n Methods: In this study ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks in 30 patients (25 adults & 5 pediatrics scheduled for an elective upper extremity surgery, are introduced. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injection. Besides basic variables, block approach, block time, postoperative analgesia duration (VAS<3 was considered as target pain control opioid consumption during surgery, patient satisfaction and block related complications were reported

  11. Learning process for performing and analyzing 3D/4D transperineal ultrasound imaging and interobserver reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siafarikas, F; Staer-Jensen, J; Braekken, I H; Bø, K; Engh, M Ellström

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the learning process for acquiring three- and four-dimensional (3D/4D) transperineal ultrasound volumes of the levator hiatus (LH) dimensions at rest, during pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction and on Valsalva maneuver, and for analyzing the ultrasound volumes, as well as to perform an interobserver reliability study between two independent ultrasound examiners. This was a prospective study including 22 women. We monitored the learning process of an inexperienced examiner (IE) performing 3D/4D transperineal ultrasonography and analyzing the volumes. The examination included acquiring volumes during three PFM contractions and three Valsalva maneuvers. LH dimensions were determined in the axial plane. The learning process was documented by estimating agreement between the IE and an experienced examiner (E) using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Agreement was calculated in blocks of 10 ultrasound examinations and analyzed volumes. After the learning process was complete the interobserver reliability for the technique was calculated between these two independent examiners. For offline analysis of the first 10 ultrasound volumes obtained by E, good to very good agreement between E and IE was achieved for all LH measurements except for the left and right levator-urethra gap and pubic arc. For the next 10 analyzed volumes, agreement improved for all LH measurements. Volumes that had been obtained by IE and E were then re-evaluated by IE, and good to very good agreement was found for all LH measurements indicating consistency in volume acquisition. The interobserver reliability study showed excellent ICC values (ICC, 0.81-0.97) for all LH measurements except the pubic arc (ICC = 0.67). 3D/4D transperineal ultrasound is a reliable technique that can be learned in a short period of time. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Study of distributed fiber-optic laser-ultrasound generation based on ghost-mode of tilted fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiajun; Zhang, Qi; Han, Ming

    2013-05-01

    Fiber-optic ultrasonic transducers are an important component of an active ultrasonic testing system for structural health monitoring. Fiber-optic transducers have several advantages such as small size, light weight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference that make them much more attractive than the current available piezoelectric transducers, especially as embedded and permanent transducers in active ultrasonic testing for structural health monitoring. In this paper, a distributed fiber-optic laser-ultrasound generation based on the ghost-mode of tilted fiber Bragg gratings is studied. The influences of the laser power and laser pulse duration on the laser-ultrasound generation are investigated. The results of this paper are helpful to understand the working principle of this laser-ultrasound method and improve the ultrasonic generation efficiency.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and calcaneal ultrasound parameters among Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland): a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Dodin, Sylvie; Pedersen, Henning S; Mulvad, Gert; Côté, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The traditional diet of Inuit people comprises large amounts of fish and marine mammals that are rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Results from in vitro studies, laboratory animal experiments and population studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA intake and a high omega-3/omega-6 ratio exert a positive effect on bone health. This longitudinal study was conducted to examine the relationship between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA status and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in Greenlandic Inuit women. The study included 118 Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland), aged 49-64 years, whose QUS parameters measured at baseline (year 2000), along with PUFA status and covariates, and follow-up QUS measurements 2 years later (year 2002). QUS parameters [speed of sound (SOS); broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)] were measured at the right calcaneus with a water-bath Lunar Achilles instrument. Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA contents of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids were measured after transmethylation by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Relationships between QUS parameters and different PUFAs were studied in multiple linear regression models. Increasing values of EPA, DHA and the omega-3/omega-6 PUFA ratio were associated with increased BUA values measured at follow-up (year 2002). These associations were still present in models adjusted for several confounders and covariates. We found little evidence of associations between PUFAs and SOS values. The omega-3 PUFA intake from marine food consumption seems to have a positive effect on bone intrinsic quality and strength, as revealed by higher BUA values in this group of Greenlandic Inuit women.

  14. Paciente quirúrgico con insuficiencia renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Trujillo Salgado

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una concisa revisión de los principales aspectos clínicos del paciente con insuficiencia renal crónica en relación con la cirugía y la anestesia, y se recorren tópicos vinculados al riesgo quirúrgico y la farmacología de las drogas anestésicas. Se ofrecen puntos de vista para discutir, entre las tendencias de la práctica especializada actualIt is made a detailed review of the main clinical aspects connected with surgery and anesthesia in patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Some topics dealing with surgical risk and pharmacology of the anesthetics are also approached. Different points of view about the trends of the present specialized practice are included to be discussed

  15. Insuficiencia dinámica, crecimiento y desempleo en México, 1974-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca L. Avendaño Vargas; Ignacio Perrotini Hernández

    2015-01-01

    El artículo presenta una reformulación de la hipótesis de insuficiencia dinámica de Prebisch (1970), analiza la teoría dinámica de Harrod (1939), la ley Kaldor-Verdoorn (Kaldor, 1966; 1967) y la teoría del crecimiento endógeno de Thirlwall (1969; 2000). A posterioriestudiamos los determinantes del crecimiento económico y del desempleo en México durante el periodo 1974-2012. Con base en el análisis empírico, sostenemos que una baja tasa de acumulación genera una reducida absorción de empleo, u...

  16. El estrés oxidativo en la insuficiencia renal asociada con hipertensión

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Ruiz, Danay; Fernández Caraballo, Douglas; Alfonso Rodríguez, Jesús; Ballesteros Hernández, Marianela

    2012-01-01

    En los últimos años, junto con los factores que podríamos llamar “clásicos” en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad renal (dígase anemia, hipertensión y diabetes), se considera que el estrés oxidativo sería otro factor a tener en cuenta en la patogénesis de la insuficiencia renal crónica progresiva. De hecho, el estrés oxidativo se ha señalado como un importante mediador patológico en muchas y muy diversas situaciones clínicas como la carcinogénesis, la arterioesclerosis, las enfermedades cardiova...

  17. Paciente quirúrgico con insuficiencia renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Trujillo Salgado

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una concisa revisión de los principales aspectos clínicos del paciente con insuficiencia renal crónica en relación con la cirugía y la anestesia, y se recorren tópicos vinculados al riesgo quirúrgico y la farmacología de las drogas anestésicas. Se ofrecen puntos de vista para discutir, entre las tendencias de la práctica especializada actualAn accurate review of the amin clinical aspects of the patient presenting with chronic kidney failure is made in relation to surgery and anesthesia placing emphasis on the topics related to surgical risk and pharmacology of anesthesic drugs. Different points of view to be discussed among the trends of the current specialized practice are also provided

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound elastography for evaluation of lymph nodes and pancreatic masses: a multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannini, Marc; Thomas, Botelberge; Erwan, Bories

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the ability of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography to distinguish benign from malignant pancreatic masses and lymph nodes. METHODS: A multicenter study was conducted and included 222 patients who underwent EUS examination with assessment of a pancreatic mass (n = 121) or lymph...... node (n = 101). The classification as benign or malignant, based on the real time elastography pattern, was compared with the classification based on the B-mode EUS images and with the final diagnosis obtained by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and/or by surgical pathology. An interobserver...... study was performed. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of EUS elastography to differentiate benign from malignant pancreatic lesions are 92.3% and 80.0%, respectively, compared to 92.3% and 68.9%, respectively, for the conventional B-mode images. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS...

  19. Prospective study of fetal hydronephrosis diagnosed by ultrasound- contribution to prevent renal damage in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eduardo A.; Cabral, Antonio Carlos V.; Leite, Henrique V.; Filgueiras, Teresa F.; Oliveira, Raquel B.B.; Vilasboas, Aranai S.; Tiburcio, Arthur E.L.; Diniz, Jose Silveiro S.

    1998-01-01

    Newborns with anomalies of the urinary tract detected by fetal echography were investigated. The purpose was to identify prevalent uropathies, clinical outcome and variables of prognostic significance in patients with fetal hydronephrosis. The patients were investigated by ultrasound, micturating cystourethrography and radionuclide imaging, after beginning of chemoprophylaxis. Renal function and urinary tract infection were also studied. Eight-three patients were included in this study, 54(65,1%) of these were boys. Postnatal predominant diagnosis were pelviureteric junction obstruction (3,3%) and multicytic kidney (15,7%). Follow-up average was 35 ± 2.5 months. Renal function deteriored in 8 children during follow-up. Worse prognosis was associated with prenatal diagnosis before third trimester of gestation, bilateral uropathy, oligohydrammios, abnormal palpable kidney or bladder, abnormal renal function on admission and urethral obstruction. (author)

  20. ‘Essential but not always available when needed’ – an interview study of physicians’ experiences and views regarding use of obstetric ultrasound in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Åhman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The value of obstetric ultrasound in high-income countries has been extensively explored but evidence is still lacking regarding the role of obstetric ultrasound in low-income countries. Objective: We aimed to explore experiences and views among physicians working in obstetric care in Tanzania, on the role of obstetric ultrasound in relation to clinical management. Design: A qualitative study design was applied. Data were collected in 2015, through 16 individual interviews with physicians practicing in obstetric care at hospitals in an urban setting in Tanzania. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Use of obstetric ultrasound in the management of complicated pregnancy was much appreciated by participating physicians, although they expressed considerable concern about the lack of ultrasound equipment and staff able to conduct the examinations. These limitations were recognized as restricting physicians’ ability to manage complications adequately during pregnancy and birth. Better availability of ultrasound was requested to improve obstetric management. Concerns were also raised regarding pregnant women's lack of knowledge and understanding of medical issues which could make counseling in relation to obstetric ultrasound difficult. Although the physicians perceived a positive attitude toward ultrasound among most pregnant women, occasionally they came across women who feared that ultrasound might harm the fetus. Conclusions: There seems to be a need to provide more physicians in antenatal care in Tanzania with ultrasound training to enable them to conduct obstetric ultrasound examinations and interpret the results themselves. Physicians also need to acquire adequate counseling skills as counseling can be especially challenging in this setting where many expectant parents have low levels of education. Providers of obstetric care and policy makers in Tanzania will need to take measures to ensure appropriate

  1. Effectiveness of using ultrasound therapy and manual therapy in the conservative treatment of calcaneal spur – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twarowska Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcaneal spur is a pathology of the fibrocartilage enthesis of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia or a pathology of the mixed enthesis of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle. Ultrasound therapy is commonly applied in the conservative treatment of a calcaneal spur. Foot muscle strengthening exercises, stretching exercises and soft tissue therapy are indicated as effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to compare and assess the effects of ultrasound therapy and selected techniques of manual therapy on pain level and functional state in patients with calcaneal spur.

  2. Mechanism study of multimode ultrasound pretreatment on the enzymolysis of wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Li, Jing; Li, Suyun; Ma, Haile; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment could improve the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hydrolysates of wheat gluten (WG). The working mode of ultrasound has an important effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. The results showed that the optimum working mode of ultrasound was alternate dual-frequency mode (20/35 kHz), substrate concentration was 30 g L -1 , initial temperature of the suspension was 30 °C, ultrasound pretreatment time was 10 min and power density was 150 W L -1 . Under optimised conditions, ACE inhibitory activity of WG hydrolysates reached to its maximum value in advance. The surface hydrophobicity (H 0 ) of WG and the content of small peptides at the beginning of the enzymolysis were improved by the ultrasound pretreatment. The structure of WG was destroyed by the ultrasound pretreatment. The enzymatic residue of ultrasound pretreated WG were damaged greater than control. It was concluded that alternate dual-frequency ultrasound pretreatment improved the ACE inhibitory activity. Ultrasonic pretreatment may loosen the tissue of WG aggregate, and help the enzyme alcalase to attack the interior of WG aggregate easily, which resulted in the release of low molecular weight peptides from WG aggregate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Simulation Study of Effects of the Blind Deconvolution on Ultrasound Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingwu; You, Junchen

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic image restoration is an essential subject in Medical Ultrasound Imaging. However, without enough and precise system knowledge, some traditional image restoration methods based on the system prior knowledge often fail to improve the image quality. In this paper, we use the simulated ultrasound image to find the effectiveness of the blind deconvolution method for ultrasound image restoration. Experimental results demonstrate that the blind deconvolution method can be applied to the ultrasound image restoration and achieve the satisfactory restoration results without the precise prior knowledge, compared with the traditional image restoration method. And with the inaccurate small initial PSF, the results shows blind deconvolution could improve the overall image quality of ultrasound images, like much better SNR and image resolution, and also show the time consumption of these methods. it has no significant increasing on GPU platform.

  4. Prospective study of ultrasound with perflutrene contrast compared to magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Schmillevitch

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:The incidence of hepatic hemangiomas ranges from 0.4% to 20% in the general population. Conventional ultrasound is usually the first diagnostic method to identify these hemangiomas, typically as an incidental finding. Ultrasonography with second generation contrast materials is being used in various areas of hepatology, yielding similar results to those obtained with computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between ultrasound with perflutrene contrast and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. METHODS: A total of 37 patients were prospectively examined between January 2006 and August 2008. A total of 57 hepatic nodules were documented in this group as incidental findings on routine ultrasound exams. The 37 patients were administered perflutrene contrast without adverse reactions, and were all submitted to magnetic resonance exams. RESULTS: Conventional ultrasound identified 15 patients with nodules typical of hemangiomas and 22 patients with other nodules. In 35 patients, the contrast characteristics were consistent with hepatic hemangiomas. CONCLUSION: Agreement between the data obtained from ultrasound with contrast and magnetic resonance was 94.5%. In discordant cases, the magnetic resonance diagnosis prevailed. In the case which presented indeterminate findings on contrast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance was repeated after 3 months, confirming the diagnosis of a hepatic hemangioma. A biopsy was performed on the suspected malignant nodule which also confirmed the presence of a hepatic hemangioma. Ultrasonography with contrast has the advantages of being more accessible to the public at large and lower cost than magnetic resonance. The results of our study highlight the need for a new protocol in hepatic nodules incidentally identified on conventional ultrasonography. In the case of typical hemangiomas

  5. Hyperthermia studies using inductive and ultrasound methods on E. coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral–Prieto, A., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.mx; López-Callejas, R., E-mail: regulo.lopez@inin.gob.mx; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G., E-mail: benjamin.rodriguez@inin.gob.mx; Santos-Cuevas, C. L., E-mail: clara.cuevas@inin.gob.mx [Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Celis-Almazán, J., E-mail: jony-jac-5@hotmail.com; Olea-Mejía, O., E-mail: oleaoscar@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable (Mexico); Gómez-Morales, J. L. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Peña-Eguiluz, R., E-mail: rosendo.eguiluz@inin.gob.mx; Valencia-Alvarado, R., E-mail: raul.valencia@inin.gob.mx; Mercado-Cabrera, A., E-mail: antonio.mercado@inin.gob.mx; Muñoz-Castro, A. E., E-mail: arturo.munoz@inin.gob.mx [Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); García-Santibañez, F., E-mail: fegasa2@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2017-11-15

    The survival of Escherichia coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells were studied under different temperatures using direct heating in water, ultrasound, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. The survival of these microorganisms depended on whether the heating mode was continuous or discontinuous, surviving more in the former than in the discontinuous heating mode. Whereas Escherichia coli bacteria did not survive at temperatures ≥50{sup ∘}C, the mouse glioma cells did not survive at temperatures ≥48{sup ∘}C. The survival of both these microorganisms was independent of the presence or absence of the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite, suggesting that these, having mean particle sizes of 9.5, 8.5 and 5, did not show any apparent cytotoxicity effect. Present results also showed that the inductive heating system which used a radiofrequency of 13.56 MHz, providing a maximum magnetic field strength of 160 A/m, the electric rather than magnetic heating predominated.

  6. Comparative study of the effect of ultrasound on the removal of intracanal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Resende, Leandro Marques; Vasconcellos, Walisom Arthuso; Paulino, Silvana Maria; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how ultrasound affected the removal of stainless steel and titanium posts that had been attached with two different resin cements. The crowns of 32 maxillary canines were removed, the roots were embedded in acrylic resin blocks, and the canals were treated endodontically. The specimens were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 16) according to the brand of cement and subdivided (n = 8) according to the type of post. The specimens were submitted to ultrasonic vibration applied perpendicularly to the long axis of the tooth for 60 seconds. Data were submitted to ANOVA and showed no significant statistical difference among the groups (p > 0.05). It may be concluded that the effects of ultrasonic vibration used to remove intraradicular posts were not significantly different when applied to stainless steel or titanium posts cemented with chemically or dual-activated resin cements.

  7. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  8. Ultrasound and microwave assisted synthesis of isoindolo-1,2-diazine: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Vasilichia; Mantu, Dorina; Mangalagiu, Ionel I

    2012-09-01

    A comparative study, ultrasound (US) versus microwave (MW) versus conventional thermal heating (TH), for synthesis of isoindolo-1,2-diazine is described. The reaction pathway is fast, efficient and straight applicable, involving a Huisgen [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition of cycloimmonium ylides to 1,4-naphthoquinone. A feasible reaction mechanism for the obtaining of the fully aromatized tetra- and penta- cyclic isoindolo-1,2-diazine is presented. Under US irradiation the yields are much higher (sometimes substantially, by almost double), the reaction time decreases substantially, the reaction conditions are milder. The use of a generator with a higher nominal power induces higher yields and short reaction times. Overall the use of US it proved to be more efficient than MW or TH. A feasible explication for US efficiency is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualization of the diaphragm muscle with ultrasound improves diagnostic accuracy of phrenic nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Utz, Michael; Patrick, Erica; Rheinwald, Nicole; Downs, Marlene; Dilek, Nuran; Dogra, Vikram; Logigian, Eric L

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of phrenic neuropathy (PN) with phrenic nerve conduction studies (PNCS) is associated with false negatives. Visualization of diaphragmatic muscle twitch with diaphragm ultrasound (DUS) when performing PNCS may help to solve this problem. We performed bilateral, simultaneous DUS-PNCS in 10 healthy adults and 12 patients with PN. The amplitude of the diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (on PNCS) and twitch (on DUS) was calculated. Control subjects had phrenic CMAP (on PCNS). In the 12 patients with PN, 12 phrenic neuropathies were detected. Three of these patients had either significant side-to-side asymmetry or absolute reduction in diaphragm movement that was not detected with PNCS. There were no cases in which the PNCS showed an abnormality but the DUS did not. The addition of DUS to PNCS enhances diagnostic accuracy in PN. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hyperthermia studies using inductive and ultrasound methods on E. coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral–Prieto, A.; López-Callejas, R.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; Santos-Cuevas, C. L.; Celis-Almazán, J.; Olea-Mejía, O.; Gómez-Morales, J. L.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; García-Santibañez, F.

    2017-01-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells were studied under different temperatures using direct heating in water, ultrasound, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. The survival of these microorganisms depended on whether the heating mode was continuous or discontinuous, surviving more in the former than in the discontinuous heating mode. Whereas Escherichia coli bacteria did not survive at temperatures ≥50"∘C, the mouse glioma cells did not survive at temperatures ≥48"∘C. The survival of both these microorganisms was independent of the presence or absence of the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite, suggesting that these, having mean particle sizes of 9.5, 8.5 and 5, did not show any apparent cytotoxicity effect. Present results also showed that the inductive heating system which used a radiofrequency of 13.56 MHz, providing a maximum magnetic field strength of 160 A/m, the electric rather than magnetic heating predominated.

