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Sample records for ultrasound contrast media

  1. Radiographic, MR or ultrasound contrast media in pregnant or breast-feeding women. What are the key issues?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.

    2013-01-01

    The use and the safety of radiographic, MR- or ultrasound contrast media in the diagnostic work-up of pregnant or lactating patients is a frequently discussed question. As only sparse clinical data is available, a careful benefit-risk assessment must contain physico-chemical properties, preclinical data including teratogeneity and embryotoxicity, as well as maternal and foetal exposure. With consideration to the individual risks, iodinated contrast media, macrocyclic MR contrast media with increased stability or sulphur hexafluoride ultrasound contrast media may, if clinically justified, be administered in the smallest possible doses throughout pregnancy. After parental administration of an iodinated contrast medium after the 12th week of pregnancy, the neonate's thyroidal function should be checked during the first week after birth. After parental administration of iodinated, stable macrocyclic, gadolinium or ultrasound contrast media, lactation can be continued normally. In any case, contrast media should be used with caution and only if the benefits outweigh the risk. (orig.)

  2. [Radiographic, MR or ultrasound contrast media in pregnant or breast-feeding women: what are the key issues?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, J M; Kubik-Huch, R A

    2013-01-01

    The use and the safety of radiographic, MR- or ultrasound contrast media in the diagnostic work-up of pregnant or lactating patients is a frequently discussed question. As only sparse clinical data is available, a careful benefit-risk assessment must contain physico-chemical properties, preclinical data including teratogeneity and embryotoxicity, as well as maternal and foetal exposure. With consideration to the individual risks, iodinated contrast media, macrocyclic MR contrast media with increased stability or sulphur hexafluoride ultrasound contrast media may, if clinically justified, be administered in the smallest possible doses throughout pregnancy. After parental administration of an iodinated contrast medium after the 12th week of pregnancy, the neonate's thyroidal function should be checked during the first week after birth. After parental administration of iodinated, stable macrocyclic, gadolinium or ultrasound contrast media, lactation can be continued normally. In any case, contrast media should be used with caution and only if the benefits outweigh the risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decazes, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Guerbet firm, which holds 69% of the capital on the contrast media for medical imagery, could sale about 20% of this capital in order to accelerate its development in the United States, one of its next market with the Japan. (O.M.)

  4. The Use of Enteric Contrast Media for Diagnostic CT, MRI, and Ultrasound in Infants and Children: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael J; Talmadge, Jennifer M; MacDougall, Robert; Buonomo, Carlo; Taylor, George A

    2016-05-01

    Enteric contrast media are commonly administered for diagnostic cross-sectional imaging studies in the pediatric population. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the use of enteric contrast media for CT, MRI, and ultrasound in infants, children, and adolescents and to share our experiences at a large tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. The use of enteric contrast material for diagnostic imaging in infants and children continues to evolve with advances in imaging technology and available enteric contrast media. Many principles of enteric contrast use in pediatric imaging are similar to those in adult imaging, but important differences must be kept in mind when imaging the gastrointestinal tract in infants and children, and practical ways to optimize the imaging examination and the patient experience should be employed where possible.

  5. Modeling of ultrasound propagation through contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, J.J.F.A.H.; Mischi, M.; Böhmer, M.; Korsten, H.; Aarts, R.M.; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In the past years many advances have been made in the detection of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) by exploiting their nonlinear behavior. However, little attention has been paid to the nonlinear distortion of ultrasound (US) waves propagating through contrast media. The aim of this study is to

  6. Development of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.

    1993-01-01

    Description of all contrast media (ionic and nonionic monomers, ionic and nonionic dimers) was presented. Chemotoxicity, osmolality and viscosity of some contrast agents were analyzed. The main adverse reactions to ionic and nonionic contrast media were described

  7. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  8. Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubble Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.; Vos, Henk; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Paradossi, Gaio; Pellegretti, Paolo; Trucco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are traditionally used in ultrasound-assisted organ perfusion imaging. Recently the use of coated microbubbles has been proposed for molecular imaging applications where the bubbles are covered with a layer of targeting ligands to bind specifically to their target cells.

  9. Dialysis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, Sameh K.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  10. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S. (ed.) [Copenhagen Univ. Hospital, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2

    2006-07-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of the contrast media used in radiology departments. Since then, the committee has questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines, and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia on urogenital radiology. This book represents the end result of this hard work. It contains all of the agreed guidelines, updated when necessary, and thereby comprehensively covers the many different safety issues relating to the diverse contrast media: barium contrast media, iodinated contrast media, MR contrast media (both gadolinium-based extracellular and organ-specific) and ultrasound contrast media. The prevention and treatment of both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions as well as the renal adverse reactions are covered in detail. The inclusion of all the ESUR guidelines within one book will offer an invaluable, unique and unparalleled resource. (orig.)

  11. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of the contrast media used in radiology departments. Since then, the committee has questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines, and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia on urogenital radiology. This book represents the end result of this hard work. It contains all of the agreed guidelines, updated when necessary, and thereby comprehensively covers the many different safety issues relating to the diverse contrast media: barium contrast media, iodinated contrast media, MR contrast media (both gadolinium-based extracellular and organ-specific) and ultrasound contrast media. The prevention and treatment of both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions as well as the renal adverse reactions are covered in detail. The inclusion of all the ESUR guidelines within one book will offer an invaluable, unique and unparalleled resource. (orig.)

  12. Contrast media: future aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H.J.; Platzek, J.; Schirmer, H.; Pietsch, H.; Carretero, J.; Harto, J.; Medina, J.; Riefke, B.; Martin, J.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the dramatic development in CT, there was no major breakthrough in the iodinated contrast media development. New agents based on hybrid between MRI and CT compounds may be a new innovative alternative. This new approach may also open new indications such as radiotherapy. (orig.)

  13. [Relevance of contrast ultrasound with microbubbles in vascular medecine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Ney, Barbara; Alatri, Adriano; Calanca, Luca; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2016-12-07

    Application of ultrasound contrast media has become a standard in diagnostic imaging in cardiology and in the characterization of focal lesions in multiple organs, especially of the liver. In the past years there was a growing body of evidence for their usefulness in vascular medicine. The development of contrast media, microbubbles with a stabilizing envelope and filled with gaz, small enough to pass through pulmonary capillaries made real-time imaging of organ perfusion possible. Ultrasound contrast media are rapidly eliminated by exhalation and can safely be administered to patients with renal failure. The objective of this review is to describe the basic principles of ultrasound contrast imaging and to inform about vascular applications of contrast ultrasound.

  14. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  15. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  16. Ultrasound contrast agents: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-12-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MIdeveloped for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage). An important situation where demonstrating tissue devitalisation is important is in interstitial ablation of focal liver lesions: using microbubble contrast agents at the end of a procedure allows immediate evaluation of the

  17. Ultrasound contrast agents: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MI < 0.3) so that the microbubbles are not destroyed and scanning can continue in real time. The clinical roles of contrast enhanced ultrasound scanning are expanding rapidly. They are established in echocardiography to improve endocardial border detection and are being developed for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating

  18. Properties of conventional contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetzel, W.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive overview is given of the properties of contrast media currently used in computed tomography (CT). The chemical structure of the compounds and the physicochemical properties derived therefrom are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of the physicochemical properties of contrast media for tolerance and the pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds in the body. An outline is given of the basic ideas governing rational use of contrast media in CT, which result from complex, time-dependent distribution of contrast media in different tissue spaces. (Auth.)

  19. Adriamycin nephrosis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Golman, K.; Hemmingsen, L.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1990-01-01

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 9 days after intravenous injection of either diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 27 Wistar rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin 42 days before. Another 9 rats exposed to neither Adriamycin nor contrast media served as controls. None of the contrast media caused further increased albuminuria of significance, whereas both induced significantly increased excretion of all 5 tubular components. The excretion of NAG and sodium was significantly higher following diatrizoate than following iohexol. From 24 h post injection there was no significantly greater excretion of any of the components after either diatrizoate or iohexol than after saline among the rats given Adriamycin. At the end of day 9 after contrast medium injection neither serum sodium, potassium, glucose, urea, creatinine, nor albumin revealed any contrast media related changes. Kidney histology showed quantitatively larger lesions in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and contrast media than in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and saline. There were no differences between the two contrast media groups. It is thus concluded, that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media cause temporary tubular dysfunction but no further glomerular dysfunction in rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin. The histologic findings indicate that both media may worsen non-reversible renal lesions. (orig.)

  20. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Bang, Nanna

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents were originally introduced to enhance the Doppler signals when detecting vessels with low velocity flow or when imaging conditions were sub-optimal. Contrast agents showed additional properties, it was discovered that a parenchymal enhancement phase in the liver followed the enhancement of the blood pool. Contrast agents have made ultrasound scanning more accurate in detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions and the sensitivity is now comparable with CT and MRI scanning. Further, analysis of the transit time of contrast agent through the liver seems to give information on possible hepatic involvement, not only from focal lesions but also from diffuse benign parenchymal disease. The first ultrasound contrast agents were easily destroyed by the energy from the sound waves but newer agents have proved to last for longer time and hereby enable real-time scanning and make contrast enhancement suitable for interventional procedures such as biopsies and tissue ablation. Also, in monitoring the effect of tumour treatment contrast agents have been useful. A brief overview is given on some possible applications and on different techniques using ultrasound contrast agents in liver imaging. At present, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent that allows real-time scanning with low mechanical index is to be preferred

  1. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  2. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Vascular Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Kim; Mestre, Xavier Marti; Coll, Ramon Vila

    2017-01-01

    modalities. Ultrasound has only challenged these methods in assessment of carotid disease, aortic aneurysms, venous insufficiency, and thromboembolism and in surveillance of in situ bypasses. These practice patterns may change with the introduction of second-generation ultrasound contrast agents which...... are easy to use, manageable, and safe. This topical review attempts to summarize and highlight the current evidence and future prospects for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in vascular surgery, with a particular focus on opportunities in carotid and lower limb arteriosclerotic disease and surveillance after...

  3. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  4. Ionic versus nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylak, C.J.; Gafni, A.

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy and effectiveness of the nonionic contrast media have been established. Widespread usage has been hampered because of the approximate tenfold increase in cost compared with the ionic media. An economic evaluation considering costs and consequences of both interventions (ionic vs nonionic contrast media) was performed; it is a cost effectiveness (CEA) and a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for the Canadian experience. The results of the CEA demonstrate a value per life-year saved within an acceptable range when compared with value for quality-adjusted life years for programs such as treatment of severe (diastolic≥ 105 mm Hg) and mild (diastolic 95-104 mm Hg) hypertension in men aged 40. The CBA showed a net cost to society when benefits were measured as future treatment costs saved plus productivity gained. However, if people are willing to pay a small amount for the comfort of the new intervention, this will result in a break-even situation

  5. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  6. The 'humble' bubble: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Sykes, Anne; Berry, Jonathan; Jonker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasing within the field of medical imaging. Ultrasonic contrast agent (UCA) contain gas microbubbles similar in size to red corpuscles which provide highly reflective interfaces, enabling dynamic demonstration of echogenic streams of the contrast within the anatomical area of interest on real-time grey scale ultrasound. Longevity of the microbubbles has been improved by changing their composition. The application of CEUS in the UK continues to grow, bringing it into territories historically occupied by computerised tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hence, the role of CEUS may be of interest to all diagnostic imaging practitioners. Here we summarise the mode of action and use of CEUS, and its role within a range of applications. The potential risks of CEUS are compared to other contrast-enhanced imaging techniques. The benefits of CEUS and its implications for diagnostic imaging practice are also covered.

  7. Advanced detection strategies for ultrasound contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.G. Borsboom (Jerome)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Ultrasound contrast agent was discovered serendipitously by Gramiak and Shah in I968 when they injected indocyanine green dye into the heart and observed increased echogenicity of the blood containing the dye. Small cavitation bubbles that were formed upon

  8. Nonspherical oscilllations of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollet, B.; van der Meer, S.M.; Garbin, V.; Garbin, Valeria; de Jong, N.; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of nonspherical oscillations (or surface modes) of coated microbubbles, used as ultrasound contrast agents in medical imaging, is investigated using ultra–high-speed optical imaging. Optical tweezers designed to micromanipulate single bubbles in 3-D are used to trap the bubbles far

  9. Contrast Media: Are There Differences in Nephrotoxicity among Contrast Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are usually classified based upon their osmolality—high, low, and isosmolar. Iodinated contrast agents are also nephrotoxic in some but not all patients resulting in loss of glomerular filtration rate. Over the past 30 years, nephrotoxicity has been linked to osmolality although the precise mechanism underlying such a link has been elusive. Improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity and prospective randomized clinical trials have attempted to further explore the relationship between osmolality and nephrotoxicity. In this review, the basis for our current understanding that there are little if any differences in nephrotoxic potential between low and isosmolar contrast media will be detailed using data from clinical studies. PMID:24587997

  10. Molecular imaging with targeted contrast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Mark; Allroggen, Achim; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound uses targeted microbubbles that are retained in diseased tissue. The resonant properties of these microbubbles produce acoustic signals in an ultrasound field. The microbubbles are targeted to diseased tissue by using certain chemical constituents in the microbubble shell or by attaching disease-specific ligands such as antibodies to the microbubble. In this review, we discuss the applications of this technique to pathological states in the cerebrovascular system including atherosclerosis, tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, intravascular thrombus, and inflammation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Radiographic contrast media, function and future reassessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovak, M.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the use of radiographic contrast media in cholecysto- and cholangiography, central nervous system imaging, urography and angiography. Other aspects briefly discussed are the use of large i.v. doses of contrast media for CT contrast enhancement and the design theory for improved water soluble contrast media. (U.K.)

  12. Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Oh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs were developed to maximize reflection contrast so that organs can be seen clearly in ultrasound imaging. UCAs increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR by linear and non-linear mechanisms and thus help more accurately visualize the internal organs and blood vessels. However, the UCAs on the market are not only expensive, but are also not optimized for use in various therapeutic research applications such as ultrasound-aided drug delivery. The UCAs fabricated in this study utilize conventional lipid and albumin for shell formation and perfluorobutane as the internal gas. The shape and density of the UCA bubbles were verified by optical microscopy and Cryo SEM, and compared to those of the commercially available UCAs, Definity® and Sonovue®. The size distribution and characteristics of the reflected signal were also analyzed using a particle size analyzer and ultrasound imaging equipment. Our experiments indicate that UCAs composed of spherical microbubbles, the majority of which were smaller than 1 um, were successfully synthesized. Microbubbles 10 um or larger were also identified when different shell characteristics and filters were used. These laboratory UCAs can be used for research in both diagnoses and therapies.

  13. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zordo, Tobias de; Mlekusch, Sabine P.; Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mur, Erich [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schirmer, Michael [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of the Elisabethines Klagenfurt, Voelkermarkter Strasse 15-19, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria); Klauser, Andrea S. [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: andrea.klauser@i-med.ac.at

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this review is to describe the spectrum of sonographic findings in rheumatic diseases with respect to the diagnostic potential using US contrast media which prove activity or inactivity in synovial tissue where new treatment regimes target. Synovial activity can be found in non-erosive and erosive forms of primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and in inflammatory forms of joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and peripheral manifestations of spondyloarthritis including, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis and enteropathic arthritis. It can also be present in metabolic and endocrine forms of arthritis, in connective tissue arthropathies like systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma and in infectious arthritis. Ultrasound should be used as first-line imaging modality in suspected early cases of RA and other forms of arthritis, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can further enable for sensitive assessment of vascularity which correlates with disease activity.

  14. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zordo, Tobias de; Mlekusch, Sabine P.; Feuchtner, Gudrun M.; Mur, Erich; Schirmer, Michael; Klauser, Andrea S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the spectrum of sonographic findings in rheumatic diseases with respect to the diagnostic potential using US contrast media which prove activity or inactivity in synovial tissue where new treatment regimes target. Synovial activity can be found in non-erosive and erosive forms of primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and in inflammatory forms of joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and peripheral manifestations of spondyloarthritis including, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis and enteropathic arthritis. It can also be present in metabolic and endocrine forms of arthritis, in connective tissue arthropathies like systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma and in infectious arthritis. Ultrasound should be used as first-line imaging modality in suspected early cases of RA and other forms of arthritis, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can further enable for sensitive assessment of vascularity which correlates with disease activity

  15. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound for therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John M. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Williams, Ross [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Sheeran, Paul S. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Milot, Laurent [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bjarnason, Georg A. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Toronto, and Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Burns, Peter N., E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative imaging is a crucial component of the assessment of therapies that target the vasculature of angiogenic or inflamed tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) using microbubble contrast offers the advantages of being sensitive to perfusion, non-invasive, cost effective and well suited to repeated use at the bedside. Uniquely, it employs an agent that is truly intravascular. This papers reviews the principles and methodology of DCE-US, especially as applied to anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. Reproducibility is an important attribute of such a monitoring method: results are discussed. More recent technical advances in parametric and 3D DCE-US imaging are also summarised and illustrated.

  16. Estimation of Tumor Angiogenesis With Contrast Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsberg, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    ...) and receiving at the subharmonic (f0). Hence, the current project proposes to increase the ability of breast ultrasound to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions by combining injection of an ultrasound contrast agent with SHI...

  17. Estimation of Tumor Angiogenesis With Contrast Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsberg, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    .... Hence, the current project proposes to increase the ability of breast ultrasound to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions by combining injection of an ultrasound contrast agent with SHI...

  18. Estimation of Tumor Angiogenesis with Contrast Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsberg, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    .... Hence, the current project proposes to increase the ability of breast ultrasound to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions by combining injection of an ultrasound contrast agent with SHI...

  19. Contrast media are helpful in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media very often can decisively improve the image contrasts, and thus contribute to making the differential diagnosis more specific. This survey of a symposium on the current status of CT refers particularly to the lectures that discussed the use of contrast media for neuroradiology, and the risks involved. (orig.) [de

  20. MRI and CT contrast media extravasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmatzadeh Behzadi, Ashkan; Farooq, Zerwa; Newhouse, Jeffery H.; Prince, Martin R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: This systematic review combines data from multiple papers on contrast media extravasation to identify factors contributing to increased extravasation risk. Methods: Data were extracted from 17 papers reporting 2191 extravasations in 1,104,872 patients (0.2%) undergoing computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Extravasation rates were 0.045% for gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) and nearly 6-fold higher, 0.26% for iodinated contrast agents. Factors associated with increased contrast media extravasations included: older age, female gender, using an existing intravenous (IV) instead of placing a new IV in radiology, in-patient status, use of automated power injection, high injection rates, catheter location, and failing to warm up the more viscous contrast media to body temperature. Conclusion: Contrast media extravasation is infrequent but nearly 6 times less frequent with GBCA for MRI compared with iodinated contrast used in CT. PMID:29489663

  1. Influence of radiographic contrast media on phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, F.; Georgsen, J.; Grunnet, N.; Aalborg Sygehus

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of radiographic contrast media (CM) on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML), the ability of these cells to ingest latex particles after in vitro exposure to five different radiographic contrast media was investigated. All CM inhibited the phagocytic properties of PML. The inhibition was dose dependent. The inhibitory effect was partly due to hyperosmolality but CM specific inhibition was also evident. (orig.)

  2. Adverse reactions to intravascularly administered contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, T.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis is formulated about the mechanisms causing adverse reactions to contrast media. Contrast media act in two ways. They stimulate the mast cells to release histamine and leukotrienes, and they inhibit the enzymes which otherwise degrade leukotrienes. Thus individuals, especially those with a history of allergy, are easily exposed to undue amounts of leukotrienes and these are responsible for the adverse reactions. (orig.)

  3. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Sciences; Webb, Judith A.W. (eds.) [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital London Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    2009-07-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of contrast media used for diagnostic imaging. Subsequently the committee questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia of the society. The end result of this work was the successful first edition of this book, published in 2006. This second edition not only updates the previous edition, but also contains some completely new chapters, for example on gadolinium-based contrast agents, meta-analyses in contrast media research and various regulatory issues. Comprehensive consideration is given to the many different safety issues relating to iodinated, MR, ultrasound and barium contrast media. The text includes chapters on both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions and on renal adverse reactions. All those questions frequently raised in radiological practice are addressed, and the well-known ESUR guidelines on contrast media are included. This book, presented in a handy, easy to use format, provides an invaluable, unique and unparalleled source of information on the safety issues relating to contrast media. (orig.)

  4. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of contrast media used for diagnostic imaging. Subsequently the committee questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia of the society. The end result of this work was the successful first edition of this book, published in 2006. This second edition not only updates the previous edition, but also contains some completely new chapters, for example on gadolinium-based contrast agents, meta-analyses in contrast media research and various regulatory issues. Comprehensive consideration is given to the many different safety issues relating to iodinated, MR, ultrasound and barium contrast media. The text includes chapters on both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions and on renal adverse reactions. All those questions frequently raised in radiological practice are addressed, and the well-known ESUR guidelines on contrast media are included. This book, presented in a handy, easy to use format, provides an invaluable, unique and unparalleled source of information on the safety issues relating to contrast media. (orig.)

  5. A contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of benign and malignant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of benign and malignant breast tissue. S Barnard, E Leen, T Cooke, W Angerson. Abstract. Objective. To determine the diagnostic value of haemodynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessment in benign and malignant breast tissue, using histological examination as the reference ...

  6. Ultrasound-induced Gas Release from Contrast Agent Microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, M.A.B.; Postema, Michiel; Bouakaz, Ayache; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, N.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated gas release from two hard-shelled ultrasound contrast agents by subjecting them to high-mechanical index (MI) ultrasound and simultaneously capturing high-speed photographs. At an insonifying frequency of 1.7 MHz, a larger percentage of contrast bubbles is seen to crack than at 0.5

  7. Are the nonionic contrast media really safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyferth, W.; Zeitler, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a wide variety of ionic and nonionic contrast media in 11,203 patient examinations (angiography, phlebography, CT). Data have been collected in prospective studies since 1982. The rate of mild side effects was reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 for all examinations when nonionic contrast media were used. Angiography may not be suitable for evaluating the safety of contrast media. Because of statistical requirements, the influence of nonionic media on the rate of severe side effects will not be known for some time. The side effects of nonionic contrast media were somewhat delayed, and differed from times reported in the literature: 29% of wide effects were noticed within 15 minutes and 71% between 25 minutes to 72 hours after the study. The final results of the study will have numerous consequences for patient treatment protocols

  8. Contrast media osmolality and plasma volume changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, A.L.; Lui, D.; Dawson, P.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the plasma volume expansion consequent on the hyperosmolality of contrast media is presented. In the case of the ratio 1.5 media theory and experiment coincide closely but in the case of the ratio 3 media the observed changes exceed the predicted. It is proposed that this is due partly to the slower diffusion of the ratio 3 media out of the intravascular space and partly due to the fact that the osmotic load presented by these media is greater than would be expected from a study of their commercial solutions in which osmolality is reduced by molecular aggregation. The implications for the relative haemodynamic effects of different contrast media are discussed. The osmotic effects of contrast media also play a part in determining the image quality achievable in intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). It is predicted that ratio 3 contrast media will give better quality images in IV-DSA than ratio 1.5 media. (orig.)

  9. Contrast media on abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalpe, I.O.; Oestensen, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in 55 patients before and after intravenous injection of 60 ml of a non-ionic (iohexol) or an ionic (metrizoate) contrast medium. The adverse effects were recorded and a series of measurements of attenuation values before and after the contrast medium injection was performed in the aorta and in hepatic and renal parenchyma. Only minor adverse effects were seen with both contrast media, but iohexol was clearly better tolerated than metrizoate. No difference in the enhancement properties was found between the two contrast media. (orig.)

  10. Manganese(II) chelate contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocklage, S.M.; Quay, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    New chelate forming compounds for use as contrast media in NMR imaging are described. Especially mentioned are manganese(II) ion chelates of N,N' dipyridoxaldiamine, N,N' diacetic acid, and salts and esters thereof. 1 fig

  11. Death following intravascular administration of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehadi, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse reactions to intravascularly administered contrast media preceding death and the autopsy findings in 44 patients are presented. There is a wide scatter of the age distribution of fatal reactions. The highest incidence is in the 50-70 year age group. Similar observations were obtained from the 405 deaths due to contrast media reported to the Food and Drug Administration of the United States. In the same age group the number of reactions is highest, likewise the autopsy findings. The predominant autopsy findings are pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage; arteriosclerosis, both general and coronary. In the younger age group the autopsy findings are limited mostly to the respiratory tract. Fatal reactions to contrast media occur often without warning and most deaths occur within 15 min to 6 hours. Reactions to contrast media occur without relation to sex or age. (orig.)

  12. Are ionic CAT contrast media still justifiable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H.; Trempenau, B.; Dietz, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors' clinical results revealed no statistically significant differences of tolerance between the two X-ray contrast media 'Ioxitalamat' and 'Ioglicinat'. Side-effects were found in 4.3% of the cases for both contrast media, a rate which is slightly below the one for urography. However, it must not be overlooked that patients exposed to certain risk faktors such as e.g. relative contraindications were as far as possible excluded from the study. (orig./WU) [de

  13. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of splenic lymphoma involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerg, Christian; Faoro, Charis; Bert, Tillmann; Tebbe, Johannes; Neesse, Albrecht; Wilhelm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with standard B-mode ultrasound (US) for diagnosis of splenic lymphoma involvement. Methods: From 04/2005 to 10/2008 n = 250 lymphoma patients were investigated by standard B-mode US. A homogeneous splenic echotexture was found in 199 patients (79%). To clarify the benefit of CEUS in this group a pilot series was performed with 16 of the 199 lymphoma patients. All patients with an abnormal splenic echotexture on standard B-Mode US (n = 51) including focal hypoechoic splenic lesions (n = 41) and an inhomogeneous splenic texture (n = 10) were studied by CEUS. CEUS data were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnoses included indolent lymphoma (n = 27), aggressive lymphoma (n = 14), and Hodgkin's disease (n = 10). Number and size of lesions were determined by B-mode US and CEUS. The visualisation of splenic lymphoma involvement by CEUS in comparison to B-mode US was classified as worse, equal, or better. Results: All patients with a homogeneous spleen on B-mode US (n = 16) had no visible focal lesions on CEUS. Study patients with focal lesions (n = 41) had a hypoechoic (n = 22) or isoechoic (n = 19) enhancement during the arterial phase, and a hypoechoic enhancement during the parenchymal phase (n = 41). The visualisation of focal splenic lymphoma was equal (n = 32), better (n = 6), or worse (n = 3). In all study patients with an inhomogeneous spleen on B-mode US (n = 10) no focal lesions were found by CEUS and the value of CEUS therefore was classified as worse. Conclusion: CEUS has no clear advantage for diagnosis of splenic lymphoma involvement.

  14. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of splenic lymphoma involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian, E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg/Lahn (Germany); Faoro, Charis [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg/Lahn (Germany); Bert, Tillmann [Zentralklinik Bad Berka GmbH, Robert-Koch-Allee 9, 99437 Bad Berka (Germany); Tebbe, Johannes [Klinikum Lippe-Detmold, Roentgenstrasse 18, 32756 Detmold (Germany); Neesse, Albrecht; Wilhelm, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with standard B-mode ultrasound (US) for diagnosis of splenic lymphoma involvement. Methods: From 04/2005 to 10/2008 n = 250 lymphoma patients were investigated by standard B-mode US. A homogeneous splenic echotexture was found in 199 patients (79%). To clarify the benefit of CEUS in this group a pilot series was performed with 16 of the 199 lymphoma patients. All patients with an abnormal splenic echotexture on standard B-Mode US (n = 51) including focal hypoechoic splenic lesions (n = 41) and an inhomogeneous splenic texture (n = 10) were studied by CEUS. CEUS data were retrospectively evaluated. The diagnoses included indolent lymphoma (n = 27), aggressive lymphoma (n = 14), and Hodgkin's disease (n = 10). Number and size of lesions were determined by B-mode US and CEUS. The visualisation of splenic lymphoma involvement by CEUS in comparison to B-mode US was classified as worse, equal, or better. Results: All patients with a homogeneous spleen on B-mode US (n = 16) had no visible focal lesions on CEUS. Study patients with focal lesions (n = 41) had a hypoechoic (n = 22) or isoechoic (n = 19) enhancement during the arterial phase, and a hypoechoic enhancement during the parenchymal phase (n = 41). The visualisation of focal splenic lymphoma was equal (n = 32), better (n = 6), or worse (n = 3). In all study patients with an inhomogeneous spleen on B-mode US (n = 10) no focal lesions were found by CEUS and the value of CEUS therefore was classified as worse. Conclusion: CEUS has no clear advantage for diagnosis of splenic lymphoma involvement.

  15. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, T.J.; Versluis, Michel

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse.

  16. Anaphylactoid reactions after iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strejcek, J.; Sehr, A.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is presented of data published in the literature on the incidence of undesirable and especially anaphylactoid reactions to intravenously administered iodinated contrast media used in radiodiagnosis, this with regard to age, sex, allergy in the patient's history, previously administered contrast media, possible previous reaction. A detailed description is presented of the assumed mechanisms of these reactions. There does not exist any reliable premedication. It is always indispensable to consider the indications of the examination using iodinated contrast agents and the possibilities of immediate and qualified resuscitation. (author). 2 tabs., 36 refs

  17. A model for ultrasound contrast agent in a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework to model the dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent (UCA) inside a phantom vessel is presented. The model is derived from the reduced Navier-Stokes equation and is coupled with the evolving flow field solution inside

  18. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, P.; Pes, P.L.; Wijkstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several imaging techniques can be used for visualization of the kidneys dependent on the indication. Ultrasound (US), computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are most commonly used. US is a safe, relatively inexpensive, noninvasive, and widely available imaging method. It

  20. Collapse dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel Alan

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are micron-sized gas bubbles encapsulated with thin shells on the order of nanometers thick. The damping effects of these viscoelastic coatings are widely known to significantly alter the bubble dynamics for linear and low-amplitude behavior; however, their effects on strongly nonlinear and destruction responses are much less studied. This dissertation examines the behaviors of single collapsing shelled microbubbles using experimental and theoretical methods. The study of their dynamics is particularly relevant for emerging experimental uses of UCAs which seek to leverage localized mechanical forces to create or avoid specialized biomedical effects. The central component in this work is the study of postexcitation rebound and collapse, observed acoustically to identify shell rupture and transient inertial cavitation of single UCA microbubbles. This time-domain analysis of the acoustic response provides a unique method for characterization of UCA destruction dynamics. The research contains a systematic documentation of single bubble postexcitation collapse through experimental measurement with the double passive cavitation detection (PCD) system at frequencies ranging from 0.9 to 7.1 MHz and peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPA) ranging from 230 kPa to 6.37 MPa. The double PCD setup is shown to improve the quality of collected data over previous setups by allowing symmetric responses from a localized confocal region to be identified. Postexcitation signal percentages are shown to generally follow trends consistent with other similar cavitation metrics such as inertial cavitation, with greater destruction observed at both increased PRPA and lower frequency over the tested ranges. Two different types of commercially available UCAs are characterized and found to have very different collapse thresholds; lipid-shelled Definity exhibits greater postexcitation at lower PRPAs than albumin-shelled Optison. Furthermore, by altering

  1. Reproducibility of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound of the prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J. P.; Goossen, T. E.; Wijkstra, H.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Transrectal three-dimensional (3-D) contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (US) is a novel technique for studying possible prostate malignancy. Before studies can be performed to investigate the clinical validity of the technique, reproducibility of the contrast US studies must be proven.

  2. Two new contrast media in coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, K.; Bjoerk, L.

    1983-01-01

    Amipaque, ioxaglic acid and Isopaque Coronar 300 were compared in a double blind investigation of coronary angiography in patients with ischemic heart disease. Amipaque affected systolic blood pressure and ECG less than the other contrast media. Ioxaglic acid appeared to give more ST and T changes than Isopaque Coronar. (Auth.)

  3. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Tim; Versluis, Michel

    2014-05-21

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution. Here, we present a simple lab-on-a-chip method to sort the population of microbubbles on-chip using a traveling ultrasound wave. First, we explore the physical parameter space of acoustic bubble sorting using well-defined bubble sizes formed in a flow-focusing device, then we demonstrate successful acoustic sorting of a commercial UCA. This novel sorting strategy may lead to an overall improvement of the sensitivity of contrast ultrasound by more than 10 dB.

  4. Sonophoresis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Dependence on Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Park

    Full Text Available Sonophoresis can increase skin permeability to various drugs in transdermal drug delivery. Cavitation is recognized as the predominant mechanism of sonophoresis. Recently, a new logical approach to enhance the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery was tried. It is to utilize the engineered microbubble and its resonant frequency for increase of cavitation activity. Actively-induced cavitation with low-intensity ultrasound (less than ~1 MPa causes disordering of the lipid bilayers and the formation of aqueous channels by stable cavitation which indicates a continuous oscillation of bubbles. Furthermore, the mutual interactions of microbubble determined by concentration of added bubble are also thought to be an important factor for activity of stable cavitation, even in different characteristics of drug. In the present study, we addressed the dependence of ultrasound contrast agent concentration using two types of drug on the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery. Two types of experiment were designed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery according to ultrasound contrast agent concentration. First, an experiment of optical clearing using a tissue optical clearing agent was designed to assess the efficiency of sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. Second, a Franz diffusion cell with ferulic acid was used to quantitatively determine the amount of drug delivered to the skin sample by sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. The maximum enhancement ratio of sonophoresis with a concentration of 1:1,000 was approximately 3.1 times greater than that in the ultrasound group without ultrasound contrast agent and approximately 7.5 times greater than that in the control group. These results support our hypothesis that sonophoresis becomes more effective in transdermal drug delivery due to the presence of engineered bubbles, and that the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery using sonophoresis with

  5. Sonophoresis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Dependence on Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghee; Song, Gillsoo; Jo, Yongjun; Won, Jongho; Son, Taeyoon; Cha, Ohrum; Kim, Jinho; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Chul-Woo; Seo, Jongbum

    2016-01-01

    Sonophoresis can increase skin permeability to various drugs in transdermal drug delivery. Cavitation is recognized as the predominant mechanism of sonophoresis. Recently, a new logical approach to enhance the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery was tried. It is to utilize the engineered microbubble and its resonant frequency for increase of cavitation activity. Actively-induced cavitation with low-intensity ultrasound (less than ~1 MPa) causes disordering of the lipid bilayers and the formation of aqueous channels by stable cavitation which indicates a continuous oscillation of bubbles. Furthermore, the mutual interactions of microbubble determined by concentration of added bubble are also thought to be an important factor for activity of stable cavitation, even in different characteristics of drug. In the present study, we addressed the dependence of ultrasound contrast agent concentration using two types of drug on the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery. Two types of experiment were designed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery according to ultrasound contrast agent concentration. First, an experiment of optical clearing using a tissue optical clearing agent was designed to assess the efficiency of sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. Second, a Franz diffusion cell with ferulic acid was used to quantitatively determine the amount of drug delivered to the skin sample by sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. The maximum enhancement ratio of sonophoresis with a concentration of 1:1,000 was approximately 3.1 times greater than that in the ultrasound group without ultrasound contrast agent and approximately 7.5 times greater than that in the control group. These results support our hypothesis that sonophoresis becomes more effective in transdermal drug delivery due to the presence of engineered bubbles, and that the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery using sonophoresis with microbubbles depends on the

  6. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicite des produits de contraste iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyrier, A. (Hopital Avicenne, 93 - Bobigny (France))

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 [mu]mol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author).

  7. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Non-tumor Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is a simple, safe and reliable technique for the clinical management of patients with various liver diseases. Although the major target of the technique may be focal hepatic lesions, it is also effective for the diagnosis of non-tumor liver diseases, such as grading hepatic fibrosis, characterization of chronic liver diseases and diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis. This review article aimed to overview the recent application of CEUS in the assessment of non-tumor liver diseases. Keywords: Cirrhosis, contrast agent, fibrosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, microbubble, portal vein thrombosis, ultrasound.

  8. Safety of MR liver specific contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, Marie-France [Hopital Paul Brousse, Universite Paris 11, Villejuif Cedex (France); Webb, Judith A.W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Molen, Aart J. van der [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    Over the past few years a number of magnetic resonance (MR) liver specific contrast agents have been introduced. In this report the safety issues of these agents are addressed. A literature search was carried out. Based on the available information, simple guidelines on the safety issue of liver specific contrast agents have been produced by the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Liver specific contrast agents appear in general to be safe and well tolerated. However, the incidence of adverse reactions with iron oxides and the intravenous manganese based agent seems to be slightly higher than with gadolinium based agents. However, no safety information from comparative clinical trials has been published. Guidelines on the safety aspects are presented. (orig.)

  9. Safety of MR liver specific contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Webb, Judith A.W.; Molen, Aart J. van der; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a number of magnetic resonance (MR) liver specific contrast agents have been introduced. In this report the safety issues of these agents are addressed. A literature search was carried out. Based on the available information, simple guidelines on the safety issue of liver specific contrast agents have been produced by the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Liver specific contrast agents appear in general to be safe and well tolerated. However, the incidence of adverse reactions with iron oxides and the intravenous manganese based agent seems to be slightly higher than with gadolinium based agents. However, no safety information from comparative clinical trials has been published. Guidelines on the safety aspects are presented. (orig.)

  10. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurotoxicity of iodinated radiological contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pinheiro, R.S. de

    1988-01-01

    We studied during the last ten years the neurotoxicity of artificial iodinated contrast media, with prospective clinical and experimental protocols. The experimental investigation in animals aimed to understand the relationship between the intracarotid injection, the subarachnoid application and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier function. The electro physiologic disturbances and the morphologic observation of pial circulation support the evidence that iodinated artificial contrast media induces significant alterations in brain metabolism and in the autoregulation of the blood flow of the encephalon. Even if many of such phenomena may not be apparent at the clinical level, we supposed that they are always present and that their clinical exteriorization is prevented by the immediate and effective action of homeostatic mechanisms. (author)

  12. Contrast media properties in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laerum, F.; Enge, I.

    1989-01-01

    Potential hazards of the use of contrast media (CM) in interventional radiology are analyzed by looking into each procedure regarding interactions of CM with pharmaceutical additives, with technical equipment possibly affecting CM stability, and special local or systemic demands related to the procedure. Also the impact of these factors upon the physiological mechanisms are taken into account. (H.W.). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Evolution of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePaefgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods. It is a non-invasive, comparably inexpensive imaging method with a broad spectrum of applications, which can be increased even more by using bubbles as contrast agents. There are various different types of bubbles: filled with different gases, composed of soft- or hard-shell materials, and ranging in size from nano- to micrometers. These intravascular contrast agents enable functional analyses, e.g. to acquire organ perfusion in real-time. Molecular analyses are achieved by coupling specific ligands to the bubbles’ shell, which bind to marker molecules in the area of interest. Bubbles can also be loaded with or attached to drugs, peptides or genes and can be destroyed by ultrasound pulses to locally release the entrapped agent. Recent studies show that ultrasound contrast agents are also valuable tools in hyperthermia-induced ablation therapy of tumors, or can increase cellular uptake of locally released drugs by enhancing membrane permeability. This review summarizes important steps in the development of ultrasound contrast agents and introduces the current clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Additionally, an overview of the recent developments in ultrasound probe design for functional and molecular diagnosis as well as for drug delivery is given.