  11. Conducción nerviosa en niños con insuficiencia renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Fuentes Martínez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available La polineuropatía urémica es la complicación neurológica más frecuente de la insuficiencia renal crónica, y son insuficientemente conocidos su prevalencia, síntomas y patrones neurofisiológicos de expresión en la población pediátrica. Es por ello que se estudiaron 23 pacientes en edades comprendidas entre 7 y 21 años, con insuficiencia renal crónica en sus diferentes grados y 23 niños supuestamente sanos, buscando la presencia de neuropatía periférica clínica o subclínica. Se realizó examen físico general y neurológico, así como la medición de las velocidades de conducción motora y sensitiva. Los síntomas predominantes fueron el dolor a la marcha (55,5 % y las parestesias (44,4 %, y fueron más frecuentes en el grupo de pacientes dialíticodependientes. La función nerviosa periférica estuvo alterada en todos los grupos estudiados, y existió correlación significativa entre la velocidad de conducción sensitiva y los valores medios de urea, creatinina y filtrado glomerular. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre las medias de la velocidad de conducción sensitiva de los niños de los grupos predialítico, dialíticodependiente y el grupo control, y entre los grupos predialítico y con transplante renal no existieron diferencias significativas.Uremic polyneuropathy is the most frequent neurological complication of the chronic renal failure but its prevalence, symptoms and neurophysiological patterns of expression in the pediatric population are not well known. This is the reason why 23 patients aged 7-21 years with chronic renal failure at different stages and 23 supposedly healthy children were studied to look for clinical or subclinical peripheral neuropathy. General physical and neurological exams were made and sensory and motor conduction velocities were measured. The prevailing symptoms were pain on walking(55,5% and paresthesias (44,4% mainly found in dialysis-dependent patients. All the studied groups

  12. The utility of intraoperative ultrasound in modified radical neck dissection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agcaoglu, Orhan; Aliyev, Shamil; Taskin, Halit Eren; Aksoy, Erol; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2014-04-01

    Although the value of surgeon-performed neck ultrasound (SPUS) for thyroid nodules has been validated, the utility of intraoperative ultrasound (US) in modified radical neck dissection (MRND) has not been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of intraoperative SPUS in assessing the completeness of MRND for thyroid cancer. Between 2007 and 2011, a total of 25 patients underwent MRND by 1 surgeon for thyroid cancer. All patients underwent intraoperative SPUS, which was repeated at the end of the neck dissection (completion US) to look for missed lymph nodes (LNs). There were 10 male and 15 female patients. Pathology included 23 papillary and 2 medullary carcinomas. The number of LNs removed per case was 23 ± 2, and the number of positive was LNs 5 ± 1. In 4 (16%) cases, intraoperative US detected 7 residual LNs, which would have been missed, if completion US were not done. These missed LNs were located in low-level IV (3 nodes), high-level II (2 nodes), and posterior level V (2 nodes) and measured 1.4 ± 0.2 cm. At follow-up, recurrence was seen in 2 (8%) patients, including a superior mediastinal recurrence in a patient with tall cell cancer and a jugular LN recurrence at level II in another patient with papillary thyroid cancer. This pilot study shows that intraoperative SPUS can help assess the completeness of MRND. According to our results, intraoperative completion US identifies LNs missed by palpation 16% of the time.

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  14. MRI, PET/CT and ultrasound in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancer - A multicenter prospective comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Jensen, Lisa Neerup; Loft, Annika

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of PET/CT, MRI and transvaginal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) in the preoperative assessment of endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: 318 consecutive women with EC were included when...

  15. Tiopental sódico en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica y sin esta: Estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Trujillo Salgado

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron 56 expedientes clínicos con los protocolos de anestesiología de 26 pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC y de 30 pacientes considerados sanos. Fueron variables para estudio, edad, sexo, peso corporal en kilogramos, hemoglobina, tensiones arteriales sistólica y diastólica, frecuencia cardíaca, complicaciones posinducción y las dosis de tiopental sódico en miligramos por kilogramos. Se utilizó análisis de varianza. Fueron significativas las variaciones con p Fifty six medical histories with the anesthesiology protocols of 26 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF and of 30 sound patients were reviewed. Age, sex, body weight in kg, haemoglobine, systolic and diastolic arterial tensions, heart rate, postinduction complications, and thiopental sodium doses in mg x kg were the variables used in this study. The variance analysis was used. Variations with p < 0,05 were significant. The sample was divided into patients without CRF (group I and with CRF (group II. There were no differences between the thiopental sodium anesthetic doses of both groups (4,59 + 3,88 mg/kg, group I and 5,89 + 4,15 mg/kg, group II. Arterial tension descended more in patients from group II as a result of anesthesia induction. This variation did not mean a greater incidence of hypotension between both groups (16,6 % in I and 15,3 % in II. It is concluded that in our enviroment the necessary dose of thiopental sodium to induce anesthesia in patients with and without CRF was not statistically different. However, the fal of arterial tensions was more important in group II. It is recommended to take more precaution in the administration of thiopental sodium to these patients

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  18. Breast ultrasound elastography-Results of 193 breast lesions in a prospective study with histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Heer, I.; Schaefer, P.J.; Mundhenke, C.; Osterholz, S.; Order, B.M.; Hofheinz, N.; Hedderich, J.; Heller, M.; Jonat, W.; Schreer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound elastography in breast masses. Material and methods: 193 lesions (129 benign, 64 malignant) were analyzed with the EUB 8500 Logos-ultrasonic-unit (Hitachi Medical, Japan) and a linear-array-transducer of 7.5-13-MHz. Standard of reference was cytology (FNAfine needle aspiration) or histology (core biopsy). The elastic-score was classified according to a 6-point colour-scale (Ueno classification; 1-3 = benign, 4-5 = malignant). Conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. Statistical analysis included sensitivity, specificity, ROC-analysis and kappa-values for intra-/interobserver reliability. Results: The mean score for elasticity was 4.1 ± 0.9 for malignant lesions, and 2.1 ± 1.0 for benign lesions (p < 0.001). With a best cut-off point between elasticity scores 3 and 4, sensitivity was 96.9%, and specificity 76%. Setting a best cut-off point for conventional US between BI-RADS 4 and 5, sensitivity was 57.8%, and specificity 96.1%. Elastography provided higher sensitivity and lower specificity than conventional US, but two lesions with elasticity score 1 were false negative, whereas no lesion scored BI-RADS 1-3 were false negative. ROC-curve was 0.884 for elastography, and 0.820 for conventional US (p < 0.001). Weighted kappa-values for intra-/interobserver reliability were 0.784/0.634 for BI-RADS classification, and 0.720/0.561 for elasticity scores. Conclusion: In our study setting, elastography does not have the potential to replace conventional B-mode US for the detection of breast cancer, but may complement conventional US to improve the diagnostic performance.

  19. [Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, C; Crespo-Eguílaz, N; Alcázar, J L; Narbona, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to knowledge of the normal spontaneous motor behavior of the human fetus during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study focuses on five patterns of spontaneous fetal movement: startle (S), axo-rhizomelic rhythmia (ARR), axial stretching (AS), general movement (GM), and diaphragmatic contraction (DC). A cohort of 13 subjects was followed up using 2D obstetrical ultrasound images at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of gestation. As inclusion criteria, neonatal neurological examination and general movements after eutocic delivery at term were normal in all of the subjects, and their neuromotor and cognitive development until the end of pre-school age were also normal. All these five motor patterns are present at the beginning of the 2(nd) gestational trimester, but their quantitative and qualitative traits are diverse according to gestational ages. The phasic, isolated or rhythmically repeated movements, S and ARR, are prominent at 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, and then their presence gradually diminishes. By contrast, tonic and complex AS and GM movements increase their presence and quality at 20 and 24 weeks. RAR constitute a particular periodic motor pattern not described in previous literature. Moreover, the incidence of DC is progressive throughout the trimester, in clusters of 2-6 arrhythmic and irregular beats. Fetal heart rate increases during fetal motor active periods. All five normal behavioral patterns observed in the ultrasounds reflect the progressive tuning of motor generators in human nervous system during mid-pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Formulation and acoustic studies of a new phase-shift agent for diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2011-09-06

    Recent efforts in the area of acoustic droplet vaporization with the objective of designing extravascular ultrasound contrast agents has led to the development of stabilized, lipid-encapsulated nanodroplets of the highly volatile compound decafluorobutane (DFB). We developed two methods of generating DFB droplets, the first of which involves condensing DFB gas (boiling point from -1.1 to -2 °C) followed by extrusion with a lipid formulation in HEPES buffer. Acoustic droplet vaporization of micrometer-sized lipid-coated droplets at diagnostic ultrasound frequencies and mechanical indices were confirmed optically. In our second formulation methodology, we demonstrate the formulation of submicrometer-sized lipid-coated nanodroplets based upon condensation of preformed microbubbles containing DFB. The droplets are routinely in the 200-300 nm range and yield microbubbles on the order of 1-5 μm once vaporized, consistent with ideal gas law expansion predictions. The simple and effective nature of this methodology allows for the development of a variety of different formulations that can be used for imaging, drug and gene delivery, and therapy. This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate both a method of generating ADV agents by microbubble condensation and formulation of primarily submicrometer droplets of decafluorobutane that remain stable at physiological temperatures. Finally, activation of DFB nanodroplets is demonstrated using pressures within the FDA guidelines for diagnostic imaging, which may minimize the potential for bioeffects in humans. This methodology offers a new means of developing extravascular contrast agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. A Pilot Comparative Study of Quantitative Ultrasound, Conventional Ultrasound, and MRI for Predicting Histology-Determined Steatosis Grade in Adult Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Jeremy S; Bernstein, Gregory S; Heba, Elhamy; Costa, Eduardo A C; Fereirra, Marilia; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C; Valasek, Mark A; Lin, Grace Y; Han, Aiguo; Erdman, John W; O'Brien, William D; Andre, Michael P; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the diagnostic performance of two investigational quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient, in comparison with conventional ultrasound (CUS) and MRI-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for predicting histology-confirmed steatosis grade in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this prospectively designed pilot study, 61 adults with histology-confirmed NAFLD were enrolled from September 2012 to February 2014. Subjects underwent QUS, CUS, and MRI examinations within 100 days of clinical-care liver biopsy. QUS parameters (attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient) were estimated using a reference phantom technique by two analysts independently. Three-point ordinal CUS scores intended to predict steatosis grade (1, 2, or 3) were generated independently by two radiologists on the basis of QUS features. PDFF was estimated using an advanced chemical shift-based MRI technique. Using histologic examination as the reference standard, ROC analysis was performed. Optimal attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and PDFF cutoff thresholds were identified, and the accuracy of attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient, PDFF, and CUS to predict steatosis grade was determined. Interobserver agreement for attenuation coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and CUS was analyzed. CUS had 51.7% grading accuracy. The raw and cross-validated steatosis grading accuracies were 61.7% and 55.0%, respectively, for attenuation coefficient, 68.3% and 68.3% for backscatter coefficient, and 76.7% and 71.3% for MRI-estimated PDFF. Interobserver agreements were 53.3% for CUS (κ = 0.61), 90.0% for attenuation coefficient (κ = 0.87), and 71.7% for backscatter coefficient (κ = 0.82) (p hepatic steatosis grade in patients with NAFLD.

  2. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  3. Thermal therapy for breast tumors by using a cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning: a preliminary numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C-S; Ju, K-C; Cheng, T-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Lin, W-L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a 1 MHz cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning to produce uniform heating for breast tumor thermal therapy. The breast was submerged in water and surrounded by the cylindrical ultrasound phased array. A multifocus pattern was generated and electrically scanned by the phased array to enlarge the treatment lesion in single heating. To prevent overheating normal tissues, a large planning target volume (PTV) would be divided into several planes with several subunits on each plane and sequentially treated with a cooling phase between two successive heatings of the subunit. Heating results for different target temperatures (T tgt ), blood perfusion rates and sizes of the PTV have been studied. Furthermore, a superficial breast tumor with different water temperatures was also studied. Results indicated that a higher target temperature would produce a slightly larger thermal lesion, and a higher blood perfusion rate would not affect the heating lesion size but increase the heating time significantly. The acoustic power deposition and temperature elevations in ribs can be minimized by orienting the acoustic beam from the ultrasound phased array approximately parallel to the ribs. In addition, a large acoustic window on the convex-shaped breast surface for the proposed ultrasound phased array and the cooling effect of water would prevent the skin overheating for the production of a lesion at any desired location. This study demonstrated that the proposed cylindrical ultrasound phased array can provide effective heating for breast tumor thermal therapy without overheating the skin and ribs within a reasonable treatment time

  4. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  5. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Jacobson, H; Ngobese, Z E; Setzen, R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. A feasibility study. Gynaecological department in a teaching hospital in South Africa. Premenopausal women with uterus fibroids. Twenty-six patients with 53 fibroids who underwent USgHIFU treatment were enrolled. The USgHIFU treatment information was recorded, including treatment time, sonication time and total energy. Adverse events were also observed and recorded during and after treatment. Safety and efficacy of USgHIFU for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. The median volume of fibroids was 52.7 (interquartile range, 18.6-177.4) cm 3 . According to USgHIFU treatment plan, total energy of 298.6 ± 169.3 kJ (range, 76.0-889.2) within treatment time of 90.3 ± 43.3 minutes (range, 14.0-208.0), in which sonication time of 774.0 ± 432.9 seconds (range, 190.0-2224.0) was used to ablate fibroids. The average ablation rate was 80.6 ± 9.7% (range, 46.5-94.5%). During the procedure, 69.2% of the patients reported lower abdominal pain, 57.7% sciatic/buttock pain, 38.5% burning skin, and 34.6% transient leg pain. No severe complications were observed. USgHIFU is feasible and safe to use to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. Multiple uterine fibroids are more frequently detected in Black women. USgHIFU is feasible and safe for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Conducción nerviosa en niños con insuficiencia renal crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Dania Fuentes Martínez; Roberto Tomás Álvarez Fumero; Olga Noemí Levis; Carlos Santos Anzorandia; Ricardo Batista Moliner

    2002-01-01

    La polineuropatía urémica es la complicación neurológica más frecuente de la insuficiencia renal crónica, y son insuficientemente conocidos su prevalencia, síntomas y patrones neurofisiológicos de expresión en la población pediátrica. Es por ello que se estudiaron 23 pacientes en edades comprendidas entre 7 y 21 años, con insuficiencia renal crónica en sus diferentes grados y 23 niños supuestamente sanos, buscando la presencia de neuropatía periférica clínica o subclínica. Se realizó examen f...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not use any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  15. Cavernous hemangioma of liver: a comparative study of MRI and color Doppler ultrasound (with 58 case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhiyong; Xu Weidong; Wang Jiazhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate MRI and the color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of liver. Methods: In total 58 patients with hemangioma of liver underwent dynamic enhanced MRI and the color Doppler ultrasound examination. The imaging manifestations obtained by both modalities were comparatively studied. Result: Highly echoic lesions were revealed in 36 cases out of 58; low echoic lesions were noted in 8; and in 14 cases the tumors were of mixed echoic. On T 1 WI the lesions were hypo- or slightly hypo-intense; while on T 2 WI they were hyper- or slightly hyper-intense. The nidi were hyper-intense on T 2 WI of CRE array. On enhanced scan the lesions were quickly fully enhanced in 25 cases out of 58. Peripheral nodular enhancement was seen in 19 cases, and centered spreading enhancement was demon- strated in 14 cases. On delayed scan remarkable homogenous enhancement was observed in all cases. Conclusion: The bigger size has the hemangioma, the smaller highly echoic proportion and bigger mixed echoic or poorly echoic proportion will be found within the lesions. More peripheral nodular enhancement will be revealed on enhanced MRI scan when the tumor size is getting larger, in which the proportion of quickly fully enhancement will decrease gradually. Ultrasound is better than MRI in the evaluation of the liver hemangioma smaller than 3 cm in diameter. MRI is superior to color Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing the lesion larger' than 3 cm in diameter. (authors)

  16. Comparative study between radiology and ultrasound in the evaluation of extracardiac thoracic diseases in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmara Turbay Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study compared radiographic and B-mode and Doppler ultrasound exams of the thoracic cavity, excluding the heart, in canine and feline species, in which the radiographs revealed the formation of a potential acoustic window. The objectives were to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of each technique and to determine whether the additional information influenced the differential diagnosis as well as the outcome of each case. The advantages of B-mode ultrasonography included: better qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pleural effusions, an improved ability to determine whether a nodule was solid or cystic and easier determination of the location in the pulmonary parenchyma. The Power Doppler ultrasound evaluated the blood supply pattern of the nodules and masses and differentiated between vessels and fluid bronchogram. A limitation of the ultrasound examination was the need to be guided by the previous radiography. The advantages of the radiographic examination included the possibility of localizing pulmonary lesions at any depth in the absence of a pleural effusion and providing a panoramic view of the extent of the thoracic disease. The ultrasound examination influenced the differential diagnosis in 18 (62.06% cases and influenced the outcome of 8 (27.58% cases.

  17. 336. Insuficiencia mitral y cirugía aórtica asociadas en la tercera edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Moriones

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: A la insuficiencia mitral en la tercera edad se presentó con una alta incidencia de la etiología funcional no quirúrgica; b la cirugía univalvular mitral o aórtica se realizó sólo en una cuarta parte de los pacientes, y c la baja mortalidad observada favorece la indicación de cirugía en estos pacientes.

  18. Factores asociados a insuficiencia renal postoperatoria en cirugía de revascularización miocárdica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert F. Guerrero B.

    2016-05-01

    Conclusiones: En quienes se realizó revascularización miocárdica los factores asociados a la presentación de insuficiencia renal postoperatoria fueron comorbilidades que se relacionaron con daño renal progresivo dentro y fuera del contexto de la cirugía. Esto implica que las estrategias para minimizar este evento estarán enfocadas a identificar de manera oportuna a estos pacientes y proporcionarles nefroprotección adecuada.

  19. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  20. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    2010-01-01

    New ultrasound techniques for blood flow estimation have been investigated in-vivo. These are vector velocity estimators (Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane Wave Excitation) and adaptive spectral estimators (Blood spectral Power Capon and Blood...

  1. Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound as Preoperative Localization Study in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginhoven, T. M.; Morks, A. N.; Schepers, T.; de Graaf, P. W.; Smit, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for single-gland primary hyperparathyroidism. However, the exact location of the abnormal gland has to be established. Sestamibi scintigraphy, computed tomography and ultrasound (US) are commonly used modalities. We describe

  2. High resolution three-dimensional robotic synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound imaging: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Fang, Ting Yun; Finocchi, Rodolfo; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging is becoming a standard mode for medical ultrasound diagnoses. Conventional 3D ultrasound imaging is mostly scanned either by using a two dimensional matrix array or by motorizing a one dimensional array in the elevation direction. However, the former system is not widely assessable due to its cost, and the latter one has limited resolution and field-of-view in the elevation axis. Here, we propose a 3D ultrasound imaging system based on the synthetic tracked aperture approach, in which a robotic arm is used to provide accurate tracking and motion. While the ultrasound probe is moved by a robotic arm, each probe position is tracked and can be used to reconstruct a wider field-of-view as there are no physical barriers that restrict the elevational scanning. At the same time, synthetic aperture beamforming provides a better resolution in the elevation axis. To synthesize the elevational information, the single focal point is regarded as the virtual element, and forward and backward delay-andsum are applied to the radio-frequency (RF) data collected through the volume. The concept is experimentally validated using a general ultrasound phantom, and the elevational resolution improvement of 2.54 and 2.13 times was measured at the target depths of 20 mm and 110 mm, respectively.

  3. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of stable oil in milk emulsion: Study of operating parameters and scale-up aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Leena; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, application of ultrasound and stirring individually or in combination for improved emulsification of turmeric oil in skimmed milk has been investigated. The effect of different operating parameters/strategies such as addition of surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), at different concentrations, quantity of oil phase, applied power, sonication time and duty cycle on the droplet size have been investigated. The stability of emulsion was analyzed in terms of the fraction of the emulsion that remains stable for a period of 28days. Optimized set of major emulsification process variables has been used at higher emulsion volumes. The effectiveness of treatment approach was analyzed based on oil droplet size, energy density and the time required for the formation of stable emulsion. It was observed that the stable emulsion at 50mL capacity with mean droplet diameter of about 235.4nm was obtained with the surfactant concentration of 5mg/mL, 11% of rated power (power density: 0.31W/mL) and irradiation time of 5min. The emulsion stability was higher in the case of ultrasound assisted approach as compared to the stirring. For the preparation of stable emulsion at 300mL capacity, it was observed that the sequential approach, i.e., stirring followed by ultrasound, gave lower mean droplet diameter (232.6nm) than the simultaneous approach, i.e., ultrasound and stirring together (257.9nm). However, the study also revealed that the simultaneous approach required very less time (15min) to synthesize stable emulsion as compared to the sequential approach (30min stirring and 60min ultrasound). It was successfully demonstrated that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification in the presence of SDS could be used for the preparation of stable turmeric oil-dairy emulsions, also providing insights into the role of SDS in increasing the stability of emulsions and of ultrasound in giving lower droplet sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Gijs A. G. M.; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s-1) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D ultrasound

  5. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Gijs A G M; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Hansen, Hendrik H G; De Korte, Chris L; Milkowski, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s −1 ) and by three protocols: Go–Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go–Return (similar to Go–Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go–Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNR e and SNR e ) than Go–Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go–Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go–Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to

  6. Ultrasound therapy for recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, William J; Foremann, Phil; Mozen, Neal; Massey, Joi; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Meneses, Patricio

    2005-08-01

    An estimated 15% of patients with diabetes will develop a foot ulcer sometime in their life, making them 30 to 40 times more likely to undergo amputation due to a non-healing foot ulcer than the non-diabetic population. To determine the safety and efficacy of a new, non-contact, kilohertz ultrasound therapy for the healing of recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers - as well as to evaluate the impact on total closure and quantitative bacterial cultures and the effect on healing of various levels of sharp/surgical debridement - a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in hospital-based and private wound care clinics. Patients (55 met criteria for efficacy analysis) received standard of care, which included products that provide a moist environment, offloading diabetic shoes and socks, debridement, wound evaluation, and measurement. The "therapy" was either active 40 KHz ultrasound delivered by a saline mist or a "sham device" which delivered a saline mist without the use of ultrasound. After 12 weeks of care, the proportion of wounds healed (defined as complete epithelialization without drainage) in the active ultrasound therapy device group was significantly higher than that in the sham control group (40.7% versus 14.3%, P = 0.0366, Fisher's exact test). The ultrasound treatment was easy to use and no difference in the number and type of adverse events between the two treatment groups was noted. Of interest, wounds were debrided at baseline followed by a quantitative culture biopsy. The results of these cultures demonstrated a significant bioburden (greater than 10(5)) in the majority of cases, despite a lack of clinical signs of infection. Compared to control, this therapeutic modality was found to increase the healing rate of recalcitrant, diabetic foot ulcers.

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology in Korea: targeted ultrasound initiative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taeyoung; Wakefield, Richard J; Emery, Paul

    2016-04-01

    In collaboration with the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI), to conduct the first study in Korea to investigate current practices in ultrasound use among Korean rheumatologists. We translated the TUI Global Survey into Korean and added questions to better understand the specific challenges facing rheumatologists in Korea. To target as many rheumatologists in Korea as possible, we created an on-line version of this survey, which was conducted from March to April 2013. Rheumatologists are in charge of ultrasound in many Korean hospitals. Rheumatologists in hospitals and private clinics use ultrasound to examine between one and five patients daily; they use ultrasound for diagnosis more than monitoring and receive compensation of about US$30-50 per patient. There are marked differences in the rates of ultrasound usage between rheumatologists who work in private practice compared with tertiary hospitals. Korean rheumatologists not currently using ultrasound in their practice appear eager to do so. This survey provides important insights into the current status of ultrasound in rheumatology in Korea and highlights several priorities; specifically, greater provision of formal training, standardization of reporting and accrual of greater experience among ultrasound users. If these needs are addressed, all rheumatology departments in Korea are likely to use ultrasound or have access to it in the future. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Study of Ultrasound Cavitation and Its Effect on Solidification Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Jiawei; Tan, Dongyue; Lee, Tung Lik (Hull)

    2014-12-11

    Considerable progress has been made in studying the mechanism and effectiveness of using ultrasound waves to manipulate the solidification microstructures of metallic alloys. However, uncertainties remain in both the underlying physics of how microstructures evolve under ultrasonic waves, and the best technological approach to control the final microstructures and properties. We used the ultrafast synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging facility housed at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, US to study in situ the highly transient and dynamic interactions between the liquid metal and ultrasonic waves/bubbles. The dynamics of ultrasonic bubbles in liquid metal and their interactions with the solidifying phases in a transparent alloy were captured in situ. The experiments were complemented by the simulations of the acoustic pressure field, the pulsing of the bubbles, and the associated forces acting onto the solidifying dendrites. The study provides more quantitative understanding on how ultrasonic waves/bubbles influence the growth of dendritic grains and promote the grain multiplication effect for grain refinement.

  9. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA and speed of sound (SOS as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960 were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and total hip (TH BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p -4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD = 0.07, p = 0.032 but not BUA (β(SD = 0.02, p = 0.505 and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77 also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD = -0.22, p = 0.014, FN (β(SD = -0.31,p = 0.001 and TH (β(SD = -0.36, p = 0.002 in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL

  10. Growth speed in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing to renal transplantation between 2000 and 2009 in the Hospital Nacional de Ninos: research protocol; Velocidad de crecimiento en pacientes con insuficiencia renal cronica sometidos a trasplante renal entre el ano 2000 y el 2009 en el Hospital Nacional de Ninos: protocolo de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo Molina, Ana Victoria

    2013-07-01

    The growth speed was investigated in children with chronic renal failure after renal transplantation, in the Hospital Nacional de Ninos during the study period January 2000-December 2009. Factors that have influenced are analyzed: age of onset of renal disease, etiology of renal disease, metabolic acidosis, anemia, renal osteodystrophy, episodes of infection and rejection. Besides, on the growth rate and expected family size, to intervene or prevent them in future cases. Also, the use that has given in the hospital to growth hormone, before and after renal transplantation is determined to eventually use parallel therapies to the transplantation. An echocardiographic study is recommended to perform as part of the treatment of chronic renal failure to identify the existence of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, which may occur as a result of complications of the failure [Spanish] La velocidad del crecimiento fue investigada en ninos con insuficiencia renal cronica despues del transplante renal, en el Hospital Nacional de Ninos durante el periodo de estudio enero 2000-diciembre 2009. Factores que han influido son analizados: edad de inicio de la enfermedad renal, etiologia de la enfermedad renal, la acidosis metabolica, la anemia, la osteodistrofia renal, los episodios de infecciones y rechazos. Ademas, sobre la velocidad de crecimiento y la talla familiar esperada, para intervenir en ellos o prevenirlos en casos futuros. Tambien, el uso que se ha dado en el hospital a la hormona de crecimiento, tanto antes como despues del transplante renal es determinado para eventualmente utilizar terapias paralelas al transplante, fueron determinadas. Un estudio ecocardiografico es recomendado realizar como parte del tratamiento de la insuficiencia renal cronica para identificar la existencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda e insuficiencia cardiaca, que pueden ocurrir como consecuencia de las complicaciones de la insuficiencia.

  11. Hippocampal development at gestation weeks 23 to 36. An ultrasound study on preterm neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ewald, Uwe [Uppsala University, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    During fetal development, the hippocampal structures fold around the hippocampal sulcus into the temporal lobe. According to the literature, this inversion should be completed at gestation week (GW) 21. Thereafter, the hippocampal shape should resemble the adult shape. However, incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is found in 19% of the common population. The aim of this study was to study fetal hippocampal development by examining neonates born preterm. We analyzed cranial ultrasound examinations, performed as a part of the routine assessment of all preterm infants, over a 3-year period and excluded the infants with brain pathology. The final material consisted of 158 children born <35 GW. A rounded form (the ratio between the horizontal and vertical diameters of the hippocampal body {<=}1) in coronal slices was considered the sign of IHI. The age at examination was 23-24 GW in 24 neonates, 25-28 GW in 70 neonates, and 29-36 GW in 64 neonates. IHI was found in 50%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. The difference between the neonates <25 GW and {>=}25 GW was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The frequency of bilateral IHI was highest in the youngest age group. In the other groups, the left-sided IHI was the most common. In about 50% of the neonates, hippocampal inversion is not completed up to GW 24; but from 25 GW onwards, the frequency and laterality of IHI is similar to that in the adult population. (orig.)

  12. Ultrasound-guided block of sciatic and femoral nerves: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Sonja; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Eichenberger, Urs; Rohrbach, Helene

    2014-04-01

    The sheep is a popular animal model for human biomechanical research involving invasive surgery on the hind limb. These painful procedures can only be ethically justified with the application of adequate analgesia protocols. Regional anaesthesia as an adjunct to general anaesthesia may markedly improve well-being of these experimental animals during the postoperative period due to a higher analgesic efficacy when compared with systemic drugs, and may therefore reduce stress and consequently the severity of such studies. As a first step 14 sheep cadavers were used to establish a new technique for the peripheral blockade of the sciatic and the femoral nerves under sonographic guidance and to evaluate the success rate by determination of the colorization of both nerves after an injection of 0.5 mL of a 0.1% methylene blue solution. First, both nerves were visualized sonographically. Then, methylene blue solution was injected and subsequently the length of colorization was measured by gross anatomical dissection of the target nerves. Twenty-four sciatic nerves were identified sonographically in 12 out of 13 cadavers. In one animal, the nerve could not be ascertained unequivocally and, consequently, nerve colorization failed. Twenty femoral nerves were located by ultrasound in 10 out of 13 cadavers. In three cadavers, signs of autolysis impeded the scan. This study provides a detailed anatomical description of the localization of the sciatic and the femoral nerves and presents an effective and safe yet simple and rapid technique for performing peripheral nerve blocks with a high success rate.

  13. SGEM Hot Off the Press: ultrasound during critical care simulation: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Paul; Thoma, Brent; Milne, Ken; Bond, Chris

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine's (CJEM) developing social media strategy, 1 we are collaborating with the Skeptics' Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) to summarize and critically appraise the current emergency medicine (EM) literature using evidence-based medicine principles. In the "Hot Off the Press" series, we select original research manuscripts published in CJEM to be featured on the SGEM website/podcast 2 and discussed by the study authors and the online EM community. A similar collaboration is underway between the SGEM and Academic Emergency Medicine. What follows is a summary of the selected article the immediate post-publication synthesis from the SGEM podcast, commentary by the first author, and the subsequent discussion from the SGEM blog and other social media. Through this series, we hope to enhance the value, accessibility, and application of important, clinically relevant EM research. In this, the third SGEM HOP hosted collaboratively with CJEM, we discuss Olszynski et al.'s randomized crossover study evaluating the use of ultrasound simulator devices during critical care simulation. 3.

  14. Physiological Responses and Gene Expression in Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayam G Sayyed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB has come into wider use as a regional anesthetic during upper limb operations. This study assessed the neurological and hemodynamic changes and gene expression after co-administration of midazolam or neostigmine with bupivacaine during supraclavicular BPB. Methods: The study involved 90 adults divided into three groups: control (bupivacaine, midazolam (bupivacaine plus midazolam, and neostigmine (bupivacaine plus neostigmine. Blood samples were taken and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR, and oxidative stress markers were identified. In addition to the hemodynamic variables, the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockades, duration of analgesia, pain scores, time of first request for an analgesic, and amounts of analgesics ingested were evaluated. Results: Compared with the control and neostigmine groups, the midazolam group experienced longer sensory and motor blockades, prolonged analgesia, lower pain scores at 12 h and 24 h, and lower need for postoperative analgesics. Moreover, the midazolam group exhibited lower oxidative stress markers with a higher fold change in IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels. Conclusion: Midazolam co-administered with bupivacaine provided better analgesic quality than did neostigmine with bupivacaine. This might be due to its superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Tolerance of low-frequency ultrasound sonophoresis: a double-blind randomized study on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruani, Annabel; Vierron, Emilie; Machet, Laurent; Giraudeau, Bruno; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Boucaud, Alain

    2012-05-01

    Sonophoresis [low-frequency ultrasound (US)] has been used in animals and in vitro to investigate enhanced percutaneous absorption of drugs. No study focused on its clinical human tolerance has been published as yet. We aimed to assess the bioeffects of low-frequency US in vivo on human skin in a double-blind randomized-controlled study. We applied pulse-mode US at 36 kHz for 5 min in a step procedure of increasing dosage, from 1.57 to 3.50 W/cm(2), and placebo. The primary outcome was toxic effects of the procedure, defined as a pain score >40 on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale or necrosis. Erythema (scored from 0 to 3 in severity) was also evaluated. The secondary outcomes were measurements of skin thickness by high-resolution skin imaging, of skin capacitance and temperature. We included 34 healthy volunteers. We found no pain score >38 and no skin necrosis with either US or placebo. Erythema was systematically observed immediately after US application, but after 1 day, we observed three cases in the knee group. The most frequent adverse effect was tinnitus. We observed no marked increase in temperature or cutaneous thickness after US or placebo. Cutaneous capacitance increased immediately after both applications. Such data demonstrating good tolerance of sonophoresis can be useful before the initiation of a clinical trial of the therapeutic use of low-frequency sonophoresis in humans. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Study of an ultrasound-based process analytical tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavegn, Martin; Douglas, Ryan; Akkermans, Guy; Kuentz, Martin

    2011-08-01

    There are currently no adequate process analyzers for nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This article aims to evaluate ultrasonic resonator technology as a monitoring tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate gels. Aqueous dispersions of colloidal microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and a mixture of clay particles with xanthan gum were compared with colloidal silicon dioxide in oil. The processing was conducted using a laboratory-scale homogenizing vessel. The study investigated first the homogenization kinetics of the different systems to focus then on process factors in the case of colloidal MCC. Moreover, rheological properties were analyzed offline to assess the structure of the resulting gels. Results showed the suitability of ultrasound velocimetry to monitor the homogenization process. The obtained data were fitted using a novel heuristic model. It was possible to identify characteristic homogenization times for each formulation. The subsequent study of the process factors demonstrated that ultrasonic process analysis was equally sensitive as offline rheological measurements in detecting subtle manufacturing changes. It can be concluded that the ultrasonic method was able to successfully assess homogenization of nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This novel technique can become a vital tool for development and production of pharmaceutical suspensions in the future. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Preliminary studies on premature rickets of infants by high-frequency probe ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ming'an; Xu Zushan; Tang Zhongjuan; Song Jing; Liu Jie; Li Qiang; Gong Huafang; Bi Haijing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ultrasound appearance of premature rickets in infants, and to assess the diagnostic value of high-frequency probe in the disease. Methods:Ultrasonography was performed in R-No 4 rib and distal radioulnar metaphysis in 123 rickets infants diagnosed by clinical examination (the diagnosis standard adopted the rickets diagnose standard revised by the rickets research, prevention and cure group of China in 1999)and in 30 normal infants diagnosed by clinical examination as the control group. Results: The high-frequency probe could clearly visualize the modification of every part in ribs and distal radioulnar metaphysis. Compared with that of the normal control group, ultrasound showed individually the signs and symptoms such as separation, bone bark elongation, and bone bark warp in the engagement of periosteum and perichondrium in rickets group. The incidences of bone bark elongation were separately 18.7% (23 cases) in ulna, 10.6% (13 cases) in radius, and 41.5% (51 cases) in rib; The incidences of bone bark warp were separately 4.9% (6 cases) in ulna, 2.4% (3 cases) in radius, and 18.7% (23 cases) in rib. The results of chi-square test showed that both the incidences of bone bark elongation and bone bark warp between the rib and the ulna and radius had significant difference (P < 0.01). The incidences of incomplete calcification in the edge of the provisional calcification zone were 96.75% (119 cases) in ulna and 69.29% (84 cases) in radius, respectively (Ridit test, P < 0.01). The incidences of incomplete calcification inside the provisional calcification zone were 42.28% (52 cases) in ulna and 60.16% (74 cases) in radius, respectively (Radit test, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Study on every modification of premature rickets by high-frequency probe will help to determine the status and degree of calciprivia at earlier stages, and thereby to increase the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasonography

  18. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Timothy E; Neumayer, Leigh A; Factor, Rachel E; Ellefson, Christina L; Sorensen, Kristina M; Ambrose, Brady J; Goodrich, Jeffrey B; Hart, Vern P; Jensen, Scott C; Patel, Hemang

    2011-01-01

    In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz) can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each pathology type from the other four using a multivariate

  19. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Vern P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. Results The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each

  20. Pilot study: safety and effectiveness of simple ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablating uterine leiomyoma with a diameter greater than 10 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruijie; Wang, Liwei; Li, Shaoping; Rong, Fengmin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Qin, Xuena; Wang, Shijin

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to prospectively investigate whether uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter could be treated with simple ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) in one-time treatment. A total of 36 patients with 36 symptomatic uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter who underwent simple USgHIFU treatment alone were analysed. Enhanced MRI was performed before and after HIFU treatment, and all patients had follow-up for 6 months after treatment. Symptom severity scores, treatment time, treatment speed, ablation rate, energy effect ratio, uterine leiomyoma regression rate, adverse events, liver and kidney functions, coagulation function and routine blood count were included in the study endpoints. The mean diameter of uterine leiomyoma was 11.2 ± 1.3 cm (10.0-14.3 cm). The median treatment time and treatment speed were 104.0 min (90.0-140.0 min) and 118.8 cm 3  h -1  (86.2-247.1 cm 3  h -1 ), respectively. The ablation rate of uterine leiomyoma was 71.9 ± 20.4% (32.1-100.0%), and the regression rate of uterine leiomyoma was 40.8 ± 7.5% (25.6-59.9%) at 6 months after treatment. The mean symptom severity scores decreased by an average of approximately 8.6 ± 2.3 (5-14) points. There were no significant changes in haemogram and blood chemical indexes of patients, except for the transient elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and white blood cells after treatment. No serious adverse reactions occurred. According to our preliminary results, simple USgHIFU is a safe and effective single-treatment method of treating uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter and is an almost innocuous alternative therapeutic strategy. Advances in knowledge: The conclusions indicate simple USgHIFU is safe and effective as one-time treatment of uterine leiomyoma greater than 10 cm in diameter, it could be a promising therapeutic strategy.

  1. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): an ex vivo feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n = 43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 28). Two-dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10 s, 20 s and 30 s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11 W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and passive cavitation detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δϕ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite the expectedly chaotic changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property changes throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with

  2. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of minimumlumen area and intimal hyperplasia in in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting or bare-metal stent implantation. The Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vikman, Saila; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    presenting with a DES or bare-metal stent (BMS) in-stent restenosis. Methods: The ``Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)'' study was conducted in Nordic and Baltic countries as a prospective multicenter registry. Two hundred nine patients (DES n = 121 and BMS n = 88) with instent restenosis were...

  3. Reporte de insuficiencia renal producida por Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Pomona en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Ospino

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la presentación de un caso de leptospirosis producida por L. pomona en un paciente de 20 años de edad, trabajadora habitual en un molino de arroz y caracterizado por un síndrome de insuficiencia renal y hepática. El cuadro clínico consistió principalmente en malestar general, anorexia, vómito, fiebre, diarrea, ictericia y hemorragias subconjuntivales. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron alteraciones, en los niveles de nitrógeno ureico, creatinina, depuración de creatinina, concentración de cloro, fosfatasa alcalina y bilirrubina directa lo cual podría indicar un daño en el funcionamiento hepático y renal. Las alteraciones en la velocidad de sedimentación, hemoglobina, hematocrito y leucocitos (Tabla 1 explican la anemia e infección ocasionada por la L. pomona en la paciente. El diagnóstico de leptospirosis fue confirmado por el aislamiento del microorganismo de la orina a pesar de no haber detectado anticuerpos en el suero de la paciente. Se pone en evidencia la necesidad de realizar siempre el diagnóstico diferencial con leptospirosis en todo síndrome hepatorrenal, especialmente en los casos con antecedentes epidemiológicos o que por la sintomatología clínica se sospeche la infección.

  4. La terapia celular como tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardíaca crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta hace poco tiempo se pensaba que el miocardio era un tejido sin capacidad de regeneración. El descubrimiento de progenitores celulares en el corazón de mamíferos adultos y la evidencia científica de que la reparación cardíaca existe han cambiado esta creencia, abriendo una nueva vía de investigación en el tratamiento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Durante años, circunscrita al ámbito de la investigación básica y de los ensayos preclínicos, esta nueva línea de investigación se ha trasladado al ámbito clínico, donde se están desarrollando ensayos en humanos para evaluar la seguridad, factibilidad y eficacia de dicha terapia celular en la regeneración miocárdica. En esta revisión nos centraremos en la terapia celular de la insuficiencia cardíaca crónica en humanos, recogiendo los antecedentes, tipos de células y vías de administración, así como los principales ensayos clínicos publicados hasta el momento.