  14. Nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Hemmingsen, L.; Dieperink, H.; Golman, K.; Herlev Hospital; Herlev Hospital; Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster; Odense Sygehus; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1989-01-01

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 22 h or 8 days after intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol or saline in 30 adult Wistar rats in which nephrotoxicity was induced by daily peroral administration of 25 mg/kg body weight cyclosporin A over a 14-day period. Another 10 rats which had the vehicle of the cyclosporin A solution (placebo) and saline injected intravenously served as controls. The effect of iohexol and saline on the albumin excretion was similar, whereas diatrizoate increased it significantly. Both contrast media caused significantly increased excretion of all three enzymes. The contrast media had no effect on the excretion of glucose and sodium. Except for the fact that the excretion of NAG was significantly higher following iohexol than following diatrizoate 24 to 46 h after injection no significant differences between the two media were found from 24 h after injection among the rats given cyclosporin A. No contrast medium related changes were found by light microscopy of the kidneys. Neither iohexol nor diatrizoate potentiate acute cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  15. Anaphylactic reaction to iodinated contrast media. Review the relevant loterature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kohno, Tatsuo; Kaji, Yasushi; Takahashi, Tetuya; Seki, Masaya; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, iodinated contrast media are necessary for CT examinations and they occupy an important position in the radiological diagnosis. Nonionic contrast media significantly reduce the prevalence of all degree of adverse reaction to contrast media rather than ionic contrast media. So, generally, iodinated contrast media are safe and widely used, but adverse reaction after intravenous iodinated contrast media are not uncommon. Severe and potentially life-threatening reaction occur by using the iodinated contrast media practically. Patients at risk must be identified before the contrast media study, and all possible measures must be taken to deal effectively with spontaneous anaphylactic reactions. We report three cases of anaphylactic reactions by iodinated contrast media on CT. (author)

  16. Ultrasound in Biomedical Engineering: Ultrasound Microbubble Contrast Agents Promote Transdermal Permeation of Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ai-Ho Liao

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses a new development in the use of ultrasound microbubble contrast agents on transdermal drug delivery. The medium surrounding the microbubbles at the optimum concentration from liquid to gel can be modified and it can still achieve the same enhancement for transdermal drug permeation as liquid medium. It was also found that under the same ultrasound power density, microbubbles of larger particle sizes can extend the penetration depths of dye at the phantom surface.

  17. Pinched flow fractionation of microbubbles for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Michel; Kok, Maarten; Segers, Tim

    2014-11-01

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains a wide size distribution of encapsulated microbubbles (typically 1-10 μm in diameter) that resonate to the driving ultrasound field by the intrinsic relationship between bubble size and ultrasound frequency. Medical transducers, however, operate in a narrow frequency range, which severely limits the number of bubbles that contribute to the echo signal. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution of the bubble suspension. Here, we present a novel, low-cost, lab-on-a-chip method for the sorting of contrast microbubbles by size, based on a microfluidic separation technique known as pinched flow fractionation (PFF). We show by experimental and numerical investigation that the inclusion of particle rotation is essential for an accurate physical description of the sorting behavior of the larger bubbles. Successful sorting of a bubble suspension with a narrow size distribution (3.0 +/- 0.6 μm) has been achieved with a PFF microdevice. This sorting technique can be easily parallelized, and may lead to a significant improvement in the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced medical ultrasound. This work is supported by NanoNextNL, a micro and nanotechnology consortium of the Government of the Netherlands and 130 partners.

  18. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J G; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization. (fast track communication)

  19. Feasibility of ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection for MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Soo Jin; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Duck Sick

    2005-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection using the posterior approach for MR arthrography. Between June 2002 and October 2004, 132 patients (29 female, 103 male: mean age, 33.6 years) underwent ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast media injection (40 ml saline + 10 ml 2% lidocaine + 0.2 ml gadopentetate dimeglumine + 0.4 ml epinephrine) for MR arthrography. The patients were classified into four groups, viz. the no leakage group, the minor leakage with successful intraarticular injection group, the major leakage with unsuccessful intraarticular injection group, and the injection failure group. The 'no leakage' and 'minor leakage' groups were considered to be technical successes, while the 'major leakage' and 'injection failure' groups were regarded as technical failures. The technical success rate of ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection using the posterior approach for MR Arthrography was 99.2% (131/132 patients) and one patients 0.7% (1/132 patients) was included in the 'major leakage' group. Ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection using the posterior approach for MR arthrography was feasible with a high success rate

  20. Ultrasound contrast-agent improves imaging of lower limb occlusive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Hansen, M A; Jensen, F

    2003-01-01

    to evaluate if ultrasound contrast-agent infusion could improve duplex-ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and increase the agreement with digital subtraction arteriography (DSA).......to evaluate if ultrasound contrast-agent infusion could improve duplex-ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and increase the agreement with digital subtraction arteriography (DSA)....

  1. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-inclusion microbubbles for ultrasound contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fang; Li Yixin; Chen Zhongping; Gu Ning; Li Ling; Wu Junru

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new type of ultrasound (US) contrast agent, consisting of a gas core, a layer of superparamagnetic iron oxide Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (SPIO) and an oil in water outermost layer. The newly developed US contrast agent microbubbles have a mean diameter of 760 nm with a polydisperity index (PI) of 0.699. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that they have the following advantages compared to gas-encapsulated microbbubbles without SPIO inclusion: (1) they provide better contrast for US images; (2) the SPIO-inclusion microbubbles generate a higher backscattering signal; the mean grey scale is 97.9, which is 38.6 higher than that of microbubbles without SPIO; and (3) since SPIO can also serve as a contrast agent of magnetic resonance images (MRI) in vitro, they can be potentially used as contrast agents for double-modality (MRI and US) clinical studies.

  2. The use of new contrast media agents in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the document is to present the importance of different categories of contrast media in radiography. Ionic and non-ionic contrast media are presented. Pharmacology and pathophysiology of Iodine contrast media with their effects on special organs of the body like the heart, vessels, lungs and nervous systems are explained. Paramagnetic contrast media used in NMR imaging are presented too. Emphasis is made on contrast media based on Gadolinium like Gd-DTPA, Gd-CL3, Gd-EDTA. Actions of Gd-DTPA applied to images in urography are pointed out

  3. Ultrasound-triggered local release of lipophilic drugs from a novel polymeric ultrasound contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, K.; Böhmer, M.R.; Emmer, M.; Vos, Hendrik J.; Chlon, C.; Foppen-Harteveld, M.; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, N.; van Wamel, A.; Hennink, W.E.; Feijen, J.; Sam, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    The advantage of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) as drug delivery systems is the ability to non-invasively control the local and triggered release of a drug or gene. In this study we designed and characterized a novel UCA-based drug delivery system, based on polymer-shelled microcapsules filled

  4. Contrast media and pain during peripheral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, B.; Clauss, W.

    1982-01-01

    Some contrast media (CM) were for inducing pain and heat by an intraindividual comparison in 60 patients with occlusive peripheral arterial disease. A dolorimeter and calorimeter (graduated scales) were employed to register and differentiate the subjective sensations experienced by the patient, while objective reactions (peripheral motoric reactions, circulatory parameters) were recorded by the trialist at the same time. Ioxaglate, an ionic dimer, was distinctly superior to Ioglicinate, an ionic CM. However, the differences were less marked in the comparison with a Ioglicinate-Lidocaine-mixture. Emphasis is given to the fact osmolality is the most important parameter in the development of pain. Potential points at which the intraarterially administered local anaesthetic could attack are discussed. The clinical conclusions include consideration of the cost-effectivity ratios of the tested CM's and a discussion of whether or not modern stanards still justify general anaesthesia for peripheral angiography. (orig.)

  5. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of urogenital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libero Barozzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an innovative technique that employs microbubble contrast agents to demonstrate parenchymal perfusion. Although initial clinical application was focused on the liver pathology, a wide variety of clinical conditions can be assessed now with CEUS. CEUS is a well-tolerated technique and is acquiring an increasing role in the assessment of renal pathology because contrast agents are not excreted by the kidney and do not affect the renal function. CEUS demonstrated an accuracy similar to contrast enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CEMDCT in detecting focal lesions, with the advantage of the real-time assessment of microvascular perfusion by using time-intensity curves. The aim of this paper is to review the main indications of CEUS in the assessment of renal and urogenital pathology. Imaging examples are presented and described. Advantages and limitations of CEUS with reference to conventional US and CE-MDCT are discussed.

  6. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging without contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjoerg; Schick, Fritz; Boss, Andreas; Schraml, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina F.; Claussen, Claus D.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of magnetic resonance imaging techniques providing perfusion-related contrast weighting without administration of contrast media are reported and analysed systematically. Especially common approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging allowing quantitative assessment of specific perfusion rates are described in detail. The potential of ASL for perfusion imaging was tested in several types of tissue. After a systematic comparison of technical aspects of continuous and pulsed ASL techniques the standard kinetic model and tissue properties of influence to quantitative measurements of perfusion are reported. For the applications demonstrated in this paper a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation approach followed by true fast imaging with steady precession (true FISP) data recording was developed and implemented on whole-body scanners operating at 0.2, 1.5 and 3 T for quantitative perfusion measurement in various types of tissue. ASL imaging provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of tissue perfusion rates in vivo. Images recorded from kidney, lung, brain, salivary gland and thyroid gland provide a spatial resolution of a few millimetres and sufficient signal to noise ratio in perfusion maps after 2-5 min of examination time. Newly developed ASL techniques provide especially high image quality and quantitative perfusion maps in tissues with relatively high perfusion rates (as also present in many tumours). Averaging of acquisitions and image subtraction procedures are mandatory, leading to the necessity of synchronization of data recording to breathing in abdominal and thoracic organs. (orig.)

  7. Safety of ultrasound contrast agents in stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ruvin S; Smyth, Yvonne M; Menon, Venu; Klein, Allan L; Grimm, Richard A; Thomas, James D; Sabik, Ellen Mayer

    2008-11-01

    Definity and Optison are perflutren-based ultrasound contrast agents used in echocardiography. United States Food and Drug Administration warnings regarding serious cardiopulmonary reactions and death after Definity administration highlighted the limited safety data in patients who undergo contrast stress echocardiography. From 1998 and 2007, 2,022 patients underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography and 2,764 underwent exercise stress echocardiography with contrast at the Cleveland Clinic. The echocardiographic database, patient records, and the Social Security Death Index were reviewed for the timing and cause of death, severe adverse events, arrhythmias, and symptoms. Complication rates for contrast dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise stress echocardiography were compared with those in a control group of 5,012 patients matched for test year and type who did not receive contrast. Ninety-five percent of studies were performed in outpatients. There were no differences in the rates of severe adverse events (0.19% vs 0.17%, p = 0.7), death within 24 hours (0% vs 0.04%, p = 0.1), cardiac arrest (0.04% vs 0.04%, p = 0.96), and sustained ventricular tachycardia (0.2% vs 0.1%, p = 0.32) between patients receiving and not receiving intravenous contrast, respectively. In conclusion, severe adverse reactions to intravenous contrast agents during stress echocardiography are uncommon. Contrast use does not add to the baseline risk for severe adverse events in patients who undergo stress echocardiography.

  8. Non-ionic contrast media: are they obligatory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halva, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    Author presents recommendations for nonionic contrast media application. They are more expensive but less toxic than ionic ones. In order to avoid side effects in many radiological examinations (phlebography, arteriography, coronarography, ventriculography) one should use nonionic contrast media. Another reason for application of nonionic contrast agents is young age of patient or his state of health

  9. Iodine-based contrast media, multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; Bertolotto, Michele; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many radiologists and clinicians still consider multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathies (MG) a contraindication for using iodine-based contrast media. The ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee performed a systematic review of the incidence of post-contrast acute kidney injury...

  10. Results of vardenafil mediated power Doppler ultrasound, contrast enhanced ultrasound and systematic random biopsies to detect prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Girolamo; Pagni, Riccardo; Mariani, Chiara; Minervini, Riccardo; Morelli, Andrea; Gori, Francesco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria; Paterni, Marco; Mauro, Eva; Guidi, Elisa; Armillotta, Nicola; Canale, Domenico; Vitti, Paolo; Caramella, Davide; Minervini, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil to increase prostate microcirculation during power Doppler ultrasound. We also evaluated the results of contrast and vardenafil enhanced targeted biopsies compared to those of standard 12-core random biopsies to detect cancer. Between May 2008 and January 2010, 150 consecutive patients with prostate specific antigen more than 4 ng/ml at first diagnosis with negative digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound, and no clinical history of prostatitis underwent contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (bolus injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue® contrast agent), followed by vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (1 hour after oral administration of vardenafil 20 mg). All patients underwent standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound guided random prostate biopsy plus 1 further sampling from each suspected hypervascular lesion detected by contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound. Prostate cancer was detected in 44 patients (29.3%). Contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound detected suspicious, contrast enhanced and vardenafil enhanced areas in 112 (74.6%) and 110 patients (73.3%), and was diagnostic for cancer in 32 (28.5%) and 42 (38%), respectively. Analysis of standard technique, and contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound findings by biopsy core showed significantly higher detection using vardenafil vs contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound and standard technique (41.2% vs 22.7% and 8.1%, p power Doppler ultrasound was 10% and 11.7% (p not significant). Vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound enables excellent visualization of the microvasculature associated with cancer and can improve the detection rate compared to contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound and the random technique. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for extrahepatic lesions: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorelius, Lars E-mail: lars@thorelius.com

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound imaging (US) is a convenient, inexpensive and non-invasive investigation. Its use is limited by low sensitivity in the detection of a number of parenchymal lesions, especially those produced by trauma, such as infarctions. Contrast enhancement with SonoVue{sup [reg]} improves the sensitivity of ultrasound in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions to such an extent, that it may replace computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Preliminary experience suggests that SonoVue-enhanced sonography may be useful in the detection of lesions in which blood flow is severely reduced as compared to surrounding parenchyma, such as infarctions, lacerations, hematomas, necrotic tissue and non-vascular cysts, especially in the spleen, kidney and pancreas. This technique can also rule out occlusion of the superior mesenteric, splenic and portal veins, and dilation of the biliary tree. Clinical trials comparing contrast-enhanced sonography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography are warranted to establish the role of this inexpensive and non-invasive technique in the routine work-up of patients with abdominal trauma or presenting with sudden flank pain.

  12. Contrast media in diagnostic radiology. 3. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elke, M.; Gueckel, C.; Schmitt, H.E.; Felder, E.; Froehlich, J.M.; Radue, E.W.; Scheidegger, D.; Speck, U.

    1992-01-01

    With the 3rd edition of this book a comprehensive description is provided of all the properties and side-effects of contrast media as well as of the available remedies in mishaps caused by these agents. The individual chapters are headed as follows: (s. table of contents). 1. Introduction. 2. Contrast media for X-ray radiography, MRT, and ultrasonic scanning. 3. Kinetics of X-ray contrast media. 4. Pharamcodynamics of X-ray contrast media. 5. Side-effects of X-ray contrast media and complications encountered in practical radiology. 6. The mobile reanimation unit and the emergency kit. 7. Treatment of reactions to contrast media. 8. Appendix. 9. Bibliography, subject index. (orig./MG) With 25 figs., 5 text tabs., 39 tabs [de

  13. A survey of contrast media used in coronary angiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weikl, A.; Hubmann, M.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, various contrast media have been developed for use in coronary angiography. These contrast media may be divided into ionic contrast media of high osmolality, those of low osmolality, and nonionic contrast materials. We conducted our own clinical studies with 40 patients. In random succession a standard contrast medium (ionic, of high osmolality) and a new-generation contrast medium (either nonionic or ionic with low osmolality) were injected into the right and left coronary arteries. After each injection we measured the systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a liquid-filled coronary catheter. In addition, the change in the length of the cardiac cycle was registered in terms of the R-R interval (in ms) and at the same time, leads I, II, and III of the ECG were recorded. We studied the influence of the various contrast media on the activity of ATPase in in vitro experiments, using Lasser and Lang's. When ionic contrast media of low osmolality and nonionic contrast media were utilized the heart rate showed no change. Disturbances of rhythm such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation were not observed. All of the contrast media used produced the same ECG changes. These changes can be ascribed to the inhibition of ATPase. The arterial blood pressure was lowered significantly only by ionic contrast media of high osmolality only. (orig.)

  14. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico [THORAXCENTER, Department of Biomedical Engineering Ee2302, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier, E-mail: mirza.pasovic@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [CREATIS-LRMN, Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Inserm U630, CNRS UMR 5220 (France)

    2011-06-07

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f{sub 0} and the same amplitude P{sub 0} to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  15. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico; Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f 0 and the same amplitude P 0 to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  16. Contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity - pathogenenesis and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erley, C.M.; Duda, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    Contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity continues to be a relevant cause of acute renal failure, especially in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Alterations in renal hemodynamics and direct tubular toxicity by contrast media are the primary factors believed to be responsible for contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity. We review recent insights into the pathogenesis of this complication and summarize prophylactic strategies focussing on hydration, vasoactive pharmacological agents, and prophylactic hemodialysis'. (orig.) [de

  17. Contrast media in renal insufficiency - risk and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erley, C.M.; Bader, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    The use of iodinated contrast media (CM) continues to be a common cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure (ARF) and its development increases the in-hospital mortality significantly. Alterations in renal hemodynamics and direct tubular toxicity by contrast media are the primary factors believed to be responsible for contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity. We review recent insights into the pathogenesis of this complication and summarize prophylacttic strategies focussing on hydration, vasoactive pharmacological agents, alternative contrast media and 'prophylactic hemodialysis'. (orig.) [de

  18. Prolonged retainment of contrast media in renal tumours by oily X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzkov, V.K.; Anisimov, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In 194 patients with renal tumours an angiographic investigation with the oily X-ray contrast medium Iodolipol was carried out. A selective tropism of oily X-ray contrast media was found in the malignant zones only. The application of the preparation caused no complications. The oily X-ray contrast medium persisted in the tumours over several weeks or months. After embolization of the renal arteria a moderate size reduction of malign tumours in the first 10-14 d was seen. The ability of Iodolipol for a lasting retainment in malign tumour tissue allows a follow-up of the involution of the pathologic focus after arterial embolization of the tumour vessels. (author)

  19. Development of microbubble contrast agents for high frequency ultrasound microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Se Jung; Kim, Eun A; Park, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hye Jin; Jun, Hong Young; Byun, Seung Jae; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    To develop optimal microbubble contrast agents (MBCAs) for performing ultrasound microscopy when examining small animals. We prepared three types of MBCAs. First, a mixture of three parts of 40% dextran and one part of 5% human serum albumin were sonicated with perfluorocarbon (PFC) (MB{sub 1}-D40A5P). Second, three parts of 40% dextran and one part of 1% human serum albumin were sonicated with PFC (MB{sub 2}-D40A1P). Third, all parts of 1% bovine serum albumin were sonicated with PFC (MB{sub 3}-A1P). We measured the microbubbles' sizes and concentrations with using image analysis software. The acoustic properties of the microbubbles were assessed both in vitro and in vivo. The majority of the MB{sub 1}-D40A5Ps had a diameter of 2-5 {mu} m, the mean diameter of the MB{sub 2}-D40A1Ps was 2.5 {mu} m, and the mean diameter of the MB{sub 3}-A1Ps was less than 2.0 {mu} m. Among the microbubbles, the MB{sub 1}-D40A5Ps and MB{sub 2}-D40A1Ps showed increased echogenicity in the abdominal vessels, but the duration of their contrast effect was less than 30 sec. On the contrary, the MB3-A1Ps exhibited strong enhancement in the vessels and their duration was greater than 120 sec. A microbubble contrast agent consisting of all parts of 1% serum albumin sonicated with PFC is an effective contrast agent for ultrasound microscopy.

  20. The use of contrast media in computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanski, M.; Cramer, B.M.; Drewes, G.

    1980-01-01

    There are a variety of applications for contrast media in CT. They can be used for better anatomic demonstration or for showing pathological processes. Nearly all available contrast media may be found useful. Intravenously injected renographic contrast media are most commonly employed. In addition to their inherent contrast, specific pharmaco-kinetic changes may be of diagnostic value. This adds some knowledge of function to the purely morphological information obtained by computer tomography. For this purpose, contrast has to be injected rapidly and a fast scanner must be used (so-called angio-CT). (orig.) [de

  1. Pharmacodynamics and tolerance of X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The improved tolerance of nonionic contrast media compared with conventional contrast media is mainly due to their lower osmolality and reduced allergoid potential. Tolerance advantages that have been definitely proven are, for example, low-pain contrast medium injection and superior systemic tolerance; side effects of an allergic pattern occur less often. Animals experiments have established that nonionic contrast media exercise a comparatively lower influence on the cardiovascular system. The haemodynamics of pulmonary circulation are less adversely affected on intravenous bolus injection. Reduced potential risk is to be expected especially in cardiac and bronchopulmonary high-risk patients. The reduced nephrotoxicity of nonionic contrast media was definitely established by clinical studies. Further systematic studies will however be required to provide an answer to the question whether this also entails a reduction in the incidence of renal failures induced by contrast media. (orig.) [de

  2. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K; Almén, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence of neph...... guidelines regarding gadolinium contrast agents minimises the risk of NSF • Potential long-term harm from gadolinium accumulation in the body is discussed.......PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence...... of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the current understanding of its pathophysiology. The risk factors for NSF are discussed and prophylactic measures are recommended. The stability of the different gadolinium-based contrast media and the potential long-term effects of gadolinium in the body have also been...

  3. MRI and CT contrast media extravasation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmatzadeh Behzadi, Ashkan; Farooq, Zerwa; Newhouse, Jeffery H; Prince, Martin R

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review combines data from multiple papers on contrast media extravasation to identify factors contributing to increased extravasation risk. Data were extracted from 17 papers reporting 2191 extravasations in 1,104,872 patients (0.2%) undergoing computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Extravasation rates were 0.045% for gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) and nearly 6-fold higher, 0.26% for iodinated contrast agents. Factors associated with increased contrast media extravasations included: older age, female gender, using an existing intravenous (IV) instead of placing a new IV in radiology, in-patient status, use of automated power injection, high injection rates, catheter location, and failing to warm up the more viscous contrast media to body temperature. Contrast media extravasation is infrequent but nearly 6 times less frequent with GBCA for MRI compared with iodinated contrast used in CT.

  4. Addition of lacal anesthetics to contrast media. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.; Almen, T.; Golman, K.; Jonsson, K.; Nyman, U.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1988-01-01

    The acute intravenous toxicity (i.v. LD 50 ) of solutions of the ratio 1.5 contrast media metrizoate or diatrizoate and the ratio 3.0 contrast medium metrizamide was determined in mice with and without the addition of local anesthetics to the solutions. The two local anesthetics mepivacaine or lidocaine were added to final concentrations up to 2.0 mg/ml of the contrast medium solutions. This corresponds to clinically used concentrations. All additions of local anesthetics to the solutions increased the mortalities caused by the contrast medium solutions. Addition of local anesthetics to a final concentration of 2 mg/ml approximately doubled the acute intravenous toxicity of the contrast media. The ratio 3 contrast media produce less hypertonic solutions than the ratio 1.5 contrast media and should be preferred for angiography because they cause less pain and do not require the addition of local anesthetics which increase the acute toxicity of the solutions. (orig.)

  5. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  6. Effects of iodinated contrast media on blood and endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, Peter; Stacul, Fulvio; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.; Molen, Aart J. van der

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of iodinated contrast media on blood components and endothelium based on experimental and clinical studies and to produce clinically relevant guidelines for reducing thrombotic and hematologic complications following the intravascular use of contrast media. A report was drafted after review of the literature and discussions among the members of the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The final report was produced following discussion at the 12th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2005). Experimental data indicate that all iodinated contrast media produce an anticoagulant effect and that this effect is greater with ionic contrast media. Several of the in vitro and experimental in vivo studies on haematological effects of contrast media have not been confirmed by clinical studies. Low- or iso-osmolar contrast media should be used for diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures, including phlebography. Meticulous angiographic technique is the most important factor for reducing the thrombotic complications associated with angiographic procedures. Drugs and interventional devices that decrease the risk of thromboembolic complications during interventional procedures minimize the importance of the effects of contrast media. (orig.)

  7. Effects of iodinated contrast media on blood and endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelin, Peter [Karolinska Institute/Huddinge University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Centre for Surgical Sciences, Stockholm (Sweden); Stacul, Fulvio [Institute of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Molen, Aart J. van der [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of iodinated contrast media on blood components and endothelium based on experimental and clinical studies and to produce clinically relevant guidelines for reducing thrombotic and hematologic complications following the intravascular use of contrast media. A report was drafted after review of the literature and discussions among the members of the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The final report was produced following discussion at the 12th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2005). Experimental data indicate that all iodinated contrast media produce an anticoagulant effect and that this effect is greater with ionic contrast media. Several of the in vitro and experimental in vivo studies on haematological effects of contrast media have not been confirmed by clinical studies. Low- or iso-osmolar contrast media should be used for diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures, including phlebography. Meticulous angiographic technique is the most important factor for reducing the thrombotic complications associated with angiographic procedures. Drugs and interventional devices that decrease the risk of thromboembolic complications during interventional procedures minimize the importance of the effects of contrast media. (orig.)

  8. Effect of organic contrast Media on the haematology and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Contrast media, haematology, serum electrolytes, dogs, xylazine. The effect of contrast media on the hematology and serum electrolyte was determined in five dogs sedated with 2mg/kg of xylazine intramuscular (i.m). A total of 800mg/kg bolus of 76% urograffin was then administered by intravenous injection ...

  9. [Guideline 'Precautionary measures for contrast media containing iodine'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk Azn, R. van; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Dam, M.A. ten; Aarts, N.J.; Schimmelpenninck-Scheiffers, M.L.; Freericks, M.P.; Said, S.A.M.; Geenen, R.W.; Stuurman, A.; Everdingen, J.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Annually, 0.5-1 million injections of contrast media containing iodine are administered in the Netherlands. Almost all contrast media nowadays are low-osmolar and nonionic. Nevertheless, the development ofcontrast-induced nephropathy is still a relevant clinical problem. Through an initiative by the

  10. Safety of contrast media. Focus on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwatsuru, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in imaging diagnosis, contrast media still play an important role in diagnosing the existence of the disease, demonstrating the extent of disease, and determining the perfusion of the disease, which is important to make a differential diagnosis. However, the administration of contrast media may cause contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), especially in patients with renal impairment. It is estimated that 20-30% of patients with renal impairment who received contrast media develop CIN. Though the precise cause of CIN currently remains unknown, almost all injected contrast media are excreted through the kidney and the effects of contrast media on the kidney are easily understood. As CIN is the most common cause of death due to complications after receiving contrast media, prevention of CIN is important. There are several known risk factors for CIN. Patients with renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, and dehydration are at high risk for CIN. Furthermore, a high osmolar contrast media, excessive amount of contrast media, and ionic contrast media are also risk factors for CIN. CIN can be prevented in several ways. Certain drugs seem to be useful to prevent CIN, while others are harmful. Hydration is useful to prevent CIN, although there is no widely acceptable hydration method to prevent CIN. Both sodium bicarbonate and N-acetylcysteine are promising candidates for prevention of CIN. There are few reports to study CIN after intravenous administration, although reports of CIN after percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI) and angiography are well recognized. In clinical situations, intravenous administration of contrast media is common. Therefore, a study of CIN after intravenous administration of contrast media should be performed. (author)

  11. Role of informed consent for intravascular contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Tyler, H.N. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of different degrees of informed consent for intravascular contrast media, the authors divided 100 patients into four groups: (1) informed consent with no information on intravascular contrast media, (2) simple written informed consent that detailed common risks, (3) detailed written informed consent that detailed all known risks, and (4) MD informed consent, during which a radiologist discussed all known risks of intravascular contrast media. Physician counseling time for group 4 averaged 11.4 minutes. On a postprocedure test about the common complications and risk factors of intravascular contrast media, the average scores were: group 1, 38.4%; group 2, 68.2%; group 3, 63.2%; and group 4, 69.8%. There was no statistical difference between groups 2-4 on the postprocedure test. If informed consent is to be used prior to intravascular contrast media administration, a simple written consent detailing the common risks and risk factors appears to be the best method

  12. Clinical survey on adverse reaction of contrast media, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Hitoshi; Ishida, Osamu; Osawa, Tadashi

    1988-01-01

    This report is a final analysis of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media examined in 33,440 patients from 11 hospitals during the period from October 1983 through June 1986. Adverse reactions, such as nausea, exanthema and vomiting, to contrast media occurred in 2,523 patients (7.5 %), with the higher number occuring in patients aged 40 - 60, irrespective of sex. There were no significant alternations in vital signs. Patients positive for pretesting and having a history of allergy had higher incidences of adverse reactions (48 % and 52 %, respectively). A history of allergy is the most potential predictor for adverse reactions to contrast media. There was no definitive correlation between prior medication of contrast media and the occurrence of their adverse reactions. The relationship between the occurrence of adverse reactions and both kinds and dosage of contrast media was unknown. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. A model for ultrasound contrast agent in a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    A theoretical framework to model the dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent (UCA) inside a phantom vessel is presented. The model is derived from the reduced Navier-Stokes equation and is coupled with the evolving flow field solution inside the vessel by a similarity transformation approach. The results are computed, and compared with experiments available in literature, for the initial UCA radius of Ro=1.5 μm and 2 μm for the vessel diameter of D=12 μm and 200 μm with the acoustic parameters as utilized in the experiments. When compared to other models, better agreement on smaller vessel diameter is obtained with the proposed coupled model. The model also predicts, quite accurately, bubble fragmentation in terms of acoustic and geometric parameters. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. Contrast media in urography, angiography and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taenzer, V.; Zeitler, E.

    1983-01-01

    The fact that new contrast media have been introduced in Germany or are currently undergoing clinical trials prompted the authors to assemble available experiences in a special edition of ''Roentgen-Fortschritte''. Particular prominence is given in the publication to preclinical and clinical experiences with another new non-ionic contrast medium, Iopromide. Experimental and clinical studies both indicate changes in certain clinically pertinent properties of the new contrast media. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Synthesis of results of randomized controlled trials of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, M.L.; Powe, N.R.; Steinberg, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors review 100 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examine the safety or efficacy of new low-osmolality contrast media (LOM) and focus on the 43 RCTs judged to be of the highest quality. These RCTs showed no consistent differences in nephrotoxicity between high- and low-osmolality contrast media. Certain cardiovascular parameters were altered less with low-osmolality agents during intracardiac injection, but the clinical significance of these differences in unclear. Heat and pain sensations occurred less often with low-osmolality contrast media. No differences were noted in the incidence of nausea, vomiting, urticaria, or bronchospasm. Even with numerous RCTs comparing these media, physicians still must make economically significant choices about contrast media without sufficient data about their relative safety

  16. Advice on the management of reactions to intravenous contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The College has previously issued guidelines for the management of adverse reactions to intravenous ionic and non-ionic contrast media. The following updated guidelines are applicable to both children and adults. The reported adverse reaction rate to conventional ionic contrast media is about 5%, the vast majority of reactions being of a minor nature, and to the newer non-ionic contrast media, approximately 1%. The rare serious reaction, with an estimated incidence of 0.05% with ionic contrast media and substantially less with non-ionic media, must be treated quickly and appropriately. Identification and symptomatic characterisation of the reaction are the key first steps and should be followed by ad hoc management based on general principles. (author)

  17. Streak artifacts on Kidney CT: Ionic vs nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Ok; Kim, Won Hong; Jung, Myung Suk; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hur, Gham

    1993-01-01

    The authors reviewed findings of enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to know the difference between a higher dose of conventional ionic contrast media(iothalamate meglumine) and a lower dose of a new, nonionic contrast material(ioversol). One hundred adult patients were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 50 patients. Iothalamate meglumine and ioversol were intravenously administered in each group. The radio of the male to female in the former was 28:22, and the latter 29:21. We examine the degree of renal streak artifact and measure the Hounsfield number of urine in renal collecting system. There were significant differences of the degree of the streak artifact depending upon the osmolality of contrast media used and that was related with urine CT number(P value<0.005). We authors conclude that nonionic low osmolar contrast media is prone to cause streak artifacts and distortions of renal image than conventional ionic high osmolar contrast media

  18. Contrast media safety-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    The value of contrast agents has for long been documented by their common daily use in imaging departments worldwide. In principle, they should be injected and leave the body immediately after use in the same condition or undergo natural metabolism without making any harm to the patient. However......, this is not the case. It is of utmost importance to reduce the prevalence to as close as possible to zero. This can be done by identifying the patients at risk before administration of contrast agents. For acute non-renal adverse reactions, it is also important to be prepared for treating them instantly. The current...... review is a short state of the art regarding adverse reactions to contrast agents....

  19. Prevention of adverse reactions to intravascular contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, P.; Levesque, M.

    1990-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of adverse reactions to contrast media are still imperfectly known. However, these reactions may be classified as idiosyncratic. Non-idiosyncratic reactions can be prevented by using new, non-ionic contrast agents. Idiosyncratic reactions can be prevented by specific premedication. Patients with a history of idiosyncratic reaction may benefit from corticosteroids and antihistamines administered prophylactically. Patients who seem to be more likely than others to react to contrast media must be premedicated, the risk of reaction being identified and evaluated by questioning. It has recently been suggested that all patients about to receive an intravascular injection of contrast medium should also be premedicated [fr

  20. Contrast media: interactions with other drugs and clinical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, Sameh K.; Exley, C.M.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2005-01-01

    Many patients with multiple medical problems who are receiving a variety of drugs are investigated with imaging techniques which require intravascular contrast media. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology therefore decided to review the literature and to draw up simple guidelines on interactions between contrast media and other drugs. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Contrast media may interact with other drugs, and may interfere with isotope studies and biochemical measurements. Awareness of the patient drug history is important to avoid potential hazards. Simple guidelines are presented. (orig.)

  1. Application of iodic contrast media in roentgen examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielecki, T.; Januszkiewicz-Mielecka, K.; Kukula, A.; Szechinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of adverse reactions after administration of iodic contrast media in 1780 patients in 1952 various X-ray examinations is presented. Various preparations by different producers were used. As a rule, domestic contrast media were administered in non high-risk patients, whereas imported contrast media were applied in patients with documented high-risk factors (20%) and nonionic compounds were intended for patients of severe clinical condition (10%). Adverse reactions occurred in 6.9% of non high-risk patients and in 10.9% of high-risk patients. Nonionic preparations caused adverse reactions in 5.6%. Considering the significant differences in prices of domestic, imported and nonionic contrast media, authors advice to use safer but clearly more expensive preparations in patients with documented factors of increased risk. (author)

  2. Microwave ablation of liver metastases guided by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T; Skjoldbye, B O; Nolsoe, C P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of microwave (MW) ablation of liver metastases guided by B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS).......The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of microwave (MW) ablation of liver metastases guided by B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS)....

  3. Recent hot topics in contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    This editorial reviews the way in which the facts related to the safety of iodinated and gadolinium based contrast agents have emerged over the last two decades. This is especially important given their ever increasing usage in modern computed tomographic (CT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...

  4. Contrast media safety-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    The value of contrast agents has for long been documented by their common daily use in imaging departments worldwide. In principle, they should be injected and leave the body immediately after use in the same condition or undergo natural metabolism without making any harm to the patient. However...

  5. Recent hot topics in contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    This editorial reviews the way in which the facts related to the safety of iodinated and gadolinium based contrast agents have emerged over the last two decades. This is especially important given their ever increasing usage in modern computed tomographic (CT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  6. Advances in equine computed tomography and use of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Sarah M

    2012-12-01

    Advances in equine computed tomography have been made as a result of improvements in software and hardware and an increasing body of knowledge. Contrast media can be administered intravascularly or intrathecally. Contrast media is useful to differentiate between tissues of similar density. Equine computed tomography can be used for many different clinical conditions, including lameness diagnosis, fracture identification and characterization, preoperative planning, and characterization of skull diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of contrast media submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, Katia Elisa Prus; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel; Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Silva, Caroline Werner Pereira da; Barison, Andersson; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    Objective: the purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of ionizing radiation from x-rays and gamma rays on the molecular structure stability of several radiologic contrast media employed in diagnostic imaging by means of 1 H and 1 3C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Materials and methods: eight different types of iodinated contrast media (three ionic and five non-ionic) were exposed to x-rays and gamma rays irradiation. Subsequently, the 1 H and 1 3C{ 1 H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of these contrast media were collected. Results: the 1 H and 1 3C{ 1 H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of both ionic and non-ionic contrast media irradiated by x-rays or gamma rays demonstrated the absence of any alteration of the contrast media chemical composition. Conclusion: there is no problem in keeping contrast media inside examination rooms or close to radiological equipment. It is important to mention that, during the tests, the samples were directly irradiated, while in a radiology examination room, the irradiation is not direct and, therefore, radiation levels in these cases are much lower than those employed in the present study. (author)

  8. Correlating intravenous radiographic contrast media reactions with the allergic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua-Lim, A.; Enright, T.; Duda, E.; Lim, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relevance of allergy as a predisposing factor in reactions to radiographic contrast media, the authors investigated the incidence of allergy among 100 randomly selected patients undergoing intravenous excretory urography and CT. The study population consisted of 50 reactors and 50 nonreactos to radiographic contrast media. All 100 subjects completed an allergy history, percutaneous allergy tests, and an in vitro specific IgE assay to common allergens. Thirty-four of 50 reactors had a positive allergy history, in contrast to 15 of 50 nonreactors (P < .001). Twenty-seven reactors had positive skin tests, in contrast to 12 of 50 nonreactors (P < .005). In vitro IgE assay results are pending. The results indicate that patients with positive histories or positive skin tests or both are at an increased risk for reactions to radiographic contrast media

  9. Evaluation of contrast media for bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, I.M.; Whittlesey, G.C.; Slovis, T.L.; Chang, C.H.; Cullen, M.L.; Philippart, A.I.; Stockmann, P.S.; Adkins, E.S.; Klein, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Background. Bronchography is occasionally needed for the evaluation and management of some congenital pulmonary anomalies as well as some acquired diseases, usually of the tracheo- bronchial tree. There is currently no effective, approved contrast agent for this imaging tech- nique. Objective. We evaluated five agents (barium sulfate, iohexol, propyliodone oily, propyliodone aqueous, and perflubron) in terms of image quality, histologic changes, and effects on hemodynamics, blood gases, and standard laboratory tests in New Zealand White rabbits. Materials and methods. Animals were anesthetized and intubated. Each contrast agent (0.25 ml/kg) was administered intratracheally. Three animals in each group had intravenous lines placed for blood sampling and blood pressure monitoring and were sacrificed at 1 h. An additional three animals for each agent were sacrificed at 24 h and 1 week after imaging. Blood samples were taken immediately before contrast instillation and at 1 h postbronchography. Fluoroscopic images were recorded on standard VHS video tape and evaluated in blind fashion. Segments of lung tissue and bronchi were obtained for histologic examination. Results. Necrosis and/or inflammatory infiltrates were noted in 78 % of the bronchograms performed with propyliodone aqueous, 67 % with propyliodone oily, 55 % with perflubron, and 33 % with iohexol 120, 240 and 350. No histologic damage was observed with barium. The propyliodones gave the best-quality imaging results and the most histologic changes. Iohexol, in any concentration, gave the least acceptable images and a moderate number of histologic changes. Barium sulfate demonstrated acceptable images with virtually no histologic changes. Conclusion. From the histologic and imaging results, barium is the best available contrast material for bronchography. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Intraoperative Cerebral Glioma Characterization with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Prada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is a dynamic and continuous modality providing real-time view of vascularization and flow distribution patterns of different organs and tumors. Nevertheless its intraoperative use for brain tumors visualization has been performed few times, and a thorough characterization of cerebral glioma had never been performed before. Aim. To perform the first characterization of cerebral glioma using CEUS and to possibly achieve an intraoperative differentiation of different gliomas. Methods. We performed CEUS in an off-label setting in 69 patients undergoing surgery for cerebral glioma. An intraoperative qualitative analysis was performed comparing iCEUS with B-mode imaging. A postprocedural semiquantitative analysis was then performed for each case, according to EFSUMB criteria. Results were related to histopathology. Results. We observed different CE patterns: LGG show a mild, dotted CE with diffuse appearance and slower, delayed arterial and venous phase. HGG have a high CE with a more nodular, nonhomogeneous appearance and fast perfusion patterns. Conclusion. Our study characterizes for the first time human brain glioma with CEUS, providing further insight regarding these tumors’ biology. CEUS is a fast, safe, dynamic, real-time, and economic tool that might be helpful during surgery in differentiating malignant and benign gliomas and refining surgical strategy.