  5. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex. Similarly, fetal ultrasound isn't recommended solely for the purpose of producing keepsake videos or pictures. If your health care provider doesn' ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ... well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning may be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is located directly in front of the rectum, so the ultrasound exam is performed transrectally in order ... A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ... make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is smaller than the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A protective cover is placed ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on ... the child prior to the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are reviewed. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? For ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. If a Doppler ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... diagnose symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the Obstetrical Ultrasound page for more information . ... move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such ... and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  18. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... frequently used to evaluate the reproductive and urinary systems. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ... and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... be asked to drink water prior to the examination to fill your bladder. Leave jewelry at home ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... tip of the transducer is smaller than the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A ... both sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs ... or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the exam. Bringing books, small toys, music or games can help to distract the child and make ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the examination process. To ensure a smooth experience, it often helps to explain the procedure to the ... on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule found during ... difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such as the ... tumors other disorders of the urinary bladder In children, pelvic ultrasound can help evaluate: pelvic masses pelvic ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a more in-depth investigation of the uterine cavity . Three-dimensional (3-D) ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... quickly. The ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms experienced by women such as: pelvic pain abnormal vaginal bleeding other menstrual problems Ultrasound exams also ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... The ultrasound exam room may have a television. Feel free to ask for your child's favorite channel. ... performed over an area of tenderness, you may feel pressure or minor pain from the transducer. Once ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovarian cysts and uterine fibroids ovarian or uterine cancers A transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to view ... detect: uterine anomalies uterine scars endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? In women, a pelvic ultrasound ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses ... women, a pelvic ultrasound exam can help identify: kidney stones bladder tumors other disorders of the urinary ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls of the uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a ... and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and an ultrasound probe ... will share the results with you. In some cases, the radiologist may discuss results with you at ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound also evaluates the myometrium (muscular walls of the uterus). Sonohysterography allows for a more ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... pain ambiguous genitalia and anomalies of pelvic organs early or delayed puberty in girls Pelvic ultrasound is ... sensitive to motion, and an active or crying child can prolong the examination process. To ensure a ...

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that ... the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  20. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on metallic implants: a study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoğlu, Barış; Cabukoglu, Cengiz; Ozeras, Nadire; Seyhan, Mustafa; Karahan, Mustafa; Yalcin, Selim

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether therapeutic ultrasound (US) use over metallic implants has the potential for adverse effects as a result of greater temperature increases at the tissue-metal interface. A randomized controlled trial. A research laboratory. Sprague-Dawley rats (N=40; weight, 230-300g) were used and divided into 3 study groups. In group 1, both limbs of 10 rats were used for evaluation of temperature changes. Metal pins were placed into the femur of the left limb, and the right limbs were used as controls. A thermal sensor was placed into the medulla to record the elevation of tissue temperature during US application. In groups 2 and 3 with 15 rats in each, a midshaft femoral fracture was produced, and intramedullary fixation was performed with metal pins. Group 2 received US treatment for 5 minutes daily and continued for 27 days. Group 3 served as controls. The rats in groups 2 and 3 were killed on postoperative day 30. The specimens were evaluated by radiology, histopathology, and biomechanics. The presence of metal in bone did not cause an increased temperature rise. US application did not increase or decrease callus formation, and there was no tissue necrosis. The average removal torques of pins in groups did not show a significant difference. Internal fixation with metallic implants may not be a contraindication for therapeutic US treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Feasibility of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound During Uterine Artery Embolization: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenberg, Eric J.; Jakobsen, Jarl A.; Brabrand, Knut; Hafsahl, Geir; Smith, Hans-Jorgen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during uterine artery embolization (UAE) in order to define the correct end-point of embolization with complete devascularization of all fibroids. Methods. In this prospective study of 10 consecutive women undergoing UAE, CEUS was performed in the angiographic suite during embolization. When the angiographic end-point, defined as the 'pruned-tree' appearance of the uterine arteries was reached, CEUS was performed while the angiographic catheters to both uterine arteries were kept in place. The decision whether or not to continue the embolization was based on the findings at CEUS. The results of CEUS were compared with those of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 day as well as 3 months following UAE. Results. CEUS was successfully performed in all women. In 4 cases injection of particles was continued based on the findings at CEUS despite angiographically complete embolization. CEUS imaging at completion of UAE correlated well with the findings at MRI. Conclusion. The use of CEUS during UAE is feasible and may increase the quality of UAE

  2. Differences in liver stiffness values obtained with new ultrasound elastography machines and Fibroscan: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Salvatore, Veronica; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Cantisani, Vito; Colecchia, Antonio; Di Donato, Roberto; Felicani, Cristina; Ferrarini, Alessia; Gamal, Nesrine; Grasso, Valentina; Marasco, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Elena; Ravaioli, Federico; Ruggieri, Giacomo; Serio, Ilaria; Sitouok Nkamgho, Joules Fabrice; Serra, Carla; Festi, Davide; Schiavone, Cosima; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Whether Fibroscan thresholds can be immediately adopted for none, some or all other shear wave elastography techniques has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the concordance of the findings obtained from 7 of the most recent ultrasound elastography machines with respect to Fibroscan. Sixteen hepatitis C virus-related patients with fibrosis ≥2 and having reliable results at Fibroscan were investigated in two intercostal spaces using 7 different elastography machines. Coefficients of both precision (an index of data dispersion) and accuracy (an index of bias correction factors expressing different magnitudes of changes in comparison to the reference) were calculated. Median stiffness values differed among the different machines as did coefficients of both precision (range 0.54-0.72) and accuracy (range 0.28-0.87). When the average of the measurements of two intercostal spaces was considered, coefficients of precision significantly increased with all machines (range 0.72-0.90) whereas of accuracy improved more scatteredly and by a smaller degree (range 0.40-0.99). The present results showed only moderate concordance of the majority of elastography machines with the Fibroscan results, preventing the possibility of the immediate universal adoption of Fibroscan thresholds for defining liver fibrosis staging for all new machines. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on changes in body surface temperature and thermal effect according to ultrasound mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, as the number of high-risk pregnancies increases, the use of new techniques such as Doppler, which have higher acoustic power than in the past, has been increasingly used in prenatal diagnosis and guidelines have been set up by various organizations to prevent excessive exposure. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the temperature change of the body surface for each test mode according to the long time ultrasound examination and to examine the exposure time which is not influenced by the thermal effect. B mode, C mode, and PD mode according to time, and the temperature difference between exposed and unexposed sites were compared. As a result, the B mode showed a significant difference in the temperature change from 10 minutes, 50 minutes after exposed, 20 minutes from the C mode, and 30 minutes from the PD mode (p<0.01). In all three modes, the temperature difference was different(p<0.000), and PD mode was the most sensitive to temperature change. Also, it was found that the temperature rise time was shortened with the increase of the ultrasonic exposure time. Therefore, it is recommended that ultrasonography to observe the embryo or fetus should be used only for diagnostic purposes, avoiding excessive test time.

  4. Use of transvaginal ultrasound in females with primary bladder neck obstruction. A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikiela Galica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: The video-urodynamics study is the principal exam to establish a possible primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO condition. While trans-rectal ultrasonography plays an important role in the evaluation of the low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and the severity of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO in men, the use of the transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS in women with symptoms suggesting BOO remains unclear. We tried to check the utility of the TVUS in women with PBNO condition. Material and methods: We selected female patients which presented BOO without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. According to the data of the video-urodynamic exam we selected the patients with the suspicion of PBNO. A TVUS in basal and during micturition was performed before and after surgery. Results: TVUS showed a closed bladder neck bladder in basal condition and during micturition similarly to the fluoroscopic image during video-urodynamics. The mean distance from bladder neck to the vaginal mucosa resulted 1.3 cm in this patients. Conclusions: TVUS results worthy in the evaluation of patients with PBNO before and after surgery.

  5. Primary chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities: preoperative color duplex Doppler ultrasound study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selfa, S.; Diago, T.; Ricart, M.; Chulia, R.; Martin, F.

    2000-01-01

    To asses the role of color duplex Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the preoperative study of patients with varicose veins in lower extremities. We employed CDU to examine varicose veins in 342 lower limbs, assessing reflux in saphenous veins (SV), deep venous system (DVS) and perforating veins (PV). We analyzed the relationship between the anatomical extent of the reflux and the clinical findings. Insufficiency of the superficial venous system alone was uncommon, occurring in only 10.8% of the limbs examined. Reflux was observed in SV and PV in 48.2% of the legs. It was detected in all three systems in 29.2% of cases. The presence of reflux in more than one system and more than one value was associated with increased clinical severity. The site of venous reflux in lower extremities with varicose veins varies. Greater clinical severity is observed in the presence of more marked reflux in the DVS and PV. CDU provides anatomic and functional data on the three venous systems of the lower limbs, allowing an individualized therapeutic surgery. Preoperative localization of incompetent PV by means of CDU facilities their ligation. CDU is the technique of choice for the preoperative examination of the venous systems of patients with varicose veins. (Author)

  6. Novel ultrasound-guided inter-semispinal plane block: a comparative pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgoshi, Yuichi; Nishizakura, Ryo; Takahashi, Yuki; Takeda, Keisuke; Nakayama, Hirosuke; Kawamata, Mariko; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2018-02-01

    We previously reported that a novel multifidus cervicis plane (MCP) block could anesthetize the dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves. While MCP sonoanatomy is easily detectable in most patients, it is sometimes difficult to recognize the MCP injection plane, especially in elderly patients. Thus, we proposed the inter-semispinal plane (ISP) block as an alternative for the MCP block. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the ISP block by evaluating the area and duration of anesthesia, compared with that of the MCP block in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant underwent unilateral ultrasound-guided MCP block and ISP block. For each block, 20 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% was injected, and the area of anesthesia was determined using the pinprick test. The anesthetic area ranged from C4 to T2 (3/8; 37.5%), T3 (2/8; 25%), or T4 (3/8; 37.5%) in the MCP block, and from C4 to T1 (1/8; 12.5%), T2 (3/8; 37.5%), T3 (2/8; 25%), or T4 (1/8; 12.5%) in the ISP block. The mean (standard deviation) duration of sensory loss following MCP and ISP blocks was 329 (77) min and 349 (70) min, respectively. Thus, the ISP block may be a reliable alternative to the MCP block.

  7. A prospective study of computed tomography, ultrasound, and gallium imaging in patients with fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, B.J.; Sanders, R.; Alderson, P.O.; Hessel, S.J.; Finberg, H.; Siegelman, S.S.; Adams, D.F.; Abrams, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomography, ultrasound, and 67 Ga-citrate imaging were analyzed prospectively in patients thought to have a focal source of sepsis. They were divided into three groups: (a) postoperative, fever greater than or equal to 38.3 degrees C; (b) fever greater than or equal to 38.3 degrees C for less than four weeks, unrelated to surgery; and (c) any fever present for more than four weeks. ROC curves showed no significant difference in the ability of the three modalities to differentiate focal from nonfocal sources of sepsis. If any two examinations were used and either study was abnormal, the sensitivity increased from about 60% to nearly 90% while the false-positive rate increased from about 15% to 25%. When focal disease was diagnosed only if two examinations were abnormal, the false-positive ratio dropped to nearly zero but the sensitivity fell to below 40%. The authors concluded tha all three modalities have a similar ability to detect sepsis and that sensitivity can be increased by using any two of them

  8. The combination of ultrasound with antibiotics released from bone cement decreases the viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria: an in vitro study with clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, Geert T; Neut, Daniëlle; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2006-12-01

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are used for the permanent fixation of joint prostheses. Antibiotic-loaded cements significantly decrease the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the viability of bacteria derived from patients with a prosthesis-related infection could be further decreased when antibiotic release from bone cements was combined with application of pulsed ultrasound. Escherichia coli ATCC 10798, Staphylococcus aureus 7323, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS 7368 and CoNS 7391) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5148 were grown planktonically in suspension and as a biofilm on three different bone cements: Palacos R without gentamicin as control, gentamicin-loaded Palacos R-G and gentamicin/clindamycin-loaded Copal. The viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria was measured in the absence and presence of pulsed ultrasound for 40 h. Ultrasound itself did not affect bacterial viability. However, application of pulsed ultrasound in combination with antibiotic release by antibiotic-loaded bone cements yielded a reduction of both planktonic and biofilm bacterial viability compared with antibiotic release without application of ultrasound. This study shows that antibiotic release in combination with ultrasound increases the antimicrobial efficacy further than antibiotic release alone against a variety of clinical isolates. Application of ultrasound in combination with antibiotic release in clinical practice could therefore lead to better prevention or treatment of prosthesis-related infections.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Out-of-Plane vs. In-Plane Interscalene Catheters: A Randomized, Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenk, Eric S.; Gandhi, Kishor; Baratta, Jaime L.; Torjman, Marc; Epstein, Richard H.; Chung, Jaeyoon; Vaghari, Benjamin A.; Beausang, David; Bojaxhi, Elird; Grady, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous interscalene blocks provide excellent analgesia after shoulder surgery. Although the safety of the ultrasound-guided in-plane approach has been touted, technical and patient factors can limit this approach. We developed a caudad-to-cephalad out-of-plane approach and hypothesized that it would decrease pain ratings due to better catheter alignment with the brachial plexus compared to the in-plane technique in a randomized, controlled study. Objectives: To compare an out-...

  10. Small arteries can be accurately studied in vivo, using high frequency ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1993-01-01

    We have validated measurements of diameters of the superficial temporal artery and other small arteries in man with a newly developed 20 MHz ultrasound scanner with A, B and M-mode imaging. The diameter of a reference object was 1.202 mm vs. 1.205 mm as measured by stereomicroscopy (nonsignifican......-gauge plethysmography (nonsignificant). Pulsations were 4.6% in the radial artery. We conclude that high frequency ultrasound provides an accurate and reproducible measure of the diameter of small and medium sized human arteries in vivo....

  11. Community ultrasound. A study of the factors influencing transfer into primary care in the context of a shift in service provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, V.

    1999-01-01

    Background: An ultrasound service has properties, which make it an attractive proposition as a community service in line with Government strategy. This transfer is a unique opportunity to study the change in the light of Government reforms to the National Health Service. Objectives: To identify the issues that are important when the transfer of ultrasound into a community setting is considered. To develop knowledge about the views of the users and providers of ultrasound services in relation to a community-based ultrasound service. To enhance understanding of the forces acting upon the decision process about the transfer of ultrasound into a community setting. Design: The study began by addressing qualitatively the views of eight focus groups from the major providers and users involved in the transfer of ultrasound into the community. Two of the key issues addressed in the focus groups were the criteria for successful transfer of the service and the perceived problems. Having identified the relevant areas via theme analysis, a questionnaire was developed and 1167 users and providers of ultrasound were approached to obtain a regional view. Results: There was good response with 353 health professionals and 495 patients completing the questionnaire. A suitable service suggested by the sample was either a low risk obstetric or gynaecology service, located at a Health Centre or a GP Surgery and staffed by radiographers. Three issues identified as important to the transfer of ultrasound were the maintenance of 'good communication links', 'provision of a high quality service' and making sure 'staff were appropriately trained'. Guidelines have been developed to assist in the transfer of decision-making process. Conclusion: Overall the health professionals rated ultrasound as suitable for community service, and the patients were happy to use such a service. However, there were concerns held by hospital clinicians that should be heeded. (author)

  12. On a computational study for investigating acoustic streaming and heating during focused ultrasound ablation of liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovchuk, Maxim A.; Sheu, Tony W.H.; Thiriet, Marc; Lin, Win-Li

    2013-01-01

    The influences of blood vessels and focused location on temperature distribution during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of liver tumors are studied numerically. A three-dimensional acoustics-thermal-fluid coupling model is employed to compute the temperature field in the hepatic cancerous region. The model construction is based on the linear Westervelt and bioheat equations as well as the nonlinear Navier–Stokes equations for the liver parenchyma and blood vessels. The effect of acoustic streaming is also taken into account in the present HIFU simulation study. Different blood vessel diameters and focal point locations were investigated. We found from this three-dimensional numerical study that in large blood vessels both the convective cooling and acoustic streaming can considerably change the temperature field and the thermal lesion near blood vessels. If the blood vessel is located within the beam width, both acoustic streaming and blood flow cooling effects should be addressed. The temperature rise on the blood vessel wall generated by a 1.0 MHz focused ultrasound transducer with the focal intensity 327 W/cm 2 was 54% lower when acoustic streaming effect was taken into account. Subject to the applied acoustic power the streaming velocity in a 3 mm blood vessel is 12 cm/s. Thirty percent of the necrosed volume can be reduced, when taking into account the acoustic streaming effect. -- Highlights: • 3D three-field coupling physical model for focused ultrasound tumor ablation is presented. • Acoustic streaming and blood flow cooling effects on ultrasound heating are investigated. • Acoustic streaming can considerably affect the temperature distribution. • The lesion can be reduced by 30% due to the acoustic streaming effect. • Temperature on the blood vessel wall is reduced by 54% due to the acoustic streaming effect

  13. Assessment of portal venous system patency in the liver transplant candidate: A prospective study comparing ultrasound, microbubble-enhanced colour Doppler ultrasound, with arteriography and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.M.; Beese, R.C.; Muiesan, P.; Sarma, D.I.; O'Grady, J.; Sidhu, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of microbubble-enhanced colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in assessing portal venous patency prior to liver transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 2-year period, all patients with chronic liver disease undergoing routine pre-transplant CDUS examination in whom the portal venous system was inadequately demonstrated were recruited to the study. CDUS was performed in 368 patients and 33 patients (9%) were recruited. A repeat CDUS examination following an intravenous bolus injection of the microbubble contrast agent Levovist[reg] (Schering Healthcare AG, Berlin, Germany) was performed. Diagnostic confidence was recorded on a free linear analogue scale for both examinations. Findings were compared with indirect portography and surgery. RESULTS: Of the 33 patients with sub-optimal baseline examinations, improvement in portal vein visualization was achieved in 31 patients (94%). Median diagnostic confidence increased from 50% (interquartile range 30-60) to 90% (interquartile range 75-98) (P < 0.001) following administration of Levovist[reg]. Overall accuracy of portal vein assessment using microbubble-enhanced CDUS in 15 patients in whom a definitive diagnosis was made within 2 months was 87%. CONCLUSION: Microbubble-enhanced CDUS is a simple, inexpensive adjunct to standard pre liver transplant screening of the portal vein. It is particularly helpful in patients with end-stage cirrhosis who are at high risk of portal vein thrombosis and in whom the conventional examination is sub-optimal.Marshall, M.M. et al. (2002)

  14. The influence of external ultrasound on the histologic architecture of the organic capsule around smooth silicone implants: experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F H; Viterbo, F; DeLucca, L

    2008-05-01

    Capsular contracture is the main complication related to breast silicone implants, and its prevention remains a medical challenge. The authors present experimental research examining the effect of external ultrasound on the formation and contracture of peri-implant capsules. In this study, 42 male Wistar rats had a 2-mm smooth surface implant placed in a dorsal submuscular pocket. They then were separated into "ultrasound" and "control" groups that received repeated external applications either with or without the ultrasound power on. Ultrasound applications were given three times a week for a period of 90 days. After that, both groups were housed under the same conditions with no application scheduled. Five animals of each group, killed at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days, had their implants removed along with the capsule, which received a special histologic preparation via annular sectioning that provided wide circumferential observation of the capsular tissue. Sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin stain, Masson's trichrome stain, and Pricrosirius Red stain for regular microscopic evaluation under normal and polarized light. Histologic data showed that capsules from the ultrasound and control groups had statistically significant differences. Ultrasound application developed a capsular architecture similar to that shown within textured silicone implants, and its effect had an early definition with subsequent stabilization. The authors conclude that early and repeated external ultrasound application enhances the thickness, cellular count, and vascularity of smooth silicone capsular tissue, whereas it diminishes the pattern of parallel orientation of collagen fibers.

  15. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to screen for brain conditions associated with prematurity, such as bleeding or brain tissue damage as ... or crying child will slow the examination process. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound, ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... kidneys. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  20. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Doppler Ultrasound Triggering for Cardiovascular MRI at 3T in a Healthy Volunteer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kording, Fabian; Yamamura, Jin; Lund, Gunnar; Ueberle, Friedrich; Jung, Caroline; Adam, Gerhard; Schoennagel, Bjoern Philip

    2017-04-10

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may be influenced by electromagnetic interferences with increasing magnetic field strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Doppler ultrasound (DUS) as an alternative trigger technique for CMR in comparison to ECG and pulse oximetry (POX) at 3T and using different sequence types. Balanced turbo field echo two-dimensional (2D) short axis cine CMR and 2D phase-contrast angiography of the ascending aorta was performed in 11 healthy volunteers at 3T using ECG, DUS, and POX for cardiac triggering. DUS and POX triggering were compared to the reference standard of ECG in terms of trigger quality (trigger detection and temporal variability), image quality [endocardial blurring (EB)], and functional measurements [left ventricular (LV) volumetry and aortic blood flow velocimetry]. Trigger signal detection and temporal variability did not differ significantly between ECG/DUS (I = 0.6) and ECG/POX (P = 0.4). Averaged EB was similar for ECG, DUS, and POX (p ECG/DUS = 0.4, p ECG/POX = 0.9). Diastolic EB was significantly decreased for DUS in comparison to ECG (P = 0.02) and POX (P = 0.04). The LV function assessment and aortic blood flow were not significantly different. This study demonstrated the feasibility of DUS for gating human CMR at 3T. The magnetohydrodynamic effect did not significantly disturb ECG triggering in this small healthy volunteer study. DUS showed a significant improvement in diastolic EB but could not be identified as a superior trigger method. The potential benefit of DUS has to be evaluated in a larger clinical patient population.

  2. The impact of breast cancer biological subtyping on tumor size assessment by ultrasound and mammography - a retrospective multicenter cohort study of 6543 primary breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Roland Gregor; Wollschläger, Daniel; Kreienberg, Rolf; Janni, Wolfgang; Wischnewsky, Manfred; Diessner, Joachim; Stüber, Tanja; Bartmann, Catharina; Krockenberger, Mathias; Wischhusen, Jörg; Wöckel, Achim; Blettner, Maria; Schwentner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Mammography and ultrasound are the gold standard imaging techniques for preoperative assessment and for monitoring the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Maximum accuracy in predicting pathological tumor size non-invasively is critical for individualized therapy and surgical planning. We therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of tumor size measurement by ultrasound and mammography in a multicentered health services research study. We retrospectively analyzed data from 6543 patients with unifocal, unilateral primary breast cancer. The maximum tumor diameter was measured by ultrasound and/or mammographic imaging. All measurements were compared to final tumor diameter determined by postoperative histopathological examination. We compared the precision of each imaging method across different patient subgroups as well as the method-specific accuracy in each patient subgroup. Overall, the correlation with histology was 0.61 for mammography and 0.60 for ultrasound. Both correlations were higher in pT2 cancers than in pT1 and pT3. Ultrasound as well as mammography revealed a significantly higher correlation with histology in invasive ductal compared to lobular cancers (p < 0.01). For invasive lobular cancers, the mammography showed better correlation with histology than ultrasound (p = 0.01), whereas there was no such advantage for invasive ductal cancers. Ultrasound was significantly superior for HR negative cancers (p < 0.001). HER2/neu positive cancers were also more precisely assessed by ultrasound (p < 0.001). The size of HER2/neu negative cancers could be more accurately predicted by mammography (p < 0.001). This multicentered health services research approach demonstrates that predicting tumor size by mammography and ultrasound provides accurate results. Biological tumor features do, however, affect the diagnostic precision

  3. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ji, Tianlong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Iordachita, Iulian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A. [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  4. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai; Ji, Tianlong; Iordachita, Iulian; Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  5. A study of pipe flow rate measurement using air-coupled ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Keisuke; Tsuzuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2013-01-01

    A non-contact flow meter employing air-coupled ultrasound is developed in this research. Ultrasonic flow meter is applied to the higher accuracy flow rate measurement, compared with pressure difference flow meter. However, ultrasonic flow meter has difficulty to measure in severe conditions such as in the condition of high temperature, high pressure condition, and radioactive materials in fluid. Especially, in high temperature condition, piezoelectric device in ultrasonic sensors lose the piezoelectricity, and it becomes difficult to transmit or detect ultrasound. Thus, in this research, ultrasonic sensors are fixed in the air. Ultrasonic sensors transmit and detect ultrasound through air, and measure the flow rate in the pipe. However, most of ultrasound is refracted and reflected at the boundaries between air and the pipe. And detected signals are weak. To increase the signal level, we developed focusing ultrasonic sensors that was optimized for the pipe flow measurement. And employing these focusing sensors the flow rate measurement has been done in order to evaluate the air-coupled ultrasonic flow meter by the ultrasonic beam focusing technique. (author)

  6. Classification of prostate cancer grade using temporal ultrasound: in vivo feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Sahar; Imani, Farhad; Khallaghi, Siavash; Gibson, Eli; Khojaste, Amir; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gomez, Jose A.; Siemens, D. Robert; Leveridge, Michael; Chang, Silvia; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2016-03-01

    Temporal ultrasound has been shown to have high classification accuracy in differentiating cancer from benign tissue. In this paper, we extend the temporal ultrasound method to classify lower grade Prostate Cancer (PCa) from all other grades. We use a group of nine patients with mostly lower grade PCa, where cancerous regions are also limited. A critical challenge is to train a classifier with limited aggressive cancerous tissue compared to low grade cancerous tissue. To resolve the problem of imbalanced data, we use Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) to generate synthetic samples for the minority class. We calculate spectral features of temporal ultrasound data and perform feature selection using Random Forests. In leave-one-patient-out cross-validation strategy, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.74 is achieved with overall sensitivity and specificity of 70%. Using an unsupervised learning approach prior to proposed method improves sensitivity and AUC to 80% and 0.79. This work represents promising results to classify lower and higher grade PCa with limited cancerous training samples, using temporal ultrasound.

  7. Ultrasound assessment for grading structural tendon changes in supraspinatus tendinopathy: an inter-rater reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarbæk, John; Eshøj, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of measuring structural changes in the tendon of patients, clinically diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy (cases) and healthy participants (controls), on ultrasound (US) images captured by standardised procedures. Methods A total of 40 participant...

  8. Glenohumeral joint injection: a comparative study of ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided techniques before MR arthrography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.; Collins, J.M.; Maresch, B.J.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Janssen, C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Jager, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the variability in accuracy of contrast media introduction, leakage, required time and patient discomfort in four different centres, each using a different image-guided glenohumeral injection technique. Each centre included 25 consecutive patients. The ultrasound-guided anterior (USa) and

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound elastography for evaluation of lymph nodes and pancreatic masses: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marc; Thomas, Botelberge; Erwan, Bories; Christian, Pesenti; Fabrice, Caillol; Benjamin, Esterni; Geneviève, Monges; Paolo, Arcidiacono; Pierre, Deprez; Robert, Yeung; Walter, Schimdt; Hanz, Schrader; Carl, Szymanski; Christoph, Dietrich; Pierre, Eisendrath; Jean-Luc, Van Laethem; Jacques, Devière; Peter, Vilmann; Andrian, Saftoiu

    2009-04-07

    To evaluate the ability of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography to distinguish benign from malignant pancreatic masses and lymph nodes. A multicenter study was conducted and included 222 patients who underwent EUS examination with assessment of a pancreatic mass (n = 121) or lymph node (n = 101). The classification as benign or malignant, based on the real time elastography pattern, was compared with the classification based on the B-mode EUS images and with the final diagnosis obtained by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and/or by surgical pathology. An interobserver study was performed. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS elastography to differentiate benign from malignant pancreatic lesions are 92.3% and 80.0%, respectively, compared to 92.3% and 68.9%, respectively, for the conventional B-mode images. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS elastography to differentiate benign from malignant lymph nodes was 91.8% and 82.5%, respectively, compared to 78.6% and 50.0%, respectively, for the B-mode images. The kappa coefficient was 0.785 for the pancreatic masses and 0.657 for the lymph nodes. EUS elastography is superior compared to conventional B-mode imaging and appears to be able to distinguish benign from malignant pancreatic masses and lymph nodes with a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. It might be reserved as a second line examination to help characterise pancreatic masses after negative EUS-FNA and might increase the yield of EUS-FNA for lymph nodes.

  10. Ultrasound investigation of vastus medialis oblique muscle architecture: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelina, S; Antonios, T; Robertson, C J; Killingback, A; Adds, P J

    2014-10-01

    There is thought to be a link between vastus medialis oblique (VMO) architecture and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Historical data are largely derived from older populations, whereas PFPS commonly affects younger populations. The aim of this study was to gather data on VMO architecture in young asymptomatic adults, to provide baseline values for comparison with symptomatic sufferers. VMO maximum fiber angle and insertion ratio were measured with ultrasound. The insertion ratio represents the proportion (%) of the patella which has the muscle fibers attaching to its medial border. Eighty knees from 40 healthy young subjects (18 males, 22 females, and age 20-30) were assessed. Individual Tegner scores were recorded to assess participants' level of physical activity. Results were compared with data in the literature for PFPS sufferers and normal older individuals. Mean fiber angle and insertion ratio were 56.6° and 57.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between age groups. The insertion ratio was higher among females (61.2% F:53.6% M). There was some evidence of increased fiber angle and decreased insertion ratio with increased Tegner score. There was some overlap in fiber angle between healthy knees in this study and values reported elsewhere for pathological knees. VMO fiber angle and insertion ratio are not age-related. The overlap in fiber angle values between healthy and pathological knees suggests that the cause of PFPS is multifactorial. An individual's VMO architecture may be affected by their physical activity level, which could have important implications for PFPS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cervical gland area as an ultrasound marker for prediction of preterm delivery: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajiheh Marsoosi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and it might be predicted by assessing the cervical change. Objective: To assess the association between absence of cervical gland area (CGA and spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 200 singleton pregnant women with a history of SPTL, second-trimester abortion in the previous pregnancy or lower abdominal pain in current pregnancy. Each patient underwent one transvaginal ultrasound examination between 14-28 wk of gestation. Cervical length was measured and CGA was identified and their relationship with SPTL before 35 and 37 wk gestation was evaluated using STATA software version 10. Results: The mean of cervical length was 36.5 mm (SD=8.4, the shortest measurement was 9 mm, and the longest one was 61 mm. Short cervical length (≤18mm was significantly associated with SPTL before 35 and 37 wk gestation. Cervical gland area (the hypoechogenic or echogenic area around the cervical canal was present in 189 (94.5% patients. Absent of CGA had a significant relationship with SPTL before 35 and 37 wk gestation (p=0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. Cervical length was shorter in women with absent CGA in comparison with subjects with present CGA: 37±10 mm in CGA present group and 23±9 mm in CGA absent group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Our study showed that cervical gland area might be an important predictor of SPTL which should be confirmed with further researches.

  12. Intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Er-jiao [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Zheng, Rong-qin, E-mail: zhengrq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Su, Zhong-zhen; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Guo, Huan-yi [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aimed of this study was to investigate the value of intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound (IB-CEUS) for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Materials and methods: 80 patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent IB-CEUS during PTBD were enrolled. The diluted ultrasound contrast agent was injected via the drainage catheter to perform IB-CEUS. Both conventional ultrasound and IB-CEUS were used to detect the tips of the drainage catheters and to compare the detection rates of the tips. The obstructive level and degree of biliary tract were evaluated by IB-CEUS. Fluoroscopic cholangiography (FC) and computer tomography cholangiography (CTC) were taken as standard reference for comparison. Results: Conventional ultrasound displayed only 43 tips (43/80, 53.8%) of the drainage catheters within the bile ducts while IB-CEUS identified all 80 tips (80/80, 100%) of the drainage catheters including 4 of them out of the bile duct (P < 0.001). IB-CEUS made correct diagnosis in 44 patients with intrahepatic and 36 patients with extrahepatic biliary obstructions. IB-CEUS accurately demonstrated complete obstruction in 56 patients and incomplete obstruction in 21 patients. There were 3 patients with incomplete obstruction misdiagnosed to be complete obstruction by IB-CEUS. The diagnostic accuracy of biliary obstruction degree was 96.3% (77/80). Conclusion: IB-CEUS could improve the visualization of the drainage catheters and evaluate the biliary obstructive level and degree during PTBD. IB-CEUS may be the potential substitute to FC in the PTBD procedure.

  13. Impact of process parameters in the generation of novel aspirin nanoemulsions--comparative studies between ultrasound cavitation and microfluidizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siah Ying; Shridharan, Parthasarathy; Sivakumar, Manickam

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, the operating efficiency of a bench-top air-driven microfluidizer has been compared to that of a bench-top high power ultrasound horn in the production of pharmaceutical grade nanoemulsions using aspirin as a model drug. The influence of important process variables as well as the pre-homogenization and drug loading on the resultant mean droplet diameter and size distribution of emulsion droplets was studied in an oil-in-water nanoemulsion incorporated with a model drug aspirin. Results obtained show that both the emulsification methods were capable of producing very fine nanoemulsions containing aspirin with the minimum droplet size ranging from 150 to 170 nm. In case of using the microfluidizer, it has been observed that the size of the emulsion droplets obtained was almost independent of the applied microfluidization pressure (200-600 bar) and the number of passes (up to 10 passes) while the pre-homogenization and drug loading had a marginal effect in increasing the droplet size. Whereas, in the case of ultrasound emulsification, the droplet size was generally decreased with an increase in sonication amplitude (50-70%) and period of sonication but the resultant emulsion was found to be dependent on the pre-homogenization and drug loading. The STEM microscopic observations illustrated that the optimized formulations obtained using ultrasound cavitation technique are comparable to microfluidized emulsions. These comparative results demonstrated that ultrasound cavitation is a relatively energy-efficient yet promising method of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions as compared to microfluidizer although the means used to generate the nanoemulsions are different. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Joon Bong; Heo, Jung Sun; Choi, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm(2)) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-invasive pulsed cavitational ultrasound for fetal tissue ablation: feasibility study in a fetal sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Gelehrter, S K; Fifer, C G; Lu, J C; Owens, G E; Berman, D R; Williams, J; Wilkinson, J E; Ives, K A; Xu, Z

    2011-04-01

    Currently available fetal intervention techniques rely on invasive procedures that carry inherent risks. A non-invasive technique for fetal intervention could potentially reduce the risk of fetal and obstetric complications. Pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) is an ablation technique that mechanically fractionates tissue at the focal region using extracorporeal ultrasound. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using histotripsy as a non-invasive approach to fetal intervention in a sheep model. The experiments involved 11 gravid sheep at 102-129 days of gestation. Fetal kidney, liver, lung and heart were exposed to ultrasound pulses (bones. Histological assessment confirmed lesion locations and sizes corresponding to regions where cavitation was monitored, with no lesions found when cavitation was absent. Inability to generate cavitation was primarily associated with increased depth to target and obstructing structures such as fetal limbs. Extracorporeal histotripsy therapy successfully created targeted lesions in fetal sheep organs without significant damage to overlying structures. With further improvements, histotripsy may evolve into a viable technique for non-invasive fetal intervention procedures. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. An ultrasound study of gestational and postural changes in the deep venous system of the leg in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklon, N S; Greer, I A; Bowman, A W

    1997-02-01

    To investigate gestational and postural changes in diameter and blood flow in the proximal deep leg veins during pregnancy. A longitudinal, prospective observational study. The ultrasound department of a teaching maternity hospital. Twenty-four healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Real-time and duplex Doppler ultrasound assessments of the vessel diameter, flow velocity and respiratory flow fluctuation in the proximal deep leg veins of women serially measured from the first trimester of pregnancy to six weeks postnatally. The effects of increasing gestation and the adoption of the left lateral position on the above parameters. An increase in vessel diameter and a fall in flow velocity with increasing gestation was observed. However, no change in venous flow variation was observed. Delivery had reverse effects. Flow velocity was slower in the left than right legs, but on adoption of the left lateral position an increase in flow velocity and venous flow variation was observed in both legs during pregnancy. These data are consistent with the observed increase in incidence and pattern of deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy and may aid interpretation of duplex Doppler ultrasound examinations for deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy. Postural changes should be part of this evaluation. The gravid uterus may not be the sole cause for postural changes in deep venous flow velocity.

  17. 166. Anuloplastia con anillo Carpentier-McCarthy-Adams IMR ETlogix® en la insuficiencia mitral isquémica crónica. Resultados a medio plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Martín López

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La anuloplastia con anillo Carpentier-Mc-Carthy-Adams IMR ETlogix® en la insuficiencia mitral isquémica crónica presenta unos aceptables resultados a medio plazo, con una corrección efectiva y durable de la insuficiencia mitral.

  18. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  19. Doppler ultrasound study of portal hemodynamics in patients with Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarenac-Kovač Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase and characterized by the presence of pathological macrophages laden with glucosylceramide. Hepatosplenomegaly is a common manifestation of Gaucher disease, but symptomatic portal hypertension is rarely seen. The study included 20 untreated adult patients with Gaucher disease (non-neuronopathic type 1 diagnosed with the presence of Gaucher cells in the bone marrow, and 20 healthy subjects as controls. The examination of patients included color Doppler ultrasonography (pulsed Doppler mode, resistive index (RI and Doppler perfusion index (DPI using a Toshiba Xario ultrasound machine and a convex array probe PVT-375AX (1.9-6 MHz with the objective of analyzing portal hemodynamics. Results showed that all patients had enlarged liver and spleen, and their average sizes were significantly larger than those in the healthy controls (liver: 17.04 vs.14.02 cm; spleen: 22.2 vs. 10.74 cm. DPI values were significantly different between patients and controls (0.15 vs. 0.21. Considering DPI <0.15 indicates arterial liver hypoperfusion and hypoxia, it can be concluded that a number of patients had a problem with liver oxygenation, which may be linked to the high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE levels obtained in the patients (339.42 U/L, 10 times greater than in control subjects. Since ACE is a potent vasoconstrictor produced by spleen macrophages in Gaucher disease, we can suppose that elevated ACE is associated with effects on the blood vessels of the liver and spleen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175056

  20. 3D Tendon Strain Estimation Using High-frequency Volumetric Ultrasound Images: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Slagmolen, Pieter; Bogaerts, Stijn; Scheys, Lennart; D'hooge, Jan; Peers, Koen; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Estimation of strain in tendons for tendinopathy assessment is a hot topic within the sports medicine community. It is believed that, if accurately estimated, existing treatment and rehabilitation protocols can be improved and presymptomatic abnormalities can be detected earlier. State-of-the-art studies present inaccurate and highly variable strain estimates, leaving this problem without solution. Out-of-plane motion, present when acquiring two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) images, is a known problem and may be responsible for such errors. This work investigates the benefit of high-frequency, three-dimensional (3D) US imaging to reduce errors in tendon strain estimation. Volumetric US images were acquired in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo using an innovative acquisition approach that combines the acquisition of 2D high-frequency US images with a mechanical guided system. An affine image registration method was used to estimate global strain. 3D strain estimates were then compared with ground-truth values and with 2D strain estimates. The obtained results for in silico data showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.07%, 0.05%, and 0.27% for 3D estimates along axial, lateral direction, and elevation direction and a respective MAE of 0.21% and 0.29% for 2D strain estimates. Although 3D could outperform 2D, this does not occur in in vitro and ex vivo settings, likely due to 3D acquisition artifacts. Comparison against the state-of-the-art methods showed competitive results. The proposed work shows that 3D strain estimates are more accurate than 2D estimates but acquisition of appropriate 3D US images remains a challenge.

  1. Abnormal pulmonary artery stiffness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: in vivo study with intravascular ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund M T Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that pulmonary artery stiffness is an important determinant of right ventricular (RV afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS to evaluate the mechanical properties of the elastic pulmonary arteries (PA in subjects with PAH, and assessed the effects of PAH-specific therapy on indices of arterial stiffness. METHOD: Using IVUS and simultaneous right heart catheterisation, 20 pulmonary segments in 8 PAH subjects and 12 pulmonary segments in 8 controls were studied to determine their compliance, distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness index β. PAH subjects underwent repeat IVUS examinations after 6-months of bosentan therapy. RESULTS: AT BASELINE, PAH SUBJECTS DEMONSTRATED GREATER STIFFNESS IN ALL MEASURED INDICES COMPARED TO CONTROLS: compliance (1.50±0.11×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg vs 4.49±0.43×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg, p<0.0001, distensibility (0.32±0.03%/mmHg vs 1.18±0.13%/mmHg, p<0.0001, elastic modulus (720±64 mmHg vs 198±19 mmHg, p<0.0001, and stiffness index β (15.0±1.4 vs 11.0±0.7, p = 0.046. Strong inverse exponential associations existed between mean pulmonary artery pressure and compliance (r(2 = 0.82, p<0.0001, and also between mean PAP and distensibility (r(2 = 0.79, p = 0.002. Bosentan therapy, for 6-months, was not associated with any significant changes in all indices of PA stiffness. CONCLUSION: Increased stiffness occurs in the proximal elastic PA in patients with PAH and contributes to the pathogenesis RV failure. Bosentan therapy may not be effective at improving PA stiffness.

  2. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and iris pigment dispersion: a case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P; Sangermani, C; Ghirardini, S; Carta, A; Ungaro, N; Gandolfi, Sa

    2010-04-01

    The study involved eyes affected by pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) or pigmentary glaucoma (PG) investigated by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Different irido-corneal parameters were assessed and compared with those from healthy controls. The aim was to investigate the capacity of the UBM in differentiating the cases and, potentially, in confirming the pathogenic mechanisms. Patients with a first diagnosis of PDS or PG were included. A cohort of healthy volunteers matched for sex, age and refractive errors was recruited. All underwent UBM examination: the following parameters were assessed in relaxed and stimulated accommodative state in one eye: iris-lens contact (ILC), irido-corneal angle (ICA) and iris concavity (IC). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis assessed the ability of UBM to discriminate between subjects with and without PDS/PG. There were 24 eyes in the case group: four diagnosed as PG and the remaining 20 as PDS. There were 25 eyes in the control group. The two groups were statistically superimposable except for baseline intraocular pressure, which was higher in the case group (p=0.0001). All UBM parameters were statistically different between the two groups. ICA in near vision was the best-performing parameter, reaching a sensitivity (=specificity) of 0.875 with a cut-off at 53.0 degrees . The second most sensitive parameter was IC, still in near vision. All UBM parameters examined were statistically different between the two groups. ROC analysis showed ICA and IC in near vision to be the most discriminatory parameters. This evidence confirms the importance of iris movements in inducing the particular features of PDS/PG.