  11. Jetting of a ultrasound contrast microbubble near a rigid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kausik; Mobadersany, Nima

    2017-11-01

    Micron sized gas-bubbles coated with a stabilizing shell of lipids or proteins, are used as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasound imaging. However, they are increasingly being explored for novel applications in drug delivery through a process called sonoporation, the reversible permeabilization of the cell membrane. Under sufficiently strong acoustic excitations, bubbles form a jet and collapse near a wall. The jetting of free bubbles has been extensively studied by boundary element method (BEM). Here, for the first time, we implemented a rigorous interfacial rheological model of the shell into BEM and investigated the jet formation. The code has been carefully validated against past results. Increasing shell elasticity decreases the maximum bubble volume and the collapse time, while the jet velocity increases. The shear stress on the wall is computed and analyzed. A phase diagram as functions of excitation pressure and wall separation describes jet formation. Effects of shell elasticity and frequency on the phase diagram are investigated. Partially supported by National Science Foundation.

  12. Gauging the likelihood of stable cavitation from ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2013-01-07

    The mechanical index (MI) was formulated to gauge the likelihood of adverse bioeffects from inertial cavitation. However, the MI formulation did not consider bubble activity from stable cavitation. This type of bubble activity can be readily nucleated from ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and has the potential to promote beneficial bioeffects. Here, the presence of stable cavitation is determined numerically by tracking the onset of subharmonic oscillations within a population of bubbles for frequencies up to 7 MHz and peak rarefactional pressures up to 3 MPa. In addition, the acoustic pressure rupture threshold of an UCA population was determined using the Marmottant model. The threshold for subharmonic emissions of optimally sized bubbles was found to be lower than the inertial cavitation threshold for all frequencies studied. The rupture thresholds of optimally sized UCAs were found to be lower than the threshold for subharmonic emissions for either single cycle or steady state acoustic excitations. Because the thresholds of both subharmonic emissions and UCA rupture are linearly dependent on frequency, an index of the form I(CAV) = P(r)/f (where P(r) is the peak rarefactional pressure in MPa and f is the frequency in MHz) was derived to gauge the likelihood of subharmonic emissions due to stable cavitation activity nucleated from UCAs.

  13. Harmonic ultrasound fields through layered liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Chen, Quan; Zagzebski, James

    2004-02-01

    Harmonic field generation through a layered liquid media is studied experimentally and theoretically. Lateral and axial beam profiles of the fundamental to the 4th harmonic component of the field from a focused, 19-mm diameter transducer were measured using a calibrated hydrophone in a water tank. Measurements were performed before and after the insertion of a cylindrical phantom containing vegetable oil. A frequency domain numerical solution to the "KZK" equation was used to calculate the beam profile, taking into account the acoustic properties of the medium and phantom. Effects of nonlinear propagation, diffraction, attenuation, and reflection are include in the calculation. Agreement within 5% was obtained between measurements and theoretical predictions throughout the mid- and far-field of the transducer for both the uniform path and the layered media. Measurements also were carried out using an unfocused transducer as a receiver. The shape of the axial beam profile using this receiver agreed very well with the theoretical prediction using the "KZK" equation, after accounting for phase variations over the finite-sized detector in the calculated field.

  14. Usefulness of contrast-enhanced transabdominal ultrasound for tumor classification and tumor staging in the pancreatic head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossjohann, Hanne Sønder; Rappeport, Eli David; Jensen, Claus Verner

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and compare it to ultrasound (US) and 64-slice-CT (64-CT) for diagnosing, staging and evaluation of resectability of pancreatic cancer.......To evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and compare it to ultrasound (US) and 64-slice-CT (64-CT) for diagnosing, staging and evaluation of resectability of pancreatic cancer....

  15. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W

    2011-01-01

    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Societ...

  16. Should nonionic radiographic contrast media be given to all patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfrey, P.S.; Cramer, B.C.; McManamon, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the 1970s about one patient of every 40,000 who underwent intravenous urography died. It has been suggested that lives can be saved by using only nonionic or low-osmolarity contrast agents. The authors suggest a multicentre double-blind randomized controlled trial of nonionic versus ionic contrast media

  17. Enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huixiong; Chen Lida; Xie Xiaoyan; Xie Xiaohua; Xu Zuofeng; Liu Guangjian; Lin Manxia; Wang Zhu; Lu Mingde

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with pathologically proven hilar cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated by both low mechanical index CEUS and CECT. The enhancement feature of the tumor, portal vein infiltration, and lesion conspicuity on them was investigated. Results: In the arterial phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement, were 14 (43.8%), 14 (43.8%), and 4 (12.6%), on CEUS, and 12 (37.5%), 9 (28.1%), and 11 (34.4%), on CECT (P = 0.162). In portal phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hypoenhancement, isoenhancement, and hyperenhancement were 30 (93.8%), 1 (3.1%), and 1 (3.1%), on CEUS, and 23 (71.9%), 8 (25.0%), and 1 (3.1%), on CECT (P = 0.046). The detection rates for portal vein infiltration were 84.2% (16/19) for baseline ultrasound, 89.5% (17/19) for CEUS, and 78.9% (15/19) for CECT (all P > 0.05 between every two groups). CEUS significantly improved the lesion conspicuity in comparison with CECT. CEUS and CECT made correct diagnoses in 30 (93.8%) and 25 (78.1%) lesions prior to pathological examination (P = 0.125). Conclusion: The enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on CEUS was similar with that on CECT in arterial phase, whereas in portal phase hilar cholangiocarcinoma shows hypoenhancement more likely on CEUS. CEUS and CECT lead to similar results in evaluating portal vein infiltration and diagnosis of this entity.

  18. Enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huixiong, E-mail: xuhuixiong@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen Lida; Xie Xiaoyan; Xie Xiaohua; Xu Zuofeng; Liu Guangjian; Lin Manxia; Wang Zhu [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Lu Mingde, E-mail: lumd@21cn.co [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Objective: To compare the enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with pathologically proven hilar cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated by both low mechanical index CEUS and CECT. The enhancement feature of the tumor, portal vein infiltration, and lesion conspicuity on them was investigated. Results: In the arterial phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement, were 14 (43.8%), 14 (43.8%), and 4 (12.6%), on CEUS, and 12 (37.5%), 9 (28.1%), and 11 (34.4%), on CECT (P = 0.162). In portal phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hypoenhancement, isoenhancement, and hyperenhancement were 30 (93.8%), 1 (3.1%), and 1 (3.1%), on CEUS, and 23 (71.9%), 8 (25.0%), and 1 (3.1%), on CECT (P = 0.046). The detection rates for portal vein infiltration were 84.2% (16/19) for baseline ultrasound, 89.5% (17/19) for CEUS, and 78.9% (15/19) for CECT (all P > 0.05 between every two groups). CEUS significantly improved the lesion conspicuity in comparison with CECT. CEUS and CECT made correct diagnoses in 30 (93.8%) and 25 (78.1%) lesions prior to pathological examination (P = 0.125). Conclusion: The enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on CEUS was similar with that on CECT in arterial phase, whereas in portal phase hilar cholangiocarcinoma shows hypoenhancement more likely on CEUS. CEUS and CECT lead to similar results in evaluating portal vein infiltration and diagnosis of this entity.

  19. The interaction of radiographic contrast media with immune globulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, K.

    1983-01-01

    As a special form of contrast medium incidents, various reaction modes between iodinated contrast media and immunoglobulins are described. Theoretical explanations and typical examples are given for each of the four different possible action mechanisms. Diagnostic precautions are proposed in order to avoid unfavourable reactions especially with paraproteins. Special attention is drawn to the antigen-antibody like reaction between iodinated contrast media and IgM paraproteins. Some immunological criteria are recalled to attention, this type of reaction has to meet stringently. Only by this, misinterpretations of inevident conclusions from analogy can be prevented in future similar cases. (orig.) [de

  20. Contrast media in gall bladder diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.; Frommhold, W.

    1982-01-01

    The justification of conventional X-ray diagnostic of bile ducts is repeatedly questioned by newer examination techniques like sonography and ERC. The indication for oral cholesgraphy is derived from its high-specifity of its statements for gall bladder diagnostic, that is as high as with sonography and does not depend on the experience of the investigator. The importance of the the void exposure is undoubted with correspondence of medicamentary litholysis for calcite identification. Furthermore, Choleocystic kineticals like Ceruletid let recognize better hyper plastic choleocysts like adenomyomatoses. The intravenous choleocyst-cholangiography posesses a clearly limited indication scheme even after introduction of sonography and ERC. The infusion method yields a better compatibility of the contrast medium with a simultaneous increased representation quality of the bile duct, that can be increased by a consequent application of the layer exposure technique. (orig.) [de

  1. Liver imaging with MDCT and high concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Audrey L.

    2003-01-01

    Liver imaging has advanced greatly over the last 10 years with helical CT capability and more recently the addition of multidetector-row CT (MDCT). Multidetector CT technology facilitates imaging at faster speeds with improved image quality and less breathing artifact [Abdom. Imaging 25 (2000) 643]. Exquisite three-dimensional data sets can be obtained with thin collimation providing improved lesion detection, multiplanar imaging, and the ability to perform CT angiography of the liver and mesenteric vessels. New challenges arise with this advance in technology including safety considerations. The radiation dose to the patient has increased with MDCT and this is compounded by the ability to perform multi-phase liver imaging. Furthermore, issues of contrast media administration require reconsideration including optimal timing and rate of administration, the total volume of contrast needed and the ideal iodine concentration of the contrast media. Recently, the use of high concentration contrast media (HCCM) has been explored and study results to date will be reviewed

  2. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Webb, Judith A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Fully updates the previous edition and includes new chapters on various complex topics. Represents a unique and unparalleled source of information on the many safety issues relating to different contrast media. Includes chapters on acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions and on renal adverse reactions. Presented in a handy, easy-to-use format. In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of contrast media used for diagnostic imaging. Subsequently the committee questioned ESUR members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines, and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia of the society. The end result of this work was the successful first edition of this book, published in 2006, which was followed by an equally successful second edition in 2009. This third edition not only fully updates the previous edition, but also includes new chapters on complex topics such as use of contrast media in children and practical aspects of off-label contrast media use. The authorship includes members, past members, and non-members of the Contrast Media Safety Committee.

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and ...

  4. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Judith A.W.; Stacul, Fulvio; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2003-01-01

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  5. Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the liver - update 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Michel; Dietrich, Christoph F; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2013-01-01

    Initially, a set of guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004 dealing only with liver applications. A second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some...... Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound for EFSUMB). These guidelines and recommendations provide general advice on the use of all currently clinically available ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). They are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of UCA in liver applications...... non-liver applications. Time has moved on, and the need for international guidelines on the use of CEUS in the liver has become apparent. The present document describes the third iteration of recommendations for the hepatic use of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using contrast specific imaging...

  6. Immunologic basis for adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, V; Nilsson, R; Grepe, A [Astra Pharmaceuticals AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden). Lab. of Safety Assessment Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberglaboratoriet Danderyds Sjukhus, Danderyd (Sweden). Radiologic Clinic

    1990-11-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was used to elucidate whether certain side effects induced by radiographic contrast media have an immunologic etiology. Groups studied were: 8 patients who had previously experienced adverse reactions in association with urography, 6 patients who underwent urography without notable side reactions, 17 occupationally exposed nurses, and 9 unexposed controls. The lymphocytes from 2 hypersensitive patients and from 11 nurses exhibited a positive proliferative response to amidotrizoate. Five nurses who had shown a positive response, had a previous history of hypersensitivity reactions when handling contrast media, whereas the remaining 6 were free of symptoms. Amidotrizoatespecific memory cells were absent in patients who underwent urography without signs of hypersensitivity and in 7/9 of unexposed control subjects. Lymphocytes from patients sensitive to amidotrizoate cross-reacted to structurally related ionic contrast media while nonionic contrast agents did not induce proliferation of the lymphocytes. Thus, ionic radiographic contrast agents have antigenic properties in man. Irradiated mixtures of radiographic contrast media and serum proteins were, in general, not effective in inducing an LTT response. (orig.).

  7. Immunologic basis for adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, V.; Nilsson, R.; Grepe, A.; Stockholm Univ.; Stockholm Univ.; Danderyds Sjukhus, Danderyd

    1990-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was used to elucidate whether certain side effects induced by radiographic contrast media have an immunologic etiology. Groups studied were: 8 patients who had previously experienced adverse reactions in association with urography, 6 patients who underwent urography without notable side reactions, 17 occupationally exposed nurses, and 9 unexposed controls. The lymphocytes from 2 hypersensitive patients and from 11 nurses exhibited a positive proliferative response to amidotrizoate. Five nurses who had shown a positive response, had a previous history of hypersensitivity reactions when handling contrast media, whereas the remaining 6 were free of symptoms. Amidotrizoatespecific memory cells were absent in patients who underwent urography without signs of hypersensitivity and in 7/9 of unexposed control subjects. Lymphocytes from patients sensitive to amidotrizoate cross-reacted to structurally related ionic contrast media while nonionic contrast agents did not induce proliferation of the lymphocytes. Thus, ionic radiographic contrast agents have antigenic properties in man. Irradiated mixtures of radiographic contrast media and serum proteins were, in general, not effective in inducing an LTT response. (orig.)

  8. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detecting hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Li, Ye-Kuo; Li, Ting; Wang, Sha-Sha; Yuan, Gui-Zhong; Zhou, Qun-Fang; Zheng, Hai-Rong; Yan, Fei

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma. Eighteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Blunt renal trauma was performed on each group by using minitype striker. Ultrasonography, color Doppler flow imaging, and contrast-enhanced 2-dimensional and real-time 3-dimensional ultrasound were applied before and after the strike. The time to shock and blood pressure were subjected to statistical analysis. Then, a comparative study of ultrasound and pathology was carried out. All the struck kidneys were traumatic. In the ultrasonography, free fluid was found under the renal capsule. In the color Doppler flow imaging, active hemorrhage was not identified. In 2-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound, active hemorrhage of the damaged kidney was characterized. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed a real-time and stereoscopic ongoing bleeding of the injured kidney. The wider the hemorrhage area in 4-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound was, the faster the blood pressure decreased. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a promising noninvasive tool for stereoscopically and vividly detecting ongoing hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma in real time. © 2013.

  9. Effect of contrast media iodine concentration on bolus tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Naoi, Kuniji; Ikeno, Naoya; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Satake, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    Computer-assisted bolus tracking has been confirmed to be a useful technique in computed tomography (CT) imaging and allows images to be captured with automated timing. The inflow of the contrast medium is monitored, and when the contrast medium reaches a predetermined level, CT image capture starts automatically. However, it has been shown that the preset threshold value of contrast medium is affected by its iodine concentration, which causes variations in image capture times. Greater speed in current multislice CT imaging requires that medical technicians pay more attention to setting the timing of image capture during venous examinations by taking into account the iodine concentration in contrast media. (author)

  10. Characterization of Definity™ Ultrasound Contrast Agent at Frequency Range of 5–15 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, Telli; Goertz, David; de Jong, N.

    2011-01-01

    The status of vasa vasorum, which can be imaged using ultrasound contrast agents, is an indication for the progression of atherosclerosis. The preferred ultrasound frequency for this purpose is between 5 and 15 MHz. Therefore, it is essential to have knowledge about the acoustic properties of

  11. Radiologic and histopathologic evaluation of various contrast media for bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Hong, Ki Taek; Kim, Jin Hyung; Kim, Hyung Rae; Shin, Bong Kyung; Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Han Kyeom; Park, Cheol Min; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, In Ho

    1999-01-01

    To determine which contrast media are both efficient and safe for the imaging of airways. We evaluated five contrast media (barium, gastrografin, iotrolan, ioxaglate, iopentol) in terms of image quality and their effects on the lungs of 25 white rabbits. For bronchography 0.5ml of contrast media was used. In each contrast group, HRCT scans were obtained immediately (n=5), 12 hours (n=4), 1 day (n=3), 2 days (n=2), and 1 week (n=1) after bronchography. Histopathologic specimens were obtained immediately, 12 hours, 1 day, 2 days, and 1 week later. Bronchograms were evaluated for image quality by three radiologists working independently, and were scored as 1(poor), 2(moderate), or 3(good) in terms of contrast quality and bronchial coating. HRCT was evaluated by two radiologists who reached a concensus;they determined the presence of contrast media, and then the pattern and extent of pulmonary opacity, and any related changes. Histopatholgic specimens were evaluated by two pathologists who sought consensus as to the extent of inflammation, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage, and any changes in these aspects. Bronchography indicated that the sum of scores for contrast quality was 45 for barium, 33 for gastrografin, 28 for iotrolan, 30 for ioxaglate, and 28 for iopentol, while for each of these media, the sum of scores for bronchial coating was 39, 19, 25, 23, and 21, respectively. Barium showed the best image quality. In all rabbits, HRCT demonstrated the variable extent of ground-glass attenuation and/or consolidation. Lesions were most extensive at 1-2days and then regressed at 1 week;these HRCT findings correlated well with histologic findings. In histologic studies of all five contrast media groups, variable severe inflammatory reactions were observed, with or without necrosis, congesion, edema, and hemorrhage. It was noted that ioxaglate appeared to cause least tissue reaction. The imaging results of this experimental study indicate that for bronchography, barium is

  12. THE EXPERIENCE OF USING ULTRASOUND WITH CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Chekalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detecting local spread, regional and distant metastases from cervical cancer. Materials and methods. The findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination of 4 cervical cancer patients (IB1–IVB treated at N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center from September to October 2016 were evaluated. The HI VISION Ascendus device was used. Ultrasound patterns in different phases of contrast-enhanced accumulation and excretion were analyzed. Results. Our first experience in using contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the detection of local spread, regional and distant metastases from cervical cancer allowed us to study the structure of the tumor and its spread in greater detail. Conclusion. A small number of observations do not yet allow us to draw serious conclusions about the capabilities of this modern technology. 

  13. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in risk assessment of carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stanciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, used to assess atherosclerotic carotid plaques, improves visualization of vessel wall irregularities and depicts intraplaque neovascularization. This article illustrates the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic lesions, especially in challenging plaques evaluation. Materials and methods: For 23 patients with difficult duplex ultrasound examination due to carotid tortuosity or calcifications we assessed plaque morphology (contour, echogenicity and stenosis degree using contrast substance (Sonovue, Braco with dedicated vascular low mechanical index CPC software. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a new, noninvasive, and safe procedure for imaging carotid atherosclerotic lesions. It is a valuable tool for evaluating the vulnerable plaque at risk for rupture and for the diagnostic of the development and severity of systemic atherosclerotic disease

  14. Physicochemical properties of radiographic contrast media, potential nephrotoxicity and prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, Barry; Ikei, Nobuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a controversial topic. The clinical relevance of changes in laboratory parameters has been challenged; some authors have even suggested that CIN simply reflects natural fluctuations. Other areas of controversy include the pathophysiology of CIN, effectiveness of prophylactic approaches and differences in nephrotoxicity between individual contrast media (CM). The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of laboratory findings and explore its relationship to CM toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. A method for the investigation of cholegraphic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1982-01-01

    Isolated perfused rat livers were used for investigating possible interactions between two simultaneously injected contrast media, and which technique, using parenteral application of cholegraphic media, is optimal. The results show that excretion of a parenteral contrast medium is reduced by giving an oral contrast medium at the same time. Simultaneous administration of two different contrast media therefore does not result in improved diagnostic information. The effect depends on the dose, and a sufficiently long interval should be observed between giving an oral and a parenteral contrast medium. A comparison of excretion values following injection of a bolus and prolonged infusion shows higher biliary contrast concentration and increased excretion after a single injection. Comparing only the period after the infusion, no difference was found between these two methods of administration. The single injection offers pharmacokinetic advantages, but an infusion is better tolerated and has fewer side effects. A rapid infusion of 10 to 15 minutes is therefore recommended as the optimal means of administration. (orig.) [de

  16. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  17. Effects of radiographic contrast media on the serum complement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirone, P.; Boldrini, E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors explored the activation of the complement system produced by a nonionic organic iodine compound, namely iopamidol, which is proposed as a contrast medium for radiographic examination by intravenous and intra-arterial injection. The study was conducted in vitro versus established ionic contrasts (diatrizoate, iothalamate, acetrizoate) and a nonionic compound (metrizamide). The adopted experimental model was the immunohemolytic detector system, in which the immune complex consisted of goat erythrocytes sensitized with the corresponding antibody (hemolysin), and complement (C') was supplied by guinea pig serum. All the products caused complement activation. The results show that nonionic contrast media produce less activation of the complement system than the traditional ionic contrast. Thus the use of nonionic contrast for radiological procedures necessitating the introduction of contrast material into the blood compartment would imply a reduced risk of anaphylactoid reactions. (orig.)

  18. Iodine-based contrast media, multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies: literature review and ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacul, Fulvio; Bertolotto, Michele; Thomsen, Henrik S; Pozzato, Gabriele; Ugolini, Donatella; Bellin, Marie-France; Bongartz, Georg; Clement, Olivier; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; van der Molen, Aart; Reimer, Peter; Webb, Judith A W

    2018-02-01

    Many radiologists and clinicians still consider multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathies (MG) a contraindication for using iodine-based contrast media. The ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee performed a systematic review of the incidence of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) in these patients. A systematic search in Medline and Scopus databases was performed for renal function deterioration studies in patients with MM or MG following administration of iodine-based contrast media. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement 2009. Eligibility criteria and methods of analysis were specified in advance. Cohort and case-control studies reporting changes in renal function were included. Thirteen studies were selected that reported 824 iodine-based contrast medium administrations in 642 patients with MM or MG, in which 12 unconfounded cases of PC-AKI were found (1.6 %). The majority of patients had intravenous urography with high osmolality ionic contrast media after preparatory dehydration and purgation. MM and MG alone are not risk factors for PC-AKI. However, the risk of PC-AKI may become significant in dehydrated patients with impaired renal function. Hypercalcaemia may increase the risk of kidney damage, and should be corrected before contrast medium administration. Assessment for Bence-Jones proteinuria is not necessary. • Monoclonal gammopathies including multiple myeloma are a large spectrum of disorders. • In monoclonal gammopathy with normal renal function, PC-AKI risk is not increased. • Renal function is often reduced in myeloma, increasing the risk of PC-AKI. • Correction of hypercalcaemia is necessary in myeloma before iodine-based contrast medium administration. • Bence-Jones proteinuria assessment in myeloma is unnecessary before iodine-based contrast medium administration.

  19. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography contrast media time-concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, F.H.; Brody, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    At any specified radiation dose and system signal-to-noise ratio, temporal (masked-mode) intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) image quality is dependent upon the shape of the arterial time-concentration curve produced by the intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media. If contrast media appears in the arterial circulation as a compact bolus and reaches a high peak, images containing low or no iodine (the mask image or images) and high iodine concentration (the enhanced image or images) can be obtained close together in time, maximizing contrast media enhancement and minimizing the potential for spatial movement (misregistration). However, if the contrast media bolus is broad, rising slowly to a low concentration peak, sufficient time may pass for movement to occur and the opacification difference between the mask image and the enhanced image may be too small to visualize vessels of interest. Consequently, knowledge of the rules which govern the formation of time-concentration curves is central to IV-DSA

  20. Life-Threatening Thrombocytopenia Following Intravenous Contrast Media Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Jisun; Cho, Jinhyun

    2018-01-01

    Radiocontrast media-induced acute severe thrombocytopenia is a very rare complication and potentially life-threatening. Here, we report the case of a 63-year-old male patient with severe acute thrombocytopenia following first exposure to intravenous non-ionic contrast media without immediate allergic reactions. His platelet count dropped from 107000/μL to 2000/μL after six hours of radiocontrast infusion. After administration of corticosteroid and transfusion of platelet concentrates, the platelet count returned gradually to normal within 5 days. To the best of our knowledge, non-ionic contrast media-induced isolated acute severe thrombocytopenia following no signs or symptoms of immediate allergic reaction has never been described. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  1. Influence of contrast agent dose and ultrasound exposure on cardiomyocyte injury induced by myocardial contrast echocardiography in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Li, Peng; Dou, Chunyan; Gordon, David; Edwards, Chris A; Armstrong, William F

    2005-10-01

    To detect specific cardiomyocyte injury induced by myocardial contrast material-enhanced echocardiography (ie, myocardial contrast echocardiography) in rats and to ascertain the influences of contrast material dose and ultrasound exposure on this injury. All animal procedures were approved by the university committee for the use and care of animals. Myocardial contrast echocardiography with 1:4 electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering was performed at 1.5 MHz in 61 anesthetized rats. Evans blue (EB) dye was injected as the vital stain for cardiomyocyte injury. At the start of myocardial contrast echocardiography, which lasted 10 minutes, perflutren lipid microsphere-based contrast material was infused through the tail vein for 5 minutes. Premature heartbeats were counted from the ECG record. The numbers of EB-stained cells counted on sections of heart specimens obtained 24 hours after myocardial contrast echocardiography and then either fresh frozen or embedded in paraffin were determined by using fluorescence microscopy. Results were compared statistically by using t tests and Mann-Whitney rank sum tests. EB-stained cells were concentrated in the anterior region of the myocardium. In the paraffin-embedded specimens, EB-stained cells were often accompanied by but largely separate from areas of inflammatory cell infiltration. At end-systolic triggering with a 50 microL/kg dose of microsphere contrast material, the EB-stained cell count increased with increasing peak rarefactional pressure amplitude, with significantly increased cell counts at 1.6 MPa (P .1). EB-stained cell counts increased with increasing contrast material dose, from 10 to 50 microL/kg, at 2.0 MPa. Cardiomyocyte injury was induced by the interaction of ultrasound pulses with contrast agent microbubbles during myocardial contrast echocardiography in rats, and the numbers of injured cells increased with increasing contrast agent dose and ultrasound exposure. RSNA, 2005

  2. Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Hylton R; Freeman, Lynetta J; Rohleder, Jacob J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device. Three healthy intact female adult hounds were anesthetized and each received an injection of octafluoropropane-filled lipid microspheres and a separate subcutaneous injection of methylene blue dye around a mammary gland. Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node. Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure. Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node. The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes. Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied. Lymphoid tissue was obtained from all biopsy specimens. Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs. Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals.

  3. Breast tumor size assessment: comparison of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Xin; Liu, He; Liu, Ji-Bin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Sun, Qiang; Chang, Xiao-Yan

    2007-12-01

    Accurate assessment of tumor size is necessary when selecting patients for breast-conserving surgery. In the study of breast contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), we found that tumor size discrepancy between CEUS and conventional ultrasound (US) existed in some breast lesions, for which the reasons are not clear. Breast CEUS examinations were performed in 104 patients with breast lesions. The measurement of the 104 breast tumors on conventional US was obtained and compared with the measurement on CEUS. A difference in measuring tumor size of >3 mm for tumors up to 1.7 cm and 4 mm for tumors >or=1.7 cm, was defined as a significant discrepancy between conventional US and CEUS. The histopathological examination of size discrepancy was performed and the margin characteristics of breast cancers with larger measurements were compared with those with unchanged measurements. Among the 104 lesions (43 malignant, 60 benign, 1 borderline), the size of 27 breast cancers and one granulomatous mastitis appeared larger at CEUS. Pathologic examinations of the region corresponding to the measurement discrepancy were mainly ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), invasive carcinoma with a DCIS component, adenosis with lobular hyperplasia in breast cancers and inflammatory cell infiltration in one granulomatous mastitis. Well-defined margin characteristics were significantly different between breast cancers with larger measurements at CEUS and those with unchanged measurements of size (p = 0.002), whereas no significant difference was found between the two groups in ill-defined, spiculated, hyperechoic halo, microlobulated and angulated margins (p = 0.463, 0.117, 0.194, 0.666 and 0.780, respectively). This initial study suggests that significant discrepancy of breast lesion measurement between conventional US and CEUS is more likely presented in breast cancer than benign lesions. The pathologic findings corresponding to the region of size increased at CEUS are malignant in most malignant

  4. Interference of medical contrast media on laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Daves, Massimo; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The use of contrast media such as organic iodine molecules and gadolinium contrast agents is commonplace in diagnostic imaging. Although there is widespread perception that side effects and drug interactions may be the leading problems caused by these compounds, various degrees of interference with some laboratory tests have been clearly demonstrated. Overall, the described interference for iodinate contrast media include inappropriate gel barrier formation in blood tubes, the appearance of abnormal peaks in capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins, and a positive bias in assessment of cardiac troponin I with one immunoassay. The interference for gadolinium contrast agents include negative bias in calcium assessment with ortho-cresolphthalein colorimetric assays and occasional positive bias using some Arsenazo reagents, negative bias in measurement of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and zinc (colorimetric assay), as well as positive bias in creatinine (Jaffe reaction), total iron binding capacity (TIBC, ferrozine method), magnesium (calmagite reagent) and selenium (mass spectrometry) measurement. Interference has also been reported in assessment of serum indices, pulse oximetry and methaemoglobin in samples of patients receiving Patent Blue V. Under several circumstances the interference was absent from manufacturer-supplied information and limited to certain type of reagents and/or analytes, so that local verification may be advisable to establish whether or not the test in use may be biased. Since the elimination half-life of these compounds is typically lower than 2 h, blood collection after this period may be a safer alternative in patients who have received contrast media for diagnostic purposes.

  5. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. Design and setting 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups’ results. Fi...

  6. Administration of biliary contrast media in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.-H.; Treugut, H.

    1981-01-01

    Biliary contrast media have 2 main uses in computed tomography (CT) of the liver and bile ducts: 1. Labelling of extrahepatic bile ducts in order to aid in the identification of the common bile ducts and the papilla of Vater, particularly in cases of complex, mostly postoperative situs. 2. Differentiation between normal and abnormal liver tissue in cases of focal nodular hyperplasia with proliferation of tumorous bile ducts. The applicability of biliary contrast media is rather limited as far as the improvement of spatial resolution by an increase of contrast is concerned, because the attainable enhancement today remains small. The possibility of interpretation of the liver function is likewise insufficient, because the standard deviation of the time-dependent enhancement is too great in the normal collective in order to register deviations reliably. In cases of liver cirrhosis, a rise of density of at least 40-60 Hounsfield Units (HU) would be desirable. (Auth.)

  7. Incidence of immediate adverse effects of gadolinium contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Kouishi; Matsui, Satomi; Oikawa, Satoko; Habano, Youji; Ozaki, Daisuke; Ootake, Hidenori; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the adverse effects of intravenous injection of one of 4 types of gadolinium contrast media in 6550 patients: gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), 4299 patients; gadodiamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA), 1612; gadoteridol (Gd (HP-DO3A)), 565; and gadoterate meglumin (Gd-DOTA), 74. Thirty-two (0.49%) patients experienced adverse effects, which included rash (18.8%), nausea (40.6%), vomiting (34.4%), and an unpleasant sensation in the throat (6.3%). No patient required hospitalization. We compared the incidence of adverse effects from the 4 types of contrast media and found no difference in sex, age, body region examined, or method of contrast administration. Incidence was significantly higher for Gd (HP-DO3A) than Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA (P<0.000001). (author)

  8. Microbubble embedded with upconversion nanoparticles as a bimodal contrast agent for fluorescence and ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Birui; Lin, Min; You, Minli; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tianjian; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal imaging offers additional imaging signal thus finds wide spread application in clinical diagnostic imaging. Fluorescence/ultrasound bimodal imaging contrast agent using fluorescent dyes or quantum dots for fluorescence signal has emerged as a promising method, which however requires visible light or UV irradiation resulting in photobleaching, photoblinking, auto-fluorescence and limited tissue penetration depth. To surmount these problems, we developed a novel bimodal contrast agent using layer-by-layer assembly of upconversion nanoparticles onto the surface of microbubbles. The resulting microbubbles with average size of 2 μm provide enhanced ultrasound echo for ultrasound imaging and upconversion emission upon near infrared irradiation for fluorescence imaging. The developed bimodal contrast agent holds great potential to be applied in ultrasound target technique for targeted diseases diagnostics and therapy. (paper)

  9. Microbubble Composition and Preparation for High-Frequency Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging : In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daeichin, Verya; van Rooij, Tom; Skachkov, Ilya; Ergin, Bulent; Specht, Patricia A.C.; Lima, Alexandre; Ince, Can; Bosch, Johan G.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; de Jong, N.; Kooiman, Klazina

    2017-01-01

    Although high-frequency ultrasound imaging is gaining attention in various applications, hardly any ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) dedicated to such frequencies (>15 MHz) are available for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Moreover, the composition of the limited commercially

  10. Microbubble Composition and Preparation for High-Frequency Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daeichin, Verya; van Rooij, Tom; Skachkov, Ilya; Ergin, Bulent; Specht, Patricia A. C.; Lima, Alexandre; Ince, Can; Bosch, Johan G.; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; de Jong, Nico; Kooiman, Klazina

    2017-01-01

    Although high-frequency ultrasound imaging is gaining attention in various applications, hardly any ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) dedicated to such frequencies (>15 MHz) are available for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Moreover, the composition of the limited commercially available

  11. Microbubble Composition and Preparation for High-Frequency Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging: In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Daeichin (Verya); T. van Rooij (Tom); I. Skachkov (Ilya); B. Ergin (Bulent); P. Specht (Patricia); A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); C. Ince (Can); J.G. Bosch (Hans); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton); N. de Jong (Nico); K. Kooiman (Klazina)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAlthough high-frequency ultrasound imaging is gaining attention in various applications, hardly any ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) dedicated to such frequencies (>15 MHz) are available for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Moreover, the composition of the limited

  12. New image contrast method in magnetic resonance imaging via ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicke, Marcus, E-mail: radicke@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Engelbertz, Andre; Habenstein, Bernd; Lewerenz, Meinert; Oehms, Ole [University of Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (Germany); Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd [Life and Brain Research Center, Department Neurocognition (Germany); Wrede, Sarah; Maier, Karl [University of Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    When applied to a sample, ultrasound (US) gives rise to a displacement of tissue and a flow in a liquid due to the acoustic radiation pressure. These movements depend on the viscoelastic properties of the sample and can be visualized precisely with an MRI scanner using diffusion- sensitive pulse sequences. In this paper, measurements will be presented, which show the visualization of the US under variation of its parameters in different liquids and in tissue.

  13. Comparison of excretory urographic contrast effects of dimeric and monomeric non-ionic iodinated contrast media in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, M.; Yamada, K.; Watanabe, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In excretory urography, the osmolarity of contrast media has rarely been treated as important in veterinary medicine. In this study, the contrast effect of two contrast media (monomeric iohexol and dimeric iodixanol) in the renal cortex and aorta were compared using computed tomography (CT). Five beagle dogs were used and the study employed a cross-over method for each contrast media. The results showed that there was no difference between the media in the aorta, but iodixanol showed higher CT value and a longer contrast effect than iohexol in the renal cortex, in spite of having the same iodine dosage. It is believed that iodixanol, with its low osmolarity, is diluted less by osmotic diuresis than monomeric iohexol. It is important to consider the osmolarity of the contrast media when evaluating the contrast effect, and it is essential to use the same contrast media for each examination, or the renal excretory speed will be under/overestimated

  14. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and contrast media reactions in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, John M.; McBride, Kieran D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To assess current knowledge and training in the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard of knowledge about the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation among radiologists, radiographers and nurses were audited using a two-section questionnaire. Our results were compared against nationally accepted standards. Repeat audits were undertaken over a 28-month period. Three full audit cycles were completed. RESULTS: The initial audit confirmed that although a voluntary training programme was in place, knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques were below acceptable levels (set at 70%) for all staff members. The mean score for radiologists was 50%. Immediate changes instituted included retraining courses, the distribution of standard guidelines and the composition and distribution of two separate information handouts. Initial improvements were complemented by new wallcharts, which were distributed throughout the department, a series of lectures on management of contrast reactions and regular reviews with feedback to staff. In the third and final audit all staff groups had surpassed the required standard. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of contrast media reactions and resuscitation needs constant updating. Revision of skills requires a prescriptive programme; visual display of advice is a constant reminder. It is our contention all radiology departmental staff should consider it a personal duty to maintain their resuscitation skills at appropriate standards. O'Neill, J.M., McBride, K.D.(2001). Clinical Radiology 00, 000-000

  15. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and contrast media reactions in a radiology department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, John M.; McBride, Kieran D

    2001-04-01

    AIM: To assess current knowledge and training in the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation within a radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard of knowledge about the management of contrast media reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitation among radiologists, radiographers and nurses were audited using a two-section questionnaire. Our results were compared against nationally accepted standards. Repeat audits were undertaken over a 28-month period. Three full audit cycles were completed. RESULTS: The initial audit confirmed that although a voluntary training programme was in place, knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques were below acceptable levels (set at 70%) for all staff members. The mean score for radiologists was 50%. Immediate changes instituted included retraining courses, the distribution of standard guidelines and the composition and distribution of two separate information handouts. Initial improvements were complemented by new wallcharts, which were distributed throughout the department, a series of lectures on management of contrast reactions and regular reviews with feedback to staff. In the third and final audit all staff groups had surpassed the required standard. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of contrast media reactions and resuscitation needs constant updating. Revision of skills requires a prescriptive programme; visual display of advice is a constant reminder. It is our contention all radiology departmental staff should consider it a personal duty to maintain their resuscitation skills at appropriate standards. O'Neill, J.M., McBride, K.D.(2001). Clinical Radiology 00, 000-000.

  16. Characterization of Breast Masses Using a New Method of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Imaging in 3D Mapping of Vascular Anomalies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeCarpentier, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this work is to develop an innovative dual-transducer method to control the destruction and imaging of ultrasound contrast during 3D ultrasound scanning of suspicious breast masses...

  17. Exposure to radiologic contrast media and an increased risk of treated end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Coresh, Josef; Klag, Michael J; Whelton, Paul K; Perneger, Thomas V

    2003-12-01

    Radiologic contrast media can cause acute renal failure, but whether their repeated use is associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. We compared 716 incident case subjects of treated ESRD with 361 control subjects, frequency matched on age, drawn from the general population (age, 20-65 years). Participants were interviewed by telephone regarding their previous exposure (before initiation of dialysis for case subjects and the study interview for control subject) to various imaging procedures. As expected, the case subjects reported having more imaging procedures of the kidneys than did control subjects. Excluding persons who had been subjected to examinations of their kidney from the analysis and adjusting for ultrasound examinations and several possible confounders, persons who had a history of one [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0, 4.0], 2 or 3 (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2,5.9), or 4 or more (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 12.5) radiocontrast examinations were at higher risk of treated ESRD than persons who reported not having had such procedures. Ultrasound examinations and a history of barium enema were not associated with an increased risk of treated ESRD. In the current study, a graded association was present between increasing exposure to radiologic contrast media and higher risk of treated ESRD. Whether exposure to contrast media accelerates progression to ESRD or is merely a noncausal accompaniment to multiple disease processes occurring concurrently cannot be determined from our observational data. However, if these results are confirmed in future prospective studies, they will have important clinical implications.

  18. Contrast media in computed tomography of the pelvic organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of various contrast media is essential for examination of the pelvis with computed tomography (CT) because there is little fat between the organs and structures and because bowel may be misinterpreted as mass. Routine opacification of the distal small bowel and colon is achieved using dilute oral and rectal contrast medium, and all patients are scanned with a full bladder. A tampon is used to outline the vaginal vault. Intravenous contrast medium may be required to opacify the urinary tract or to distinguish vessels from a suspected space-occupying lesion. Pelvic masses may show tissue enhancement following injection of intravenous contrast medium but further studies are required to determine the diagnostic value of the information obtained. (Auth.)

  19. Sentinel node detection in melanomas using contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. Rue; Klyver, H.; Chakera, A. Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    in humans. PURPOSE: To investigate the possible use of CEUS in detecting SN in patients with malignant melanomas (MM), and to improve the method by using different concentrations of contrast agent and various positions of the extremity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with MM on an extremity and one...... healthy volunteer were included. One milliliter of a contrast agent (Sonovue; Bracco, Milan, Italy) was injected subcutaneously on both sides of the scar from the excised tumor. Contrast-enhanced lymph channels and lymph nodes (LNs) were searched for using low-mechanical-index CEUS and by stimulated...... tissue damage, as the contrast agent was not registered for subcutaneous administration. RESULTS: In one patient, two contrast-enhanced inguinal LNs were visualized by CEUS, corresponding to two inguinal SNs found by scintigraphic imaging. No contrast-enhanced lymph channels or LNs were visualized in any...

  20. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  1. X-ray contrast media-an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Cathrine

    2005-01-01

    X-ray contrast media are chemically inert drugs which are given intravascularly in very high amounts within a very short time period. Although they are regarded as relatively safe drugs, adverse reactions can occur: these are normally divided into immediate and delayed reactions. The latter appear hours to days after injection. Immediate reactions have been drastically reduced since the introduction of non-ionic monomers and non-ionic dimers. However, the delayed reactions still occur in a frequency of 1-3% in X-ray contrast media exposed patients. The majority of these reactions are mild and manifest as skin eruption, but severe reactions can also occur. Further improvement of the safety of these drugs is only possible with a better understanding of etiologies behind the observed adverse reactions

  2. THE ABILITY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER METASTASES IN CERVICAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Kryazheva; M. A. Chekalova; Z. R-B. Musaeva; V. V. Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to explore the possibilities of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of liver metastases in patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer.Materials and methods. We analyzed the results of 4 clinical cases, of which 3 cases according CEUS diagnosed with liver metastases, in 1 case – nodular hyperplasia.Results and conclusions. Despite the small number of observations, we have concluded that the use of CEUS allows to expand possibilities of the ultrasound method in the...

  3. Indication-related dosing for magnetic resonance contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuh, W.T.C.; Parker, J.R.; Carvlin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews the issue of contrast media dosing and imaging protocols for the optimal MR imaging detection and characterization of pathology. The cumulative clinical experience gained in performing contrast-enhanced MR examinations with gadolinium chelates indicates that a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight provides safe and effective enhancement of most CNS pathology. Doses lower than 0.1 mmol/kg have been shown to be inadequate for delineating all but selected types of CNS pathology, such as masses with a high lesion to background ratio on post-contrast images (acoustic neuromas) or lesions located in areas in which the normal tissue very rapidly takes up contrast agent (e. g. microadenomas in the pituitary gland). Recent clinical studies have suggested a role for high dose gadolinium administration (up to 0.3 mmol/kg) for the optimal detection and delineation of cerebral metastases or other small or poorly enhancing lesions. Differences in the histopathologic characteristics (capillary permeability, vascularity, location, size) of specific diseased tissues may require varying doses or even a different contrast agent to be used for optimal imaging results. As new MR contrast agents and new scanning techniques are introduced, the specific diagnostic question posed will likely determine the choice of pulse sequence, contrast agent and dose used. (orig.)

  4. Advanced ultrasound applications in the assessment of renal transplants: contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, and B-flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Tara A; Jha, Priyanka; Poder, Liina; Weinstein, Stefanie

    2018-04-09

    Ultrasound is routinely used as the first imaging exam for evaluation of renal transplants and can identify most major surgical complications and evaluate vascularity with color Doppler. Ultrasound is limited, however, in the detection of parenchymal disease processes and Doppler evaluation is also prone to technical errors. Multiple new ultrasound applications have been developed and are under ongoing investigation which could add additional diagnostic capability to the routine ultrasound exam with minimal additional time, cost, and patient risk. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used off-label in the transplant kidney, and can assist in detection of infection, trauma, and vascular complications. CEUS also can demonstrate perfusion of the transplant assessed quantitatively with generation of time-intensity curves. Future directions of CEUS include monitoring treatment response and microbubble targeted medication delivery. Elastography is an ultrasound application that can detect changes in tissue elasticity, which is useful to diagnose diffuse parenchymal disease, such as fibrosis, otherwise unrecognizable with ultrasound. Elastography has been successfully applied in other organs including the liver, thyroid, and breast; however, it is still under development for use in the transplant kidney. Unique properties of the transplant kidney including its heterogeneity, anatomic location, and other technical factors present challenges in the development of reference standard measurements. Lastly, B-flow imaging is a flow application derived from B-mode. This application can show the true lumen size of a vessel which is useful to depict vascular anatomy and bypasses some of the pitfalls of color Doppler such as demonstration of slow flow.

  5. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; ten Kate, G. L.; Shamdasani, V.; Entrekin, R.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2012-11-01

    Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image.

  6. Estimation of Tumor Angiogenesis With Contrast Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsberg, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    ...) and receiving at the subharmonic (f0) . Because of no subharmonic generation in tissue and significant subharmonic scattering from some new contrast agents SHI has the potential to detect slow, small volume blood flow associated with tumor...

  7. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W

    2011-01-01

    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society...... or delayed reading intradermal). The main risk factors for LAR are a previous reaction to contrast medium, a history of allergy, and interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are mild or moderate and self-limiting. MANAGEMENT: Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug......-induced skin reactions. To reduce the risk of repeat reactions avoidance of the relevant CM and any cross-reacting agents identified by skin testing is recommended....

  8. Liberation of plasma histamine after application of non-ionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.D.; Jansen, O.; Schallock, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 94 patients the levels of plasmahistamine have been measured after application of three non-ionic contrast media (Iopromid, Iopamidol, Iohexol) and after application of blood-isotonic saline solution. A significant liberation of histamine could be observed after administration of contrast media and also after administration of saline solution. Neither between the three nonionic contrast media nor between the contrast media and the saline solution significant differences could be measured. Administering contrast media after subsequently saline solution the levels of histamine were lower than in case of pure contrast media application. A psychogen induced histamine liberation is discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Vascular Structure Identification in Intraoperative 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisee Ilunga-Mbuyamba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of vascular structure identification in intraoperative 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS data is presented. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used in brain tumor surgery to investigate in real time the current status of cerebral structures. The use of an ultrasound contrast agent enables to highlight tumor tissue, but also surrounding blood vessels. However, these structures can be used as landmarks to estimate and correct the brain shift. This work proposes an alternative method for extracting small vascular segments close to the tumor as landmark. The patient image dataset involved in brain tumor operations includes preoperative contrast T1MR (cT1MR data and 3D intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound data acquired before (3D-iCEUS s t a r t and after (3D-iCEUS e n d tumor resection. Based on rigid registration techniques, a preselected vascular segment in cT1MR is searched in 3D-iCEUS s t a r t and 3D-iCEUS e n d data. The method was validated by using three similarity measures (Normalized Gradient Field, Normalized Mutual Information and Normalized Cross Correlation. Tests were performed on data obtained from ten patients overcoming a brain tumor operation and it succeeded in nine cases. Despite the small size of the vascular structures, the artifacts in the ultrasound images and the brain tissue deformations, blood vessels were successfully identified.

  10. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound of the Kidneys: What Is It Capable of?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes D. Cokkinos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the many imaging uses of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is studying a wide variety of kidney pathology, due to its ability to detect microvascular blood flow in real time without affecting renal function. CEUS enables dynamic assessment and quantification of microvascularisation up to capillary perfusion. The objective of this paper is to briefly refresh basic knowledge of ultrasound (US contrast agents’ physical properties, to study technical details of CEUS scanning in the kidneys, and to review the commonest renal indications for CEUS, with imaging examples in comparison to baseline unenhanced US and computed tomography when performed. Safety matters and limitations of CEUS of the kidneys are also discussed.

  11. Ultrasound-mediated Optical Imaging and Focusing in Scattering Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuta

    Because of its non-ionizing and molecular sensing nature, light has been an attractive tool in biomedicine. Scanning an optical focus allows not only high-resolution imaging but also manipulation and therapy. However, due to multiple photon scattering events, conventional optical focusing using an ordinary lens is limited to shallow depths of one transport mean free path (lt'), which corresponds to approximately 1 mm in human tissue. To overcome this limitation, ultrasonic modulation (or encoding ) of diffuse light inside scattering media has enabled us to develop both deep-tissue optical imaging and focusing techniques, namely, ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) and time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing. While UOT measures the power of the encoded light to obtain an image, TRUE focusing generates a time-reversed (or phase-conjugated) copy of the encoded light, using a phase-conjugate mirror to focus light inside scattering media beyond 1 lt'. However, despite extensive progress in both UOT and TRUE focusing, the low signal-to-noise ratio in encoded-light detection remains a challenge to meeting both the speed and depth requirements for in vivo applications. This dissertation describes technological advancements of both UOT and TRUE focusing, in terms of their signal detection sensitivities, operational depths, and operational speeds. The first part of this dissertation describes sensitivity improvements of encoded-light detection in UOT, achieved by using a large area (˜5 cm x 5 cm) photorefractive polymer. The photorefractive polymer allowed us to improve the detection etendue by more than 10 times that of previous detection schemes. It has enabled us to resolve absorbing objects embedded inside diffused media thicker than 80 lt', using moderate light power and short ultrasound pulses. The second part of this dissertation describes energy enhancement and fluorescent excitation using TRUE focusing in turbid media, using

  12. Acoustically active lipospheres containing paclitaxel: a new therapeutic ultrasound contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, E C; McCreery, T P; Sweitzer, R H; Caldwell, V E; Wu, Y

    1998-12-01

    Paclitaxel-carrying lipospheres (MRX-552) were developed and evaluated as a new ultrasound contrast agent for chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Paclitaxel was suspended in soybean oil and added to an aqueous suspension of phospholipids in vials. The headspace of the vials was replaced with perfluorobutane gas; the vials were sealed, and they were agitated at 4200 rpm on a shaking device. The resulting lipospheres containing paclitaxel were studied for concentration, size, acute toxicity in mice, and acoustic activity and drug release with ultrasound. Lipospheres containing sudan black dye were produced to demonstrate the acoustically active liposphere (AAL)-ultrasound release concept. Acoustically active lipospheres containing paclitaxel had a mean particle count of approximately 1 x 10(9) particles per mL and a mean size of 2.9 microns. Acute toxicity studies in mice showed a 10-fold reduction in toxicity for paclitaxel in AALs compared with free paclitaxel. The AALs reflected ultrasound as a contrast agent. Increasing amounts of ultrasound energy selectively ruptured the AALs and released the paclitaxel. Acoustically active lipospheres represent a new class of acoustically active drug delivery vehicles. Future studies will assess efficacy of AALs for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery.

  13. Renal Safety of Iodinated Contrast Media Depending on Their Osmolarity – Current Outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruk, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are commonly administered pharmaceutical agents. Most often they are used intravenously and intraarterially. Although iodinated contrast agents are relatively safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. The most important adverse effects of contrast media include hypersensitivity reactions, thyroid dysfunction, and contrast-induced nephropathy. Radiologists must be aware of the risk factors for reactions to contrast media. Nonionic iodinated contrast agents can be divided into monomeric, low-osmolar, and dimeric, iso-osmolar classes. The osmotic characteristics of contrast media have been a significant focus in many investigations of contrast-induced nephropathy

  14. Sonochemiluminescence observation of lipid- and polymer-shelled ultrasound contrast agents in 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Cao, Hua; Zhang, Shusheng; Yin, Hui; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are frequently added into the focused ultrasound field as cavitation nuclei to enhance the therapeutic efficiency. Since their presence will distort the pressure field and make the process unpredictable, comprehension of their behaviors especially the active zone spatial distribution is an important part of better monitoring and using of UCAs. As shell materials can strongly alter the acoustic behavior of UCAs, two different shells coated UCAs, lipid-shelled and polymer-shelled UCAs, in a 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field were studied by the Sonochemiluminescence (SCL) method and compared. The SCL spatial distribution of lipid-shelled group differed from that of polymer-shelled group. The shell material and the character of focused ultrasound field work together to the SCL distribution, causing the lipid-shelled group to have a maximum SCL intensity in pre-focal region at lower input power than that of polymer-shelled group, and a brighter SCL intensity in post-focal region at high input power. The SCL inactive area of these two groups both increased with the input power. The general behavior of the UCAs can be studied by both the average SCL intensity and the backscatter signals. As polymer-shelled UCAs are more resistant to acoustic pressure, they had a higher destruction power and showed less reactivation than lipid-shelled ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Low contrast media volume in pre-TAVI CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Madeleine; Turek, Jakub; Mihl, Casper; Reinartz, Sebastian D; Gohmann, Robin F; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kats, Suzanne; van Ommen, Vincent G; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate image quality using reduced contrast media (CM) volume in pre-TAVI assessment. Forty-seven consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI examination were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 BMI  28 kg/m(2) (n = 18). Patients received a combined scan protocol: retrospective ECG-gated helical CTA of the aortic root (80kVp) followed by a high-pitch spiral CTA (group 1: 70 kV; group 2: 80 kVp) from aortic arch to femoral arteries. All patients received one bolus of CM (300 mgI/ml): group 1: volume = 40 ml; flow rate = 3 ml/s, group 2: volume = 53 ml; flow rate = 4 ml/s. Attenuation values (HU) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured at the levels of the aortic root (helical) and peripheral arteries (high-pitch). Diagnostic image quality was considered sufficient at attenuation values > 250HU and CNR > 10. Diagnostic image quality for TAVI measurements was obtained in 46 patients. Mean attenuation values and CNR (HU ± SD) at the aortic root (helical) were: group 1: 381 ± 65HU and 13 ± 8; group 2: 442 ± 68HU and 10 ± 5. At the peripheral arteries (high-pitch), mean values were: group 1: 430 ± 117HU and 11 ± 6; group 2: 389 ± 102HU and 13 ± 6. CM volume can be substantially reduced using low kVp protocols, while maintaining sufficient image quality for the evaluation of aortic root and peripheral access sites. • Image quality could be maintained using low kVp scan protocols. • Low kVp protocols reduce contrast media volume by 34-67 %. • Less contrast media volume lowers the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

  16. Detection of vascularity in wrist tenosynovitis: power doppler ultrasound compared with contrast-enhanced grey-scale ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Andrea S; Franz, Magdalena; Arora, Rohit; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Gruber, Johann; Schirmer, Michael; Jaschke, Werner R; Gabl, Markus F

    2010-01-01

    We sought to assess vascularity in wrist tenosynovitis by using power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and to compare detection of intra- and peritendinous vascularity with that of contrast-enhanced grey-scale ultrasound (CEUS). Twenty-six tendons of 24 patients (nine men, 15 women; mean age ± SD, 54.4 ± 11.8 years) with a clinical diagnosis of tenosynovitis were examined with B-mode ultrasonography, PDUS, and CEUS by using a second-generation contrast agent, SonoVue (Bracco Diagnostics, Milan, Italy) and a low-mechanical-index ultrasound technique. Thickness of synovitis, extent of vascularized pannus, intensity of peritendinous vascularisation, and detection of intratendinous vessels was incorporated in a 3-score grading system (grade 0 to 2). Interobserver variability was calculated. With CEUS, a significantly greater extent of vascularity could be detected than by using PDUS (P < 0.001). In terms of peri- and intratendinous vessels, CEUS was significantly more sensitive in the detection of vascularization compared with PDUS (P < 0.001). No significant correlation between synovial thickening and extent of vascularity could be found (P = 0.089 to 0.097). Interobserver reliability was calculated to be excellent when evaluating the grading score (κ = 0.811 to 1.00). CEUS is a promising tool to detect tendon vascularity with higher sensitivity than PDUS by improved detection of intra- and peritendinous vascularity.

  17. Comparison and evaluation of indicator dilution models for bolus of ultrasound contrast agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harabis, V.; Kolář, R.; Mézl, M.; Jiřík, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 151-162 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : perfusion model * ultrasound * contrast agent * intravascular perfusion * tissue phantom Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2013

  18. Counterbalancing the use of ultrasound contrast agents by a cavitation-regulated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjouy, C; Fouqueray, M; Lo, C W; Muleki Seya, P; Lee, J L; Bera, J C; Chen, W S; Inserra, C

    2015-09-01

    The stochastic behavior of cavitation can lead to major problems of initiation and maintenance of cavitation during sonication, responsible of poor reproducibility of US-induced bioeffects in the context of sonoporation for instance. To overcome these disadvantages, the injection of ultrasound contrast agents as cavitation nuclei ensures fast initiation and lower acoustic intensities required for cavitation activity. More recently, regulated-cavitation devices based on the real-time modulation of the applied acoustic intensity have shown their potential to maintain a stable cavitation state during an ultrasonic shot, in continuous or pulsed wave conditions. In this paper is investigated the interest, in terms of cavitation activity, of using such regulated-cavitation device or injecting ultrasound contrast agents in the sonicated medium. When using fixed applied acoustic intensity, results showed that introducing ultrasound contrast agents increases reproducibility of cavitation activity (coefficient of variation 62% and 22% without and with UCA, respectively). Moreover, the use of the regulated-cavitation device ensures a given cavitation activity (coefficient of variation less 0.4% in presence of UCAs or not). This highlights the interest of controlling cavitation over time to free cavitation-based application from the use of UCAs. Interestingly, during a one minute sonication, while ultrasound contrast agents progressively disappear, the regulated-cavitation device counterbalance their destruction to sustain a stable inertial cavitation activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Relation to Percutaneous Interventional Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Nolsøe, Alexander Bjørneboe; Klubien, Jeanett

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an inventory of the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in relation to percutaneous interventional procedures. The article is structured into a systematic literature review followed by a clinical part relating to percutaneous CEUS-guided procedures...

  20. Non-invasive ambient pressure estimation using non-linear ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup

    Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the blood pressure locally in the body have been made. This dissertation focuses on the approaches which utilize highly compressible ultrasound contrast agents as ambient pressure sensors. The literature within the topic has been reviewed...

  1. Evaluation of the diagnosis on staging of the bladder cancers by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Xu Haiyan; Huan Haiming; Chen Yane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of the staging of the bladder cancers with the contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Methods: After rapid injection of the contrast agent SonoVue through the elbow vein, the staging of images was completed in 18 cases of bladder cancer. Results: The results of contrast-enhanced ultrasound were compared with post-operative pathological analysis, the rate of accuracy of diagnosis on T1, T2, T3 and T4 stage was 100%, 80%, 83% and 100% respectively. The accuracy made by new methods higher than those of other imaging examinations in T1 stage; the other stages were similar to those of other imaging examinations. Conclusion: The evaluation of Contrast-enhanced ultrasound on the staging of the bladder cancer is higher than that of the conventional ultrasound examination, while the observation of blood flow in the tumor can make accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, this method can be complement each other with CT and MRI to improve the rate of accuracy on the staging of bladder cancer. (authors)

  2. Organizational liability for adverse reactions to the contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Seon

    2007-01-01

    Contrast medium is a very useful tool for X-ray examinations. But contrast medium has some unavoidable adverse reactions. For those patients who have never received contrast medium before, it is impossible to predict whether they will suffer from certain kinds of adverse reactions. Thus, radiologists should use strategies to minimize adverse events and be prepared to promptly recognize and manage any reactions to the contrast media. If a radiologist commits medical malpractice, he will face civil responsibility. Medical malpractice means a tort or breach of contrast that occurs in a medical setting. Medical malpractices happen, despite the efforts of hospital staff. Many courts have applied the traditional doctrine of respondeat superior in actions against organizations for injuries caused by their employees. It is a legal doctrine, which states that an employer is responsible for employee actions performed within the course of the employment. A hospital is an organization for health purposes. An organization may be convicted of an offense committed by an employee of the organization acting in its behalf and within the scope of this office or employment. Organizational liability involves a wide variety of legal issues, including tort liability, wrongful employment practices, personal injury, breach of fiduciary duty, and so on. Many executive directors of organizations are aware of their personal and organizational risks of exposure to legal liabilities. The employer must have the right to control the physical conduct of the employee and must consent to receive the employee's services, while expecting some benefits from the services offered. Therefore, legal liability can be imposed for improper selection, assignment, training, and supervision of employees. In conclusion, the hospital itself has organizational liability for adverse reactions to the contrast medium

  3. The effect of contrast media on the synovial membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papacharalampous, Xenophon [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: medgraph@otenet.gr; Patsouris, Efstratios [Department of Pathology, University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75 str., GR-115 27 Athens (Greece); Mundinger, Alexander [Clinic of Radiology, Marienhospital Osnabrueck, Johannisfreiheit 2-4, D-49074 Osnabruek (Germany); Beck, Andreas [Clinic of Radiology, Konstanz, Luisenstrasse 7, D-78461 Konstanz (Germany); Kouloulias, Vasilios [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Primetis, Elias [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Koureas, Andreas [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Vlahos, Lambros [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)

    2005-09-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of intra-articular injection of contrast media, sorbitol and normal saline on the synovial membrane. Materials and methods: Sixty three rabbits (126 knees) were used in this study. We injected the knees with amidotrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol, iotrol and diluted gadolinium-DTPA (2 mmol/l). Normal saline and sorbitol 27.25% were used for comparison. A histological and histochemical examination of the knees was carried out 1, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 days after the injection. Results: On histological examination, the knees injected with normal saline, ioxaglate and gadolinium-DTPA had a normal appearance. Intra-articular injection of amidotrizoate, iopamidol, iotrol and sorbitol caused early, mild and transient histological changes of the synovium (synovial hyperplasia, infiltration by leucocytes). Furthermore, the knees injected with amidotrizoate presented with late, extensive histological changes (severe synovial hyperplasia, moderate vascular dilatation, severe infiltration by leukocytes). Conclusion: The results suggest that the chemical structure and not the osmolality of the contrast media is the main cause for the histological changes of the synovium.

  4. Formation of potential antigens from radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, R.; Ehrenberg, L.; Fedorcsak, I.

    1987-01-01

    The use of radiographic contrast media is occasionally accompanied by more or less serious adverse effects, evidently of complex etiology, following intravascular administration. Some of these reactions are suspected of having an allergic basis. The in vitro and in vivo formation of iodinated serum proteins following gamma irradiation in the presence of two commonly used radiographic contrast media is demonstrated. Non-toxic concentrations of ascorbate present during the irradiation is shown to prevent the formation of such iodo-proteins in vitro as well as in vivo. The amounts of potentially antigenic iodoprotein formed during radiographic procedures will certainly be very small, but this quantity may be sufficient to elicit a hypersensitivity reaction in cases when an individual has been previously sensitized to immunologically similar iodo-proteins, a mechanism that could account for certain rare and unpredictable reations. The radiation induced formation of iodo-proteins may also serve as a model for the formation of iodine containing antigens mediated by a free radical mechanism, i.e. in the metabolism of iodinated compounds like erythrosine, a widely used colouring agent for certain foods. (orig.)

  5. Status survey on the adverse reactions of CT contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Dong, Kyung Rae; Kim, Kwang Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at suggesting the necessity of critical paths for the adverse reactions of contrast media, and investigating the ways to respond properly at the time of adverse reactions. The question on the size of hospitals in possession of CT equipment indicated that general hospitals accounted for 50% at the highest rate. In terms of job experience, 50% of radiological technologists had more than 10 years of experience, which accounted for the highest rate. It was shown that the average number of radiological technologists in the CT room was 3, that of nurses 0.6 and that of administrative workers and others 0.3 (87.5%) of respondents explained the treatment method of adverse reaction, and 97.5% responded that they were using the manual for the case of adverse reactions. Also, 87.5% of respondents indicated that they had the division of works at the time of adverse reaction, and the yearly average number of cases was 35. The average handling time was shown to be 51 minutes. This Emergency treatment manual and Critical Pathway program can be used as one of the patient care tools for reducing the adverse reactions to contrast media and increasing the efficiency of care process in CT examination settings

  6. Status survey on the adverse reactions of CT contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Il Bong; Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Cheol [Social Disaster Management Division, Jeollanamdo Provincial Government, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study is aimed at suggesting the necessity of critical paths for the adverse reactions of contrast media, and investigating the ways to respond properly at the time of adverse reactions. The question on the size of hospitals in possession of CT equipment indicated that general hospitals accounted for 50% at the highest rate. In terms of job experience, 50% of radiological technologists had more than 10 years of experience, which accounted for the highest rate. It was shown that the average number of radiological technologists in the CT room was 3, that of nurses 0.6 and that of administrative workers and others 0.3 (87.5%) of respondents explained the treatment method of adverse reaction, and 97.5% responded that they were using the manual for the case of adverse reactions. Also, 87.5% of respondents indicated that they had the division of works at the time of adverse reaction, and the yearly average number of cases was 35. The average handling time was shown to be 51 minutes. This Emergency treatment manual and Critical Pathway program can be used as one of the patient care tools for reducing the adverse reactions to contrast media and increasing the efficiency of care process in CT examination settings.

  7. Comparison of the Safety of Seven Iodinated Contrast Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jong-Mi; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Ye-Jee; Yang, Bo Ram; Jin, Xue-Mei; Kim, Ju-Young

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the characteristic adverse events (AEs) of iodinated contrast media (IOCM) and to compare the safety profiles of different IOCM. This study used the database of AEs reports submitted by healthcare professionals from 15 Regional Pharmacovigilance Centers between June 24, 2009 and December 31, 2010 in Korea. All reports of IOCM, including iopromide, iohexol, iopamidol, iomeprol, ioversol, iobitridol and iodixanol, were analyzed. Safety profiles were compared between different IOCM at the system organ level using the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Among a total of 48,261 reports, 6,524 (13.5%) reports were related to the use of IOCM. Iopromide (45.5%), iohexol (16.9%), iopamidol (14.3%) and iomeprol (10.3%) were identified as frequently reported media. 'Platelet, bleeding & clotting disorders' (PRR, 29.6; 95%CI, 1.9-472.6) and 'urinary system disorders' (PRR, 22.3; 95% CI, 17.1-29.1) were more frequently reported for iodixanol than the other IOCM. In conclusion, the frequency of AEs by organ class was significantly different between individual media. These differences among different IOCM should be considered when selecting a medium among various IOCM and when monitoring patients during and after its use to ensure optimum usage and patient safety. PMID:24339697

  8. Cavitation and contrast: the use of bubbles in ultrasound imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, E P; Coussios, C C

    2010-01-01

    Microbubbles and cavitation are playing an increasingly significant role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents have been in clinical use now for more than two decades, stimulating the development of a range of new contrast-specific imaging techniques which offer substantial benefits in echocardiography, microcirculatory imaging, and more recently, quantitative and molecular imaging. In drug delivery and gene therapy, microbubbles are being investigated/developed as vehicles which can be loaded with the required therapeutic agent, traced to the target site using diagnostic ultrasound, and then destroyed with ultrasound of higher intensity energy burst to release the material locally, thus avoiding side effects associated with systemic administration, e.g. of toxic chemotherapy. It has moreover been shown that the motion of the microbubbles increases the permeability of both individual cell membranes and the endothelium, thus enhancing therapeutic uptake, and can locally increase the activity of drugs by enhancing their transport across biologically inaccessible interfaces such as blood clots or solid tumours. In high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery and lithotripsy, controlled cavitation is being investigated as a means of increasing the speed and efficacy of the treatment. The aim of this paper is both to describe the key features of the physical behaviour of acoustically driven bubbles which underlie their effectiveness in biomedical applications and to review the current state of the art.

  9. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography: in vitro evaluation of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for in vivo optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Susan J; Edgar, J Christopher; Canning, Douglas A; Darge, Kassa

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is primarily performed outside the United States where a track record for safety in intravenous and intravesical applications has been established. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) has also been shown to have a much higher rate of vesicoureteral reflux detection compared to voiding cystourethrography. US contrast agents available in the United States differ from those abroad. Optison® (GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ) is such an US contrast agent. While Optison® has similar characteristics to other second-generation agents, it has never been used for ceVUS. In vitro optimization of dose and imaging parameters as well as assessment of contrast visualization when delivered in conditions similar to ceVUS are necessary starting points prior to in vivo applications. To optimize the intravesical use of Optison® in vitro for ceVUS before its use in pediatric studies. The experimental design simulated intravesical use. Using 9- and 12-MHz linear transducers, we scanned 20-mL syringes varying mechanical index, US contrast agent concentration (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%), solvent (saline, urine, radiographic contrast agent) and time out of refrigeration. We evaluated mechanical index settings and contrast duration, optimized the contrast dose, measured the effect of urine and radiographic contrast agent, and the impact of length of time of contrast outside of the refrigerator on US contrast appearance. We scanned 50-ml saline bags to assess the appearance and duration of US contrast with different delivery systems (injection vs. infusion). Consistent contrast visualization was achieved at a mechanical index of 0.06-0.17 and 0.11-0.48 for the L9 and L12 MHz transducers (P contrast visualization of the microbubbles with a higher transducer frequency. The lowest mechanical index for earliest visible microbubble destruction was 0.21 for the 9 MHz and 0.39 for the 12 MHz (P contrast agent volume to bladder filling was the

  10. THE ABILITY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER METASTASES IN CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kryazheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the possibilities of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the diagnosis of liver metastases in patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer.Materials and methods. We analyzed the results of 4 clinical cases, of which 3 cases according CEUS diagnosed with liver metastases, in 1 case – nodular hyperplasia.Results and conclusions. Despite the small number of observations, we have concluded that the use of CEUS allows to expand possibilities of the ultrasound method in the differential diagnosis of focal changes in the liver.

  11. The role of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2016-01-01

    contrast agents for early detection, tridimensional and fusion techniques for enhanced staging and resectability assessment but also novel applications of perfusion imaging for monitoring ablative therapy, improved local detection through EUS-guided sampling of portal vein flow or enhanced drug delivery......Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS) allows characterization, differentiation, and staging of focal pancreatic masses. The method has a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma which is visualized as hypo-enhanced as compared to the rest...... of the parenchyma while chronic pancreatitis and neuroendocrine tumors are generally either iso-enhanced or hyper-enhanced. The development of contrast-enhanced low mechanical index harmonic imaging techniques used in real time during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allowed perfusion imaging and the quantification...

  12. Effects of microchannel confinement on acoustic vaporisation of ultrasound phase change contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Hau Leow, Chee; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2017-09-01

    The sub-micron phase change contrast agent (PCCA) composed of a perfluorocarbon liquid core can be activated into gaseous state and form stable echogenic microbubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. It has shown great promise in imaging microvasculature, tumour microenvironment, and cancer cells. Although PCCAs have been extensively studied for different diagnostic and therapeutic applications, the effect of biologically geometrical confinement on the acoustic vaporisation of PCCAs is still not clear. We have investigated the difference in PCCA-produced ultrasound contrast enhancement after acoustic activation with and without a microvessel confinement on a microchannel phantom. The experimental results indicated more than one-order of magnitude less acoustic vaporisation in a microchannel than that in a free environment taking into account the attenuation effect of the vessel on the microbubble scattering. This may provide an improved understanding in the applications of PCCAs in vivo.

  13. Clinical trial of non-ionic contrast media -comparison of efficacy and safety between non-ionic iopromide (Ultravist) and ionic contrast media-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    Non-ionic contrast media, iopromide (Ultravist) was compared with ioxitalamate (Telebrix) and/or ioxaglate (Hexabrix) for efficacy and safety in 203 patients undergoing cardiac angiography, neurovascular angiography, peripheral and visceral angiography and intravenous pyelography. In all patients, adverse symptoms and signs including heat sense, pain, nausea, vomiting, etc. were checked during and after the injection. In addition, EKG and LV pressure were monitored during the cardiac angiography. And also CBC, UA, BUN and creatinine were checked before and 24 hours after the cardiac angiography. Serious adverse effect did not occur in any case. Minor effects, such as nausea and abdominal pain, were less frequently caused by non-ionic contrast media than by ionic contrast media, especially in cardiac angiography and intravenous pyelography. There was no significant difference between ionic and non-ionic contrast media in regard to electrophysiologic parameters such as EKG and LV pressure. In case of intravenous pyelography, nonionic contrast media seemed to be superior to ionic contrast media in image quality. It is suggested that, in spite of higher cost, non-ionic contrast media be needed for the safety and image quality, particularly in those patients at high risk of adverse effects by ionic contrast media

  14. The use of contrast media for quality assurance in treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.; Eilf, K.; Zimmermann, J.; Kimmig, B.

    1995-01-01

    In 1303 simulations between 1.1.1993 and 30.9.1993 105 times intravenous contrast media were applied, supplied by oral or endolymphatic contrast agents. It was studied if the previously intended plan had to be altered due to contrast media application. In 17 out of 105 cases (16.2%) the target volume or the preplanned technique had to be altered after contrast media application. Main reason was the existence of anatomical variations especially in kidney and small bowel detected by use of contrast agents. So standard indications for contrast media applications were defined. (orig.) [de

  15. General toxicity of water soluble iodinated contrast media: pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.F.; Giwerc, M.; Chabriais, J.; Rotkopf, L.

    1987-01-01

    The accidents related to the general toxicity of the watersoluble iodinated contrast media are unfrequent. They still exist despite the availability of new kinds of low osmolar molecules. Their pathogenesis is not yet clearly defined. An anaphylactic mechanism cannot give a satisfying explanation because specific IgE have been exceptionally found in humans. Two theories are discussed. Lalli has made an emphasis on the role played by stress and anxiety. The other theory is based on the prominent role played by the lesion of the vascular endothelial cells then the activation of factor XII. A vicious circle is created by the liberation of pre- and neo-formated ligands, eventually after the activation of the complement system [fr

  16. Continuous celiac plexus block and spread of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Tatsushi; Kawabata, Masahiro; Suda, Takayuki; Koshimizu, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    A continuous celiac plexus block has been developed and is available for use. With this method, the drug can be repeatedly applied and the reproducibility of imaged findings is secured. It is possible to accurately judge the effect by the use of a local anesthetics before the injection of the neurolytics. Imaged findings at the celiac plexus block were classified into 4 types according to the pattern of CT images. Paticularly interesting is a finding that the contrast media injected in the retrocrural space for retrocrural splanchnic nerve block (RSB) permeates through the aortic hiatus as far as the area surrounding the celiac plexus and so-called transcrural celiac plexus block (TCB) takes place. Thus, it was found that the celiac plexus block so far used was a complex of RSB and TCB. (author)

  17. Lumbar myelography using water-soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlotz, M.

    1981-01-01

    With the new water-soluble contrast media developed in the last 10 years, lumbar myelography has become a simple and low-risk diagnostic method of great value which is hardly ever omitted before surgery is undertaken. The book attempts a synopsis of radiology and clinical examinations. In its first part, the pathological, clinical, and radiological aspects of diseases of the lumbosacral spinal duct are reviewed. The second part contains more than 300 myelographic pictures in original size. Each of the myelograms is supplemented by the case history of the patient (anamnesis, neurological examination, therapy and course). Interpretation is facilitated by drawings at the beginning of each chapter which show the major pathological and radiological changes. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Feasibility and usefulness of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound to diagnose Zenker's diverticulum: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Ignee, Andre; Baum, Ulrich; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-04-01

    Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) may be misdiagnosed on conventional ultrasound as a thyroid nodule or other lesion. A barium esophagram is usually used to confirm the diagnosis; however, this procedure exposes the patient to radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound (swallow-CEUS) to diagnose ZD. Ten consecutive patients with ZD (7 men and 3 women, aged 67 ± 11 y) were included in the study. In 4 patients, ZD was incidentally found on head and neck ultrasound, and in 6 patients, ZD was suspected because of dysphagia. All lesions could be detected on conventional ultrasound before swallow-CEUS. Ten healthy volunteers (8 men and 2 women, aged 60 ± 12 y) were chosen as a control group. Written informed consent was obtained. With the patient in the sitting or upright position, conventional ultrasound was performed first to image the lesion, then the patient was asked to swallow ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) (2-4 drops of SonoVue diluted with about 200 mL of tap water). Transity of the contrast agent in the esophagus was imaged with CEUS. Retention of the UCA in the diverticulum was monitored for at least 3 min. All patients underwent a barium esophagram as the gold standard. Swallow-CEUS revealed that in all patients (100%), the UCA was transported from the pharynx to the esophagus while the patient swallowed. ZD appeared as a pouch-shaped structure at the posterior pharyngo-esophageal junction that retained UCA longer than 3 min. The barium esophagram confirmed the diagnosis of ZD in all patients. For the 10 volunteers, no abnormal structure (retaining UCA) was detected during or after swallowing of UCA. With the advantages of no radiation and bedside availability, swallow-CEUS may become a method of choice in confirmation of the diagnosis of ZD, especially when ZD is suspected on conventional ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier

  19. Acceptability of oral iodinated contrast media: a head-to-head comparison of four media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan-Soo, E; McCoubrie, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the palatability of iodinated oral contrast media commonly used in abdominopelvic CT and CT colonography (CTC). Methods: 80 volunteers assessed the palatability of a 20-ml sample of a standard 30 mg ml−1 dilution of Omnipaque® (iohexol; GE Healthcare, Cork, Ireland), Telebrix® (meglumine ioxithalamate; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France), Gastromiro® (iopamidol; Bracco, High Wycombe, UK) and Gastrografin® (sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate; Bayer, Newbury, UK) in a computer-generated random order. Results: Gastrografin is rated significantly less palatable than the remaining media (pcontrast media than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, which has potential implications in compliance with both abdominopelvic CT and CTC. PMID:23564884

  20. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel technology: microfluidic devices for microbubble ultrasound contrast agent generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hangyu; Chen, Junfang; Chen, Chuanpin

    2016-09-01

    Microbubbles are used as ultrasound contrast agents, which enhance ultrasound imaging techniques. In addition, microbubbles currently show promise in disease therapeutics. Microfluidic devices have increased the ability to produce microbubbles with precise size, and high monodispersity compared to microbubbles created using traditional methods. This paper will review several variations in microfluidic device structures used to produce microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agents. Microfluidic device structures include T-junction, and axisymmetric and asymmetric flow-focusing. These devices have made it possible to produce microbubbles that can enter the vascular space; these microbubbles must be less than 10 μm in diameter and have high monodispersity. For different demands of microbubbles production rate, asymmetric flow-focusing devices were divided into individual and integrated devices. In addition, asymmetric flow-focusing devices can produce double layer and multilayer microbubbles loaded with drug or biological components. Details on the mechanisms of both bubble formation and device structures are provided. Finally, microfluidically produced microbubble acoustic responses, microbubble stability, and microbubble use in ultrasound imaging are discussed.

  2. Selecting appropriate gastroenteric contrast media for diagnostic fluoroscopic imaging in infants and children: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael J; Talmadge, Jennifer M; MacDougall, Robert D; Kleinman, Patricia L; Taylor, George A; Buonomo, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    In our experience, questions about the appropriate use of enteric contrast media for pediatric fluoroscopic studies are common. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of enteric contrast media used for pediatric fluoroscopy, highlighting the routine use of these media at a large tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital.

  3. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, G; Bosch, J G; Ten Kate, G L; De Jong, N; Van der Steen, A F W; Shamdasani, V; Entrekin, R

    2012-01-01

    Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image. (fast track communication)

  4. Evaluation of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath using diagnostic ultrasound and contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the normal anatomy of the digital flexor tendon sheath using contrast radiography and diagnostic ultrasound. Iodinated contrast medium was injected into eight cadaver limbs and the limbs immediately frozen. Lateromedial and dorsopalmar/plantar radiographs were made. These limps were then cut transversely and proximal to distal radiographs of each slab were made. This cross sectional contrast methodology allowed the visualization of the relative size and shape of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons as well as the potential space taken by effusions of the digital flexor tendon sheath. The second part of the study used twelve live animals with normal digital flexor tendon sheaths. Ultrasonographic measurement of the structures of the digital flexor tendon sheath at each level were compiled. This documented the ability of diagnostic ultrasound to image: 1) the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, 2) the proximal and distal ring of the manica flexoria, 3) the straight and oblique sesamoidean ligaments, and 4) the mesotendinous attachments to the superficial and deep flexor tendons. Iodinated contrast medium was then injected into the digital flexor tendon sheath and the ultrasonography repeated. These images were compared with those obtained from contrast radiography and prosections of twenty normal limbs. The iodinated contrast medium enhanced sonographic imaging of the structures of the digital tendon sheath, particularly the abaxial borders of the superficial digital flexor tendon branches and the mesotendinous attachments to the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons

  5. Gadolinium-containing contrast media for radiographic examinations: a position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Almen, Torsten; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that gadolinium-based contrast media could be used for radiological examinations in patients with significant renal impairment, previous severe generalized reaction to iodinated contrast media or thyroid disease about to undergo radioactive iodine treatment; however, the indications for and risks of using gadolinium agents in this way are not well known; hence, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology reviewed the literature to issue a position paper on this subject. A comprehensive literature review was performed and the resulting report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy, June 2002. Review of the literature indicates that according to experimental data on animals gadolinium-based contrast media have more nephrotoxic potential than iodinated contrast media in equivalent X-ray attenuating doses; therefore, gadolinium-based contrast media should not replace iodinated contrast media in patients with renal insufficiency for radiographic examinations. For patients with previous severe generalized reactions to iodinated contrast media, and in patients about to undergo thyroid treatment with radioactive iodine gadolinium-based contrast media in approved intravenous doses, up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight will not give diagnostic radiographic information in most cases. Gadolinium-based contrast media are not approved for radiographic examinations. (orig.)