  3. Is the size of the pancreas useful in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis? An ultrasound based, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Matthias; Einwächter, Henrik; Phillip, Veit; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmid, Roland M; Lersch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    According to the widely accepted "Cambridge Classification", one of the morphological criteria for chronic pancreatitis (CP) is enlargement of the pancreas. Increased size seems to be an obvious feature of an inflammatory disease. However, it has never been validated so far, if CP is indeed accompanied by significant enlargement of the pancreas. In this retrospective study, reference values for the size of the pancreas (head, body and tail measured in the transverse plane by transabdominal ultrasound) were established from 921 patients without pancreatic disease. Measurements were performed by a single investigator. Subsequently, the size of the pancreas from 72 patients with CP was compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Calculating the 5th and 95th percentile, reference values of the pancreatic size were as follows: head 1.5-3.1 cm (mean: 2.2); body 0.6-1.6 cm (mean: 1.1); tail 1.4-3.0 cm (mean: 2.1). The size of the pancreas correlated significantly with body height, weight and body mass index. Patients with CP had only a slightly but statistically significantly larger pancreas than controls. Mean values from the CP group were still between the 5th and 95th percentile of matched controls. Although the pancreas from patients with CP was statistically significantly larger compared to controls, the difference was only marginally. According to these data, it is at least questionable if pancreatic size is a helpful parameter for sonographic evaluation to discriminate chronic pancreatitis from healthy pancreas. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TEST DE FUROSEMIDA : SU PATRÓN EN LA INSUFICIENCIA RENAL CRÓNICA NO SEVERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El test de furosemida consiste en una prueba de fisiología renal que se utiliza para evaluar la capacidad de los túbulos colectores para secretar potasio. Dicho estímulo está mediado por acción de la hormona aldosterona, cuyos niveles séricos se elevan tras el suministro de furosemida. Si bien el patrón de respuesta de este test ha sido descrito en niños y jóvenes sanos, no se lo ha hecho aun en pacientes portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica. Por este motivo se decidió realizar el siguiente estudio a fin lograr su descripción.Material y Método: Se estudiaron veintiséis voluntarios jóvenes (edad: 20 - 40 años, sometidos a una dieta baja en potasio (40 mmol de potasio/día: veinte de ellos eran jóvenes sanos (no presentaban ninguna enfermedad ni tomaban ninguna medicación, y el resto eran pacientes jóvenes portadores de enfermedad renal crónica estadío II/III (filtrado glomerular (FG entre 83,1 ml/min - 39,2 ml/min secundaria a glomerulopatía (diagnóstico por biopsia renal. Ninguno de los pacientes estudiados era portador de diabetes mellitus, obstrucción urinaria, ni estaban en tratamiento con drogas potencialmente inductoras de diskalemia: diuréticos, inhibidores de la enzima convertidora, y antagonistas del receptor de angiotensina II. Desde el comienzo del test y hasta 180 minutos post recibir una dosis única de furosemida endovenosa (1 mg/kg, se obtuvieron muestras de orina y sangre para medir niveles de creatinina y potasio. A partir de estos datos se calculó la excreción fraccional de potasio (EFK correspondiente a cada muestra. El análisis estadístico fue realizado aplicando el test de Student.Resultados: Si bien no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa ni en el valor basal (pre-furosemida, ni promedio (post-furosemida de la EFK, entre los sujetos sanos y los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC: EFK basal 16,4 ± 8,6% ( IRC vs 11,5 ± 4,6% (sanos (p= NS; EFK promedio 40,8 ± 3

  5. Intravascular ultrasound assessed incomplete stent apposition and stent fracture in stent thrombosis after bare metal versus drug-eluting stent treatment the Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Petteri; Vikman, Saila; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2012-01-01

    This prospective multicenter registry used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with definite stent thrombosis (ST) to compare rates of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), stent fracture and stent expansion in patients treated with drug-eluting (DES) versus bare metal (BMS) stents. ST...... is a rare, but potential life threatening event after coronary stent implantation. The etiology seems to be multifactorial....

  6. INSUFICIENCIA RENAL AGUDA EN EL ANCIANO. CONSIDERACIONES ACERCA DE SU VALORACIÓN Y TRATAMIENTO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:La insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA es un trastorno frecuente en los ancianos a raíz de la senescencia renal, la menor metabolización de los fármacos y la mayor exposición a la polifarmacia y enfermedades sistémicas que ellos padecen. Las siguientes son las principales características de la IRA en el anciano: carácter multifactorial, presentación clínica atípica, fragilidad tubular, patrón de síndrome intermedio y poca fiabilidad del examen físico y de los índices urinarios en la interpretación de su etiología. Las medidas de profilaxis y rehidratación siguen siendo los mejores tratamientos de la IRA en el viejo. La biopsia renal y la diálisis tienen el mismo rol tanto en el grupo senil como en el joven.ABSTRACTACUTE RENAL FAILURE IN THE ELDERLY: PEARLS FOR ITS ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT.Acute renal failure (ARF is a frequent disorder in the elderly, and this phenomenon is due to the senescence process, reduced metabolization of drugs, increased exposure to polypharmacy and systemic diseases of the aged group. The following are the main characteristics of the ARF in the elderly: mulfactorial, atypical presentation, tubular frailty, intermediate syndrome pattern, low reliable physical examination and urinary indeces. Profilaxis and rehydration are the best treatments for ARF in the old population. Renal biopsy and dialysis have the same role in young and old people.

  7. Approach to the handling of adrenal insufficiency Manejo de la insuficiencia adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The term adrenal insufficiency refers to the hypofunction of this gland. From the etiologic point of view it may be either primary or secondary. This insufficiency manifests as inadequate serum levels of cortisol and adrenal androgens in the secondary form and of these and mineralocorticoids in the primary one. Clinical manifestations are often nonspecific and, consequently, diagnosis may be difficult to establish and treatment may be delayed with increased morbidity and mortality. This article on adrenal insufficiency includes its definition, epidemiology, etiology, physiopathology, classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines. Besides, some special situations like critically ill patients and pregnant women are given special consideration. Emphasis is done on a diagnostic algorithm to make it easier for general practitioners the approach to patients with this endocrine disorder. La insuficiencia adrenal (ia se refiere a la hipofunción de dicha glándula debida a causas tanto primarias como secundarias, que resultan en niveles plasmáticos inadecuados de cortisol, andrógenos adrenales y adicionalmente, en la falla primaria de mineralocorticoides. Sus manifestaciones inespecíficas dificultan o retrasan con frecuencia el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno, lo cual incrementa la morbilidad y eventualmente la mortalidad de estos pacientes. Se incluyen en este artículo: definición, epidemiología, causas, fisiopatología, clasificación, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la IA. Además se consideran algunas situaciones especiales como la IA en el paciente críticamente enfermo y en la mujer gestante. Finalmente se hace especial énfasis en un algoritmo diagnóstico, con la finalidad de facilitarle al médico general un enfoque ágil y oportuno de los pacientes con este problema endocrino.

  8. Insuficiencia ovárica prematura en mujeres infértiles atendidas en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rechkemmer Prieto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y las manifestaciones clínicas de Insuficiencia Ovárica Prematura en las pacientes infértiles. Material y métodos: En un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas de las pacientes atendidas en el Consultorio de Infertilidad del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza (HNAL, entre enero de 1989 y marzo de 1995. Resultados: Se encontró 27 pacientes con el citado diagnóstico, de un total de 1,855 pacientes que acudieron a consulta (1.45%. Todas tuvieron valores de FSH elevado y 25pacientes tuvieron niveles bajos de estradiol. Se observó hipotrofia de genitales externos y de vagina en el 11.11%, y de mamas en el 14.8%. Se realizó biopsia ovárica a 7 pacientes, en seis de ellas se observó ausencia de folículos. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el de Insuficiencia Ovárica Prematura Idiomática. El tratamiento consistió en terapia hormonal de reemplazo con estrógenos/progestágenos secuenciales. En una paciente se indujo ovulación con menotropinas y se obtuvo gestación gemelar. Conclusiones: La insuficiencia ovárica prematura es poco frecuente en mujeres infértiles del HNAL, generalmente se presenta como amenorrea secundaria. La tercera parte presentó síntomas vasomotores. (Rev Med Hered 1995; 6: 115-120.

  9. Polución por material particulado fino (PM 2,5) incrementa las hospitalizaciones por insuficiencia cardiaca

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pablo; Vera, Jeanette; Cifuentes, Luis; Wellenius, Gregory; Verdejo, Hugo; Sepúlveda, Luis; Vukasovic, José Luis; Llevaneras, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes: Estudios recientes han reportado una asociación entre la contaminación ambiental por material particulado (PM) y el riesgo de hospitalizaciones de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC). La región metropolitana de nuestro país constituye un área geográfica en la cual la contaminación es especialmente relevante, asociándose a incrementos periódicos en la morbimortalidad por causa respiratoria. Sin embargo el efecto de la polución por PM en la morbilidad de pacientes con IC no ...

  10. ANSIEDAD, DEPRESIÓN Y RASGOS DE PERSONALIDAD EN PACIENTES CON INSUFICIENCIA VENOSA CRÓNICA PERIFÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A Carmona-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Insuficiencia Venosa Crónica Periférica (IVCP es un cambio clínico que se produce como resultado de la dilatación patológica de las venas en los miembros inferiores, de la incompetencia de sus válvulas y de la hipertensión venosa resultante. Pudiera cursar dentro de la categoría de trastornos sistémicos que producen depresión y ansiedad, las cuales a su vez son alteraciones psiquiátricas relacionadas con toda la esfera cardiovascular. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de ansiedad, depresión y su relación con los rasgos de personalidad, en pacientes con Insuficiencia Venosa Crónica Periférica. Metodología: Se realizó un trabajo de tipo descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se utilizó la escala de Hamilton para ansiedad y depresión; la personalidad fue evaluada con el cuestionario Factorial de Personalidad 16 FP de Catell además de otras variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: Se evaluaron 30 pacientes; 93% (N=28 de sexo femenino, 7% (N=2 de sexo masculino diagnosticados. Con edades entre 25 y 74 años; encontrándose 36,7% (N=11 ansiedad severa, seguida de ansiedad menor en 33,3% (N=10. 50% de los pacientes no presentó depresión, y 50% se distribuyó de forma homogénea en leve, moderada y severa. Predominando personalidad que se le dificulta manejar las frustraciones, suelen ser nerviosos o ansiosos ante ciertas circunstancias, suspicaces, inteligentes y leales a nivel grupal. El rasgo de personalidad que predominó en el grupo de estudio es el de tipo ansioso. Conclusión: Los pacientes con insuficiencia venosa crónica periférica tienen inclinación a la ansiedad con dificultades para manejar la frustración. Palabras claves: Insuficiencia venosa, Ansiedad, Depresión, Personalidad

  11. Dichorionic twin ultrasound surveillance: sonography every 4 weeks significantly underperforms sonography every 2 weeks: results of the Prospective Multicenter ESPRiT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Siobhan; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Burke, Gerard; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Higgins, Shane; Mahony, Rhona; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D

    2015-10-01

    A 2-week ultrasound scanning schedule for monochorionic twins is endorsed widely. There is a lack of robust data to inform a schedule for the surveillance of dichorionic gestations. We aimed to determine how ultrasound scanning that is performed at 2- or 4-week intervals (or every 4 weeks before 32 weeks' gestation and every 2 weeks thereafter) may impact the prenatal detection of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and ultimately influence timing of delivery. In a consecutive cohort of 789 dichorionic twin pregnancies that were recruited prospectively for the multicenter Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted Growth in Twins study, ultrasound determination of fetal growth and interrogation of umbilical and middle cerebral artery Doppler scans were performed every 2 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation until delivery. Complete delivery and perinatal outcome data were recorded for all pregnancies. Where delivery was prompted by FGR, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler examination or poor biophysical profile and in the absence of ruptured membranes, onset of labor, preeclampsia, or antepartum hemorrhage, the delivery was considered "ultrasound-indicated." For ultrasound-indicated deliveries, detection probabilities for FGR/abnormal umbilical artery Doppler scans/poor biophysical were determined according to the interval between examinations, by the suppression if alternate examination data. Among 789 dichorionic twin pregnancies, 66 pairs (8%) had an "ultrasound indicated" delivery. Detection of FGR was reduced from 88-69%, and detection of abnormal umbilical artery Doppler was reduced from 82-62% when a 4-week ultrasound schedule was simulated. Both of these reductions reached statistical significance. There was a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction in the recording of oligohydramnios with a 4-week interval between examinations. This study suggests that the ultrasound surveillance program of every 2 weeks that is recommended currently for monochorionic twins

  12. Valor pronóstico del perfil lipídico en insuficiencia cardiaca y su relación con marcadores inflamatorios y nutricionales

    OpenAIRE

    Salamanca Bautista, María del Prado

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Los lípidos, además de ser un factor de riesgo cardiovascular, podrían jugar también un papel como marcador pronóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca.Objetivos: Valorar si los niveles de colesterol y otros parámetros lipiditos son predictores de mala evolución en insuficiencia cardiaca y su relación con otros marcadores pronósticos y la situación inflamatoria y nutricional.Material y méto dos: Se recogieron 110 pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados por IC y se les determino un perfil...

  13. Ventilación mecánica no invasiva y oxigenoterapia de alto flujo en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Molinero Herrero, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de Grado. Grado en Enfermería (Zamora). Curso académico 2016/2017 [ES]La enfermedad obstructiva crónica (EPOC) está incluida en las enfermedades que pueden asociar a insuficiencia respiratoria. El tratamiento de soporte ventilatorio de elección es la ventilación mecánica no invasiva (VMNI) por las múltiples ventajas que ofrece. Actualmente se está desarrollando el uso de la oxigenoterapia de alto flujo (ONAF) en pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria hipoxémica...

  14. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  15. Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Guided Lumbosacral Plexus Block – A Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, JM; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial with crossover design. MR datasets will be acquired and uploaded in an advanced US system (Epiq7, Phillips, Amsterdam, Netherlands). All volunteers will receive SSPS blocks with lidocaine added gadolinium contrast guided by US/MR image fusion and by US one week......Background and aims Ultrasound (US) guided lumbosacral plexus block (Supra Sacral Parallel Shift [SSPS]) offers an alternative to general anaesthesia and perioperative analgesia for hip surgery.1 The complex anatomy of the lumbosacral region hampers the accuracy of the block, but it may be improved...... by guidance of US and magnetic resonance (MR) image fusion and real-time 3D electronic needle tip tracking.2 We aim to estimate the effect and the distribution of lidocaine after SSPS guided by US/MR image fusion compared to SSPS guided by ultrasound. Methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers will be included...

  16. Study on the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Zhi; He Bin; Zhang Quanhu; Du Qianwei

    2010-01-01

    By simulating the trajectory of one single suspended radioactive particle subjected to ultrasonic standing wave, the principle of the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound was analyzed. The result show that under the action of ultrasonic standing wave, the particle will move toward the pressure node plane and the time of particle reached the plane became shorter when the radium of particle and the frequency and power of ultrasound was enlarged. The mathematic equation represent the change of the number of the suspended particles was built and the decontamination efficiency was calculated. The result shows that under the condition of T=80 min, f=50 kHz and P=71.09 w, the radioactive concentration of wastewater could be reduced from 400 Bq/L to 9.295 Bq/L and the decontamination efficiency was 97.68%. The decontamination efficiency could not be obviously improved by further increasing the treating time. (authors)

  17. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    In this PhD project new ultrasound techniques for blood flow measurements have been investigated in-vivo. The focus has mainly been on vector velocity techniques and four different approaches have been examined: Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane...... in conventional Doppler ultrasound. That is angle dependency, reduced temporal resolution and low frame rate. Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture and Directional Beamforming can estimate the blood velocity angle independently. The three methods were validated in-vivo against magnetic resonance...... phase contrast angiography when measuring stroke volumes in simple vessel geometry on 11 volunteers. Using linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses good agreements were found, indicating that vector velocity methods can be used for quantitative blood flow measurements. Plane Wave Excitation can...

  18. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min; Kwak, Seo Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall

  19. Computerized Diagnostic Assistant for the Automatic Detection of Pneumothorax on Ultrasound: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M. Summers, MD, RDMS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedside thoracic ultrasound (US can rapidly diagnose pneumothorax (PTX with improved accuracy over the physical examination and without the need for chest radiography (CXR; however, US is highly operator dependent. A computerized diagnostic assistant was developed by the United States Army Institute of Surgical Research to detect PTX on standard thoracic US images. This computer algorithm is designed to automatically detect sonographic signs of PTX by systematically analyzing B-mode US video clips for pleural sliding and M-mode still images for the seashore sign. This was a pilot study to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the PTX detection computer algorithm when compared to an expert panel of US trained physicians. Methods: This was a retrospective study using archived thoracic US obtained on adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED between 5/23/2011 and 8/6/2014. Emergency medicine residents, fellows, attending physicians, physician assistants, and medical students performed the US examinations and stored the images in the picture archive and communications system (PACS. The PACS was queried for all ED bedside US examinations with reported positive PTX during the study period along with a random sample of negatives. The computer algorithm then interpreted the images, and we compared the results to an independent, blinded expert panel of three physicians, each with experience reviewing over 10,000 US examinations. Results: Query of the PACS system revealed 146 bedside thoracic US examinations for analysis. Thirteen examinations were indeterminate and were excluded. There were 79 true negatives, 33 true positives, 9 false negatives, and 12 false positives. The test characteristics of the algorithm when compared to the expert panel were sensitivity 79% (95 % CI [63-89] and specificity 87% (95% CI [77-93]. For the 20 images scored as highest quality by the expert panel, the algorithm demonstrated 100% sensitivity

  20. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Wadhwa, Leena; Gupta, Taru; Kohli, Supreethi; Chandoke, Rajkumar; Gupta, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) with color Doppler (CDUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta). All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity) and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity). MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity) and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity). There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00) and specificity (P = 0.687) between USG and MRI. Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however, specificity does not appear to be as good as reported in other studies. Both modalities have complimentary

  1. High-Temperature Elasticity of Topaz: A Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, S.; Peng, Y.; Andreu, L.; Rivera, F.; Mookherjee, M.; Manthilake, G.; Speziale, S.