  6. Early Detection of Prostate Cancer with New Nanoparticle Based UltrasoundContrast Agents Targeted to PSMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    in learning and careers in science, technology, and the humanities. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish...Report.” Describe how results from the project made an impact, or are likely to make an impact, beyond the bounds of science, engineering , and the...Lipid Acyl Chain Length Improves Stability of Nano-sized Ultrasound Contrast Agents In Vitro. Biomedical Engineering Society 2017 meeting. Under review

  7. Aptamer-crosslinked microbubbles: smart contrast agents for thrombin-activated ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Matthew A; Mattrey, Robert F; Esener, Sadik C; Cha, Jennifer N; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2012-11-27

    Thrombosis, or malignant blood clotting, is associated with numerous cardiovascular diseases and cancers. A microbubble contrast agent is presented that produces ultrasound harmonic signal only when exposed to elevated thrombin levels. Initially silent microbubbles are activated in the presence of both thrombin-spiked and freshly clotting blood in three minutes with detection limits of 20 nM thrombin and 2 aM microbubbles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Analysis of Achilles tendon vascularity with second generation Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Genovese , Eugenio; Ronga , Mario; Recaldini , Chiara; Fontana , Federico; Callegari , Leonardo; Fugazzola , Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To compare morphological and power Doppler features of the Achilles tendon and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) behaviour between asymptomatic athletes and athletes who had undergone surgery for repair of an Achilles tendon rupture. Materials and Methods: 24 athletes were divided in two groups (A and B). Group A included 14 patients with a median age of 32 years (range 27 to 47 years) who had undergone surgical repair for unilateral Achilles tendon ...

  9. Relationship between cavitation and loss of echogenicity from ultrasound contrast agents

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Raymond, Jason L; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have the potential to nucleate cavitation and promote both beneficial and deleterious bioeffects in vivo. Previous studies have elucidated the pulse-duration dependent pressure amplitude threshold for rapid loss of echogenicity due to UCA fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated that UCA fragmentation was concomitant with inertial cavitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stable and inertial cavitation thresholds ...

  10. Contrast amplification of the liver parenchyma in the computer tomogram by using intravenous and peroral biliary contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justich, E.; Sager, W.D.; Dietrich, G.; Fotter, R.; Nedden, D. zur; Innsbruck Univ.

    1980-01-01

    If intravenous, biliary contrast media are used, a slight albeit specific enhancement of contrast of the liver parenchyma occurs with the applied dosage, which can be utilised in individual cases, for example for identifying isodense lesions. Contrast amplification by the peroral cholegraphic agent under examination, is insufficient for use in computer tomography of the liver. The use of biliary contrast media usually enables very good visualisation of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Attention is drawn to the possibility of pharmakokinetic studies by means of computer tomography. (orig.) [de

  11. Pregnancy outcome after hystero-salpingo-contrast-sonography (HyCoSy versus hysterosalpingography (HSG using different contrast media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Siam

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The pregnancy rates after performing HyCoSy using the proposed homogenously mixed saline and water are nearly the same as those following HSG using different contrast media with inherent advantage of avoiding exposure to radiation.

  12. The feasibility of a targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying genes and cell-penetrating peptides to hypoxic HUVEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ju; Wang Zhigang; Ren Jianli; Zhang Qingfeng; Liu Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare an anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying genes and cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) and to investigate its feasibility of delivery to hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods: Anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying a green fluorescent protein gene (pEGFP-N1) and CPP was prepared by mechanical vibration and carbodiimide techniques. The appearance, distribution, concentration and diameter of the ultrasound contrast agent were measured. The gene and CPP distribution on the agent was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The efficiency of the ultrasound contrast agent to carry the gene and CPP was investigated by fluorospectrophotometry. HUVEC were cultured in vitro and hypoxic HUVEC were prepared using hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hypoxic HUVEC were randomly assigned targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for transfection. The transfection effect of green fluorescent protein in the two groups was observed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. T-test and linear correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The average diameter of anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agents carrying gene and CPP was (2.15 ±0.36) μm and the concentration was (1.58 ± 0.23) × 10 7 /ml.The results of CLSM showed that gene and CPP were distributed on the shell of the agent. The gene encapsulation efficiency was 28% (y=0.932x-0.09, r=0.993, P<0.05), and the CPP encapsulation efficiency was 25% (y=5.875x-0.81, r=0.987, P<0.05). EGFP expression was observed using fluorescence microscopy in targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents. The average transfection efficiencies of targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents were (18.74 ± 0.47) % and (15.34 ± 0.22) % after 24 h (t=10.923, P<0.001). Conclusions: The in vitro studies

  13. Contrast timing in computed tomography: Effect of different contrast media concentrations on bolus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Jost, Gregor; Seidensticker, Peter; Kuhl, Christiane; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of low-osmolar, monomeric contrast media with different iodine concentrations on bolus shape in aortic CT angiography. Materials and methods: Repeated sequential computed tomography scanning of the descending aorta of eight beagle dogs (5 male, 12.7 ± 3.1 kg) was performed without table movement with a standardized CT scan protocol. Iopromide 300 (300 mg I/mL), iopromide 370 (370 mg I/mL) and iomeprol 400 (400 mg I/mL) were administered via a foreleg vein with an identical iodine delivery rate of 1.2 g I/s and a total iodine dose of 300 mg I/kg body weight. Time-enhancement curves were computed and analyzed. Results: Iopromide 300 showed the highest peak enhancement (445.2 ± 89.1 HU), steepest up-slope (104.2 ± 17.5 HU/s) and smallest full width at half maximum (FWHM; 5.8 ± 1.0 s). Peak enhancement, duration of FWHM, enhancement at FWHM and up-slope differed significantly between iopromide 300 and iomeprol 400 (p 0.05). Conclusions: Low viscous iopromide 300 results in a better defined bolus with a significantly higher peak enhancement, steeper up-slope and smaller FWHM when compared to iomeprol 400. These characteristics potentially affect contrast timing.

  14. Contrast Media for X-ray and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Development, Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Thomas; Lawaczeck, Rüdiger; Taupitz, Matthias; Jost, Gregor; Lohrke, Jessica; Sieber, Martin A; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 120 years, the extensive advances in medical imaging allowed enhanced diagnosis and therapy of many diseases and thereby improved the quality of life of many patient generations. From the beginning, all technical solutions and imaging procedures were combined with dedicated pharmaceutical developments of contrast media, to further enhance the visualization of morphology and physiology. This symbiosis of imaging hardware and contrast media development was of high importance for the development of modern clinical radiology. Today, all available clinically approved contrast media fulfill the highest requirements for clinical safety and efficacy. All new concepts to increase the efficacy of contrast media have also to consider the high clinical safety standards and cost of goods of current marketed contrast media. Nevertheless, diagnostic imaging will contribute significantly to the progresses in medicine, and new contrast media developments are mandatory to address the medical needs of the future.

  15. Accuracy of MRI-compatible contrast media injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saake, M; Wuest, W; Becker, S; Uder, M; Janka, R

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the exactness of MRI-compatible contrast media (CM) injectors in an experimental setup and clinical use. Ejected fluid volumes and amounts of CM were quantified for single and double piston injections. The focus was on small volumes, as used in pediatric examination and test-bolus measurements. Samples were collected before and after clinical MRI scans and amounts of CM were measured. For single piston injections the volume differences were minimal (mean difference 0.01  ml). For double piston injections the volume of the first injection was decreased (mean 20.74  ml, target 21.00  ml, p pistons of modern CM injectors work exactly. However, for small CM volumes the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value in both directions. Influence factors are an incomplete elimination of air and exchange processes between the CM and saline chaser in the injection system. • In MRI examinations of children and test-bolus measurements, small amounts of CM are used. • The accuracy of single piston injections is high. • In double piston injections the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions—A comparison of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Zhihui; Li, Ying; Yan, Kun; Wu, Wei; Yin, Shanshan; Yang, Wei; Xing, Baocai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparison with conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in solid pancreatic lesions. Method: Ninety patients with solid pancreatic focal lesions were enrolled, including 36 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, 28 cases of pancreatitis, 6 cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, 12 cases of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas, 6 cases of pancreatic metastases, 1 case of cavernous hemolymphangioma and 1 case of lymphoma. US and CEUS were applied respectively for the diagnosis of a total of 90 cases of solid pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic results were scored on a 5-point scale. Results of CEUS were compared with CECT. Results: (1) 3-score cases (undetermined) diagnosed by CEUS were obviously fewer than that of US, while the number of 1-score (definitely benign) and 5-score (definitely malignant) cases diagnosed by CEUS was significantly more than that of US. There was a significant difference in the distribution of final scores using the two methods (p < 0.001). The overall diagnostic accuracies of the 90 cases for CEUS and US were 83.33% and 44.44%, respectively, which indicated an obvious advantage for CEUS (p < 0.001). (2) The diagnostic consistency among three ultrasound doctors: the kappa values calculated for US were 0.537, 0.444 and 0.525, compared with 0.748, 0.645 and 0.795 for CEUS. The interobserver agreement for CEUS was higher than that for US. (3) The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma with CEUS and CECT were 91.7% and 97.2%, 87.0% and 88.9%, and 88.9% and 92.2%, respectively, while for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, the corresponding indices were 82.1% and 67.9%, 91.9% and 100%, and 88.9% and 90%, respectively, showing no significant differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: CEUS has obvious superiority over conventional US in the general diagnostic accuracy of solid pancreatic lesions and in the

  17. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions—A comparison of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhihui, E-mail: fanzhihui_1026@163.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Li, Ying, E-mail: 18901033676@126.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Radiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Yan, Kun, E-mail: ydbz@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wuwei@163.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Yin, Shanshan, E-mail: yshshmd@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Yang, Wei, E-mail: weiwei02032001@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); Xing, Baocai, E-mail: xinbaocai88@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Department of Hepatic Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, No. 52, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100142 (China); and others

    2013-09-15

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparison with conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in solid pancreatic lesions. Method: Ninety patients with solid pancreatic focal lesions were enrolled, including 36 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, 28 cases of pancreatitis, 6 cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, 12 cases of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas, 6 cases of pancreatic metastases, 1 case of cavernous hemolymphangioma and 1 case of lymphoma. US and CEUS were applied respectively for the diagnosis of a total of 90 cases of solid pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic results were scored on a 5-point scale. Results of CEUS were compared with CECT. Results: (1) 3-score cases (undetermined) diagnosed by CEUS were obviously fewer than that of US, while the number of 1-score (definitely benign) and 5-score (definitely malignant) cases diagnosed by CEUS was significantly more than that of US. There was a significant difference in the distribution of final scores using the two methods (p < 0.001). The overall diagnostic accuracies of the 90 cases for CEUS and US were 83.33% and 44.44%, respectively, which indicated an obvious advantage for CEUS (p < 0.001). (2) The diagnostic consistency among three ultrasound doctors: the kappa values calculated for US were 0.537, 0.444 and 0.525, compared with 0.748, 0.645 and 0.795 for CEUS. The interobserver agreement for CEUS was higher than that for US. (3) The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma with CEUS and CECT were 91.7% and 97.2%, 87.0% and 88.9%, and 88.9% and 92.2%, respectively, while for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, the corresponding indices were 82.1% and 67.9%, 91.9% and 100%, and 88.9% and 90%, respectively, showing no significant differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: CEUS has obvious superiority over conventional US in the general diagnostic accuracy of solid pancreatic lesions and in the

  18. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  19. A case report on a severe anaphylaxis reaction to Gadolinium-based MR contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Juil; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Lee, Whal; Kang, Hye Ryun; Choi, Young Hun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Acute hypersensitivity reactions to gadolinium-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media have been shown to have a much lower incidence and they are generally milder in terms of severity than acute adverse reactions associated with the use of iodinated contrast media for computed tomography scans. However, even though it is rare, a severe hypersensitivity reaction to MR contrast media can occur. Here we present the case of a 66-year-old woman who experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction after administration of gadolinium-based contrast media without a previous history of allergies.

  20. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation in inconspicuous hepatocellular carcinoma on B-mode ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Yun Soo; Shin, Seung Kak; Kwon, Oh Sang; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2017-11-01

    B-mode ultrasound (US) has difficulty targeting small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with poor conspicuity during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can improve visualization of small or inconspicuous HCCs. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of CEUS-guided RFA electrode insertion during the arterial phase in inconspicuous HCCs. Ninety-three treatment-naïve HCCs from 80 patients treated with RFA from August 2012 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-five HCCs from 65 patients underwent B-mode US-guided RFA, and 15 HCCs from 14 patients that were inconspicuous on B-mode US underwent CEUS-guided RFA during the arterial phase after injection of sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles (SonoVue®). Technical success was assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography within 1 week and 3 months after the procedure. The mean size of HCCs treated with CEUS-guided RFA was smaller than that of HCCs treated with B-mode US-guided RFA (1.17±0.36 vs. 1.63±0.55 cm, p=0.003). Technical success rates of CEUS-guided RFA within 1 week and 3 months were 100% (15/15) and 93.3% (14/15), respectively. Technical success rates of B-mode US-guided RFA were 97.3% (73/75) and 94.5% (69/73), respectively. CEUS-guided RFA is highly efficacious for ablation of very small and inconspicuous HCCs.

  1. Analysis of achilles tendon vascularity with second-generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Eugenio; Ronga, Mario; Recaldini, Chiara; Fontana, Federico; Callegari, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    To compare morphological, power Doppler, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of the Achilles tendon between asymptomatic athletes and athletes who had undergone surgical repair of a previous rupture. Twenty-four athletes were divided in two groups (A and B). Group A included 14 patients with a median age of 32 years (range 27 to 47 years) who had undergone surgical repair for unilateral Achilles tendon rupture. Group B (control group) included 10 subjects with a median age of 34 years (range 27 to 40 years) with no previous or present history of tendinopathy. All patients were evaluated with ultrasound, power Doppler, and CEUS with second-generation contrast agent. We studied the uninjured Achilles tendon in athletes of group A and either the left or the right Achilles tendon of the athletes in group B. CEUS showed a significantly greater ability to detect a greater number of vascular spots within the uninjured tendon of group A compared to group B (power Doppler ultrasound in the uninjured contralateral Achilles tendon. CEUS is useful to evaluate vascularity not detected by other imaging techniques. Vascularity in the uninjured tendon seems to be increased in patients who had a previous rupture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Goertz, David E.; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

  3. Detection of cavernous transformation of the portal vein by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Misun; Thimm, Matthew A; Guerrerio, Anthony L

    2018-06-01

    Cavernous transformation of the portal vein can be missed on color Doppler exam or arterial phase cross-sectional imaging due to their slow flow and delayed enhancement. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offers many advantages over other imaging techniques and can be used to successfully detect cavernous transformations of the portal vein. A 10-month-old female was followed for repeat episodes of hematemesis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA) and portal venography were performed. Color Doppler exam of the portal vein was performed followed by administration of Lumason, a microbubble US contrast agent. Magnetic resonance arteriogram, CTA, and color Doppler exam at the time of initial presentation was unremarkable without obvious vascular malformation within the limits of motion degraded exam. At 8-month follow-up, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a vascular malformation in the distal esophagus which was sclerosed. At 6 month after sclerosis of the lesion, portal venography revealed occlusion of the portal vein with extensive collateralization. Color Doppler revealed subtle hyperarterialization and periportal collaterals. CEUS following color Doppler exam demonstrated extensive enhancement of periportal collaterals. Repeat color Doppler after contrast administration demonstrated extensive Doppler signal in the collateral vessels, suggestive of cavernous transformation. We describe a case of cavernous transformation of the portal vein missed on initial color Doppler, CTA and MRA, but detected with contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique.

  4. Common and uncommon features of focal splenic lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasound: a pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavariz, Julia D., E-mail: julia.zavariz@hc.fm.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (HC/FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clínicas; Konstantatou, Eleni; Deganello Annamaria; Bosanac, Diana; Huang, Dean Y.; Sellars, Maria E.; Sidhu, Paul S. [Department of Radiology, King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    The characterization of focal splenic lesions by ultrasound can be quite challenging. The recent introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has come to play a valuable role in the field of imaging splenic pathologies, offering the possibility of an ionizing radiation-free investigation. Because CEUS has been incorporated into everyday clinical practice, malignant diseases such as focal lymphomatous infiltration, metastatic deposits, benign cysts, traumatic fractures, and hemangiomas can now be accurately depicted and characterized without the need for further imaging. More specifically, splenic traumatic fractures do not require additional imaging by computed tomography (with ionizing radiation exposure) for follow-up, because splenic fractures and their complications are safely imaged with CEUS. In the new era of CEUS, more patients benefit from radiation-free investigation of splenic pathologies with high diagnostic accuracy. (author)

  5. Nonlinear response of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles: From fundamentals to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Xu-Dong; Guo Xia-Sheng; Tu Juan; Zhang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Modelling and biomedical applications of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles have attracted a great deal of attention. In this review, we summarize a series of researches done in our group, including (i) the development of an all-in-one solution of characterizing coated bubble parameters based on the light scattering technique and flow cytometry; (ii) a novel bubble dynamic model that takes into consideration both nonlinear shell elasticity and viscosity to eliminate the dependences of bubble shell parameters on bubble size; (iii) the evaluation of UCA inertial cavitation threshold and its relationship with shell parameters; and (iv) the investigations of transfection efficiency and the reduction of cytotoxicity in gene delivery facilitated by UCAs excited by ultrasound exposures. (special topic)

  6. Alterations of serum potassium, serum magnesium and adenosine diphosphate due to various contrast media containing iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrberger, G.

    1979-01-01

    As an introduction of the chemical structure of contrast media is explained. Then follows a survey about the complication rates in examinations with intravascularly applicable iodine-containing contrast media. In the next part clinical symptoms and signs of general and localized contrast media incompatibility reactions, the contrast medium protein reaction and the relationship between allergic reaction and contrast medium are explained. It was tried to attribute the large amount of side-effects to one primary reaction. In this connection the three above-mentioned components were investigated. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Evaluation of adverse reactions to contrast media in the hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J-H; Kim, E-Y

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and analyse the characteristics of contrast media adverse reactions (CM-ARs) reported in a hospital. Methods: A retrospective review of CM-ARs from the electronic spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) report system between January 2011 and August 2012 was conducted. CM-ARs were evaluated in terms of causality, severity, preventability and affected organs. Also, agreement and correlation among the tools used to evaluate CM-ARs were analysed. Results: The overall reaction rate was 1.5% (n = 286). In total, 269 CM-ARs were identified. For ADR causality, 96.7% (n = 260) and 98.5% (n = 265) were evaluated as “probable” ADR using the Naranjo probability scale and the World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality categories, whereas 98.1% (n = 264) were evaluated as “certain” with Korean algorithm v. II. Of these, 91.4% (n = 246) were mild in severity and 96.7% (n = 260) were unpreventable. Most patients (n = 233, 86.7%) could be managed with observation and/or simple treatment. The most frequent reaction (n = 383, 79.5%) was dermatological. Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.667 (p < 0.01), and the agreement was 98.1% between the Naranjo scale and the World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre categories. No relationship was seen between CM-AR severity and gender or between in- and outpatients. Conclusion: In our study, most CM-ARs were mild and managed with simple treatment. However, as the number of patients undergoing CT procedures continues to increase, it is essential to identify and observe patients at risk for CM-ARs to prevent severe ADRs. Advances in knowledge: Continuous careful review of reporting and treatment protocols of CM-ARs is needed to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24191123

  8. Ionic and non-ionic contrast media used for contrast-enhanced computed tomography in experimental pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivisaari, L.; Nuutinen, P.; Lehtola, A.; Saari, A.; Pitkaeranta, P.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Lempinen, M.; Schroeder, T.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1988-01-01

    Contrast enhancement of the pancreas was studied in pigs using dynamic computed tomography in experimental oedematous and haemorrhagic/necrotizing pancreatitis during the first two minutes after injection of an intravenous bolus of non-ionic contrast medium (iohexol). The prospects of separating the two forms of the disease, known to be possible with ionic contrast media, were tested with a non-ionic contrast medium. In the oedematous form, contrast enhancement after 5 hours of the disease was significantly higher than in the haemorrhagic/necrotizing form. Contrast enhancement after 30 hours of disease tended to vary with the severity of the disease, showing that the course of oedematous pancreatitis is dynamic. Intermediate forms occur and follow-up studies are needed during the disease. A non-ionic contrast medium proved as good for separating the two forms of the disease in the early phase as were ionic contrast media. In severely ill patients, non-ionic contrast media should therefore be used. (orig.)

  9. Development of a platform for co-registered ultrasound and MR contrast imaging in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrana, Chaitanya; Bevan, Peter; Hudson, John; Pang, Ian; Burns, Peter; Plewes, Donald; Chopra, Rajiv, E-mail: rajiv.chopra@sri.utoronto.ca [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Imaging Research, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Ave., Toronto, ON, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2011-02-07

    Imaging of the microvasculature is often performed using contrast agents in combination with either ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Contrast agents are used to enhance medical imaging by highlighting microvascular properties and function. Dynamic signal changes arising from the passage of contrast agents through the microvasculature can be used to characterize different pathologies; however, comparisons across modalities are difficult due to differences in the interactions of contrast agents with the microvasculature. Better knowledge of the relationship of contrast enhancement patterns with both modalities could enable better characterization of tissue microvasculature. We developed a co-registration platform for multi-modal US and MR imaging using clinical imaging systems in order to study the relationship between US and MR contrast enhancement. A preliminary validation study was performed in phantoms to determine the registration accuracy of the platform. In phantoms, the in-plane registration accuracy was measured to be 0.2 {+-} 0.2 and 0.3 {+-} 0.2 mm, in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. The out-of-plane registration accuracy was estimated to be 0.5 mm {+-}0.1. Co-registered US and MR imaging was performed in a rabbit model to evaluate contrast kinetics in different tissue types after bolus injections of US and MR contrast agents. The arrival time of the contrast agent in the plane of imaging was relatively similar for both modalities. We studied three different tissue types: muscle, large vessels and fat. In US, the temporal kinetics of signal enhancement were not strongly dependent on tissue type. In MR, however, due to the different amounts of agent extravasation in each tissue type, tissue-specific contrast kinetics were observed. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing in vivo co-registered contrast US and MR imaging to study the relationships of the enhancement patterns with each modality.

  10. Development of a platform for co-registered ultrasound and MR contrast imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrana, Chaitanya; Bevan, Peter; Hudson, John; Pang, Ian; Burns, Peter; Plewes, Donald; Chopra, Rajiv

    2011-02-01

    Imaging of the microvasculature is often performed using contrast agents in combination with either ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Contrast agents are used to enhance medical imaging by highlighting microvascular properties and function. Dynamic signal changes arising from the passage of contrast agents through the microvasculature can be used to characterize different pathologies; however, comparisons across modalities are difficult due to differences in the interactions of contrast agents with the microvasculature. Better knowledge of the relationship of contrast enhancement patterns with both modalities could enable better characterization of tissue microvasculature. We developed a co-registration platform for multi-modal US and MR imaging using clinical imaging systems in order to study the relationship between US and MR contrast enhancement. A preliminary validation study was performed in phantoms to determine the registration accuracy of the platform. In phantoms, the in-plane registration accuracy was measured to be 0.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. The out-of-plane registration accuracy was estimated to be 0.5 mm ±0.1. Co-registered US and MR imaging was performed in a rabbit model to evaluate contrast kinetics in different tissue types after bolus injections of US and MR contrast agents. The arrival time of the contrast agent in the plane of imaging was relatively similar for both modalities. We studied three different tissue types: muscle, large vessels and fat. In US, the temporal kinetics of signal enhancement were not strongly dependent on tissue type. In MR, however, due to the different amounts of agent extravasation in each tissue type, tissue-specific contrast kinetics were observed. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing in vivo co-registered contrast US and MR imaging to study the relationships of the enhancement patterns with each modality.

  11. Hysteretic Nonlinearity of Sub-harmonic Emission from Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yuan-Yuan; Zhang Dong; Zheng Hai-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Sub-harmonic contrast imaging promises to improve ultrasound imaging quality by taking advantage of increased contrast to tissue signal. The aim of this study is to examine the hysteretic nonlinearity of sub-harmonic component emitted from microbubbles. Two kinds of microbubble solutions, i.e. Sonovue® and a self-developed contrast agent, are utilized in the study. The hysteretic curves for increasing and decreasing acoustic pressure are theoretically predicted by the Marmottant model and confirmed by measurements. The results reveal that for both microbubble solutions, the development of the rising ramp undergoes three stages, i.e. occurrence, growth and saturation; while hysteresis effect appears in the descending ramp. Sonovue® microbubbles exhibit better sub-harmonic performance over the self-developed UCAs microbubbles due to the difference of elastic properties of the shell. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia: diagnostic performance compared with contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Liu, Guang-Jian; Xu, Zuo-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Lu, Ming-De; Shen, Shun-Li

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the characterisation of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). CEUS was performed in 85 patients with 85 histologically proven FNHs. Enhancement, centrifugal filling, spoke-wheel arteries, feeding artery and central scarring were reviewed and correlated with lesion size or liver background. Independent factors for predicting FNH from other focal liver lesions (FLLs) were evaluated. Forty-seven FLLs with CECT were randomly selected for comparison of diagnostic performance with CEUS. Centrifugal filling was more common (P = 0.002) and the significant predictor (P = 0.003) in FNHs ≤3 cm. Lesion size or liver background has no significant influence on the detection rate of the spoke-wheel arteries and feeding artery (P > 0.05). Central scarring was found in 42.6 % of FNHs ≥3 cm (P = 0.000). The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity and specificity showed no significant differences between CEUS and CECT (P > 0.05), except that the sensitivity of CEUS was better for reader 1 (P = 0.041). CEUS is valuable in characterising centrifugal filling signs or spoke wheels in small FNHs and should be employed as the first-line imaging technique for diagnosis of FNH. (orig.)

  13. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-09-07

    The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups' results. Findings from RWC-TVS or DCBE were compared with histological results. The severity of experienced pain severity through RWC-TVS or DCBE was assessed by an analogue scale of 10 cm. In total, 110 in 198 women were confirmed to have endometriosis nodules in the bowel by laparoscopy as well as histopathology. For bowel endometriosis diagnosis, DCBE and RWC-TVS demonstrated sensitivities of 96.4% and 88.2%, specificities of 100% and 97.3%, positive prediction values of 100% and 98.0%, negative prediction values of 98.0% and 88.0%, accuracies of 98.0% and 92.4%, respectively. DCBE was related to more tolerance than RWC-TVS. RWC-TVS and DCBE demonstrated similar accuracies in the bowel endometriosis diagnosis; however, patients showed more tolerance for RWC-TVS than those with DCBE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of hepatocellular carcinoma not detected during the screening procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Mao, Feng; Dietrich, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Aim  The aim of this retrospective study is to report on the characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of primarily not detected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the screening procedure of patients at risk. Methods  Sixty-four patients with a finally solitary and histologically proven HCC not detected HCC during the screening procedure were retrospectively analyzed. Most of HCC lesions (90.6 %, 58/64) measured < 20 mm in diameter. All HCC lesions were not detected during the initial screening procedure but suspected using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The final gold standard was biopsy or surgery with histological examination. Results  On CEUS, 62/64 (96.8 %) of HCC were characterized as an obviously hyperenhanced lesion in arterial phase, and 41/64 (64.1 %) of HCC were characterized as hypoenhancing lesions in the portal venous and late phases. During the arterial phase of CEUS, 96.8 % of HCC displayed homogeneous hyperenhancement. Knowing the CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging findings, 45/64 (70.3 %) could have been detected using B-mode ultrasound (BMUS). Conclusion  BMUS as a screening procedure is generally accepted. Contrast-enhanced imaging modalities have improved detection and characterization of HCC. Homogeneous hyperenhancement during the arterial phase and mild washout are indicative for HCC in liver cirrhosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Radiofrequency ablation guided by contrast-enhanced ultrasound for hepatic malignancies: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Y.; Wang, W.-P.; Gan, Y.-H.; Huang, B.-J.; Ding, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be performed effectively in small hepatic malignancies that are invisible or poorly visualized at traditional grey-scale ultrasonography (US). Materials and methods: The institutional ethics committee approved the study, and all patients provided written informed consent before their enrolment. The study focused on 55 patients (43 men, 12 women, age 57.4 ± 10.9 years) with 60 hepatic lesions from May 2010 to March 2011. All lesions were treated with multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA). During the RFA procedure, with the injection of ultrasound contrast agent (sulphur hexafluoride; SonoVue, Bracco Imaging Spa, Milan, Italy), RFA was conducted under CEUS guidance when the optimal depiction of a lesion was obtained. Artificial pleural effusions were used in those cases obstructed by the lungs. Twenty-four hours after RFA, contrast-enhanced MRI was used as the reference standard to evaluate the primary effectiveness rate and complete tumour necrosis. The follow-up time was 12–24 months (median 15 months). Results: Among 60 hepatic malignancies, CEUS detected 57 lesions (95%), which was higher than that at US (26.6%). Artificial pleural effusions were performed in three cases, resulting in the detection of three additional lesions. The insertion of RFA electrodes was monitored by CEUS in all lesions. Immediately after RFA, complete tumour necrosis were achieved in all 60 lesions as apparent at MRI, for a primary effectiveness rate of 100%. Conclusion: CEUS-guided RFA is a promising technique for targeting and improving the efficiency of treatment of hepatic malignancies. - Highlights: • CEUS guided RFA improved the detectability of hepatic malignancies indistinctive on gray-scale ultrasound. • Pre-operation CEUS helped localization of indistinctive hepatic malignancies. • CEUS guided RFA of hepatic malignancies achieved a more complete ablation

  16. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  17. Hilar biliary neurofibroma without neurofibromatosis: case report with contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huan-Ling; Chen, Li-da; Wang, Zhu; Huang, Yang; Liu, Jin-Ya; Shan, Quan-Yuan; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-de; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Solitary neurofibroma located in the hilum of the liver is extremely rare, particularly without neurofibromatosis. We herein report a case of hilar biliary neurofibroma without signs of von Recklinghausen's disease. A 36-year-old man was admitted to our department with progressive jaundice. The case was diagnosed as hilar cholangiocarcinoma based on preoperative imaging. The patient consequently received a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and was confirmed with neurofibroma pathologically. This is the first reported imaging finding of hilar biliary neurofibroma using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of biliary tumors.

  18. The significance of the allergy history in the use of intravenous X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Kroczek, U.

    1986-01-01

    A restrospective study correlating allergy histories and reactions to X-ray contrast media was performed with a study group containing 519 patients receiving intravenous and infusion cholangiograms and 827 patients receiving intravenous and infusion pyelograms. Reactions against X-ray contrast media were observed significantly more frequently among patients with a positive allergy history independent of the suspected allergy (p [de

  19. Correlation Between Bile Reflux Gastritis and Biliary Excreted Contrast Media in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.

  20. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  1. Contrast media effect on interleukin-2 levels in human plasma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolov, Yu.K.; Borsukova, N.M.; Shimanovskij, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    As shown in the study of bilignost, iodamide and triombrast action on interleukin-2 (IL-2) level in human plasma in vitro, these contrast media (2.5x10 -2 -2.5x10 -4 M) elevate IL-2 content in blood plasma of sensitive to contrast media subjects in dose-dependent manner

  2. Self-demodulation effect on subharmonic response of ultrasound contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeichin, V.; Faez, T.; Needles, A.; Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; de Jong, N.

    2012-03-01

    In this work the use of the self-demodulation (S-D) signal as a mean of microbubble excitation at the subharmonic (SH) frequency to enhance the SH emission of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) is studied. SH emission from the UCA is of interest since it is produced only by the UCA and is free of the artifacts produced in harmonic imaging modes. The S-D wave is a low-frequency signal produced by nonlinear propagation of an ultrasound wave in the medium. Single element transducer experiments and numerical simulations were conducted at 10 MHz to study the effect of the S-D signal on the SH response of the UCA by modifying the envelope of the excitation bursts. For 6 and 20 transmitted cycles, the SH response is increased up to 25 dB and 22 dB because of the S-D stimulation for a burst with a rectangular envelope compared with a Gaussian envelope burst. Such optimized excitations were used in an array-based micro-ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, VisualSonics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada) at 18 MHz for in vitro validation of SH imaging. This study suggests that a suitable design of the envelope of the transmit excitation to generate a S-D signal at the SH frequency can enhance the SH emission of UCA and real-time SH imaging is feasible with shorter transmit burst (6- cycle) and low acoustic pressure (~150 KPa) at high frequencies (>15 MHz).

  3. Comparison of the image quality of intravenous urograms using low-osmolar contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.; Howard, J.; Foord, K.D.; Cumberland, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Almost equivalent, intravenous iodine doses of the three new low-osmolar contrast media, ioxaglate (Hexabrix), iopamidol (Niopam) and iohexol (Omnipaque) have been compared for image quality on the intravenous urogram. Generally good radiographic images were obtained. Iohexol gave better results for the nephrogram and pelvicalyceal distension compared with the other contrast media, but only the nephrogram results were statistically significant. Pyelographic density and ureteric distension and density were similar with all three contrast media. In patients where low-osmolality contrast media need to be used for intravenous urography, we suggest that iohexol gives the best radiographic images. Other factors, such as cost and the relative incidence of side-effects of the low-osmolar contrast media also need to be taken into consideration. (author)

  4. Criteria for choice and use of contrast media in intra-arterial D.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla-Palma, L.; Stacul, F.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the optimal characteristics of contrast media for use in intra-arterial DSA. 209 injections in 108 patients were evaluated, most of them in the abdominal and peripheral regions. In order to decrease contrast media osmolarity and obtain an adequate mixing with blood, contrast media with low iodine concentration were injected using the same volumes and flow rates of conventional arteriography. Good results were obtained with ionic contrast media, 100 and 150 mgI/ml. depending on the area investigated. The low concentrations allowed the use of ionic agents with an osmolarity very close to that of the non ionic contrast media: the pain has been eliminated and the heat sensation reduced. Furthermore the comparison with the cost of nonionic agents shows a great saving. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy.

  6. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Yoon, Tae Jong; Yoon, Young Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy

  7. Correlation between image quality of CT scan and amount of intravenous contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyo; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    A blind, comparative clinical study was performed prospectively to examine the correlation between image quality of CT scan in terms of contrast enhancement effect and amount of intravenous contrast media. A total of 357 patients were randomized into two groups. Ionic high-osmolality contrast media (68% meglumine ioglicate) was administered intravenously as 100 ml bolus in one group and as 50 ml bolus in the other group. Statistically significant differences of image quality were found in CT scans of the brain, head and neck, chest and abdomen (p 0.05). We suggest that amount of contrast media may be reduced in pelvis CT without significant degradation of image quality

  8. Usefulness of enteral contrast media in MR evaluation of pelvic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the value of enteral contrast media for the evaluation of pelvic masses by MR imaging. Between April and July 1998, 16 women with pelvic masses were examined by MRI. The origin of the lesion was the ovary in twelve cases, the uterus in three, and the sigmoid in one. Using a 1.5T scanner(Magnetom Vision, Siemens), T1-weighted axial spin echo(SE), T2-weighted turbo spin echo(TSE), two dimensional fast low-angle shot(FLASH 2D), and half-Fourier TSE(HASTE) images were obtained in all patients after the administration of Magnevist Enteral (Shering, Berlin, Germany). In each MR imagine sequence, distinction between the lesion and adjacent bowel (1, not distinguished; 2, partly distinguished; 3, clearly distinguished), artifact (0, absent; 1, mild; 2, severe), image quality (1, poor; 2, fair; 3, good), were compared before and after the use of enteral contrast media. Changes in MRI impression after the use of enteral contrast media were also evaluated. Two radiologists reached a consensus after reviewing the images. Statistical significance was determined by Wilcoxon's signed ranked test. For distinguishing lesions, SE T1WI and FLASH 2D with enteral contrast media were significantly superior to SE T1WI without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). With regard to image quality, FLASH 2D and HASTE, both with enteral contrast media, were significantly superior to SE T1WI and TSE T2WI, respectively, both without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). Artefacts were more frequently found after the application of enteral contrast media in conventional sequences but were not present in breathhold sequences. In two patients, MRI impression changed after the application of enteral contrast media. In a limited number of cases, enteral contrast media improved lesion detection, image quality and diagnostic accuracy when breathhold fast MR imaging was applied

  9. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Judith A.W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Northern General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents. (orig.)

  10. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Judith A.W.; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2005-01-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents. (orig.)

  11. Survey of the pharmacology of non-ionic X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnheim, K.

    1986-01-01

    The non-ionic X-ray contrast media metrizamide, iopamidol, iohexol, and iopromide do not bind calcium and are less hyperosmolar than the conventional ionic contrast media, for instance amidotrizoate (diatrizoate), iothalamte, or ioglicate. Hence the use of non-ionic contrast media is associated with less undesirable side-effects that are attributable to hypertonicity such as an increase in circulating plasma volume, decreased deformability of red blood cells, damage of vascular endothelium with consequent activation of blood coagulation, the complement system and fibrinolysis, increased release of bradykinin and histamine, cardiac arrhythimas, diuresis, vasodilation and decreased blood pressure, pain and heat sensation. Because of less dilution the quality of imaging is also better. According to the intravenous LD 50 in experimental animals the acute toxicity of non-ionic contrast media is lower than that of ionic media. With respect to contrast quality and the rate of side-effects tha various non-ionic contrast media appear to be equivalent. Despite their higher price and higher viscosity it is probable that the non-ionic contrast media will replace the classical ionic media, especially in angio- and myelography. (Author)

  12. Prospective study of ultrasound with perflutrene contrast compared to magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Schmillevitch

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:The incidence of hepatic hemangiomas ranges from 0.4% to 20% in the general population. Conventional ultrasound is usually the first diagnostic method to identify these hemangiomas, typically as an incidental finding. Ultrasonography with second generation contrast materials is being used in various areas of hepatology, yielding similar results to those obtained with computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between ultrasound with perflutrene contrast and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. METHODS: A total of 37 patients were prospectively examined between January 2006 and August 2008. A total of 57 hepatic nodules were documented in this group as incidental findings on routine ultrasound exams. The 37 patients were administered perflutrene contrast without adverse reactions, and were all submitted to magnetic resonance exams. RESULTS: Conventional ultrasound identified 15 patients with nodules typical of hemangiomas and 22 patients with other nodules. In 35 patients, the contrast characteristics were consistent with hepatic hemangiomas. CONCLUSION: Agreement between the data obtained from ultrasound with contrast and magnetic resonance was 94.5%. In discordant cases, the magnetic resonance diagnosis prevailed. In the case which presented indeterminate findings on contrast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance was repeated after 3 months, confirming the diagnosis of a hepatic hemangioma. A biopsy was performed on the suspected malignant nodule which also confirmed the presence of a hepatic hemangioma. Ultrasonography with contrast has the advantages of being more accessible to the public at large and lower cost than magnetic resonance. The results of our study highlight the need for a new protocol in hepatic nodules incidentally identified on conventional ultrasonography. In the case of typical hemangiomas

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosis of prostate cancer and kidney lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitterberger, Michael; Pelzer, Alexandre; Colleselli, Daniela; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes; Pallwein, Leo; Aigner, Friedrich; Gradl, Johann; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review: Conventional ultrasonography of both, kidney and prostate, is limited due to the poor contrast of B-mode imaging for parenchymal disease and limited sensitivity of colour Doppler for the detection of capillaries and deep pedicular vessels. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) overcomes these limitations. Recent findings: CEUS investigates the blood flow of the prostate, allows for prostate cancer visualization and for targeted biopsies. Comparisons between systematic and CEUS-targeted biopsies have shown that the targeted approach detects more cancers with a lower number of biopsy cores and with higher Gleason scores compared with the systematic approach. Also the kidney offers promising applications as CEUS improves the detection of abnormal microvascular and macrovascular disorders. Summary: In recent literature CEUS has shown its value for diagnosis of both, prostate cancer and kidney lesions. This paper describes recent improvements and future perspectives of CEUS

  14. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound imaging in ablation therapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2009-12-31

    The success rate of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on correct targeting via an imaging technique. However, RF electrode insertion is not completely accurate for residual HCC nodules because B-mode ultrasound (US), color Doppler, and power Doppler US findings cannot adequately differentiate between treated and viable residual tumor tissue. Electrode insertion is also difficult when we must identify the true HCC nodule among many large regenerated nodules in cirrhotic liver. Two breakthroughs in the field of US technology, harmonic imaging and the development of second-generation contrast agents, have recently been described and have demonstrated the potential to dramatically broaden the scope of US diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Contrast-enhanced harmonic US imaging with an intravenous contrast agent can evaluate small hypervascular HCC even when B-mode US cannot adequately characterize tumor. Therefore, contrast-enhanced harmonic US can facilitate RF ablation electrode placement in hypervascular HCC, which is poorly depicted by B-mode US. The use of contrast-enhanced harmonic US in ablation therapy for liver cancer is an efficient approach.

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of active bleeding associated with hepatic and splenic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, F; Tang, J; Luo, Y; Li, Z; Meng, X; Zhu, Z; Li, T

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging of active bleeding from hepatic and splenic trauma. Three hundred and ninety-two patients with liver or/and spleen trauma (179 liver and 217 spleen injuries), who underwent CEUS examinations following contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), were enrolled in this retrospective study over a period of >4 years. CEUS detected contrast medium extravasation or pooling in 16% (63/396) of liver or spleen lesions in 61 patients, which was confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT. Special attention was paid to observing the presence, location, and characteristics of the extravasated or pooled contrast medium. The CEUS detection rate for active bleeding was not different from that of contrast-enhanced CT (p=0.333). Information from surgery, minimally invasive treatment and conservative treatment was used as reference standard, and the sensitivities of the two techniques were not different (p=0.122). Of 63 lesions in 61 patients, CEUS showed that 74.6% (47/63) (21 liver lesions and 26 spleen lesions) presented contrast medium extravasation or pooling, both in the organ and out the capsule, in 14.3% (9/63) and only outside the capsule in 11.1% (7/63). CEUS imaging of active bleeding from hepatic and splenic trauma presented various characteristics, and the sizes and shapes of the active bleeding due to contrast medium extravasation or pooling were variable. CEUS can show the active bleeding associated with hepatic and splenic trauma with various imaging characteristics, thus making it possible to diagnose active bleeding using CEUS.

  16. Hydrogel based tissue mimicking phantom for in-vitro ultrasound contrast agents studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Sergio; Distante, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound medical imaging (UMI) is the most widely used image analysis technique, and often requires advanced in-vitro set up to perform morphological and functional investigations. These studies are based on contrast properties both related to tissue structure and injectable contrast agents (CA). In this work, we present a three-dimensional structure composed of two different hydrogels reassembly the microvascular network of a human tissue. This phantom was particularly suitable for the echocontrastographic measurements in human microvascular system. This phantom has been characterized to present the acoustic properties of an animal liver, that is, acoustic impedance (Z) and attenuation coefficient (AC), in UMI signal analysis in particular; the two different hydrogels have been selected to simulate the target organ and the acoustic properties of the vascular system. The two hydrogels were prepared starting from cellulose derivatives to simulating the target organ parenchyma and using a PEG-diacrylate to reproduce the vascular system. Moreover, harmonic analysis was performed on the hydrogel mimicking the liver parenchyma hydrogel to evaluate the ultrasound (US) distortion during echographic measurement. The phantom was employed in the characterization of an experimental US CA. Perfect agreement was found when comparing the hydrogel acoustical properties materials with the corresponding living reference tissues (i.e., vascular and parenchimal tissue).

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of primary hepatic angiosarcoma: A pitfall of non-enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Lv, Ke; Chang, Xiao-Yan; Xia, Yu; Yang, Zhi-Ying; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Tan, Li; Li, Jian-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. ► PHA appeared similar peripheral enhancement pattern in our series. ► Non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA unexpectedly demonstrated non-enhancement on CEUS. ► It may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. ► This interesting finding warrants further investigations, particularly on intratumoral hemodynamics. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA). Methods: The sonographic findings and CEUS images of PHA in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In our study, 3 cases of PHA (2 multiple nodules and 1 solitary mass) showed similar enhancement pattern on CEUS, characterized by remarkable central non-enhancement and peripheral irregular enhancement in the arterial and portal phase, and complete wash-out in the late phase. Furthermore, we unexpectedly found that abundant neoplastic tissues were present in the central area of non-enhancement on pathological evaluation. Based on literature review, we supposed that the unusual finding may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. Conclusion: CEUS could well depict PHA with some common features, which may provide valuable clues in diagnosis of this rare disease. And non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA could also demonstrate non-enhancement on CEUS, which warrant further investigations

  18. Assessment of renal perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: Preliminary results in early diabetic nephropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Lin, Pan; Fan, Peili; Mao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in quantitative evaluation of renal cortex perfusion in patients suspected of early diabetic nephropathies (DN), with the estimated GFR (MDRD equation) as the gold standard. The study protocol was approved by the hospital review board; each patient gave written informed consent. Our study included 46 cases (21 males and 25 females, mean age 55.6 ± 4.14 years) of clinical confirmed early DN patients. After intravenous bolus injection of 1 ml sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles of ultrasound contrast agent, real time CEUS of renal cortex was performed successively using a 2-5 MHz convex probe. Time-intensity curves (TICs) and quantitative indexes were created with Qlab software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to predict the diagnostic criteria of CEUS quantitative indexes, and their diagnostic efficiencies were compared with resistance index (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) of renal segmental arteries by chi square test. Our control group included forty-five healthy volunteers. Difference was considered statistically significant with P  0.05). CEUS might be helpful to improve early diagnosis of DN by quantitative analyses. AUC and DPI might be valuable quantitative indexes.

  19. Acoustic microstreaming due to an ultrasound contrast microbubble near a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobadersany, Nima; Sarkar, Kausik

    2017-11-01

    In an ultrasound field, in addition to the sinusoidal motion of fluid particles, particles experience a steady streaming velocity due to nonlinear second order effects. Here, we have simulated the microstreaming flow near a plane rigid wall caused by the pulsations of contrast microbubbles. Although these microbubbles were initially developed as a contrast enhancing agents for ultrasound imaging, they generate additional therapeutic effects that can be harnessed for targeted drug delivery or blood brain barrier (BBB) opening. The microbubbles have a gas core coated with a stabilizing layer of lipids or proteins. We use analytical models as well as boundary element (BEM) simulation to simulate the flow around these bubbles implementing interfacial rheology models for the coating. The microstreaming flow is characterized by two wall bounded vortices. The size of the vortices decreases with the decrease of the separation from the wall. The vortex-induced shear stress is simulated and analyzed as a function of excitation parameters and geometry. These microstreaming shear stress plays a critical role in increasing the membrane permeability facilitating drug delivery or rupturing biological tissues.

  20. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing of focal spleen lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoling; Yu Jie; Liang Ping; Liu Fangyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the features of focal spleen lesions (FSLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Materials and methods: CEUS with a blot injection of SonoVue was performed in 48 patients with 75 FSLs (median diameter 2.6 cm) and their perfusion characteristics were analyzed by using contrast pulse sequences (CPS) technique. Results: Among 19 malignant lesions (10 metastases, 7 lymphoma, 1 hemangiosarcoma, 1 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) and 56 benign lesion (23 hemangiomas, 14 cysts, 8 infarctions, 4 splenic ruptures, 3 tuberculosis, 2 abscess, 1 pseudoaneurysm, 1 lymphangioma), 25 benign lesions were demonstrated nonenhancement. For malignancy, 50.0% (5/10) metastases and 57.1% (4/7) lymphomas were showed hypoenhancement in the arterial phase, and 18 (94.7%) of malignant lesions were hypo-enhancement in the parenchymal phase. Among 31 benign lesions with enhancement, 27 (87.1%) were showed isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and 22 (71.0%) lesions were isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the parenchymal phase. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for FSLs were 91.1%, 95.0% and 92.0% for CEUS and 75.0%, 84.2% and 77.3% respectively, for the conventional baseline ultrasound (BUS). Conclusion: Real-time CEUS can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FSLs.

  1. Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parallel to the increased use of computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents are increasingly becoming a source of excess iodide. Iodinated contrast agents may induce thyroid dysfunction in exposed patients, especially in the presence of an underlying thyroid disease. Thus, an ordinary dose of the contrast used for the imaging, can induce hyper or hypothyroidism in a patient with subtle thyroid disease. This review will briefly discuss the physiology of iodine and the clinical evaluation of iodine induced thyroid dysfunction.

  2. Voiding Urosonography with Second-Generation Ultrasound Contrast Agent for Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux: First Local Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafina Kuzmanovska

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography using intravesical second generation ultrasound contrast agent could be recommend  as a valid alternative diagnostic modality for detecting vesicoureteral reflux and evaluation of the distal urinary tract in children, based on its radiation-free, highly efficacious, reliable, and safe characteristics.

  3. In Vivo Differentiation of Complementary Contrast Media at Dual-Energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongan, John; Rathnayake, Samira; Fu, Yanjun; Wang, Runtang; Jones, Ella F.; Gao, Dong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a commercially available clinical dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) scanner to differentiate the in vivo enhancement due to two simultaneously administered contrast media with complementary x-ray attenuation ratios. Materials and Methods: Approval from the institutional animal care and use committee was obtained, and National Institutes of Health guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were observed. Dual-energy CT was performed in a set of iodine and tungsten solution phantoms and in a rabbit in which iodinated intravenous and bismuth subsalicylate oral contrast media were administered. In addition, a second rabbit was studied after intravenous administration of iodinated and tungsten cluster contrast media. Images were processed to produce virtual monochromatic images that simulated the appearance of conventional single-energy scans, as well as material decomposition images that separate the attenuation due to each contrast medium. Results: Clear separation of each of the contrast media pairs was seen in the phantom and in both in vivo animal models. Separation of bowel lumen from vascular contrast medium allowed visualization of bowel wall enhancement that was obscured by intraluminal bowel contrast medium on conventional CT scans. Separation of two vascular contrast media in different vascular phases enabled acquisition of a perfectly coregistered CT angiogram and venous phase–enhanced CT scan simultaneously in a single examination. Conclusion: Commercially available clinical dual-energy CT scanners can help differentiate the enhancement of selected pairs of complementary contrast media in vivo. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22778447

  4. Improvements in gastric diagnosis by using high density contrast media with low viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toischer, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    In a retrospective clinical study, 150 unselected double contrast examinations of the stomach using conventional contrast media (100 g/100 ml barium sulphate) were compared with a similar number of examinations using a high density contrast medium of flow viscosity (250 g/100 ml barium sulphate). The high density contrast medium was distinctly better for demonstrating detail of the gastric mucosa. The uneveness of coating and instability of the older high density contrast media was observed in 15.5% of cases and, in no instance, did this make it impossible to reach a diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  5. A prospective study on the hemodynamic changes by intracardiac injection of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Young Sook; Lee, Hyun; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1983-01-01

    It has been known that alteration in blood pressure, heart rate and other systemic reactions can occur after introduction of contrast media into the vascular system. And the factory of these alterations are the sudden changes of the circulating blood volume, hypertonicity of the injected contrast media and adverse reactions to the contrast media. This prospective study included evaluations of the hemodynamic changes, adverse reactions and its relationship with sensitivity test and allergic history in 105 patients who had been performed angiocardiography during the period of 1 year from October, 1981 to September, 1982. The results were as follows: 1. 14 out of 105 patient showed minor reactions to contrast media such as nausea, vomiting , coughing, etc. There is no close relationship between adverse reaction and sensitivity test or previous allergic history. 2. In the group of right sided angiocardiography, 47.6% of patient showed elevation of blood pressure after injection of contrast media. 38.1% of patient, however, showed lowered blood pressure. The changes of the pulse rate were quite similar to those of blood pressure; increased in 47.7% and decreased in 40.9% of patient. 3. In the group of left sided angiocardiography, 61.6% of patient showed elevation of blood pressure immediately after injection of contrast media, and 17.5% of patient showed lowered blood pressure. 5 minutes after injection of contrast media, large group of patient showed normalized blood pressure. The pulse ratio was also increased in the 66.3% of patient

  6. The study of cardiovascular changes by intravascular injection of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Sook; Park, Chang Yoon

    1986-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to study the effect of contrast media on the cardiovascular system. So in this study, pithed rats were used whether alteration in cardiovascular system by contrast media were controlled centrally. Furthermore, several hypertonic solutions were also used to clarify the effect of contrast media. The results are as follows: 1. Intravenous injection of contrast media in rats (2.5 ml/kg) caused hypotension and bradycardia. The effects were neither blocked by pretreatment of atropine nor pyribenzamine+atropine. 2. NaCI 4.7%, dextrose 24.8%, urea 9.0% and glycerol 10.1% (v/v) which were equiosmolar with contrast media, caused hypotension, but did not affect the heart rate. 3. In pithed rats, intravenous injection of Angiografin increased blood pressure in a dose-dependant manner, and caused decrease in heart rate compared with those of control rats. 4. In pithed rats, bradycardia by intravascular injection with Angiografin was partially blocked by atropine. 5. Metrizamide of which iodine content was adjusted to 280 mg/ml caused increased in blood pressure when was injected intravenously in pithed rats with little effect on heart rate. 6. When perfused with contrast media in rat hindlimb at 15 ml/min./kg speed both perfusion pressure and flow effluent increased, simultaneously. These results suggest that hypotension might be caused by the central effect due to hyperosmolarity of contrast media and bradycardia caused by both parasympathetic stimulation and direct inhibitory action on the cardiac conductive system.

  7. An experimental study on renal damage induced by ionic contrast media in relation to iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yang, Moon Ho

    1990-01-01

    Renal injury caused by iodinated contrast media has been widely known, but there has been few papers regarding the pathological change. A series of kidneys after injection of iodinated contrast media was examined to document pathological change. A total of 80 rats was divided into two groups; those given Urografin-60% by 5ml/kg; those given Urografin-76% by 5ml/kg. The kidneys were removed out 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after injection of contrast media and microscopically examined. The resulted were as follows: 1. Pathological changes induced by ionic contrast media were deposition of proteinaceous materials in the proximal convoluted tubules, congestion of interstitial vessels, and vasa rectae, and epithelial degeneration of collecting ducts. There was no detectable pathological changes in the glomerulus, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubules. 2. All pathological changes were severe, as the concentration of contrast media increased. 3. These pathologic changes appeared 1 day after injection of contrast media and persisted at least 3 weeks without improvement. Author concludes that the renal damage induced by ionic contrast media becomes severe with increase in concentration, and pathologic changes are not influence with time interval

  8. Variable effects of radiological contrast media on thrombus growth in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Biemond, B. J.; Sturk, A.; Hoek, J.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of an ionic high osmolar contrast medium (Ioxitalamate), an ionic low osmolar contrast medium (Ioxaglate) and various nonionic low osmolar contrast media (Iopamidol, Iopromide and Iohexol) on thrombus growth in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model. Thrombus growth was

  9. Comparison of Oral Contrast-Enhanced Transabdominal Ultrasound Imaging With Transverse Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography in Preoperative Tumor Staging of Advanced Gastric Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemei; Sun, Jing; Huang, Xiaoling; Zeng, Chun; Ge, Yinggang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Jingxian

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of transabdominal oral contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging for preoperative tumor staging of advanced gastric carcinoma by comparing it with transverse contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). This retrospective study included 42 patients with advanced gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopy, radical surgery, or palliative surgery because of serious complications and had a body mass index of less than 25 kg/m 2 . A cereal-based oral contrast agent was used for transabdominal oral contrast-enhanced US. Retrospective analyses were conducted using preoperative tumor staging data acquired by either transabdominal oral contrast-enhanced US or transverse contrast-enhanced CT. Both contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced CT examinations were reviewed by 2 experienced radiologists independently for preoperative tumor staging according to the seventh edition of the TNM classification. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated by comparing the results of contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced CT with pathologic findings. The overall accuracies of the imaging modalities were compared by the McNemar test. No significant difference was noted in the overall accuracy of transabdominal oral contrast-enhanced US (86% [36 of 42]) and transverse contrast-enhanced CT (83% [35 of 42] P > .999). For stage T2 to T4 gastric cancer, the accuracies of transabdominal oral contrast-enhanced US were 88%, 86%, and 98%, respectively, and those of transverse contrast-enhanced CT were 93%, 83%, and 90%. The overall accuracy of transabdominal oral contrast-enhanced US was comparable with that of transverse contrast-enhanced CT for preoperative tumor staging of advanced gastric cancer. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Thermal dependence of ultrasound contrast agents scattering efficiency for echographic imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Angelo; Bettucci, Andrea; Passeri, Daniele; Alippi, Adriano

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are used in echographic imaging techniques to enhance image contrast. In addition, they may represent an interesting solution to the problem of non-invasive temperature monitoring inside the human body, based on some thermal variations of their physical properties. Contrast agents, indeed, are inserted into blood circulation and they reach the most important organs inside the human body; consequently, any thermometric property that they may possess, could be exploited for realizing a non-invasive thermometer. They essentially are a suspension of microbubbles containing a gas enclosed in a phospholipid membrane; temperature variations induce structural modifications of the microbubble phospholipid shell, thus causing thermal dependence of contrast agent's elastic characteristics. In this paper, the acoustic scattering efficiency of a bulk suspension of of SonoVue® (Bracco SpA Milan, Italy) has been studied using a pulse-echo technique in the frequency range 1-17 MHz, as it depends upon temperatures between 25 and 65°C. Experimental data confirm that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of SonoVue® depends on temperature between 25 and 60°C. Chemical composition of the bubble shell seem to support the hypothesis that a phase transition in the microstructure of lipid-coated microbubbles could play a key role in explaining such effect.

  11. Combining multi-pulse excitation and chirp coding in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocco, M; Sciallero, C; Trucco, A; Pellegretti, P

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques to separate the response of the contrast agent from that of the biological tissues is of great importance in ultrasound medical imaging. In the literature, one can find various solutions involving the use of multiple transmitted signals and the weighted sum of related echoes. In this paper, the combination of one of these multi-pulse techniques with a coded excitation is proposed and assessed. Coded excitation has been used mainly to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the penetration depth, provided that a matched filtering is applied in the reception chain. However, it has been shown that a signal with a long duration time also increases the backscattered echoes produced by the microbubbles and, consequently, the contrast-to-tissue ratio. Therefore, the implementation of a multi-pulse technique using a long coded pulse can yield a better contrast-to-tissue ratio and SNR. This paper investigates the combination of the linear chirp pulse with a multi-pulse technique based on the transmission of three pulses. The performance was evaluated using both simulated and real signals, assessing the improvement in the contrast-to-tissue ratio and SNR, the visual quality of the images obtained and the axial accuracy. A comparison with the same multi-pulse technique implemented using a traditional amplitude-modulated pulse revealed that the deployment of a chirp pulse produces several noticeable advantages and only a minor drawback

  12. Photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality contrast agent and its application to thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hsin; Liao, Ai-Ho; Chen, Jui-Hao; Wang, Churng-Ren Chris; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates a photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality contrast agent, including extending its applications from image-contrast enhancement to combined diagnosis and therapy with site-specific targeting. The contrast agent comprises albumin-shelled microbubbles with encapsulated gold nanorods (AuMBs). The gas-filled microbubbles, whose diameters range from submicrometer to several micrometers, are not only echogenic but also can serve as drug-delivery vehicles. The gold nanorods are used to enhance the generation of both photoacoustic and photothermal signals. The optical absorption peak of the gold nanorods is tuned to 760 nm and is invariant after microbubble encapsulation. Dual-modality contrast enhancement is first described here, and the applications to cellular targeting and laser-induced thermotherapy in a phantom are demonstrated. Photoacoustic imaging can be used to monitor temperature increases during the treatment. The targeting capability of AuMBs was verified, and the temperature increased by 26°C for a laser power of 980 mW, demonstrating the potential of combined diagnosis and therapy with the dual-modality agent. Targeted photo- or acoustic-mediated delivery is also possible.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of nodules in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2014-04-07

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using microbubble contrast agents are useful for the diagnosis of the nodules in liver cirrhosis. CEUS can be used as a problem-solving method for indeterminate nodules on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as an initial diagnostic test for small newly detected liver nodules. CEUS has unique advantages over CT and MRI including no renal excretion of contrast, real-time imaging capability, and purely intravascular contrast. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by arterial-phase hypervascularity and later washout (negative enhancement). Benign nodules such as regenerative nodules or dysplastic nodules are usually isoechoic or slightly hypoechoic in the arterial phase and isoechoic in the late phase. However, there are occasional HCC lesions with atypical enhancement including hypovascular HCC and hypervascular HCC without washout. Cholangiocarcinomas are infrequently detected during HCC surveillance and mostly show rim-like or diffuse hypervascularity followed by rapid washout. Hemangiomas are often found at HCC surveillance and are easily diagnosed by CEUS. CEUS can be effectively used in the diagnostic work-up of small nodules detected at HCC surveillance. CEUS is also useful to differentiate malignant and benign venous thrombosis and to guide and monitor the local ablation therapy for HCC.

  14. Contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasound characteristics in hypervascular breast tumors: comparison with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo, L.; Fischer, U.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasound (CE-US) in comparison with contrast-enhanced MR imaging (CE-MRI) in the discrimination of hypervascularized breast tumors. An additional CE-US of the breast was preoperatively performed in 40 patients with a hypervascular breast lesion detected on CE-MRI. The presence of blood flow signals and the morphological characteristics of the vessels in the breast lesions were evaluated pre- and post-contrast administration, as well as the dynamic aspects of the Doppler signal, including time interval to maximum signal enhancement and persistence of the signal enhancement. Twenty-three carcinomas and 17 fibroadenomas were explored. Considering initial signal enhancement > 100 % after the administration of contrast material as a criterion suggesting malignancy, CE-MRI showed a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 76.5 % in the detection of malignant breast tumors. Color Doppler signals were consistently demonstrated in all carcinomas and in 68.7 % of fibroadenomas after the administration of Levovist, with CE-US showing a sensitivity of 95.6 % and a specificity of 5.9 %. Neither the mean number of vessels per tumor, nor the location of vessels, the time to maximum increase of the Doppler signal or the persistence of signal enhancement showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. Additional CE-US does not increase the low specificity of MRI in patients with hypervascularized breast tumors. (orig.)

  15. Rayleigh theory of ultrasound scattering applied to liquid-filled contrast nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, M B; Poole, C M; Whittaker, A K; Keen, I; Langton, C M

    2010-06-07

    We present a novel modified theory based upon Rayleigh scattering of ultrasound from composite nanoparticles with a liquid core and solid shell. We derive closed form solutions to the scattering cross-section and have applied this model to an ultrasound contrast agent consisting of a liquid-filled core (perfluorooctyl bromide, PFOB) encapsulated by a polymer shell (poly-caprolactone, PCL). Sensitivity analysis was performed to predict the dependence of the scattering cross-section upon material and dimensional parameters. A rapid increase in the scattering cross-section was achieved by increasing the compressibility of the core, validating the incorporation of high compressibility PFOB; the compressibility of the shell had little impact on the overall scattering cross-section although a more compressible shell is desirable. Changes in the density of the shell and the core result in predicted local minima in the scattering cross-section, approximately corresponding to the PFOB-PCL contrast agent considered; hence, incorporation of a lower shell density could potentially significantly improve the scattering cross-section. A 50% reduction in shell thickness relative to external radius increased the predicted scattering cross-section by 50%. Although it has often been considered that the shell has a negative effect on the echogeneity due to its low compressibility, we have shown that it can potentially play an important role in the echogeneity of the contrast agent. The challenge for the future is to identify suitable shell and core materials that meet the predicted characteristics in order to achieve optimal echogenity.

  16. Cavitation thresholds of contrast agents in an in vitro human clot model exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Matthew J; Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) can be employed to nucleate cavitation to achieve desired bioeffects, such as thrombolysis, in therapeutic ultrasound applications. Effective methods of enhancing thrombolysis with ultrasound have been examined at low frequencies (cavitation thresholds for two UCAs exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. A commercial ultrasound contrast agent (Definity(®)) and echogenic liposomes were investigated to determine the acoustic pressure threshold for ultraharmonic (UH) and broadband (BB) generation using an in vitro flow model perfused with human plasma. Cavitation emissions were detected using two passive receivers over a narrow frequency bandwidth (540-900 kHz) and a broad frequency bandwidth (0.54-1.74 MHz). UH and BB cavitation thresholds occurred at the same acoustic pressure (0.3 ± 0.1 MPa, peak to peak) and were found to depend on the sensitivity of the cavitation detector but not on the nucleating contrast agent or ultrasound duty cycle.

  17. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in visualizing atherosclerotic carotid plaque vulnerability: Which injection protocol? Which scanning technique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iezzi, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.iezzi@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Ferrante, Angela [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Lauriola, Libero [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Vincenzoni, Claudio [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Torre, Michele Fabio la [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Snider, Francesco [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Rindi, Guido [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CEUS is a safe and efficacious technique for the identification and characterization of carotid plaque. • CEUS represents a diagnostic tool for the management of patients with carotid plaque, particularly in asymptomatic patients. • Improved diagnostic performance is achieved with the injection of 4 mL bolus of contrast-medium. • Improved diagnostic performance is achieved with the use of Dynamic Imaging rather than late-phase imaging. - Abstract: Purpose: To correlate the degree of plaque vulnerability as determined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with histological findings. Secondary objectives were to optimize the CEUS acquisition technique and image evaluation methods. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive patients, either symptomatic and asymptomatic referring to our department in order to perform carotid endarterectomy (TEA), were enrolled. Each patient provided informed consent before undergoing CEUS. Ultrasound examination was performed using high-frequency (8–14 MHz) linear probe and a non-linear pulse inversion technique (mechanical index: 0.09–1.3). A double contrast media injection (Sonovue, 2 mL and 4 mL; Bracco, Italy) was performed. Two videotapes were recorded for every injection: early “dynamic” phase and late “flash” phase, performed with 6 high mechanical index impulses. Movies were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation were statistically compared to immunohistological diagnosis of vulnerable plaque, considered as gold standard. Results: Qualitative CEUS evaluation obtained high statistical results when compared to immunohistological results, with values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of 94%, 68%, 87%, 85% and 86%, respectively, which became higher if considering only asymptomatic patient, with a NPV of 91%. Nevertheless, quantitative software evaluation proved less

  18. Effects of radiographic contrast media on cellular electrophysiology in the beating heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolpers, H.G.; Baller, D.; Ensink, F.B.M.; Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Hellige, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrophysiological effects of intracoronarily administered contrast media have been documented in 12 thoracotomized dogs at the cellular level by use of a modified microelectrode technique. Injections (n = 63) of 4 different contrast media uniformly led to a temporary cellular hyperpolarisation of the resting potential and prolongation of the action potential. Additional experiments with intracoronary injections of several electrolyte concentrations, mainly by a local deficiency of potassium ions and an excess of sodium ions. The significance of the findings for mechanisms underlying ECG-changes and ventricular arrhythmia by radiographic contrasts media will be discussed.

  19. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Van Der Molen, Aart J.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use is made of extracellular MRI contrast agents that alter the image contrast following intravenous administration; they predominantly shorten the T1 relaxation time of tissues. The degree and location of these changes provide substantial diagnostic information. However gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CA) are not inert drugs. They may cause acute non-renal adverse reactions (e.g. anaphylactoid reactions), acute renal adverse reactions (e.g. contrast induced nephropathy), delayed adverse reactions (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) and problems at the site of injection (e.g. local necrosis). This review describes the current status of Gd-CA, their mechanism of action, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, dosage, elimination, nephrotoxicity and adverse events

  20. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, Marie-France [University Paris-Sud 11, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, 12, Avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94804 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: marie-france.bellin@pbr.aphp.fr; Van Der Molen, Aart J. [University Paris-Sud 11, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, 12, Avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94804 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2008-05-15

    Increasing use is made of extracellular MRI contrast agents that alter the image contrast following intravenous administration; they predominantly shorten the T1 relaxation time of tissues. The degree and location of these changes provide substantial diagnostic information. However gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CA) are not inert drugs. They may cause acute non-renal adverse reactions (e.g. anaphylactoid reactions), acute renal adverse reactions (e.g. contrast induced nephropathy), delayed adverse reactions (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) and problems at the site of injection (e.g. local necrosis). This review describes the current status of Gd-CA, their mechanism of action, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, dosage, elimination, nephrotoxicity and adverse events.

  1. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-10-06

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.

  2. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma

  3. Quality of roentgenological visualization and tolerance of various intravenous cholegraphic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischendorf, P.

    1980-01-01

    The recently introduced intravenous cholegraphic contrast media produce a greater diagnostic yield in radiological routine thanks to improved roentgenological contrasting. Whereas the percentage share of roentgenologically clearly assessable cases is about 75% when using Biligrafin, this percentage is much higher with the more recent contrast media, especially Biliscopin, namely, up to 88%. These new contrast media are also superior in respect of tolerance, since they produce fewer side effects. While side effects must be expected in about 28% of the cases when injecting Biligrafin, the side effect quota is about 10% only with Biliscopin or Endomirabil. If the contrast medium is infused instead of injected, the quota of side effect drops to 2.3% with Biliscopin or 3.9% with Endomirabil. Slight and medium side effects have definitely decreased with the more recent contrast media. The slower and more continually the contrast medium is administered, the fewer are the side effects observed; this becomes particularly noticeable in the case of long-term infusions. However, the likelihood of severe incidents caused by the contrast medium remains unchanged at about 1% of the examined patients, even with the more recently introduced contrast media. (orig.) [de

  4. Volume navigation with contrast enhanced ultrasound and image fusion for percutaneous interventions: first results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Michael Jung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the feasibility and efficiency of interventions using ultrasound (US volume navigation (V Nav with real time needle tracking and image fusion with contrast enhanced (ce CT, MRI or US. METHODS: First an in vitro study on a liver phantom with CT data image fusion was performed, involving the puncture of a 10 mm lesion in a depth of 5 cm performed by 15 examiners with US guided freehand technique vs. V Nav for the purpose of time optimization. Then 23 patients underwent ultrasound-navigated biopsies or interventions using V Nav image fusion of live ultrasound with ceCT, ceMRI or CEUS, which were acquired before the intervention. A CEUS data set was acquired in all patients. Image fusion was established for CEUS and CT or CEUS and MRI using anatomical landmarks in the area of the targeted lesion. The definition of a virtual biopsy line with navigational axes targeting the lesion was achieved by the usage of sterile trocar with a magnetic sensor embedded in its distal tip employing a dedicated navigation software for real time needle tracking. RESULTS: The in vitro study showed significantly less time needed for the simulated interventions in all examiners when V Nav was used (p<0.05. In the study involving patients, in all 10 biopsies of suspect lesions of the liver a histological confirmation was achieved. We also used V Nav for a breast biopsy (intraductal carcinoma, for a biopsy of the abdominal wall (metastasis of ovarial carcinoma and for radiofrequency ablations (4 ablations. In 8 cases of inflammatory abdominal lesions 9 percutaneous drainages were successfully inserted. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous biopsies and drainages, even of small lesions involving complex access pathways, can be accomplished with a high success rate by using 3D real time image fusion together with real time needle tracking.

  5. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  6. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of Undetermined Abdominal Lesions: A Multidisciplinary Decision-Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS guided biopsy of undetermined abdominal lesions in multidisciplinary treatment (MDT decision-making approach. Methods. Between Jan 2012 and Dec 2015, 60 consecutive patients (male, 37; female, 23; mean age, 51.3 years ± 14.6 who presented with undetermined abdominal lesions were included. CEUS and core needle percutaneous biopsy was performed under real-time CEUS guidance in all lesions. Data were recorded and compared with conventional ultrasound (US guidance group (n=75. All CEUS findings and clinical data were evaluated in MDT. Results. CEUS enabled the delimitation of more (88.3% versus 41.3% and larger (14.1 ± 10.7 mm versus 32.3 ± 18.5 mm nonenhanced necrotic areas. More inner (20.0% versus 6.7% and surrounding (18.3% versus 2.7% major vessels were visualized and avoided during biopsies. CEUS-guided biopsy increased the diagnostic accuracy from 93.3% to 98.3%, with correct diagnosis in 57 of 60 lesions (95.0%. The therapeutic plan was influenced by CEUS guided biopsies findings in the majority of patients (98.3%. Conclusion. The combination of CEUS guided biopsy and MDT decision-making approach is useful in the diagnostic work-up and therapeutic management.

  7. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of Undetermined Abdominal Lesions: A Multidisciplinary Decision-Making Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feng; Dong, Yi; Ji, Zhengbiao; Cao, Jiaying; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided biopsy of undetermined abdominal lesions in multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) decision-making approach. Methods. Between Jan 2012 and Dec 2015, 60 consecutive patients (male, 37; female, 23; mean age, 51.3 years ± 14.6) who presented with undetermined abdominal lesions were included. CEUS and core needle percutaneous biopsy was performed under real-time CEUS guidance in all lesions. Data were recorded and compared with conventional ultrasound (US) guidance group ( n = 75). All CEUS findings and clinical data were evaluated in MDT. Results. CEUS enabled the delimitation of more (88.3% versus 41.3%) and larger (14.1 ± 10.7 mm versus 32.3 ± 18.5 mm) nonenhanced necrotic areas. More inner (20.0% versus 6.7%) and surrounding (18.3% versus 2.7%) major vessels were visualized and avoided during biopsies. CEUS-guided biopsy increased the diagnostic accuracy from 93.3% to 98.3%, with correct diagnosis in 57 of 60 lesions (95.0%). The therapeutic plan was influenced by CEUS guided biopsies findings in the majority of patients (98.3%). Conclusion. The combination of CEUS guided biopsy and MDT decision-making approach is useful in the diagnostic work-up and therapeutic management.

  8. Applicability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, R; Pingel, J; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Johannsen, F

    2017-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is used to visualize the microvascularization in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CEUS could be used to visualize the microvascular volume (MV) in the plantar fascia, and to compare the method to clinical symptoms and B-mode ultrasound (US) in patients with plantar fasciitis (PF). Twenty patients with unilateral PF were included and were divided by US in insertional thickening (10), midsubstance thickening (5), and no US changes (5). The MV was measured simultaneously in both heels. Four areas in the plantar fascia and plantar fat pad were measured independently by two observers. Inter- and intra-observer correlation analyses were performed. The asymptomatic heels showed a constantly low MV, and for the whole group of patients, a significantly higher MV was found in the symptomatic plantar fascia and plantar fat pad. Inter-observer correlation as well as intra-observer agreement was excellent. The MV in the plantar fascia and plantar fat pad can be measured reliably using CEUS, suggesting that it is a reproducible method to examine patients with plantar fasciitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Preparation and preliminary evaluation of KGDS-targeted ultrasound contrast agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ding, Yanfei; Sheng, Xiaoxi; Wang, Wei; Liang, Qi; Luo, Zhuoqiong; Zhou, Ping; Li, Hui

    2009-12-01

    To prepare a thrombus-targeted ultrasonic contrast agent and to investigate its targeted ability to fresh blood clots. We first synthesized FITC-KGDS-Palm compound, and then prepared thrombus-targeted microbubbles using "ultrasound & high speed shearing method". Fluorescence labeling thrombus-specific peptides and KGDS, directed at the activated glycoprotein(GP)IIb/IIIa receptor of platelets were attached to the surface of lipid microbubbles. The concentration and size of TUCA were measured by Malvern Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS590 and Coulter counter. Immunofluorescence was applied to confirm the conjugation. The conjunct ratio was assessed by flow cytometer (FCM). The KGDS-TUCA was straw yellow turbid liquor, and the concentration was 1.5 x 10(9)/mL, and the average size was 1.5 microm. The targeted microbubbles conjugated with the thrombus-specific peptides showed bright green rings by fluorescence microscope. FCM demonstrated that the wavelength of shell of KGDS-TUCA changed greatly, and the conjunct ratio was 90.04%. In vitro study showed KGDS-TUCA remained stable for 48 h at 4 degree C and target-attached to blood clots and showed good stability. The ultrasound & high speed shearing method to prepare TUCA is easy and in favor of purification. KGDS-TUCA has high specific biological activity. The conjunct ratio and stability of KGDS-TUCA are excellent.

  10. Consideration of Adverse Reaction to MDCT Contrast Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Seok; Shin, Seong Gyu

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigated 82 patients who suffered adverse reactions due to contrast medium. We selected the subjects out of 21,178 people who had an intravenous injection of contrast medium to undergo MDCT examination at one university hospital in Busan in 2007. As a result, the largest groups of the patients were as follows. 52.4% of the patients were male when classify by gender; 28.0% of the patients were 50's by age; 45% of the patients got when it was spring(April and March); 75.6% of the patients had a side effects when the speed of injection is 2.5 mL/sec; 58.5% of the patients were suffered when the volume of injected contrast medium is over 130 mL. Urticaria was the main symptom of side effect as 26.8%. And the main treatment for the effect was alleviating the symptoms before making patients to return home. Thus, practical preventive measures are needed as follows: use the OCS system to observe warning signs at risky patients, secure warming spaces for patients to cope with season changing, prepare enough emergency kits for the patients in danger, and establish CPR call systems, explain the risk of contrast medium and get agree about using contrast medium.

  11. An animal experimental model for evaluating endothelial damage caused by various angiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlob, R.

    1981-01-01

    The endothelial damage caused by X-ray contrast media is tested on en face preparations of the rat aorta after silver staining. Hypertonic contrast media cause dehydration of the vessels so that solutions of silver nitrate penetrate into the media during the phase of rehydration whereby medial transverse lines are stained. These artifacts can be avoided by 3 minute rehydration of the vessels by Ringer solution prior to silver staining. In addition it is recommended to add highly diluted silver nitrate to the fixing media in order to intensify the pattern of the endothelial silver lines. Modern contrast media may cause very little endothelial damage, however, significant differences can be detected when in addition to the evaluation of larger foci damages of single endothelial cells ( brown cells with sparing of the nuclei and pseudonuclei ) are evaluated as well. No significant differences were found between the endothelial toxicity of meglumin diatrizoate and meglumin iothalamate. (orig.) [de

  12. Perfusion imaging with magnetic-susceptibility contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B.R.; Belliveau, J.W.; Betteridge, D.; Cohen, M.S.; Weisskoff, R.M.; Vevea, J.M.; Rzedzian, R.P.; Brady, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In animal models, transient signal los on T2-weighted images has been well documented following intravenous injection of high-magnetic-susceptibility contrast agents that are compartmentalized within the brain intravascular space. These signal changes have been correlated with physiologic parameters, such as blood flow and volume. The advent of whole-body single-shot imaging capability, coupled with the approval of paramagnetic contrasts agents for human use, has enabled the authors to demonstrate susceptibility contrast in the human brain, allowing for generation of functional images. With use of a 1.5-T imaging system gradient-echo images (TE = 60 msec) were acquired in 75 msec. Sequential single-sections images were sampled every 1 second following bolus administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA

  13. The optimal dose of the contrast media for spiral CT portography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiansheng; Xiao Peiyu; Meng Xiaochun; Xu Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the optimal dose of the contrast media in SCTP. Methods: 40 healthy patients were divided into 2 groups according to their body weight (20 cases in group A with weight below 60kg, 20 cases in group B with weight over 70kg). They all received 90ml contrast media at a rate of 4.0 ml/sec in the contrast-enhanced CT ex- amination. And non-cirrhosis cases, liver cirrhosis without ascites cases and liver cirrhosis with ascites cases were selected respectively, 60 patients in each group. Then, the patients of each group were randomly divided into 3 sub-groups, 20 cases in each of them, which respectively received 1.5ml/kg, 2.0ml/kg, 2.5ml/kg contrast media at a rate of 4.0 ml/sec in the contrast-enhanced CT examination. The effect of the dose of the contrast material on the imaging quality of portal vein system in patients with different weight and different state of illness was analyzed. Results: In 40 healthy patients, the density difference between portal vein and hepatic parenchyma was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (P 0.05), and both of them showed significant difference while using 1.5ml/kg contrast media (P 0.05), and they both had significant difference when using 1.5ml/kg contrast media (P< 0.05). Besides these, the imaging quality of portal vein branches and collateral vessels were better in 2.0ml/kg group than others. Conclusion: The patient's body weight and the state of liver disease influenced the extent of portal vein enhancement. To calculate the dose of contrast media according to patient's weight is crucial for ensuring the imaging quality of portal vein system. 2.0ml/kg contrast media can provide a better effect. (authors)

  14. International guidelines for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Ultrasound imaging in the new millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolsoe, Christian Pallson; Lorentzen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this review is to discuss and comment on common clinical scenarios in which contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) may play a decisive role and to illustrate important points with typical cases. With the advent of CEUS, the scope of indications for ultrasonography has been dramatically extended, and now includes functional imaging and tissue characterization, which in many cases enable tumor diagnosis without a biopsy. It is virtually impossible to imagine the practice of modern medicine as we know it in high-income countries without the use of imaging, and yet, an estimated two thirds of the global population may receive no such care. Ultrasound imaging with CEUS has the potential to correct this inequity

  15. International guidelines for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Ultrasound imaging in the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolsoe, Christian Pallson; Lorentzen, Torben [Ultrasound Section, Dept. of Gastric Surgery, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev (Denmark)

    2016-03-15

    The intent of this review is to discuss and comment on common clinical scenarios in which contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) may play a decisive role and to illustrate important points with typical cases. With the advent of CEUS, the scope of indications for ultrasonography has been dramatically extended, and now includes functional imaging and tissue characterization, which in many cases enable tumor diagnosis without a biopsy. It is virtually impossible to imagine the practice of modern medicine as we know it in high-income countries without the use of imaging, and yet, an estimated two thirds of the global population may receive no such care. Ultrasound imaging with CEUS has the potential to correct this inequity.