    2017-12-01

    Topaz (Al2SiO4(F,OH)2) is a hydrous aluminosilicate mineral stable in the hydrated sediments in subduction zone settings and could transport water into the Earth's interior. To constrain the amount of water subducted, it is important to have a better understanding of the elastic constants of hydrous phases and compare them with the geophysical observations. In this study, we explored the full elastic moduli tensor for a single crystal topaz using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy. We determined the full elastic moduli tensor at ambient conditions (1 bar and 297 K), with the principal components- C11, C22, and C33 are 279, 352 and 288 GPa respectively, the off-diagonal components- C­12, C13, and C23 are 124, 72, and 82 GPa respectively, and the shear components- C44, C55, and C66 are 111, 134, and 130 GPa respectively. The compressional (AVP) and shear (AVS) anisotropy for topaz are 13 and 14 % respectively. The aggregate bulk (K) and shear (G) moduli are 162 and 117 GPa respectively. We determined the elasticity of topaz up to 1000 K. The components of the full elastic moduli tensor show softening at high temperature. Temperature derivatives of sound velocity of topaz, dVP/dT = -3.5 ×10-4 km/s/K and dVS/dT = -2.2 ×10-4 km/s/K are smaller than those for corundum [1], α-quartz [2], and olivine [3]. In contrast, the temperature derivatives of primary and shear sound velocity for topaz is greater than that of pyrope garnet [4]. The elasticity and sound velocity of topaz also vary as a function of chemistry i.e., OH-F contents. Our study demonstrates that the effect of composition (xOH) on the velocity is more pronounced than that of temperature.Acknowledgement: This study is supported by US NSF awards EAR-1634422. Reference: [1] Goto, T. et al.,1989, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 7588; [2] Ohno, I. et al., 2006, Phys. Chem. Miner., 33, 1-9; [3] Isaak, D. G., 1992, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 97, 1871-1885; [4] Sinogeikin, S. V., Bass, J. D., 2002, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett

  2. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal

  3. Quantitative assessment of oral orbicular muscle deformation after cleft lip reconstruction: an ultrasound elastography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L; van Hees, Nancy; Lopata, Richard G P; Weijers, Gert; Katsaros, Christos; Thijssen, Johan M

    2009-08-01

    Reconstruction of a cleft lip leads inevitably to scar tissue formation. Scar tissue within the restored oral orbicular muscle might be assessed by quantification of the local contractility of this muscle. Furthermore, information about the contraction capability of the oral orbicular muscle is crucial for planning the revision surgery of an individual patient. We used ultrasound elastography to determine the local deformation (strain) of the upper lip and to differentiate contracting muscle from passive scar tissue. Raw ultrasound data (radio-frequency format; rf-) were acquired, while the lips were brought from normal state into a pout condition and back in normal state, in three patients and three normal individuals. During this movement, the oral orbicular muscle contracts and, consequently, thickens in contrast to scar tissue that will not contract, or even expand. An iterative coarse-to-fine strain estimation method was used to calculate the local tissue strain. Analysis of the raw ultrasound data allows estimation of tissue strain with a high precision. The minimum strain that can be assessed reproducibly is 0.1%. In normal individuals, strain of the orbicular oral muscle was in the order of 20%. Also, a uniform strain distribution in the oral orbicular muscle was found. However, in patients deviating values were found in the region of the reconstruction and the muscle tissue surrounding that. In two patients with a successful reconstruction, strain was reduced by 6% in the reconstructed region with respect to the normal parts of the muscle (from 22% to 16% and from 25% to 19%). In a patient with severe aesthetical and functional disability, strain decreased from 30% in the normal region to 5% in the reconstructed region. With ultrasound elastography, the strain of the oral orbicular muscle can be quantified. In healthy subjects, the strain profiles and maximum strain values in all parts of the muscle were similar. The maximum strain of the muscle during

  4. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, Birgit; Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel; Curiel, Laura; Zhang, Kunyan; Escott, Nicholas; Mougenot, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10 5 colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  5. Using controlled attenuation parameter combined with ultrasound to survey non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hemodialysis patients: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Yen

    Full Text Available Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP is a non-invasive method for measuring hepatic steatosis (HS. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is closely related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. CVDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in hemodialysis patients.We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, as well as patients with normal renal function who served as controls. The control group patients were referred by an endocrinologist to be tested for NAFLD; most of these patients had diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. We excluded those with excess alcohol intake, use of drugs known to induce HS, chronic viral hepatitis, or CAP failure. CAP ≥ 238 dB/m was used as a cutoff suggesting HS. An increased liver kidney contrast, as defined by ultrasound, was used to make the diagnosis of HS.Three hundred and forty-three hemodialysis patients and 252 control group patients were enrolled. Among the hemodialysis patients, 192 (56.0% had CAP- or ultrasound-identified HS compared with 91 (26.5% who only had ultrasound-identified HS (P<0.001. Among the control group patients, 212 (84.1% had CAP- or ultrasound-identified HS compared with 180 (71.4% who only had ultrasound-identified HS (P<0.001.The prevalence of NAFLD in the hemodialysis patients was 56%. The number of diagnoses of NAFLD made by using CAP combined with ultrasound was more than 2 times the number made with ultrasound alone in the hemodialysis patients. Therefore, we suggest the use of CAP combined with ultrasound to screen for NAFLD in hemodialysis patients.

  6. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  7. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, A.-M., E-mail: annemarie.roos@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom); Abdool, Z. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.-M.; Abdool, Z.; Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  9. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran; Bez, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within the body and then back again. Ultrasound ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within the body and then back again. Ultrasound ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound exams are also used to monitor the health and development of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy. See the ... can help to identify and evaluate a variety of urinary and reproductive system disorders in both sexes without x-ray exposure. ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally ... known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... in which needles are used to extract a sample of cells from organs for laboratory testing. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may ...

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and ...

  4. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames ...

  5. Obstetrical ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics may provide fuel for legal action. While most legal implications of this relatively new imaging modality are purely speculative, some have already given rise to legal action. Several situations will likely provide a basis for the courts to find against the physician. The failure to perform a sonogram when clinically indicated will most likely be the strongest plaintiff argument. Other major concerns include the use and availability of state-of-the-art equipment, as well as interpretation of the scans by a trained physician. Obstetrical ultrasound is usually performed by a radiologist or obstetrician. However, many physicians performing these examinations have had little or no formal training in the field. While this is now being remedied by the respective board examines who require a certain amount of training, it may not be enough. When ultrasound-related cases reach the courts, the involved physicians will most likely be regarded as experts in the field and, therefore, will be held to a very high standard of care. This would be difficult to achieve without formal training. At the present time, the American Board of Radiology requires more training time in ultrasound than the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  6. Heel quantitative ultrasound in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Castronuovo, Daniela; Di Gregorio, Adriana; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Gussio, Maria; Borderi, Marco; Maggi, Paolo; Santoro, Carmen Rita; Madeddu, Giordano; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    HIV infection has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard to assess bone mineral density (BMD); however, it is not easily accessible in several settings. Heel Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a radiation-free, easy-to-perform technique, which may help reducing the need for DXA. In this cross-sectional study, we used heel QUS (Hologic Sahara(®)) to assess bone status in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. A QUS stiffness index (QUI) threshold >83 was used to identify patients with a low likelihood of osteoporosis. Moreover, we compared QUS results with those of 36 sex- and age-matched HIV-negative controls. 244 HIV-positive patients were enrolled. Median heel QUI value was 83 (73-96) vs. 93 (IQR 84-104) in the control group (p = 0.04). 110 patients (45 %) had a QUI value ≤83. Risk factors for low QUI values were age (OR 1.04 per year, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.004), current use of protease inhibitors (OR 1.85, CI 1.03-3.35, p = 0.039), current use of tenofovir (OR 2.28, CI 1.22-4.27, p = 0.009) and the number of risk factors for secondary osteoporosis (OR 1.46, CI 1.09-1.95, p = 0.01). Of note, QUI values were significantly correlated with FRAX score (r = -0.22, p = 0.004). According to EACS guidelines, 45 % of patients had risk factors for osteoporosis which make them eligible for DXA. By using QUS, we may avoid DXA in around half of them. As HIV-positive patients are living longer, the prevalence of osteoporosis is expected to increase over time. Appropriate screening, prevention and treatment are crucial to preserve bone health in this population. The use of screening techniques, such as heel QUS, may help reducing the need for DXA. Further studies are needed to define the diagnostic accuracy of this promising technique in the setting of HIV.

  7. Study on regeneration effect and mechanism of high-frequency ultrasound on biological activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhehao; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-01

    High frequency ultrasonic radiation technology was developed as a novel and efficient means of regenerating spent biological activated carbon (BAC) used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The results of this study indicated that high frequency ultrasonic treatment could recover the spent BAC, to some extent, with the following optimal conditions: a frequency of 400 kHz, sonication power of 60 W, water temperature of 30 °C, and sonication time of 6 min. Under the above conditions, the iodine value increased from 300 mg/g to 409 mg/g, the volume of total pores and micropores increased from 0.2600 cm 3 /g and 0.1779 cm 3 /g to 0.3560 cm 3 /g and 0.2662 cm 3 /g, respectively; the specific surface area of micropores and the mean pore diameter expanded from 361.15 m 2 /g and 2.0975 nm to 449.92 m 2 /g and 2.1268 nm, respectively. The biological activity increased from 0.0297 mgO 2 /gC·h to 0.0521 mgO 2 /gC·h, while the biomass decreased from 203 nmolP/gC to 180 nmolP/gC. The results of high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that microorganisms such as Clostridia and Nitrospira were markedly decreased due to high frequency ultrasound. The method used in this study caused the inhibition of certain carbon-attached microbials resulting in a negative effect on the removal rate of ammonia-N during the initial stage of the long-term reuse operation. The removal of UV254 and atrazine were restored from 8.1% and 55% to 21% and 76%, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of modulated ultrasound parameters on ultrasound-induced thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Azita; Volz, Kim R; Hansmann, Doulas R

    2008-01-01

    The potential of ultrasound to enhance enzyme-mediated thrombolysis by application of constant operating parameters (COP) has been widely demonstrated. In this study, the effect of ultrasound with modulated operating parameters (MOP) on enzyme-mediated thrombolysis was investigated. The MOP protocol was applied to an in vitro model of thrombolysis. The results were compared to a COP with the equivalent soft tissue thermal index (TIS) over the duration of ultrasound exposure of 30 min (p -2 ± 0.01 μm and 1.99 x 10 -2 ± 0.004 μm, respectively (p < 0.74). No signatures of inertial or stable cavitation were observed for either acoustic protocol. In conclusion, due to mechanisms other than cavitation, application of ultrasound with modulated operating parameters has the potential to significantly enhance the relative lysis enhancement compared to application of ultrasound with constant operating parameters.

  9. Evaluation of Directional Atherectomy Studied by Intravascular Ultrasound in Femoropopliteal Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielbeek, Alexander V.; Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Gussenhoven, Elma J.; Buth, Jacob; Landman, Guido H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) before and after directional atherectomy (DA) in the treatment of femoropopliteal artery stenosis. Methods: In 12 patients with 16 stenoses IVUS was performed before and immediately after an angiographically successful DA. This was defined as a diameter reduction (DR) ≤ 50%, which was calculated using the minimal lumen diameter compared with the diameter of a nearby 'normal' segment. In the presence of residual plaque on IVUS an additional DA was performed. Endpoints studied were DR ≤ 30% on IVUS compared with the IVUS findings of the angiographically normal reference segment, or when no additional atherosclerotic material could be removed by further DA passages. Results: Additional DA (mean 1.6 per lesion) had to be performed in all patients. Initial DA increased the cross-sectional free lumen area (FLA) from 3.8 ± 2.0 mm 2 to 8.1 ± 2.7 mm 2 (p= 0.0004). Additional DA increased FLA to 9.3 ± 2.3 mm 2 (p= 0.002) after the second passage and to 9.8 ± 2.4 mm 2 (p= 0.09) after the final DA run. The plaque area (PLA) before DA decreased from 18.1 ± 4.2 mm 2 to 15.4 ± 4.8 mm 2 (p= 0.002) after the first passage, and to 13.5 ± 5.0 mm 2 (p= 0.004) and 12.8 ± 4.4 mm 2 (p= 0.07) after the second and final DA runs, respectively. PLA of the reference segment (9.5 ± 5.7 mm 2 ) was significantly smaller (p= 0.006) than the final PLA of the treated lesion, indicating a large amount of retained plaque. As a result of DA there was an increase in the area bordered by the medial layer, i.e., the total vessel area (from 21.9 ± 4.7 mm 2 to 23.0 ± 4.7 mm 2 ), significantly in eccentric and soft lesions. On IVUS, dissection and plaque rupture after the final passage was seen in 12 of 16 stenoses; two dissections were seen on the completion angiogram. After the final passage in all stenoses except three, the DR with IVUS was ≤ 30%. Conclusion: Lumen enlargement following DA is predominantly due to plaque

  10. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Kim, Kang; Singh, Vijay P

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5–14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13–24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ∼3 s and ∼9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (−0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (−0.124

  11. An Ultrasound and Acoustic Study of Turkish Rounded/Unrounded Vowel Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica

    This dissertation grew out of a phonology course paper on the adaption of Turkish words in Serbian. The focus of the paper was on the Turkish vowels /m y oe/. Noticeably, in contrast to vowels /y oe/, the back vowel /m/ showed variable patterns of adaptation. The conclusion drawn from the paper was that the vowel /m/ was different from other vowels. Interestingly, the Turkish vowel inventory is a crowded vowel system with three rounded/unrounded vowel pairs, two front vowel pairs (/i y/ and /e oe/), and one back vowel pair (/m u/). And, while phonetic research has largely focused on front vowel pairs in other languages, I emphasize on the importance of the back vowel pair. The dissertation examines the phonetics of Turkish vowels to determine acoustic and articulatory properties of vowels produced in different contexts. Four experiments were done, two describing vowels in isolation and two describing vowels in four different consonantal contexts, based on place of articulation. First, I discuss the theory behind acoustics and articulation, by outlining theories of coarticulation and describing how the vowel /m/ differs from other vowels. Then, I present methodology used in the dissertation. Chapters 4 and 5 present results of articulation and acoustic experiments on vowels in isolation, while Chapter 6 and 7 present results of the articulation and acoustic experiments on vowels in consonantal contexts. Chapter 8 discusses the main findings. The study discovered that the three rounded/unrounded vowel pairs are true pairs, as they do not articulatorily differ much in tongue height and frontness. Since they differ most consistently in F2, this confirms the non-linear relationship between articulation and acoustics. Both high back vowels /m u/ are more prone to coarticulation in F2 than other vowels. Context variability, short duration, and absence of visual cues can explain why /m/ behaves like no other vowel in loanword adaptations. The dissertation enriches phonetic

  12. Achilles tendon (TA) size and power Doppler ultrasound (PD) changes compared to MRI: A preliminary observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.J.; Dheer, A.K.; McCall, I.M.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether abnormal Achilles tendon (TA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectral ultrasound (US) features have associated development of microvascular power Doppler (PD) flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective, controlled and blinded study six patients with TA symptoms were compared to five with other ankle abnormalities. Two radiologists independently measured the mean maximal anteroposterior diameter on MRI and conventional US (categorized as normal 1.6 cm), assessed morphology and studied the vessels using power Doppler. They formed a consensus over discrepancies. Sonography of the contralateral side within 24 h was used as a control. RESULTS: Twenty-one tendons in six women and five men, aged 45-77 years (mean 57.6 years), were examined, 12 tendons were of normal US morphology and size ( 0.74). Of the 12 tendons studied by MRI five were normal, seven tendons were enlarged, five of which had a proportionate increase in PD flow at the margin on the deep surface and four also had vessels in the centre of the tendon. All five of these tendons had high signal on T2-weighting (T2W). Of the two mildly enlarged tendons of intermediate signal on T1 and T2W, one showed PD flow and the other did not. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TA disease power Doppler ultrasound shows proliferation of vessels in enlarged, abnormal tendons demonstrated on MRI and standard ultrasound, in the absence of definite tears. Richards, P.J. Dheer, A.K. and McCall, I.M. (2001)

  13. Microbubbles combined with ultrasound therapy in ischemic stroke: A systematic review of in-vivo preclinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Auboire

    Full Text Available Microbubbles (MBs combined with ultrasound sonothrombolysis (STL appears to be an alternative therapeutic strategy for acute ischemic stroke (IS, but clinical results remain controversial.The aim of this systematic review is to identify the parameters tested; to assess evidence on the safety and efficacy on preclinical data on STL; and to assess the validity and publication bias.Pubmed® and Web of ScienceTM databases were systematically searched from January 1995 to April 2017 in French and English. We included studies evaluating STL on animal stroke model. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Data were extracted following a pre-defined schedule by two of the authors. The CAMARADES criteria were used for quality assessment. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The result showed that ultrasound parameters and types of MBs were heterogeneous among studies. Numerous positive outcomes on efficacy were found, but only four studies demonstrated superiority of STL versus recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator on clinical criteria. Data available on safety are limited.Quality assessment of the studies reviewed revealed a number of biases.Further in vivo studies are needed to demonstrate a better efficacy and safety of STL compared to currently approved therapeutic options.http://syrf.org.uk/protocols/.

  14. Effect of ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation on benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules - a randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on thyroid function, nodule size and patient satisfaction in benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules by comparing one ILP session with no treatment in a prospective randomised study. MATERIALS...... and thyroid function was determined by routine assays before and during follow-up. Pressure and cosmetic complaints before and at 6 months were evaluated on a visual analogue scale. ILP was performed under US guidance and with an output power of 2.5-3.5 W. RESULTS: In the ILP group, the nodule volume...

  15. Costo-efectividad de intervenciones para insuficiencia renal crónica terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisó el costo-efectividad en intervenciones para pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal (IRCT en términos de los costos económicos de cada intervención, los años de vida ganados y la calidad de vida que generan tres alternativas comparables y mutuamente excluyentes: diálisis peritoneal contínua ambulatoria (DPCA, la hemodiálisis (HD y el trasplante renal (TR. MÉTODO: El diseño del estudio fue de tipo longitudinal. Los costos de cada intervención se determinaron mediante la técnica de manejo de caso promedio. Las medidas para evaluar los criterios de efectividad elegidos fueron la probabilidad de sobrevida y el Año de Vida Ajustado por Calidad (QALY, Quality Adjusted Life Year medido por el Indice de Rosser. RSULTADOS: Los costos de manejo anual de caso fueron: diálisis peritoneal $5,643.07, hemodiálisis $9,631.60 y trasplante $3,021.63. En cuanto a la efectividad, la sobrevida del injerto de trasplante renal resultó de 89,9% y 79,6% a uno y tres años respectivamente, mientras que los pacientes sometidos a DPCA tienen una sobrevida de 86,2% y 66,9% a un año y a tres años respectivamente. En cuanto a los QALY's, los resultados para cada intervención fueron: DPCA 0,879; HD 0,864; y para el TR 0,978. CONCLUSIÓN: La intervención más costo-efectiva resultó el trasplante renal con un coeficiente de 3,088.69, seguido de la DPCA y la hemodiálisis, cuyos coeficientes fueron de 6,416.95 y 11,147.68 respectivamente. Por lo tanto se recomienda promover y utilizar el trasplante renal como la intervención más costo-efectiva para pacientes con IRCT.

  16. Creencias sobre la insuficiencia renal crónica entre expertos y profanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Vélez Vélez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar las creencias y representaciones sobre la insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC en pacientes, población general y expertos. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal que analiza una muestra de 120 participantes seleccionados por muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas. Se crearon cinco grupos de estudio en función de su nivel de interacción con la enfermedad. La herramienta utilizada fue el Cuestionario de Creencias Sobre la Enfermedad. Resultados: Identidad, Controlabilidad, Mutabilidad, Responsabilidad Personal y Azar no presentan diferencias significativas entre los grupos estudiados. El factor Causas muestra diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo de pacientes con universitarios de ciencias de la salud y expertos (p<0,001 y entre otros universitarios con universitarios ciencias de la salud y expertos (p<0.001. El factor Incapacidad muestra diferencias significativas entre pacientes, universitarios y población general (p<0,001 y entre expertos con otros universitarios y población general (p<0,001. Los pacientes ofrecen un menor número de síntomas asociados tanto a la IRC como a la hemodiálisis (HD. Y en cuanto a las causas, las de origen biológico y conductuales son las más consideradas por todos los grupos. Solo el grupo de pacientes en HD considera el azar factor causal de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: En oposición al modelo científico, pacientes y población general comparten la idea de que la IRC es curable, depende en gran medida del azar y de hábitos de conducta y es menos grave de lo que opinan expertos. La experiencia con la enfermedad aporta más información (no necesariamente conocimiento que es recordada en función de la utilidad para lograr un mayor bienestar o una mejora de los cuidados.

  17. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained.......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...