  16. Comparison between maximum radial expansion of ultrasound contrast agents and experimental postexcitation signal results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel A; O'Brien, William D

    2011-01-01

    Experimental postexcitation signal data of collapsing Definity microbubbles are compared with the Marmottant theoretical model for large amplitude oscillations of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). After taking into account the insonifying pulse characteristics and size distribution of the population of UCAs, a good comparison between simulated results and previously measured experimental data is obtained by determining a threshold maximum radial expansion (Rmax) to indicate the onset of postexcitation. This threshold Rmax is found to range from 3.4 to 8.0 times the initial bubble radius, R0, depending on insonification frequency. These values are well above the typical free bubble inertial cavitation threshold commonly chosen at 2R0. The close agreement between the experiment and models suggests that lipid-shelled UCAs behave as unshelled bubbles during most of a large amplitude cavitation cycle, as proposed in the Marmottant equation.

  17. Comparison of in vitro histamine release by ionic and nonionic radiographyic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Martin, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a study whose results showed that in 53 hospitalized patients undergoing cardiovascular catheterization, incubation of their blood samples with varying concentrations of an ionic contrast medium (Angiovist-370, 60--631 mM) induced a significant (P < .005) amount of histamine release from whole blood (3.5%--10%), as compared with the histamine release following incubation with a nonionic contrast medium. Data suggest that the use of nonionic contrast media may induce minimal histamine release and thereby involve less patient risk from the histamine-mediated allergic and hemodynamic side effects associated with radiographic contrast media procedures

  18. Visual detectability of elastic contrast in real-time ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Naomi R.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Doyley, Marvin M.; Leach, Martin O.

    1997-04-01

    Elasticity imaging (EI) has recently been proposed as a technique for imaging the mechanical properties of soft tissue. However, dynamic features, known as compressibility and mobility, are already employed to distinguish between different tissue types in ultrasound breast examination. This method, which involves the subjective interpretation of tissue motion seen in real-time B-mode images during palpation, is hereafter referred to as differential motion imaging (DMI). The purpose of this study was to develop the methodology required to perform a series of perception experiments to measure elastic lesion detectability by means of DMI and to obtain preliminary results for elastic contrast thresholds for different lesion sizes. Simulated sequences of real-time B-scans of tissue moving in response to an applied force were generated. A two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) experiment was conducted and the measured contrast thresholds were compared with published results for lesions detected by EI. Although the trained observer was found to be quite skilled at the task of differential motion perception, it would appear that lesion detectability is improved when motion information is detected by computer processing and converted to gray scale before presentation to the observer. In particular, for lesions containing fewer than eight speckle cells, a signal detection rate of 100% could not be achieved even when the elastic contrast was very high.

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis and characterization of focal hepatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Inés Gómez; Font, Juan Manuel Fernández; Alvaro, Juan Carrero; Navarro, Jose Luís Lledó; Gil, Marta Fernández; Rodríguez, Conrado M Fernández

    2010-12-28

    The extensive use of imaging techniques in differential diagnosis of abdominal conditions and screening of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatic diseases, has led to an important increase in identification of focal liver lesions. The development of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) opens a new window in the diagnosis and follow-up of these lesions. This technique offers obvious advantages over the computed tomography and magnetic resonance, without a decrease in its sensitivity and specificity. The new second generation contrast agents, due to their intravascular distribution, allow a continuous evaluation of the enhancement pattern, which is crucial in characterization of liver lesions. The dual blood supply in the liver shows three different phases, namely arterial, portal and late phases. The enhancement during portal and late phases can give important information about the lesion's behavior. Each liver lesion has a different enhancement pattern that makes possible an accurate approach to their diagnosis. The role of emerging techniques as a contrast-enhanced three-dimensional US is also discussed. In this article, the advantages, indications and technique employed during CEUS and the different enhancement patterns of most benign and malignant focal liver lesions are discussed.

  20. Beware of parotitis induced by iodine-containing contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohat, A K; Jayantee, K; Phadke, R V; Muthu, R; Singh, V; Misra, U K

    2014-01-01

    Carotid stenting is being increasingly used for revascularization of the moderate to severe carotid stenosis and thus its complications are increasingly being recognized. We report a rare complication of induced by iodine contrast in a patient undergoing carotid stenting. s. A 51 year old man after the second stenting developed multiple small infarcts in spite of the distal device. He also had painful parotid swelling which improved within a week. One should be aware of iodine parotitis s in the patients undergoing iodinated contrast study.

  1. Effect on thrombus growth and thrombolysis of two types of osmolar contrast media in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Pascucci, C.; Agnelli, G.; Sturk, A.; Hoek, J.; ten Cate, J. Wouter

    1990-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications have been reported after diagnostic or interventional radiological procedures. However, contrast media inhibit platelet function and blood coagulation in vitro. To investigate these characteristics in vivo, we determined the effect of nonionic and ionic low osmolar

  2. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  3. Value of intravenous injection of contrast media for computerized tomography of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Goerich, J.; Mueller, M.; Kaick, G. van; Tuengerthal, S.

    1988-01-01

    107 patients with thoracal or mediastinal growths underwent computerized tomography of the thorax both in normal condition and after receiving intravenous applications of non-ionic X-ray contrast media. The additional information obtained by use of contrast media was established in relation to the histological findings. The method led to enhanced demarcation of the tumor of the mediastinum or hilus in 40% of the patients. Tumor perfusion was helpful in 20% of the cases for differential diagnosis. Vessel infiltrations or abnormal conditions were found in about 30% of patients. 24% of the tests yielded no additional information. Analysing CT as compared to the histological examination of lymph nodes proved CT under normal conditions to be a sensitive method in 29% of cases if the hilus was the site of the tumor; contrast media raised this sensitivity to 43%. In the mediastinal area, sensitivity was 44% without and 56% with contrast media. (orig.) [de

  4. Iodinated contrast media and contrast-induced nephropathy: is there a preferred cost-effective agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Samin K

    2008-05-01

    Over 20 years have passed since the introduction of the tri-iodinated low-osmolar nonionic contrast agents such as iopamidol, iohexol, ioversol and iopromide. During this time, most cardiology practices have switched to these nonionic agents to avoid the nuisance side effects and cardiac adverse events associated with the older ionic contrast agents. Although the improved tolerability of the nonionic agents is generally attributed to their decreased osmolality (approximately half that of the older ionic contrast agents), in fact, these contrast agents also differ from the older agents in their ionicity, viscosity and direct chemotoxicity. The impact of these properties on safety, together with cost differences, should be considered when selecting a contrast agent.

  5. Parametric imaging for characterizing focal liver lesions in contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognin, Nicolas G; Arditi, Marcel; Mercier, Laurent; Frinking, Peter J A; Schneider, Michel; Perrenoud, Geneviève; Anaye, Anass; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Tranquart, François

    2010-11-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant focal liver lesions plays an important role in diagnosis of liver disease and therapeutic planning of local or general disease. This differentiation, based on characterization, relies on the observation of the dynamic vascular patterns (DVP) of lesions with respect to adjacent parenchyma, and may be assessed during contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging after a bolus injection. For instance, hemangiomas (i.e., benign lesions) exhibit hyper-enhanced signatures over time, whereas metastases (i.e., malignant lesions) frequently present hyperenhanced foci during the arterial phase and always become hypo-enhanced afterwards. The objective of this work was to develop a new parametric imaging technique, aimed at mapping the DVP signatures into a single image called a DVP parametric image, conceived as a diagnostic aid tool for characterizing lesion types. The methodology consisted in processing a time sequence of images (DICOM video data) using four consecutive steps: (1) pre-processing combining image motion correction and linearization to derive an echo-power signal, in each pixel, proportional to local contrast agent concentration over time; (2) signal modeling, by means of a curve-fitting optimization, to compute a difference signal in each pixel, as the subtraction of adjacent parenchyma kinetic from the echopower signal; (3) classification of difference signals; and (4) parametric image rendering to represent classified pixels as a support for diagnosis. DVP parametric imaging was the object of a clinical assessment on a total of 146 lesions, imaged using different medical ultrasound systems. The resulting sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 91%, respectively, which compare favorably with scores of 81 to 95% and 80 to 95% reported in medical literature for sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  6. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  7. The influence of contrast media on kidney function in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Simon Bertram; Harutyunyan, Marina; Mygind, Naja Dam

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the incidence of contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for elective coronary intervention following hydration routines. The reversibility of CIN was followed in a 6 month-period. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total...... coronary interventions. Kidney function and the amount of contrast media used was not a predictor of CIN development. The induced CIN was not completely normalized in a 6-month follow-up period....

  8. Better and safer diagnostic possibilities with non-ionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmstrom, K.; Svinn, K.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of contrast media for medical radiography is followed out since their introduction in late 50's. A discussion is presented on the genesis of undesirable side effects of ionic contrast media due to the sodium and meglumine cations, the hypertonicity of the media and the iodinated molecule itself. The advantages of the new non-ionic non-dissociating low osmolar contrast media is stressed and its low chemotoxicity is explained in the light of their chemical structure. The qualities of the specific representatives of new three generations of non-ionic contrast media are analysed and compared: 1) metrizamide (Amipaque, Nycomed) - a soluble monomer; 2) iopamidol (Iopamiro, Bracco), iohexol (Omnipaque, Nycomed), iopromid (Ultravist, Schering), iopentol (Imagopaque, Nycomed), ioversol (Optiray Mallincrodt) - monomers, more tolerable and with lower toxicity; 3) ioxaglat, iotrolan and iodixanol -monoacidic dimers with lower osmolarity. Results from clinical trial and monitoring programs in large patients' groups are presented. The severity and incidence of the observed side effects in different organs and systems including the risk's groups are given. Compared to the conventional ionic media, the occurence of undesired effects has been reduced to about 1/6 with the use of the new products. The review unabiguously show the advantages of the non-ionic contrast media. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 26 refs

  9. Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions using CEUS and MRI with Liver-Specific Contrast Media: Experience of a Single Radiologic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Lukas Philipp; Wassermann, Florian; Pregler, Benedikt; Michalik, Katharina; Rennert, Janine; Wiesinger, Isabel; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp; Jung, Ernst Michael

    2017-12-01

     The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using liver-specific contrast agent and a combination of both for the characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL).  83 patients with both benign and malignant liver lesions were examined using CEUS and MRI after the intravenous administration of liver-specific contrast media. All patients had inconclusive results from prior imaging examinations. Histopathological specimens could be obtained in 53 patients. Ultrasound was performed using a multi-frequency curved probe (1 - 6 MHz) after the injection of 1 - 2.4 ml ultrasound contrast media. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CEUS, MRI and a combination of both (CEUS + MRI) were compared.  The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values regarding lesion classification were 90.9 %, 70.6 %, 92.3 % and 66.6 %, respectively, for CEUS; 90.9 %, 82.4 %, 95.2 % and 70.0 %, respectively, for MRI; and 96.9 %, 70.6 %, 92.7 % and 85.7 % respectively, for CEUS + MRI. There were no statistically significant differences. 6 malignant lesions were missed using CEUS or MRI alone (false negatives). The use of both modalities combined reduced the false-negative results to 2.  CEUS and MRI with liver-specific contrast media are very reliable and of equal informative value in the characterization of focal liver lesions. The number of false-negative results can be decreased using a combination of the two methods. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Campania preventability assessment committee: a focus on the preventability of the contrast media adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Rafaniello, Concetta; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Scavone, Cristina; Fiorentino, Sonia; Grassi, Enrico; Reginelli, Alfonso; Rotondo, Antonio; Sportiello, Liberata

    2016-12-01

    The current study aims to assess the preventability of the contrast media adverse drug reactions reported through the Campania spontaneous reporting system, identifying the possible limitations emerged in this type of evaluation. All the individual case safety reports validated by the Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre from July 2012 to September 2015 were screened to select those that reported contrast media as suspected drug. Campania Preventability Assessment Committee, in collaboration with clinicians specialized in Radiology, assessed the preventability according to the P-Method, through a case-by-case approach. From July 2012 to September 2015, 13798 cases were inserted by pharmacovigilance managers in the Italian Pharmacovigilance Network database (in the geographical contest of the Campania Region), of which 67 reported contrast media as suspected drug. Five preventable cases were found. The most reported causes for preventability were the inappropriate drug use for the case clinical conditions and the absence of the preventive measure administrated prior to the contrast media administration. Several limitations were found in the evaluation of the critical criteria for the preventability assessment. Educational initiatives will be organized directly to the healthcare professionals involved in the contrast media administration, to promote an appropriate use of the contrast media.

  11. Interaction of a high-order Bessel beam with a submerged spherical ultrasound contrast agent shell - Scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2010-03-01

    Acoustic scattering properties of ultrasound contrast agents are useful in extending existing or developing new techniques for biomedical imaging applications. A useful first step in this direction is to investigate the acoustic scattering of a new class of acoustic beams, known as helicoidal high-order Bessel beams, to improve the understanding of their scattering characteristics by an ultrasound contrast agent, which at present is very limited. The transverse acoustic scattering of a commercially available albuminoidal ultrasound contrast agent shell filled with air or a denser gas such as perfluoropropane and placed in a helicoidal Bessel beam of any order is examined numerically. The shell is assumed to possess an outer radius a=3.5 microns and a thickness of approximately 105 nm. Moduli of the total and resonance transverse acoustic scattering form functions are numerically evaluated in the bandwidth 0scattering of a helicoidal Bessel beam of order m1 so that the dynamics of contrast agents would be significantly altered. The main finding of the present theory is the suppression or enhancement for a particular resonance that may be used to advantage in imaging with ultrasound contrast agents for clinical applications. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shoulder arthrography: comparison of morbidity after use of various contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.M.; Goldberg, R.P.; Wyshak, G.; Kilcoyne, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This prospective study compares immediate and delayed patient discomfort in 177 patients following shoulder arthrography using intraarticular combinations of metrizamide, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, meglumine diatrizoate, lidocaine, epinephrine, and air. Patients receiving conventional ionic monomeric positive contrast media had a 60% (90/150) incidence of moderate or severe delayed exacerbation of their baseline symptoms; only 14% (3/21) of patients receiving metrizamide, a nonionic contrast medium had similar levels of postprocedural discomfort. Morbidity was somewhat diminished with the use of double-contrast (45%, 34/75) rather than single-contrast (75%, 56/75) examinations, and with avoidance of sodium-containing contrast agents or epinephrine. Nonionic or monovalent polymeric contrast media, despite their present high cost, may be the agents of choice if single-contrast arthrography is performed in joints associated with a high incidence of postprocedural pain

  13. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.) [de

  14. Nephropathy after administration of iso-osmolar and low-osmolar contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Lotrionte, Marzia; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) may be a severe complication to the administration of iodine-based contrast media for diagnostic or interventional procedure using radiation exposure. Whether there is a difference in nephrotoxic potential between the various agents...... is uncertain. We aimed to perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials on iodine-based contrast agents. METHODS: Randomized trials of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar contrast media were searched in CENTRAL, Google Scholar, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus. Risk of CIN was appraised within...... a hierarchical Bayesian model computing absolute rates (AR) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals, and probability of being best (Pbest) for each agent. RESULTS: A total of 42 trials (10048 patients) were included focusing on 7 different iodine-based contrast media. Risk of CIN was similarly low...

  15. Transport phenomena in sharply contrasting media with a diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretskaya, O A; Kondratenko, P S

    2011-01-01

    Using the advection–diffusion equation, we analytically study contaminant transport in a sharply contrasting medium with a diffusion barrier due to localization of a contaminant source in a low-permeability medium. Anomalous diffusion behavior and a crossover between different transport regimes are observed. The diffusion barrier results in exponential attenuation of the source power, retardation of the contaminant plume growth and modification of the concentration distribution at large distances. (paper)

  16. High and low osmolar contrast media: Who pays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    To possibly avoid a case of contrast medium-related death in Norway every second or third year will mean a cost of many millions of dollars. It is not feasible without many patients being deprived of diagnostic possibilities. The solution is at present to use LOCM in high risk patients and small children until sufficient data (large, controlled series) can give a reliable answer to if or when LOCM should be used. (orig.)

  17. Improvement of diagnostic efficiency in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules via conventional ultrasound combined with ultrasound contrast and elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Juan; Men, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound (US), ultrasound contrast (UC) and ultrasound elastography (UE) in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 100 patients with thyroid nodules receiving operative treatment were selected; they underwent the conventional US, UE and UC examinations before operation, respectively. The nodules received pathological examination after operation to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accordance rate of each diagnostic method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was calculated. The manifestations of malignant thyroid nodules in conventional US examination were mostly the hypoecho, heterogeneous echo, irregular shape, unclear boundary, aspect ratio benign and malignant nodules in 2, 3 and 4 points were statistically significant (Pbenign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  18. Diazepam prophylaxis of contrast media-induced seizures during computed tomography of patients with brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Hayman, L.A.; Bigelow, R.H.; Libshitz, H.I.; Lepke, R.A.; Wallace, S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of 5 mg of intravenous diazepam (Valium) on contrast media-associated seizer incidence was studied in a randomized controlled trial involving 284 patients with known or suspected brain metastases undergoing cerebral computed tomography. Of these patients, 188 were found to have brain metastases, and it is estimated that for this subgroup prophylactic diazepam reduces the risk of contrast-assocated seizure by a factor of 0.26. Seizures occurred in three of 96 patients with metastases on diazepam and in 14 of 92 patients with metastases but without diazepam. Factors related to increased risk of contrast media-associated seizures are: (1) prior seizure history due to brain metatases and/or prior contrast, (2) progressive cerebral metastases, and (3) prior or concurrent brain antineoplastic therapy. Factors not related to an increased risk of these seizures are: (1) contrast media dosage, chemical composition, or osmolarity, (2) computed tomographic appearance of metastases, and (3) type of primary malignancy. Concomitant therapeutic levels of diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) do not protect completely against contrast media-associated seizures. Pathophysiology of contrast media-associated seizures is discussed in view of the risk factors determined by this study

  19. Imaging of vaporised sub-micron phase change contrast agents with high frame rate ultrasound and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Jamburidze, Akaki; Chee, Melisse; Hau Leow, Chee; Garbin, Valeria; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2018-03-01

    Phase-change ultrasound contrast agent (PCCA), or nanodroplet, shows promise as an alternative to the conventional microbubble agent over a wide range of diagnostic applications. Meanwhile, high-frame-rate (HFR) ultrasound imaging with microbubbles enables unprecedented temporal resolution compared to traditional contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. The combination of HFR ultrasound imaging and PCCAs can offer the opportunity to observe and better understand PCCA behaviour after vaporisation captures the fast phenomenon at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we utilised HFR ultrasound at frame rates in the kilohertz range (5-20 kHz) to image native and size-selected PCCA populations immediately after vaporisation in vitro within clinical acoustic parameters. The size-selected PCCAs through filtration are shown to preserve a sub-micron-sized (mean diameter  1 µm) that originate from native PCCA emulsion. The results demonstrate imaging signals with different amplitudes and temporal features compared to that of microbubbles. Compared with the microbubbles, both the B-mode and pulse-inversion (PI) signals from the vaporised PCCA populations were reduced significantly in the first tens of milliseconds, while only the B-mode signals from the PCCAs were recovered during the next 400 ms, suggesting significant changes to the size distribution of the PCCAs after vaporisation. It is also shown that such recovery in signal over time is not evident when using size-selective PCCAs. Furthermore, it was found that signals from the vaporised PCCA populations are affected by the amplitude and frame rate of the HFR ultrasound imaging. Using high-speed optical camera observation (30 kHz), we observed a change in particle size in the vaporised PCCA populations exposed to the HFR ultrasound imaging pulses. These findings can further the understanding of PCCA behaviour under HFR ultrasound imaging.

  20. Patterns of appearance and risk of misdiagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in cirrhosis at contrast enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Marzia; Iavarone, Massimo; Rossi, Sandro; Bota, Simona; Vavassori, Sara; Rosa, Laura; Leoni, Simona; Venerandi, Laura; Marinelli, Sara; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Veronese, Letizia; Fraquelli, Mirella; Granito, Alessandro; Golfieri, Rita; Colombo, Massimo; Bolondi, Luigi; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2013-05-01

    Primary aim was to validate the percentage of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC) which have a contrast vascular pattern at contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) at risk of misdiagnosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, secondary aim, to verify if any characteristics in the CEUS pattern helps to identify ICC. All ICC on cirrhosis seen in three Italian centres (Bologna, Milan and Pavia) between 2003 and 2011, in which CEUS and at least another imaging technique (CT or MRI) had been performed, were retrospectively identified. Those patients with ICC size comparable to the early HCC stage (Milan criteria, considered as small ICC) were enrolled for this study. The enhancement pattern at CEUS was analysed and compared with CT or MRI. A total of 25 small ICC made this study group. CEUS was at risk of misdiagnosis of ICC for HCC in a significantly higher number of cases than in CT (performed in 24 ICC) (52% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.009) and MRI (11 ICC) (52% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.02). A different contrast pattern among all techniques was found in 6 of 10 ICC lesions submitted to the three imaging methods. In the arterial phase, ICC lacked global hyperenhacement in approximately 50% of cases at CEUS and the degree of intensity of wash-out in the late phase was marked in 24% of nodules. CEUS misdiagnosed as HCC a significantly higher number of ICC lesions in cirrhotic patients than CT and MRI. However, some CEUS contrast features can help suspect ICC, especially in some cases with inconclusive CT or MRI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Renal perfusion image using harmonic ultrasound with microbble contrast agent: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Jae Ho; Han, Dong Chul; Lee, Hi Bahl; Choi, Deuk Lin; Eun, Hyo Won; Lee, Hun Jae

    2003-01-01

    To compare, in terms of their feasibility and normal range, 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging and renal perfusion imaging using harmonic ultrasound (US) with a microbubble contrast agent for the evaluation of renal perfusion after renal transplantation. During a six-month period, thirty patients who had received a renal transplant underwent both 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging and renal perfusion imaging using harmonic US with a microbubble contrast agent. Sonographic renal perfusion images were obtained before and after a bolus injection of the microbubble contrast agent Levovist TM (SH U 5084; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) every 3 seconds for 3 minutes. Sonographic renal perfusion images were converted into a renal perfusion curve by a computer program and T peak of the curve thus obtained was compared with that of the 99m Tc-DTPA curve. Average T peak of the 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion curve was 16.2 seconds in the normal group and 39.6 seconds in the delayed perfusion group, while average T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 23.7 seconds and 46.2 seconds, respectively. T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve showed a good correlation with that of the 99m Tc-DTPA curve (correlation coefficient=0.8209; p=0.0001). The cut-off value of T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 35 seconds (sensitivity=90%, specificity=95%). In patients who have received a renal transplant, the findings of renal perfusion imaging using harmonic US with a microbubble contrast agent show close correlation with those of 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging. The optimal cut-off value of T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 35 seconds

  2. Ultrasound contrast agent imaging: Real-time imaging of the superharmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzini, D.; Viti, J. [MSD lab, Department of Information Engineering, Univ of Florence, Via S.Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze (Italy); Erasmus MC, ’s-Gravendijkwal 230, Faculty Building, Ee 2302, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tortoli, P. [MSD lab, Department of Information Engineering, Univ of Florence, Via S.Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze (Italy); Verweij, M. D. [Acoustical Wavefield Imaging, ImPhys, Delft Univ Technology, van der Waalsweg 8, 2628 CH Delft (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Vos, H. J., E-mail: h.vos@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus MC, ’s-Gravendijkwal 230, Faculty Building, Ee 2302, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Acoustical Wavefield Imaging, ImPhys, Delft Univ Technology, van der Waalsweg 8, 2628 CH Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Currently, in medical ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) imaging the second harmonic scattering of the microbubbles is regularly used. This scattering is in competition with the signal that is caused by nonlinear wave propagation in tissue. It was reported that UCA imaging based on the third or higher harmonics, i.e. “superharmonic” imaging, shows better contrast. However, the superharmonic scattering has a lower signal level compared to e.g. second harmonic signals. This study investigates the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of superharmonic UCA scattering in a tissue/vessel mimicking phantom using a real-time clinical scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to estimate the level of harmonics generated by the microbubbles. Data were acquired with a custom built dual-frequency cardiac phased array probe. Fundamental real-time images were produced while beam formed radiofrequency (RF) data was stored for further offline processing. The phantom consisted of a cavity filled with UCA surrounded by tissue mimicking material. The acoustic pressure in the cavity of the phantom was 110 kPa (MI = 0.11) ensuring non-destructivity of UCA. After processing of the acquired data from the phantom, the UCA-filled cavity could be clearly observed in the images, while tissue signals were suppressed at or below the noise floor. The measured CTR values were 36 dB, >38 dB, and >32 dB, for the second, third, and fourth harmonic respectively, which were in agreement with those reported earlier for preliminary contrast superharmonic imaging. The single frame SNR values (in which ‘signal’ denotes the signal level from the UCA area) were 23 dB, 18 dB, and 11 dB, respectively. This indicates that noise, and not the tissue signal, is the limiting factor for the UCA detection when using the superharmonics in nondestructive mode.

  3. Do nonionic contrast media reduce the health hazards of diagnostic exminations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, E.

    1989-01-01

    Statistics reveal the significantly lower rate of adverse reactions to nonionic contrast media in comparison to the conventional ionic media. The statistical data have been collected over many years of clinical experience and are verified by a great number of controlled studies. The only question that remains to be answered with certainty is whether it is possible to further reduce, by applying nonionic contrast media, the number of rare, serious adverse reactions or even lethal cases. Latest results of studies support this expectation, although currently statistical configuration cannot be presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Influence of MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Lucjusz

    2012-07-01

    Mast cells, owing to diversity of secreted mediators, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. Together with basophils, mast cells constitute a central pathogenetic element of anaphylactic (IgE-dependent) and anaphylactoid (IgE-independent) reactions. In severe cases, generalized degranulation of mast cells may cause symptoms of anaphylactic shock. The influence of the classical, iodine-based contrast media on mastocyte degranulation has been fully described. Our objective was to determine the influence of the gadolinium-based MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells and to compare the activity of ionic and non-ionic preparations of contrast media. To determine the intensity of mast cell degranulation, we used an experimental model based on mastocytes isolated from rat peritoneal fluid. Purified suspensions of mast cells were incubated with various concentrations of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA, and solutions of PEG 600 which served as a non-toxic osmotic stimulus. The intensity of mast cell activation was presented as mean percentage of histamine released from cells after incubation. The obtained results demonstrate that both ionic and non-ionic preparations of the MRI contrast media are able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. It was also proved that the non-ionic MRI contrast media stimulate mast cells markedly more weakly than ionic contrast media at identical concentration. The aforementioned results may suggest a more profitable safety profile of the non-ionic contrast preparations. We may also conclude that triggering of mast cell degranulation after incubation with the solutions of MRI contrast media results from non-specific osmotic stimulation and direct toxicity of free ionic residues.

  5. Influence of MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Lucjusz

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells, owing to diversity of secreted mediators, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. Together with basophils, mast cells constitute a central pathogenetic element of anaphylactic (IgE-dependent) and anaphylactoid (IgE-independent) reactions. In severe cases, generalized degranulation of mast cells may cause symptoms of anaphylactic shock. The influence of the classical, iodine-based contrast media on mastocyte degranulation has been fully described. Our objective was to determine the influence of the gadolinium-based MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells and to compare the activity of ionic and non-ionic preparations of contrast media. To determine the intensity of mast cell degranulation, we used an experimental model based on mastocytes isolated from rat peritoneal fluid. Purified suspensions of mast cells were incubated with various concentrations of Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA, and solutions of PEG 600 which served as a non-toxic osmotic stimulus. The intensity of mast cell activation was presented as mean percentage of histamine released from cells after incubation. The obtained results demonstrate that both ionic and non-ionic preparations of the MRI contrast media are able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. It was also proved that the non-ionic MRI contrast media stimulate mast cells markedly more weakly than ionic contrast media at identical concentration. The aforementioned results may suggest a more profitable safety profile of the non-ionic contrast preparations. We may also conclude that triggering of mast cell degranulation after incubation with the solutions of MRI contrast media results from non-specific osmotic stimulation and direct toxicity of free ionic residues

  6. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginai-Karamat, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium (CM) for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats. The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate (without any additives), commercial barium sulphate (Micropaque, with additives), Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque (in pleura Omnipaque) and Hexabrix. (Auth.)

  7. Experimental investigations of nonlinearities and destruction mechanisms of an experimental phospholipid-based ultrasound contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Palmizio Errico, Rosa; Errico, Rosa Palmizio; Conversano, Francesco; Demitri, Christian; Distante, Alessandro

    2007-02-01

    We sought to characterize the acoustical behavior of the experimental ultrasound contrast agent BR14 by determining the acoustic pressure threshold above which nonlinear oscillation becomes significant and investigating microbubble destruction mechanisms. We used a custom-designed in vitro setup to conduct broadband attenuation measurements at 3.5 MHz varying acoustic pressure (range, 50-190 kPa). We also performed granulometric analyses on contrast agent solutions to accurately measure microbubble size distribution and to evaluate insonification effects. Attenuation did not depend on acoustic pressure less than 100 kPa, indicating this pressure as the threshold for the appearance of microbubble nonlinear behavior. At the lowest excitation amplitude, attenuation increased during insonification, while, at higher excitation levels, the attenuation decreased over time, indicating microbubble destruction. The destruction rate changed with pressure amplitude suggesting different destruction mechanisms, as it was confirmed by granulometric analysis. Microbubbles showed a linear behavior until 100 kPa, whereas beyond this value significant nonlinearities occurred. Observed destruction phenomena seem to be mainly due to gas diffusion and bubble fragmentation mechanisms.

  8. The Feasibility of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound During Uterine Artery Embolization: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenberg, Eric J.; Jakobsen, Jarl A.; Brabrand, Knut; Hafsahl, Geir; Smith, Hans-Jorgen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during uterine artery embolization (UAE) in order to define the correct end-point of embolization with complete devascularization of all fibroids. Methods. In this prospective study of 10 consecutive women undergoing UAE, CEUS was performed in the angiographic suite during embolization. When the angiographic end-point, defined as the 'pruned-tree' appearance of the uterine arteries was reached, CEUS was performed while the angiographic catheters to both uterine arteries were kept in place. The decision whether or not to continue the embolization was based on the findings at CEUS. The results of CEUS were compared with those of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 day as well as 3 months following UAE. Results. CEUS was successfully performed in all women. In 4 cases injection of particles was continued based on the findings at CEUS despite angiographically complete embolization. CEUS imaging at completion of UAE correlated well with the findings at MRI. Conclusion. The use of CEUS during UAE is feasible and may increase the quality of UAE

  9. Perfusion characteristics of parotid gland tumors evaluated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Laura V., E-mail: Laura.Klotz@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gürkov, Robert [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Eichhorn, Martin E. [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Siedek, Vanessa; Krause, Eike [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Clevert, Dirk-Andre [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) is a promising imaging modality for non-invasive analysis of parotid gland lesions because their vascularisation differs from normal gland tissue. This clinical study should further investigate CE-US as a diagnostic tool for parotid gland tumors. Materials and methods: 39 patients underwent CE-US measurements after intravenous application of a contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Italy) before surgical tumor resection. Time–intensity curves gradients were calculated and parameters of intratumoral microcirculation were analysed. The vascularisation parameters were compared among the different tumor entities as defined per definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Histological analyses revealed 17 pleomorphic adenoma, 15 cystadenolymphoma and 7 malignoma. A significant difference of area below intensity time curve (AUC) and mean transit time (MTT) was measured in the malignant lesions compared to benign tumors (p < 0.05). A significant difference of AUC and maximum of signal increase (ΔSI{sub max}) for pleomorphic adenoma versus cystadenolymphoma was found (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CE-US seems to be a quantitative and independent method for the assessment of malign and benign parotid gland tumors. Further studies and clinical experience will have to validate this method as a reliable diagnostic tool that facilitates preoperative planning.

  10. Thrombin-Activatable Microbubbles as Potential Ultrasound Contrast Agents for the Detection of Acute Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Jacques; Vezeridis, Alexander M; Hoyt, Kenneth; Adams, Stephen R; Armstrong, Amanda M; Sirsi, Shashank R; Mattrey, Robert F

    2017-11-01

    Acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in the deep veins of the body that can lead to fatal pulmonary embolism. Acute DVT is difficult to distinguish from chronic DVT by ultrasound (US), the imaging modality of choice, and is therefore treated aggressively with anticoagulants, which can lead to internal bleeding. Here we demonstrate that conjugating perfluorobutane-filled (PFB-filled) microbubbles (MBs) with thrombin-sensitive activatable cell-penetrating peptides (ACPPs) could lead to the development of contrast agents that detect acute thrombosis with US imaging. Successful conjugation of ACPP to PFB-filled MBs was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Fluorescein-labeled ACPP was used to evaluate the efficiency of thrombin-triggered cleavage by measuring the mean fluorescence intensity of ACPP-labeled MBs (ACPP-MBs) before and after incubation at 37 °C with thrombin. Lastly, control MBs and ACPP-MBs were infused through a tube containing a clot, and US contrast enhancement was measured with or without the presence of a thrombin inhibitor after washing the clot with saline. With thrombin activity, 91.7 ± 14.2% of the signal was retained after ACPP-MB infusion and washing, whereas only 16.7 ± 4% of the signal was retained when infusing ACPP-MBs in the presence of hirudin, a potent thrombin inhibitor.

  11. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  12. Controlling cavitation-based image contrast in focused ultrasound histotripsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven P; Hall, Timothy L; Cain, Charles A; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis

    2015-01-01

    To develop MRI feedback for cavitation-based, focused ultrasound, tissue erosion surgery (histotripsy), we investigate image contrast generated by transient cavitation events. Changes in GRE image intensity are observed while balanced pairs of field gradients are varied in the presence of an acoustically driven cavitation event. The amplitude of the acoustic pulse and the timing between a cavitation event and the start of these gradient waveforms are also varied. The magnitudes and phases of the cavitation site are compared with those of control images. An echo-planar sequence is used to evaluate histotripsy lesions in ex vivo tissue. Cavitation events in water cause localized attenuation when acoustic pulses exceed a pressure threshold. Attenuation increases with increasing gradient amplitude and gradient lobe separation times and is isotropic with gradient direction. This attenuation also depends upon the relative timing between the cavitation event and the start of the balanced gradients. These factors can be used to control the appearance of attenuation while imaging ex vivo tissue. By controlling the timing between cavitation events and the imaging gradients, MR images can be made alternately sensitive or insensitive to cavitation. During therapy, these images can be used to isolate contrast generated by cavitation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two-dimensional image of the baby while inside the mother's ...

  14. Contrast media inhibit exogenous surfactant therapy in rats with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesecioglu, Jozef; Haitsma, Jack J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To test the effects of various contrast media on the pulmonary surfactant system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a rat model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by lung lavage, the effects of surfactant suspended in saline were compared with surfactant suspended in the contrast

  15. Activation of platelets by low-osmolar contrast media: differential effects of ionic and nonionic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, M. R.; Konijnenberg, A.; Sturk, A.; Reekers, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effects of an ionic low-osmolar contrast medium (ioxaglate) and two nonionic low-osmolar contrast media (iohexol and iopamidol) on human platelet activation in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis subsequent to reaction with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies was used to detect

  16. Peripheral blood eosinophilia associated with gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsic, Branko M; Newman, Alan C; Reuther, Warren L; Terry, James A; Drnovsek, Valerie H

    2003-03-01

    This study was designed to assess whether gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media results in peripheral blood eosinophilia. We studied 110 patients in a retrospective review. Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium for abdominal CT were administered to 98 of these patients; 22 of the 98 had also been given the same contrast medium administered by enema. The remaining 12 patients were given diatrizoate sodium for gastrointestinal fluoroscopy. A control group of 65 patients underwent single-contrast barium upper gastrointestinal or enema examinations. WBC and eosinophil counts were determined approximately 24 hr before the examination and every 24 hr thereafter, through the ninth day. Eosinophilia was detected in 17 (15.5%) of 110 patients after gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media. The prevalence of eosinophilia after administration of iodinated contrast media was statistically significantly different compared with that in the control group, in which none of the 65 patients had eosinophilia (p contrast agents and lasted through the sixth day, with a peak on the fifth day. The prevalence of eosinophilia was independent of route of application, dose, or type of iodinated contrast medium. Eosinophilia in all cases was clinically asymptomatic. Eosinophilia that is caused by gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media is a transient, clinically silent phenomenon. It may lead to unnecessary workup for known conditions associated with eosinophilia.

  17. Usefulness of low dose oral contrast media in 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2006-01-01

    The standard protocol using large volume of oral contrast media may cause gastrointestinal discomfort and contrast-related artifacts in PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low dose oral contrast in 18 F-FDG PET/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the whole-body PET/CT images in a total of 435 patients. About 200 ml of oral contrast agent (barium sulfate) was administered immediately before injection of 18 F-FDG. The FDG uptake of intestines was analyzed by visual and semi-quantitative method on transaxial, coronal and saggital planes. Seventy (16%, 113 sites) of 435 images showed high FDG uptake (peak SUV > 4); 50 (74%, 84 sites) with diffuse and 20 (26%, 29 sites) with focal uptake. The most commonly delivered site of oral contrast media was small bowel (n = 27, 39%). On PET/CT images, FDG uptake coexisted with oral contrast media in 26 patients (54%, 38 sites) with diffuse pattern and 9 (45%, 9 sites) with focal pattern, and by sites, those were 38 (45%) and 9 (31%), respectively. In small bowel regions, the proportion of coexistence reached as high as 61% (29/47 sites). A visual analysis of available non-attenuation corrected PET images of 27 matched regions revealed no contrast-related artifact. We concluded that the application of low dose contrast media could be helpful in the evaluation of abdominal uptake in the FDG PET/CT image

  18. The evidence-based evaluation of the safety of contrast media in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jixia; Huang Baosheng

    2009-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has now been the third most common cause of acquired renal failure. Diabetes mellitus (DM), the type of contrast agent used and the intra-arterial route of administration are three important risk factors inducing CIN. The incidence rate of CIN is very high in patients with DM or renal insufficiency after iodinated contrast was administered. Unfortunately, it has not yet attracted physicians'and radiologists'sufficient attention. This paper aims to make an evidence-based evaluation of the safety and rephrotoxicity of various contrast agents when they are used in patients with DM. Usually, intravenous administration of contrast media will not cause permanent damage to the kidney in highrisk patients. Low-osmolarity contrast media is relatively safe for patients with DM only, while it takes much risk of CIN when low-osmolarity contrast media is used in patients with diabetic nephropathy or in patients of DM accompanied with renal insufficiency, for such patients, the iso-osmolarity contrast media, iodixanol, can be used. (authors)

  19. Noninvasive Ambient Pressure Estimation using Ultrasound Contrast Agents -- Invoking Subharmonics for Cardiac and Hepatic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K.