  18. The role of routine post-natal abdominal ultrasound for newborns in a resource-poor setting: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokhodion Samuel I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of routine obstetric ultrasonography in the monitoring of pregnancy and identification of fetal malformations has partly contributed to lowering of fetal mortality rates. In Nigeria which has a high maternal and fetal mortality rate, many pregnant women do not have ante-natal care and not infrequently, women also deliver their babies at home and only bring the newborns to the clinics for immunization. Even when performed, most routine obstetric scans are not targeted towards the detection of fetal abnormalities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the benefit of routinely performing abdominal scans on newborns with a view to detecting possible abnormalities which may have been missed ante-natally. Methods- This was a longitudinal study of 202 consecutive, apparently normal newborns. Routine clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound scans were performed on the babies by their mother's bedside, before discharge. Neonates with abnormal initial scans had follow-up scans. Results- There were 108 males and 94 females. There were 12 (5.9% abnormal scans seen in five male and seven female neonates. Eleven of the twelve abnormalities were in the kidneys, six on the left and five on the right. Three of the four major renal anomalies- absent kidney, ectopic/pelvic kidney and two cases of severe hydronephrosis were however on the left side. There was one suprarenal abnormality on the right suspected to be a possible infected adrenal haemorrage. Nine of the abnormal cases reported for follow- up and of these, two cases had persistent severe abnormalities. Conclusions- This study demonstrated a 5.9% incidence of genito urinary anomalies on routine neonatal abdominal ultrasound in this small population. Routine obstetric USS

  19. Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Musio, Stefano; Casciaro, Ernesto; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tissue mimicking phantoms have been widely reported to be an important tool for development, optimisation and performance testing of ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques. In particular, modern applications of tissue mimicking phantoms often include characterisation of the nonlinear behaviour of experimental ultrasound contrast agents. In such cases, the tissue-mimicking materials should be chosen not only based on the values of their density, speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, but also considering their effect on the appearance of "native harmonics" due to nonlinear distortion of ultrasound signal during propagation. In a previous paper it was demonstrated that a cellulose-based hydrogel is suitable to simulate nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue for thicknesses up to 8 cm. In this paper we present the experimental characterisation of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a different polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel, in order to assess whether and how it can improve the performances and overcome some limitations of the cellulose-based hydrogel as liver tissue-mimicking material. Samples of pig liver tissue, cellulose-based hydrogel and PEGDA-based hydrogel were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values. Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from the spectra of received signals and their difference was then used to compare sample behaviours. Obtained results show how a new more accurate and combined experimental model of linear and nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue is feasible. In fact, a further confirmation of the cellulose-based hydrogel effectiveness to precisely simulate the liver tissue for penetration depths up to 8 cm was provided, and it was also shown that the employment of the PEGDA-based hydrogel can extend the range of useful tissue-mimicking material thicknesses up to 11 cm, moreover allowing a

  20. Transverse vs torsional ultrasound: prospective randomized contralaterally controlled study comparing two phacoemulsification-system handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assil, Kerry K; Harris, Lindsay; Cecka, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical efficiency and multiple early clinical outcome variables in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification using either transversal or torsional ultrasound systems. Assil Eye Institute, Beverly Hills, CA, USA. Prospective, randomized, clinician-masked, contralaterally controlled single-center evaluation. Patients seeking cataract removal in both eyes with implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses were randomly assigned to one of two treatment rooms for phacoemulsification with either a transverse ultrasound system or torsional handpiece system. The contralateral eye was treated at a later date with the alternate device. A total of 54 eyes of 27 patients having similar degrees of cataract, astigmatism, and visual potential were included. All operative data were collected for analysis, and patients were followed for 3 months after surgery. Similar visual acuity was reported at all postoperative visits between the two groups. Mean phacoemulsification time and total power required were both significantly lower with the transverse system than with the torsional technique (Ptransverse system vs torsional (Ptransverse vs torsional. Macular swelling was less at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with transverse vs torsional, although the difference did not achieve significance (P=0.1) at any single time point. Clinically detectable corneal edema was reported less frequently at all postoperative time points with the transverse system. The transverse ultrasound system was found to be possibly associated with less balanced salt-solution use, less phacoemulsification time, and less power required than the torsional phaco system. Postoperative data suggested that improved phaco efficiency may translate to a better overall safety profile for the patient.

  1. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A-M; Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

    2011-07-01

    To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B&K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative study of the results of heel ultrasound screening and DXA findings (lumbar spine and left hip of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jaganjac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent and invisible disease of bone, great presence and is considered to suffer from osteoporosis at least 200 million women worldwide. The goal of this paper is to show average ageof postmenopausal respondents, values of anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, anamnestic data on clinical symptoms, fractures of women in menopause, analysis of heel ultrasound screening results,analysis of lumbar spine DXA results, analysis of left hip DXA results.Methods: In retrospective study 61 respondents were involved, 33 to 79 years old, treated in u Center for Physical Medicine and Acupuncture “AD” in Sarajevo during the period from 01.01.2008 till 31.12.2009. Alldate are shown numerically and percentage account with calculation of mean value, expressed in the form of tables and charts.Results: Finding of heel ultrosound screening compared to T values of postmenopausal respondents indicates on osteoporosis in case of 17 (27,87%, in case of 44 (72,13% respondents osteopenia, while normalvalues were not found. T value with lumbar spine DXA method in postmenopausal female respondents correspond to 43 (70,5% respondents, in 15 respondents (24,6% finding corresponded to osteopenia, while 3 respondents (4,9% had physiological finding. Left hip DXA finding shows 36 (59% respondents corresponded osteoporosis, 19 (31,2% respondents corresponded osteopenia, while physiological finding was found in 6 respondents (9,8%. T value of lumbar spine DXA finding was - 2,71 ± 1,16; DXA finding of left hip -2,35 ±1,36; heel ultrasound screening -2,19 ± 0,54.Conclusion: Research results indicate that DXA finding in relation to the heel ultrasound screening confirms gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis.

  3. Intraoperative ultrasound in determining the extent of resection of parenchymal brain tumors - a comparative study with computed tomography and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, A.G.; Rajshekhar, V.; Kumar, N.K.S.; Athyal, R.; Chacko, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radical excision of parenchymal brain tumours is generally associated with a better long-term outcome; however, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of resection at surgery. We used intra-operative ultrasound [IOUS] to help detect residual tumour and define the tumour-brain interface. Thirty-five patients with parenchymal brain lesions including 11 low-grade and 22 high-grade tumours and 2 inflammatory granulomata were included in the study. The IOUS was used to localize tumours not seen on the surface, define their margins and assess the extent of resection at the end of surgery. Multiple samples from the tumour-brain interface which were reported as tumour or normal tissue an IOUS were submitted to histopathology. The IOUS findings were compared with a postoperative contrast enhanced computed tomogram [CT] and with histopathology. All tumours irrespective of histology were hyperechoic an IOUS. IOUS was useful in localizing those tumours not seen on the surface of the brain. In 71.4 % of cases IOUS was useful in defining their margins, however in the remaining cases the margins were ill-defined. The tumour margins were ill-defined in those treated previously by radiation. With regard to the extent of excision, after excluding the cases who were irradiated, it was found that in the 28 patients who had parenchymal neoplasms, there was concordance between the ultrasound findings and the postoperative CT scan in 23 cases. Of the 79 samples taken from the tumor-brain interface which were reported as tumour on ultrasound, 66 had histopathological evidence of tumour while 13 samples were negative for tumour. On the other hand, in the tissue sent from 17 sites where the IOUS showed no residual tumour, 2 were positive for tumour on histopathology while 15 were negative. In conclusion, IOUS is a cheap and useful real-time tool for localizing tumours not seen on the brain surface, for defining their margins and for determining the extent of resection. (author)

  4. La insuficiencia de las disposiciones del pensamiento para cubrir la brecha entre pensamiento crítico y acción crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Murcia Bermúdez, Claudia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se evalúan las disposiciones del pensamiento crítico; se demuestra la circularidad de sus enunciados y, consecuencia de ello, su insuficiencia para cubrir la brecha que va de las habilidades del pensamiento crítico a la acción crítica.

  5. La insuficiencia de las disposiciones del pensamiento para cubrir la brecha del pensamiento crítico a la acción crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Murcia Bermúdez, Claudia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se evalúan las disposiciones del pensamiento crítico; se demuestra la circularidad de sus enunciados y, consecuencia de ello, su insuficiencia para cubrir la brecha que va de las habilidades del pensamiento crítico a la acción crítica.

  6. Comparativa de la reparación valvular mitral y el dispositivo MitraClip® en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia mitral severa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pernía-Oreña

    2017-03-01

    Conclusiones: El dispositivo MitraClip®, en este grupo de bajo riesgo, mostró peores resultados con mayor mortalidad, reingresos, descompensaciones y alta tasa de insuficiencia mitral residual. Podría ser una alternativa en casos desestimados de cirugía.

  7. 347. Insuficiencia tricuspídea grave 13 años tras traumatismo torácico: una causa infrecuente de reparación valvular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arroyo

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La reparación de la insuficiencia tricuspídea postraumática, aunque es una patología poco frecuente, puede ser intervenida con éxito. La cirugía reparadora sobre el recambio valvular se debe intentar, siempre que sea posible.

  8. Preoperative estimation of the pathological breast tumour size by physical examination, mammography and ultrasound: a prospective study on 105 invasive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Anne M.; Kessels, Alfons G.H.; Beets, Geerard L.; Rupa, Jan D.; Koster, Dick; Engelshoven, Jos M.A. van; Meyenfeldt, Maarten F. von

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The clinical breast tumour size can be assessed preoperatively by physical examination, mammography and ultrasound. At present it is not clear which modality correlates best with the histological invasive breast tumour size. This prospective study aims to determine the most accurate clinical method (physical examination, mammography or ultrasound) to predict the histological invasive tumour size preoperatively. Methods and patients: Between October 1999 and August 2000, 96 women with 105 invasive malignant breast tumours were included in this study. All patients underwent excision and the tumour size was measured on histology. Tumour size was measured by all three modalities in 73 cases. Results were evaluated by calculating correlation coefficients. The examination modalities presenting the best estimation of the pathological tumour size were used in a stepwise linear regression analysis to construct a formula predicting the pathological tumour size from the result of the various diagnostic modalities. Results: The correlation coefficient between ultrasound and pathological size (r=0.68) was significantly better than the correlations between physical examination and pathological size (r=0.42) and mammographic and pathological size (r=0.44). Physical examination overestimates and ultrasound underestimates breast tumour classification. The most accurate prediction formula was: Pathological tumour size (mm) equals sonographic tumour size (mm)+3 mm. Conclusion: When comparing physical examination, mammography and ultrasound for the prediction of the pathological size of a malignant breast tumour, ultrasound is the best predictor. The ensuing regression formula determines pathological size as tumour size by ultrasound+3 mm. However, with the wide 95% confidence interval of ±11 mm, it remains difficult to predict the exact pathological size for an individual invasive breast tumour. A small deviation in millimetres of the tumour size could lead to a change in

  9. Research interface on a programmable ultrasound scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamdasani, Vijay; Bae, Unmin; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Yoo, Yang Mo; Karadayi, Kerem; Managuli, Ravi; Kim, Yongmin

    2008-07-01

    Commercial ultrasound machines in the past did not provide the ultrasound researchers access to raw ultrasound data. Lack of this ability has impeded evaluation and clinical testing of novel ultrasound algorithms and applications. Recently, we developed a flexible ultrasound back-end where all the processing for the conventional ultrasound modes, such as B, M, color flow and spectral Doppler, was performed in software. The back-end has been incorporated into a commercial ultrasound machine, the Hitachi HiVision 5500. The goal of this work is to develop an ultrasound research interface on the back-end for acquiring raw ultrasound data from the machine. The research interface has been designed as a software module on the ultrasound back-end. To increase the amount of raw ultrasound data that can be spooled in the limited memory available on the back-end, we have developed a method that can losslessly compress the ultrasound data in real time. The raw ultrasound data could be obtained in any conventional ultrasound mode, including duplex and triplex modes. Furthermore, use of the research interface does not decrease the frame rate or otherwise affect the clinical usability of the machine. The lossless compression of the ultrasound data in real time can increase the amount of data spooled by approximately 2.3 times, thus allowing more than 6s of raw ultrasound data to be acquired in all the modes. The interface has been used not only for early testing of new ideas with in vitro data from phantoms, but also for acquiring in vivo data for fine-tuning ultrasound applications and conducting clinical studies. We present several examples of how newer ultrasound applications, such as elastography, vibration imaging and 3D imaging, have benefited from this research interface. Since the research interface is entirely implemented in software, it can be deployed on existing HiVision 5500 ultrasound machines and may be easily upgraded in the future. The developed research

  10. The effect of ultrasound-guided compression immediately after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy on postbiopsy bleeding: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Hee; Kim, Jung Im; Bae, Sang Rak; Lee, Yong Seok; Kang, Sung Hak; Han, Chang Hee

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether ultrasound-guided compression performed immediately after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy decreases bleeding complications. We prospectively evaluated a total of 148 consecutive patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between March 2015 and July 2016. Systematic 12-core prostate biopsy was performed in all patients. Of these, 100 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts immediately after prostate biopsy, while the non-compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy alone. The incidence rate and duration of hematuria, hematospermia, and rectal bleeding were compared between the two groups. The incidence rates of hematuria and hematospermia were not significantly different between the two groups (60 vs. 64%, p = 0.68; 22 vs. 30%, p = 0.362, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). The rectal bleeding incidence was significantly lower in the compression group as compared to the non-compression group (20 vs. 44%, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the median duration of hematuria, hematospermia, or rectal bleeding between the two groups (2, 8, and 2 days vs. 2, 10, and 1 days, p > 0.05, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). TRUS-guided compression [p = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) 0.25] and patient age (p = 0.013, OR 0.93) were significantly protective against the occurrence of rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy in multivariable analysis. Although it has no impact on other complications, ultrasound-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts performed immediately after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is an effective and practical method to treat or decrease rectal bleeding.

  11. The development and evaluation of ultrasound for the treatment of bacterial suspensions. A study of frequency, power and sonication time on cultured Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, E; Phull, S S; Lorimer, J P; Mason, T J

    2003-10-01

    Some species of bacteria produce colonies and spores which agglomerate in spherical clusters (Bacillus subtilis) and this serves as a protection for the organisms inside against biocidal attack. Flocs of fine particles e.g. clay can entrap bacteria which can also protect them against the biocides. It is because of problems such as these that alternative methods of disinfecting water are under active investigation. One such method is the use of power ultrasound, either alone or in combination with other methods. Ultrasound is able to inactivate bacteria and deagglomerate bacterial clusters or flocs through a number of physical, mechanical and chemical effects arising from acoustic cavitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of power ultrasound at different powers and frequencies on Bacillus subtilis. Viable plate count techniques were used as a measure of microbial activity. Results showed a significant increase in percent kill for Bacillus species with increasing duration of exposure and intensity of ultrasound in the low-kilohertz range (20 and 38 kHz). Results obtained at two higher frequencies (512 and 850 kHz) indicated a significant increase in bacteria count suggesting declumping. In assessing the bacterial kill with time under different sonication regimes three types of behaviour were characterized: High power ultrasound (lower frequencies) in low volumes of bacterial suspension results in a continuous reduction in bacterial cell numbers i.e. the kill rate predominates. High power ultrasound (lower frequencies) in larger volumes results in an initial rise in cell numbers suggesting declumping of the bacteria but this initial rise then falls as the declumping finishes and the kill rate becomes more important. Low intensity ultrasound (higher frequencies) gives an initial rise in cell numbers as a result of declumping. The kill rate is low and so there is no significant subsequent decrease in bacterial cell numbers.

  12. Riding the Plane Wave: Considerations for In Vivo Study Designs Employing High Frame Rate Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Au

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in diagnostic ultrasound have allowed for a rapid expansion of the quantity and quality of non-invasive information that clinical researchers can acquire from cardiovascular physiology. The recent emergence of high frame rate ultrasound (HiFRUS is the next step in the quantification of complex blood flow behavior, offering angle-independent, high temporal resolution data in normal physiology and clinical cases. While there are various HiFRUS methods that have been tested and validated in simulations and in complex flow phantoms, there is a need to expand the field into more rigorous in vivo testing for clinical relevance. In this tutorial, we briefly outline the major advances in HiFRUS, and discuss practical considerations of participant preparation, experimental design, and human measurement, while also providing an example of how these frameworks can be immediately applied to in vivo research questions. The considerations put forward in this paper aim to set a realistic framework for research labs which use HiFRUS to commence the collection of human data for basic science, as well as for preliminary clinical research questions.

  13. Ultrasound elastography: advantages, limitations and artefacts of the different techniques from a study on a phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi-Abella, S; Elie, C; Correas, J-M

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a technique currently under development. Its use in clinical practice is complicated because of the wide range of techniques used by the different manufacturers and the parameters proposed to characterise tissues. A comparative analysis on five ultrasound diagnostic systems has been performed on a calibrated elasticity phantom and demonstrated that: (1) all systems tested are reliable for simple qualitative analysis: is a nodule present and is it harder or softer than neighbouring tissues? (2) the deformation or hardness ratios between two regions are usually, however, not proportional to the theoretical ratios and only a binary analysis greater than 1 (harder) and less than 1 (softer) is reliable and could be used as a negative predictive value (NPV) for malignant lesions, as has been suggested by some authors; (3) finally, quantitative analysis using shear wave techniques performed variably, reliable measurements being obtained with only one of the systems. Measurements produced by these different systems must not be compared in clinical practice to monitor a patient and the threshold values proposed in the literature must only be used in an analysis carried out with the same system and same probe. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. An ex vivo feasibility experimental study on targeted cell surgery by high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Biao; Wu, Junru; Fang, Liao Qiong; Wang, Hua; Li, Fa Qi; Tian, Yun Bo; Gong, Xiao Bo; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Lian; Feng, Ruo

    2012-10-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become a new noninvasive surgical modality in medicine. A portion of tissue seated inside a patient's body may experience coagulative necrosis after a few seconds of insonification by high intensity focused ultrasound (US) generated by an extracorporeal focusing US transducer. The region of tissue affected by coagulative necrosis (CN) usually has an ellipsoidal shape when the thermal effect due to US absorption plays the dominant role. Its long and short axes are parallel and perpendicular to the US propagation direction respectively. It was shown by ex vivo experiments that the dimension of the short and long axes of the tissue which experiences CN can be as small as 50 μm and 250 μm respectively after one second exposure of US pulse (the spatial and pulse average acoustic power is on the order of tens of Watts and the local acoustic spatial and temporal pulse averaged intensity is on the order of 3 × 104 W/cm2) generated by a 1.6 MHz HIFU transducer of 12 cm diameter and 11 cm geometric focal length (f-number = 0.92). The numbers of cells which suffered CN were estimated to be on the order of 40. This result suggests that HIFU is able to interact with tens of cells at/near its focal zone while keeping the neighboring cells minimally affected, and thus the targeted cell surgery may be achievable.

  15. SUPER-RESOLUTION ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY WITH A RING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SIMONETTI, FRANCESCO [NON LANL; DURIC, NEBOJSA [NON LANL; RAMA, OLSI [NON LANL

    2007-01-18

    Ultrasound tomography attempts to retrieve the structure of an objective by exploiting the interaction of acoustic waves with the object. A fundamental limit of ultrasound tomography is that features cannot be resolved if they are spaced less than {lambda}/2 apart, where {lambda} is wavelength of the probing wave, regardless of the degree of accuracy of the measurements. Therefore, since the attenuation of the probing wave with propagation distance increases as {lambda} decreases, resolution has to be traded against imaging depth. Recently, it has been shown that the {lambda}/2 limit is a consequence of the Born approximation (implicit in the imaging algorithms currently employed) which neglects the distortion of the probing wavefield as it travels through the medium to be imaged. On the other hand, such a distortion, which is due to the multiple scattering phenomenon, can encode unlimited resolution in the radiating component of the scattered field. Previously, a resolution better than {lambda}/3 has been reported in these proceedings [F. Simonetti, pp. 126 (2006)] in the case of elastic wave probing. In this paper, they demonstrate experimentally a resolution better than {lambda}/4 for objects immersed in a water bth probed by means of a ring array which excites and detects pressure waves in a full view configuration.

  16. 4D ultrasound study of fetal facial expressions in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AboEllail, Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa; Kanenishi, Kenji; Mori, Nobuhiro; Mohamed, Osman Abdel Kareem; Hata, Toshiyuki

    2018-07-01

    To evaluate the frequencies of fetal facial expressions in the third trimester of pregnancy, when fetal brain maturation and development are progressing in normal healthy fetuses. Four-dimensional (4 D) ultrasound was used to examine the facial expressions of 111 healthy fetuses between 30 and 40 weeks of gestation. The frequencies of seven facial expressions (mouthing, yawning, smiling, tongue expulsion, scowling, sucking, and blinking) during 15-minute recordings were assessed. The fetuses were further divided into three gestational age groups (25 fetuses at 30-31 weeks, 43 at 32-35 weeks, and 43 at ≥36 weeks). Comparison of facial expressions among the three gestational age groups was performed to determine their changes with advancing gestation. Mouthing was the most frequent facial expression at 30-40 weeks of gestation, followed by blinking. Both facial expressions were significantly more frequent than the other expressions (p facial expressions did not change between 30 and 40 weeks. The frequency of yawning at 30-31 weeks was significantly higher than that at 36-40 weeks (p facial expressions among the three gestational age groups. Our results suggest that 4D ultrasound assessment of fetal facial expressions may be a useful modality for evaluating fetal brain maturation and development. The decreasing frequency of fetal yawning after 30 weeks of gestation may explain the emergence of distinct states of arousal.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ... Ultrasound examinations are painless and easily tolerated by most patients. Ultrasound exams in which the transducer is ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ...

  20. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.