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are encapsulated microbubbles that provide a source for acoustic impedance mismatch with the blood, due to difference in compressibility between the gas contained within these microbubbles and the blood. When insonified by an ultrasound beam, these UCAs act as nonlinear scatterers and enhance the echoes of the incident pulse, resulting in scattering of the incident ultrasound beam and emission of fundamental (f0), subharmonic (f0/2), harmonic (n*f0; n ∈ N) and ultraharmonic (((2n-1)/2)*f0; n ∈ N & n > 1) components in the echo response. A promising approach to monitor in vivo pressures revolves around the fact that the ultrasound transmit and receive parameters can be selected to induce an ambient pressure amplitude dependent subharmonic signal. This subharmonic signal may be used to estimate ambient pressure amplitude; such technique of estimating ambient pressure amplitude is referred to as subharmonic aided pressure estimation or SHAPE. This project develops and evaluates the feasibility of SHAPE to noninvasively monitor cardiac and hepatic pressures (using commercially available ultrasound scanners and UCAs) because invasive catheter based pressure measurements are used currently for these applications. Invasive catheter based pressure measurements pose risk of introducing infection while the catheter is guided towards the region of interest in the body through a percutaneous incision, pose risk of death due to structural or mechanical failure of the catheter (which has also triggered product recalls by the USA Food and Drug Administration) and may potentially modulate the pressures that are being measured. Also, catheterization procedures require fluoroscopic guidance to advance the catheter to the site of pressure measurements and such catheterization procedures are not performed in all clinical centers. Thus, a noninvasive technique to obtain ambient pressure values without the catheterization process is clinically

  20. Contrast media induced acute renal failure in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambausek, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dehydration, preexisting renal insufficiency, multiple myeloma and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are known risk factors for a radiocontrast medium induced acute renal failure. In 90% of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and proteinuria, a further detoriation of renal function can be expected after i.v. administration of radiocontrast medium. Recent concepts on the genesis of acute renal failure after radiocontrast medium in multiple myeloma emphasize the role of tubular blocade (tubular precipitation of myeloma protein with contrast medium). In insulin-dependent diabetic patients we found altered carbohydrate composition of urinary Tamm Horsfall Protein (THP), with increased glucose and diminished N-acetyl-neuraminicacid content. This was paralleled by a difference in an in-vitro system of coprecipitation where THP of diabetes triggered more pronounced calcium dependent coprecipitation of contrast medium and albumin. These in-vitro findings might be important for the explanation of the genesis of radiocontrast medium-induced acute renal failure in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (orig.) [de

  1. Interobserver Variation of the Bolus-and-Burst Method for Pancreatic Perfusion with Dynamic – Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stangeland, M.; Engjom, T.; Mézl, M.; Jiřík, Radovan; Gilja, O.H.; Dimcevski, G.; Nylund, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2017), E99-E106 E-ISSN 2199-7152 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : interobserver * dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound * perfusion * pancreas Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Medical engineering https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0043-110475

  2. Assessment of local changes of cerebral perfusion and blood concentration by ultrasound harmonic B-mode contrast measurement in piglet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M.C. van; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Hopman, J.C.W.; Liem, K.D.; Thijssen, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the blood concentration, and possibly in the perfusion, of different areas in the brain can be assessed by the use of ultrasound contrast agent (CA) and (linear) echo densitometry. The experiments were performed with piglets (n=3) under general

  3. Semi-automatic motion compensation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound images from abdominal organs for perfusion analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schafer, S.; Nylund, K.; Saevik, F.; Engjom, T.; Mézl, M.; Jiřík, Radovan; Dimcevski, G.; Gilja, O.H.; Tönnies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, AUG 1 (2015), s. 229-237 ISSN 0010-4825 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2380 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ultrasonography * motion analysis * motion compensation * registration * CEUS * contrast-enhanced ultrasound * perfusion * perfusion modeling Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2015

  4. Relationship between cavitation and loss of echogenicity from ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Raymond, Jason L; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2013-09-21

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have the potential to nucleate cavitation and promote both beneficial and deleterious bioeffects in vivo. Previous studies have elucidated the pulse-duration-dependent pressure amplitude threshold for rapid loss of echogenicity due to UCA fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated that UCA fragmentation was concomitant with inertial cavitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stable and inertial cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs as a function of pulse duration. Determining the relationship between cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs would enable monitoring of cavitation based upon the onscreen echogenicity in clinical applications. Two lipid-shelled UCAs, echogenic liposomes (ELIP) and Definity®, were insonified by a clinical ultrasound scanner in duplex spectral Doppler mode at four pulse durations ('sample volumes') in both a static system and a flow system. Cavitation emissions from the UCAs insonified by Doppler pulses were recorded using a passive cavitation detection system and stable and inertial cavitation thresholds ascertained. Loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity® was assessed within regions of interest on B-mode images. A numerical model based on UCA rupture predicted the functional form of the loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity®. Stable and inertial cavitation thresholds were found to have a weak dependence on pulse duration. Stable cavitation thresholds were lower than inertial cavitation thresholds. The power of cavitation emissions was an exponential function of the loss of echogenicity over the investigated range of acoustic pressures. Both ELIP and Definity® lost more than 80% echogenicity before the onset of stable or inertial cavitation. Once this level of echogenicity loss occurred, both stable and inertial cavitation were detected in the physiologic flow phantom. These results imply that stable and inertial

  5. Investigation on the inertial cavitation threshold and shell properties of commercialized ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiasheng; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Dong; Tu, Juan

    2013-08-01

    The inertial cavitation (IC) activity of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) plays an important role in the development and improvement of ultrasound diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, various diagnostic and therapeutic applications have different requirements for IC characteristics. Here through IC dose quantifications based on passive cavitation detection, IC thresholds were measured for two commercialized UCAs, albumin-shelled KangRun(®) and lipid-shelled SonoVue(®) microbubbles, at varied UCA volume concentrations (viz., 0.125 and 0.25 vol. %) and acoustic pulse lengths (viz., 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 cycles). Shell elastic and viscous coefficients of UCAs were estimated by fitting measured acoustic attenuation spectra with Sarkar's model. The influences of sonication condition (viz., acoustic pulse length) and UCA shell properties on IC threshold were discussed based on numerical simulations. Both experimental measurements and numerical simulations indicate that IC thresholds of UCAs decrease with increasing UCA volume concentration and acoustic pulse length. The shell interfacial tension and dilatational viscosity estimated for SonoVue (0.7 ± 0.11 N/m, 6.5 ± 1.01 × 10(-8) kg/s) are smaller than those of KangRun (1.05 ± 0.18 N/m, 1.66 ± 0.38 × 10(-7) kg/s); this might result in lower IC threshold for SonoVue. The current results will be helpful for selecting and utilizing commercialized UCAs for specific clinical applications, while minimizing undesired IC-induced bioeffects.

  6. Relationship between cavitation and loss of echogenicity from ultrasound contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Bader, Kenneth B.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Raymond, Jason L.; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have the potential to nucleate cavitation and promote both beneficial and deleterious bioeffects in vivo. Previous studies have elucidated the pulse-duration-dependent pressure amplitude threshold for rapid loss of echogenicity due to UCA fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated that UCA fragmentation was concomitant with inertial cavitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stable and inertial cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs as a function of pulse duration. Determining the relationship between cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs would enable monitoring of cavitation based upon the onscreen echogenicity in clinical applications. Two lipid-shelled UCAs, echogenic liposomes (ELIP) and Definity®, were insonified by a clinical ultrasound scanner in duplex spectral Doppler mode at four pulse durations (‘sample volumes’) in both a static system and a flow system. Cavitation emissions from the UCAs insonified by Doppler pulses were recorded using a passive cavitation detection system and stable and inertial cavitation thresholds ascertained. Loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity® was assessed within regions of interest on B-mode images. A numerical model based on UCA rupture predicted the functional form of the loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity®. Stable and inertial cavitation thresholds were found to have a weak dependence on pulse duration. Stable cavitation thresholds were lower than inertial cavitation thresholds. The power of cavitation emissions was an exponential function of the loss of echogenicity over the investigated range of acoustic pressures. Both ELIP and Definity® lost more than 80% echogenicity before the onset of stable or inertial cavitation. Once this level of echogenicity loss occurred, both stable and inertial cavitation were detected in the physiologic flow phantom. These results imply that stable and

  7. Relationship between cavitation and loss of echogenicity from ultrasound contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Raymond, Jason L; Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Holland, Christy K; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have the potential to nucleate cavitation and promote both beneficial and deleterious bioeffects in vivo. Previous studies have elucidated the pulse-duration-dependent pressure amplitude threshold for rapid loss of echogenicity due to UCA fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated that UCA fragmentation was concomitant with inertial cavitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stable and inertial cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs as a function of pulse duration. Determining the relationship between cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs would enable monitoring of cavitation based upon the onscreen echogenicity in clinical applications. Two lipid-shelled UCAs, echogenic liposomes (ELIP) and Definity®, were insonified by a clinical ultrasound scanner in duplex spectral Doppler mode at four pulse durations (‘sample volumes’) in both a static system and a flow system. Cavitation emissions from the UCAs insonified by Doppler pulses were recorded using a passive cavitation detection system and stable and inertial cavitation thresholds ascertained. Loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity® was assessed within regions of interest on B-mode images. A numerical model based on UCA rupture predicted the functional form of the loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity®. Stable and inertial cavitation thresholds were found to have a weak dependence on pulse duration. Stable cavitation thresholds were lower than inertial cavitation thresholds. The power of cavitation emissions was an exponential function of the loss of echogenicity over the investigated range of acoustic pressures. Both ELIP and Definity® lost more than 80% echogenicity before the onset of stable or inertial cavitation. Once this level of echogenicity loss occurred, both stable and inertial cavitation were detected in the physiologic flow phantom. These results imply that stable and

  8. Microvascular resistance in response to iodinated contrast media in normal and functionally impaired kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Osamu; Takano, Masamichi; Uchiyama, Saori; Fukuizumi, Isamu; Shimura, Tetsuro; Matsushita, Masato; Komiyama, Hidenori; Inami, Toru; Murakami, Daisuke; Munakata, Ryo; Ohba, Takayoshi; Hata, Noritake; Seino, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-12-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is considered to result from intrarenal vasoconstriction, and occurs more frequently in impaired than in normal kidneys. It was hypothesized that iodinated contrast media would markedly change renal blood flow and vascular resistance in functionally impaired kidneys. Thirty-six patients were enrolled (32 men; mean age, 75.3 ± 7.6 years) undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and were divided into two groups based on the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of contrast media. The APV and the RI were positively and inversely correlated with the eGFR at baseline, respectively (APV, R = 0.545, P = 0.001; RI, R = -0.627, P contrast media administration in the non-CKD group, but not in the CKD group (APV, P = 0.258; RI, P = 0.707). Although renal arterial resistance was higher in patients with CKD, it was not affected by contrast media administration, suggesting that patients with CKD could have an attenuated response to contrast media. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Epithelial cell biocompatibility of silica nanospheres for contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriaco, Fernanda; Conversano, Francesco; Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Ernesto [Institute of Clinical Physiology, Bioengineering Division, National Research Council (Italy); Ragusa, Andrea [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO (Italy); Sbenaglia, Enzo Antonio; Dipaola, Lucia [Institute of Clinical Physiology, Bioengineering Division, National Research Council (Italy); Casciaro, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.casciaro@cnr.it [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica (CNR-IFC) c/o Campus Universitario Ecotekne, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Nanosized particles are receiving increasing attention as future contrast agents (CAs) for ultrasound (US) molecular imaging, possibly decorated on its surface with biological recognition agents for targeted delivery and deposition of therapeutics. In particular, silica nanospheres (SiNSs) have been demonstrated to be feasible in terms of contrast enhancement on conventional US systems. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of SiNSs on breast cancer (MCF-7) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells employing NSs with sizes ranging from 160 to 330 nm and concentration range of 1.5-5 mg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated in terms of size, dose and time dependence, performing the MTT reduction assay with coated and uncoated SiNSs. Whereas uncoated SiNSs caused a variable significant decrease in cell viability on both cell lines mainly depending on size and exposure time, PEGylated SiNSs (SiNSs-PEG) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility. In fact, after 72-h incubation, viability of both cell types was above the cutoff value of 70 % at concentration up to 5 mg/mL. We also investigated the acoustical behavior of coated and uncoated SiNSs within conventional diagnostic US fields in order to determine a suitable configuration, in terms of particle size and concentration, for their employment as targetable CAs. Our results indicate that the employment of SiNSs with diameters around 240 nm assures the most effective contrast enhancement even at the lowest tested concentration, coupled with the possibility of targeting all tumor tissues, being the SiNSs still in a size range where reticuloendothelial system trapping effect is relatively low.

  10. Epithelial cell biocompatibility of silica nanospheres for contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriacò, Fernanda; Conversano, Francesco; Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Ernesto; Ragusa, Andrea; Sbenaglia, Enzo Antonio; Dipaola, Lucia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Nanosized particles are receiving increasing attention as future contrast agents (CAs) for ultrasound (US) molecular imaging, possibly decorated on its surface with biological recognition agents for targeted delivery and deposition of therapeutics. In particular, silica nanospheres (SiNSs) have been demonstrated to be feasible in terms of contrast enhancement on conventional US systems. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of SiNSs on breast cancer (MCF-7) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells employing NSs with sizes ranging from 160 to 330 nm and concentration range of 1.5–5 mg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated in terms of size, dose and time dependence, performing the MTT reduction assay with coated and uncoated SiNSs. Whereas uncoated SiNSs caused a variable significant decrease in cell viability on both cell lines mainly depending on size and exposure time, PEGylated SiNSs (SiNSs-PEG) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility. In fact, after 72-h incubation, viability of both cell types was above the cutoff value of 70 % at concentration up to 5 mg/mL. We also investigated the acoustical behavior of coated and uncoated SiNSs within conventional diagnostic US fields in order to determine a suitable configuration, in terms of particle size and concentration, for their employment as targetable CAs. Our results indicate that the employment of SiNSs with diameters around 240 nm assures the most effective contrast enhancement even at the lowest tested concentration, coupled with the possibility of targeting all tumor tissues, being the SiNSs still in a size range where reticuloendothelial system trapping effect is relatively low

  11. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  12. Fabrication and imaging study of ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal contrast agent based on polymeric microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhanwen; Ke Hengte; Wang Jinrui; Zhao Bo; Qu Enze; Yue Xiuli; Dai Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To fabricate an ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal contrast agent by encapsulating fluorescent quantum dots into polymeric ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles. Methods: Polylactic acid (PLA, 500 mg), (1R)-(+)-camphor (50 mg) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (0.5 ml, 2.3 μmol/L)were dissolved or dispersed in dichloromethane (10 ml) to form in an organic phase. Ammonium carbonate solution and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution were employed as the internal and external water phase, respectively. The fluorescent microbubbles were generated using double emulsion solvent evaporation and lyophilization methods. The morphology and illumination were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Synchronized contrast-enhanced ultrasound and fluorescence imaging was acquired by injecting fluorescent microbubbles into the silicone tube coupled to a self-made ultrasound/fluorescence imaging device. Ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal in vivo imaging was acquired on the kidney of New Zealand rabbits and suckling mice. Results: The fluorescent microbubbles were hollow spheres with an averaged diameter of (1.62 ± 1.47) μm. More than 99% of these microbubbles were less than 8 μm in diameter, which met the size criteria for ultrasound contrast agents. The fluorescence emission peak of the microbubbles appeared at 632 nm, indicating that good luminescence properties of quantum dots were maintained. In vitro ultrasound/fluorescence imaging showed no echoic signal when the silicone tube was filled with saline, but there was a strong echo when filled with fluorescent microbubbles. The liquid column with fluorescent microbubbles emitted red luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation. The kidney of the rabbit was remarkably enhanced after the administration of fluorescent microbubbles. Bright fluorescence could be observed at the injection site of the suckling mice via subcutaneous injection. Conclusions: A bi-modal but single contrast agent

  13. Value of MR contrast media in image-guided body interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maythem; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-28

    In the past few years, there have been multiple advances in magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation, in vivo devices, real-time imaging sequences and interventional procedures with new therapies. More recently, interventionists have started to use minimally invasive image-guided procedures and local therapies, which reduce the pain from conventional surgery and increase drug effectiveness, respectively. Local therapy also reduces the systemic dose and eliminates the toxic side effects of some drugs to other organs. The success of MR-guided procedures depends on visualization of the targets in 3D and precise deployment of ablation catheters, local therapies and devices. MR contrast media provide a wealth of tissue contrast and allows 3D and 4D image acquisitions. After the development of fast imaging sequences, the clinical applications of MR contrast media have been substantially expanded to include pre- during- and post-interventions. Prior to intervention, MR contrast media have the potential to localize and delineate pathologic tissues of vital organs, such as the brain, heart, breast, kidney, prostate, liver and uterus. They also offer other options such as labeling therapeutic agents or cells. During intervention, these agents have the capability to map blood vessels and enhance the contrast between the endovascular guidewire/catheters/devices, blood and tissues as well as direct therapies to the target. Furthermore, labeling therapeutic agents or cells aids in visualizing their delivery sites and tracking their tissue distribution. After intervention, MR contrast media have been used for assessing the efficacy of ablation and therapies. It should be noted that most image-guided procedures are under preclinical research and development. It can be concluded that MR contrast media have great value in preclinical and some clinical interventional procedures. Future applications of MR contrast media in image-guided procedures depend on their safety, tolerability

  14. Safe Use of Contrast Media: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Katrina R; Moriarity, Andrew K; Langer, Jessica M

    2015-10-01

    Iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media are used on a daily basis in most radiology practices. These agents often are essential to providing accurate diagnoses, and are nearly always safe and effective when administered correctly. However, reactions to contrast media do occur and can be life threatening. Therefore, it is critical for faculty and staff to know how reactions to contrast agents manifest and how to treat them promptly. The decline in renal function seen occasionally after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast agents is poorly understood and likely multifactorial, and its association with the contrast medium may be overemphasized. However, it is important that radiologists be aware of current understanding and strategies to decrease the incidence of renal dysfunction. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a skin disease, is an adverse reaction related to use of some gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with chronic renal failure. The types of gadolinium most often associated with this condition and the indications for withholding gadolinium are important and are discussed in this article. The use of enteric contrast agents and contrast agents during pregnancy and nursing are reviewed briefly. Current knowledge for safe use of contrast media and key concepts that all radiologists should know are summarized in this review. © RSNA, 2015.

  15. The diagnostic effectiveness of contrast media in the excretory urography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velesova, M.; Ledecky, V.

    2005-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the use of four different positive contrast media, Omnipaque (Nycomed Imaging As.), Optiray (Maliincrodt Medical GmbH), Ultravist (Schering AG), and Urografin (Schering AG) in normograde excretory urography. Investigations were carried out on thirteen dogs. Each group of dogs was administered a different contrast medium. Radiographs were obtained immediately after the administration of contrast media and after a lapse of 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The effectiveness of the application was evaluated by assessing the radiographs of abdominal cavities in ventro-dorsal and latero-lateral positions. None of the dogs showed pronounced side effect after the application of contrast media. Ectopic ureter was diagnosed in three and a prostate cyst in one of the patients. Our results showed that Omnipaque and Ultravist were the contrast agents most suitable for the examination of the urinary apparatus by intravenous contrast excretory urography. Their advantage is that visualisation of the kidneys and ureters achieved by these media are sufficiently long and contrastive

  16. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, {beta}-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  17. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, S.K.; Thomsen, H.S.; Webb, J.A.W.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, β-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound vs multidetector-computed tomography for detecting liver metastases in colorectal cancer: a prospective, blinded, patient-by-patient analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, S R; Jakobsen, A

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.......This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer....

  19. Renal streaky artifact during contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT: Comparison of high versus low osmolality contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Kim, Jong Chul; Lee, Chung Keun; Shin, Kyoung Suk

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of low osmolality contrast agent(LOCA) has allowed safer, more comfortable contrast-enhanced CT examination, but there has been significant increase in image degradation when evaluating the kidneys due to streaky artifact. The authors reviewed findings of contrast- enhanced abdominal and pelvic computed tomography(CT) to know the difference of renal streaky artifact between a high osmolality contrast agent (HOCA) and LOCA. This study included two hundred contrast-enhanced CT in 200 patients, 100 performed with HOCA(meglumine ioglicate, 150 ml) and 100 performed with LOCA (iopromide,150 ml). The severity of renal streaky artifact was compared between HOCA and LOCA groups. Of the scans performed with HOCA, 40 had no artifact, 52 had grade I artifact, 6 had grade II artifact, and 2 had grade III artifact. Of the scans preformed with LOCA, 23 had no artifact, 44 had grade I artifact, 29 had grade II artifact, and 4 had grade III artifact. There was significant difference in the degree of the streaky artifact depending upon the osmolality of the contrast media used(by χ 2 -test, P=.0001). The results of this study revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of artifacts and distortions of renal image with LOCA when compared with HOCA

  20. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: Differences in diagnostic efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molen, Aart J. van der [Department of Radiology C-2S, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, NL-2333 ZA Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: molen@lumc.nl; Bellin, Marie-France [Universite Paris-Sud XI, AP-HP, Service de Radiologie, Hopital Paul Brousse, 12-14 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-94804 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2008-05-15

    Since the introduction of the first gadolinium-based contrast agent (Gd-CA) in 1988 it has become clear that these agents significantly improve the diagnostic efficacy of MRI. Studies on single agents have shown that, in comparison to unenhanced sequences, all agents help to improve the detection and delineation of lesions which can alter diagnosis in up to 40% of patients. Doubling or tripling the standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight may be beneficial for selected indications (e.g. brain perfusion, equivocal single dose study in MRI for brain metastasis, small vessel MR angiography). A more limited number of studies have compared the various agents. These studies do not show clinically significant differences in diagnostic efficacy between the various extracellular Gd-CA. Agents with higher concentration or protein binding may be relatively better suitable for selected applications (e.g. perfusion MRI). The higher relaxivity agents may be used in somewhat lower doses than the extracellular agents.

  1. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: Differences in diagnostic efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, Aart J. van der; Bellin, Marie-France

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of the first gadolinium-based contrast agent (Gd-CA) in 1988 it has become clear that these agents significantly improve the diagnostic efficacy of MRI. Studies on single agents have shown that, in comparison to unenhanced sequences, all agents help to improve the detection and delineation of lesions which can alter diagnosis in up to 40% of patients. Doubling or tripling the standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight may be beneficial for selected indications (e.g. brain perfusion, equivocal single dose study in MRI for brain metastasis, small vessel MR angiography). A more limited number of studies have compared the various agents. These studies do not show clinically significant differences in diagnostic efficacy between the various extracellular Gd-CA. Agents with higher concentration or protein binding may be relatively better suitable for selected applications (e.g. perfusion MRI). The higher relaxivity agents may be used in somewhat lower doses than the extracellular agents

  2. Study of abdominal CT angiography in low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianxin; Wang Yiming; Zhang Yu; Tao Wei; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Aijun; Liu Li; Wang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of decreasing radiation dose and contrast media dose of abdominal CTA using low tube voltage setting combined with personalized contrast media application. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, and there were 40 patients in each group. 120 kV tube voltage was used in group A, and 100 kV tube voltage was used in group B and C. Personalized injection flow rate of contrast media which determined according to patient's body mass (injection flow rate =λ × body mass) was used for all groups, and the λ values for group A, B and C were 0.07, 0.07 and 0.06 ml · kg -1 · s -1 respectively. CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) effective dose (ED) and contrast media dose were evaluated,and these parameters were all analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. Image quality of abdominal aorta and branch arteries was rated using a three-point ordinal for all 3 groups, and image quality score was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: CTDIvol were (8.2±0.8), (6.0 ±1.0) and (6.1 ±1.1)mGy for group A, B and C, ED were (5.2 ±0.8), (3.5 ± 0.7) and (3.6 ± 0.6) mSv, and contrast media dose were (72.3 ± 10.3),(73.5 ± 11.3) and (61.6 ±9.4) ml, respectively. There were significant differences in CTDIvol, ED and contrast media dose among 3 groups (F=66.094, 77.812,15.919; P=0.000). Compare with group A, the ED of group B was decreased 32.7%, and the ED and contrast media dose of group C were decreased 30.8% and 14.8%, respectively. Image quality was rated as excellent, good, and general for 20, 19 and 1 patients in group A, 25, 15 and 0 patients in group B, and 23, 17 and 0 patients in group C, respectively. There was no significant difference in image quality score among 3 groups (χ 2 =1.492, P=0.474). Conclusions: The radiation dose and contrast media dose can be decreased in abdominal CTA using low tube voltage and personalized contrast media application while image quality can be preserved

  3. Low osmolar (non-ionic) contrast media versus high osmolar (ionic) contrast media in intravenous urography and enhanced computerized tomography: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsuphachart, S

    1991-12-01

    The cost-effectiveness of three alternative policies for the use of intravenous contrast media for urography and enhanced computerized tomography (CT) are analyzed. Alternative #1 is to use high osmolar contrast media (HOCM) in all patients, the historical policy. Alternative #2 is to replace it with low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in all patients. Alternative #3 is to use LOCM only in the high risk patients. Data on the 6,242 patients who underwent intravenous urography and enhanced CT at the Department of Radiology, Chulalongkorn Hospital in 1989 were used. Both societal and hospital viewpoints were analyzed. The incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) between #2 and #1 was 26,739 Baht (US$1,070) per healthy day saved (HDS), while the ICE between #3 and #1 was 12,057 Baht (US$482) per HDS. For fatal cases only, ICE between #2 and #1 was 35,111 Baht (US$1,404) per HDS, while the ICE between #3 and #1 was 18,266 Baht (US$731) per HDS. The incremental cost (IC) per patient was 2,341 Baht (US$94) and 681 Baht (US$27) respectively. For the hospital viewpoint the ICE between #2 and #1 was 13,744 (US$550) and between #3 and #1 was 6,127 Baht (US$245) per HDS. The IC per patient was 1,203 Baht (US$48) and 346 Baht (US$14), respectively. From the sensitivity analysis, #3 should be used if the LOCM price is reduced more than 75% (equal to 626 Baht or less) and more than 80% of the patients are able to pay for the contrast media.

  4. First-in-Human Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With a VEGFR2-Specific Ultrasound Molecular Contrast Agent (BR55) in Prostate Cancer: A Safety and Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenge, Martijn; Tranquart, François; Mannaerts, Christophe K; de Reijke, Theo M; van de Vijver, Marc J; Laguna, M Pilar; Pochon, Sibylle; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2017-07-01

    BR55, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-specific ultrasound molecular contrast agent (MCA), has shown promising results in multiple preclinical models regarding cancer imaging. In this first-in-human, phase 0, exploratory study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of the MCA for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men using clinical standard technology. Imaging with the MCA was performed in 24 patients with biopsy-proven PCa scheduled for radical prostatectomy using a clinical ultrasound scanner at low acoustic power. Safety monitoring was done by physical examination, blood pressure and heart rate measurements, electrocardiogram, and blood sampling. As first-in-human study, MCA dosing and imaging protocol were necessarily fine-tuned along the enrollment to improve visualization. Imaging data were correlated with radical prostatectomy histopathology to analyze the detection rate of ultrasound molecular imaging with the MCA. Imaging with MCA doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mL/kg was adequate to obtain contrast enhancement images up to 30 minutes after administration. No serious adverse events or clinically meaningful changes in safety monitoring data were identified during or after administration. BR55 dosing and imaging were fine-tuned in the first 12 patients leading to 12 subsequent patients with an improved MCA dosing and imaging protocol. Twenty-three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. A total of 52 lesions were determined to be malignant by histopathology with 26 (50%) of them seen during BR55 imaging. In the 11 patients that were scanned with the improved protocol and underwent radical prostatectomy, a total of 28 malignant lesions were determined: 19 (68%) were seen during BR55 ultrasound molecular imaging, whereas 9 (32%) were not identified. Ultrasound molecular imaging with BR55 is feasible with clinical standard technology and demonstrated a good safety profile. Detectable levels of the MCA can be reached in patients

  5. [Diagnostic Significance of BAT in Anaphylaxis to Non-ionic Contrast Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-yue; Xu, Su-jun; Tang, Xiao-xian; Niu, Ji-jun; Guo, Xiang-jie; Gao, Cai-rong

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic significance of basophil activation test (BAT) in anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media through testing the content of CD63, mast cell-carboxypeptidase A3 (MC-CPA3), and terminal complement complex SC5b-9 of the individuals by testing their levels in the normal immune group and the anaphylaxis groups to β-lactam drugs and non -ionic contrast media. The CD63 expression of basophilic granulocyte in blood was detected by flow cytometry. The levels of MC-CPA3 in blood serum and SC5b-9 in blood plasma were detected by ELISA. The CD63 expression of basophilic granulocyte in blood, the levels of MC-CPA3 and SC5b-9 of anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media and β-lactam drugs were significantly higher than that in normal immune group (P contrast media. BAT can be used to diagnose the anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media.

  6. An experimental study on MRI signal intensity vs concentration of water-soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Chang Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    There has been only one report that water-soluble contrast media containing iodine and used in conventional X -ray radiography reduce T1-and T2-relaxation times. We evaluated the relationship between signal intensity (relative signal intensity to normal saline) and T2-relaxation time of MRI and the concentration of 3 water-soluble contrast media [meglumine ioxithalamate (Telebrix 30), iopromide (Ultravist 300), iotrolan (Isovist 300)] through the phantom study, using both 2.0T and 0.5T MR units. We found that the signal intensity increased significantly on the T1-weighted images as the concentration of contrast media increased. The degree of the increase was larger on 0.5T MR than on 2.0T MR. The signal intensity on proton density image showed no significant difference at various concentrations. However, there were significant decreases of both signal intensity on the T2-weighted images and T2-relaxation time as the concentration of contrast media increased, which was more prominent on 2.0T MR than 0.5T MR. Between the contrast media of the same concentration, there was no significant difference in signal intensity and T2-relaxation time

  7. Signal effects of various radiographic contrast media and their interaction with gadolinium DTPA during MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopka, L.; Funke, M.; Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Schroeder, M.; Grabbe, E.

    1994-01-01

    T 1 and T 2 weighted signals dereived from various radiological contrast media were studied during MRT spin-echo sequences. In addition, the interaction between radiological contrast media and Gadolinium-DTPA concerning T 1 signals was evaluated. Ionic (ioxitalaminic acid) and non-ionic radiological contrast media (Iopromid, Iotrolan) were used in diagnostic concentrations. Measurements were carried out with a superconductive magnet of 1.5 Tesla. Radiological contrast media produced significantly higher signals than a physiological sodium chloride solution in T 1 -weighted spin-echo sequences. Evn small amounts (15% of total volume) of radiological contrast media during T 1 -weighted spin-echo sequences led to a significant reduction (about 25%) of the signal intensity of a 2 mM Gadolinium-DTPA solution. This may lead to diagnostic problems, as was shown in a series of 25 MR arthrograms of the shoulder. It is recommended than an interval of at least 6 hours should elapse between the use of a radiological contrst medium and an MRT examination. (orig.) [de

  8. Dynamic programming in parallel boundary detection with application to ultrasound intima-media segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Xinyao; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin

    2013-12-01

    Segmentation of carotid artery intima-media in longitudinal ultrasound images for measuring its thickness to predict cardiovascular diseases can be simplified as detecting two nearly parallel boundaries within a certain distance range, when plaque with irregular shapes is not considered. In this paper, we improve the implementation of two dynamic programming (DP) based approaches to parallel boundary detection, dual dynamic programming (DDP) and piecewise linear dual dynamic programming (PL-DDP). Then, a novel DP based approach, dual line detection (DLD), which translates the original 2-D curve position to a 4-D parameter space representing two line segments in a local image segment, is proposed to solve the problem while maintaining efficiency and rotation invariance. To apply the DLD to ultrasound intima-media segmentation, it is imbedded in a framework that employs an edge map obtained from multiplication of the responses of two edge detectors with different scales and a coupled snake model that simultaneously deforms the two contours for maintaining parallelism. The experimental results on synthetic images and carotid arteries of clinical ultrasound images indicate improved performance of the proposed DLD compared to DDP and PL-DDP, with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapa, Rafal Z., E-mail: rz.slapa@gmail.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A. [Endocrinology Department, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Bielanski Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Migda, Bartosz [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Otto, Maciej [Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, First Faculty of Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowski, Wiesław S. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients.

  10. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slapa, Rafal Z.; Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A.; Migda, Bartosz; Otto, Maciej; Jakubowski, Wiesław S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients

  11. Adverse drug reactions to CT contrast media in south Korea: Incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Moon, Jin Il; Choi, Bo Hwa; Baek, Hye Jin; Cho, Soo Buem; Lee, Sang Min; Ha, Ji Young; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Na, Jae Beom

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, severity, and risk factors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media in computed tomography (CT), and to determine the recurrence rate after premedication in patients with a previous history of ADR. We prospectively recorded all ADR to intravenous CT contrast media in 32313 consecutive outpatients (54572 cases) who underwent contrast enhanced CT examinations. Clinical report forms and electronic medical records were reviewed to search for the incidence of ADR, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients. The risk factors of ADR to CT contrast media (age, sex, history of previous ADR, season) were evaluated using statistical analysis. Of the 54572 cases, a total of 191 (0.35%) had adverse reactions. Of the 191 cases, 157 (82%) were categorized as mild reactions, 29 (15%) were moderate, and 5 (3%) were severe. A total of 165 (86.4%) cases had acute adverse reactions (which occurred within 1 hour after administration), while 26 (13.6%) had delayed adverse reactions (occurred 1 hour after the administration). The rate of ADR was significantly higher in females [relative risk (RR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-2.75], patients under the age of 60 years (RR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), patients with a history of previous ADR (RR = 6.51, 95% CI 3.13-13.57), and in the spring season (RR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.95). The recurrence rate after premedication in patients with previous ADR to CT contrast media was 3.2% (8/247). No deaths occurred that were attributed to the contrast media. The incidence of ADR to nonionic CT contrast media was 0.35%; most of which were mild reactions. Risk factors for ADR included female gender, an age of under 60 years, a history of previous ADR, and spring season

  12. Adverse drug reactions to CT contrast media in south Korea: Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Moon, Jin Il; Choi, Bo Hwa; Baek, Hye Jin; Cho, Soo Buem [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min; Ha, Ji Young; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Na, Jae Beom [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the incidence, severity, and risk factors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media in computed tomography (CT), and to determine the recurrence rate after premedication in patients with a previous history of ADR. We prospectively recorded all ADR to intravenous CT contrast media in 32313 consecutive outpatients (54572 cases) who underwent contrast enhanced CT examinations. Clinical report forms and electronic medical records were reviewed to search for the incidence of ADR, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients. The risk factors of ADR to CT contrast media (age, sex, history of previous ADR, season) were evaluated using statistical analysis. Of the 54572 cases, a total of 191 (0.35%) had adverse reactions. Of the 191 cases, 157 (82%) were categorized as mild reactions, 29 (15%) were moderate, and 5 (3%) were severe. A total of 165 (86.4%) cases had acute adverse reactions (which occurred within 1 hour after administration), while 26 (13.6%) had delayed adverse reactions (occurred 1 hour after the administration). The rate of ADR was significantly higher in females [relative risk (RR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-2.75], patients under the age of 60 years (RR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), patients with a history of previous ADR (RR = 6.51, 95% CI 3.13-13.57), and in the spring season (RR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.95). The recurrence rate after premedication in patients with previous ADR to CT contrast media was 3.2% (8/247). No deaths occurred that were attributed to the contrast media. The incidence of ADR to nonionic CT contrast media was 0.35%; most of which were mild reactions. Risk factors for ADR included female gender, an age of under 60 years, a history of previous ADR, and spring season.

  13. Bioadhesive agents in addition to oral contrast media - evaluation in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Schneider, G.; Textor, J.; Schild, H.H.; Fimmers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the additional effect of bioadhesives in combination with iotrolan and barium as oral contrast media in an animal model. Method: The bioadhesives Noveon, CMC, Tylose and Carbopol 934 were added to iotrolan and barium. The solutions were administered to rabbits by a feeding tube. The animals were investigated by computed tomography (CT) and radiography after 0,5, 4, 12, 24 and in part after 48 hours. Mucosal coating and contrast filling of the bowel were evaluated. Results: Addition of bioadhesives to oral contrast media effected long-term contrast in the small intestine and colon, but no improvement in continuous filling and coating of the gastrointestinal tract was detected. Mucosal coating was seen only in short regions of the caecum and small intestine. In CT the best results for coating were observed with tylose and CMC, in radiography additionally with carbopol and noveon. All contrast medium solutions were well tolerated. Conclusion: The evaluated contrast medium solutions with bioadhesives have shown long-term contrast but no improvement in coating in comparison to conventional oral contrast media. (orig.) [de

  14. Contrast media for fluoroscopic examinations of the GI and GU tracts: current challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federle, Michael P; Jaffe, Tracy A; Davis, Peter L; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Levine, Marc S

    2017-01-01

    One of the significant challenges facing radiologists who perform and interpret studies of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems have been periodic interruptions in the availability of barium and iodinated contrast media specially formulated for gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) studies. These interruptions are due to the US Food and Drug Administration's recent requirement for more stringent documentation of the safety and efficacy of contrast media and the consolidation among contrast manufacturers. Therefore, radiologists may be required to recommend an alternative means of evaluation, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance, or endoscopy, or they may need to substitute a different formulation of a contrast agent not specifically developed for GI or GU use, for example the utilization of an agent designed and marketed for vascular use. This article reviews the current status of fluoroscopic contrast media, and provides suggestions and recommendations for the optimal and alternative use of contrast media formulations.

  15. An experimental study on radiological examination of obstructed small bowel with various contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kim, Sung Jin; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Jae Hyung

    1991-01-01

    For the evaluation of the level and cause of small bowel obstruction, an oral barium study is usually chosen. When perforation is whether barium or a water-soluble contrast agent should be used, because barium causes from foreign body reactions as well as adhesions in the extraluminal tissues. Water-soluble contrast agent, on the other hand, are less satisfactory but in general have no untoward effects in the extraluminal tissues. Because of hyperosomolarity, water-soluble contrast agents attract large amounts of fluid with subsequent dilution and loss of contrast and pose a risk of pulmonary edema if aspirated. The use of the newer non-ionic and low-osmolarity water-soluble contrast will likely avoid pulmonary complications due to aspiration. The author performed this experimental study to compare the radiological efficacy of different contrast media in enteric follow-through examinations of obstructed small bowel. Rate had a ligature applied to the distal ileum via laparotomy. Four contrast media were subjected to testing by instillation via oro-gastric tube immediately after laparotomy. Radiographs were exposed at 1, 4 and 8 hours and evaluated later. After 24 hours the animals were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowels, free from mesentery and omental tissue, were weighted with contrasts. The progression in the bowel was proportionate to the osmolarity of the contrast media. After 1 hour, the observations indicated sodium diatrizoate (Gastrografin, Schering) to be the least favorable medium with respect to sharpness of the mucosal border. After 8 hours, barium gave a poorer delineation compared to Ioxaglate (Hexabric, Guerbet) and Iopromide (Ultravist, Schering). Early deaths were noted in the sodium diatrizoate and ioxaglate groups. So we conclude that when using a rather high-volume bolus, low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media seem to have significant prospects for general diagnostic use in patients with suspected intestinal obstruction

  16. Quantitative evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intravenous administration of a microbubble contrast agent for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: assessment of diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F; Novotny, Clemens; Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Krestan, Christian R

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy, through quantitative analysis, of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), using a microbubble contrast agent, in the differentiation of thyroid nodules. This prospective study enrolled 46 patients with solitary, scintigraphically non-functional thyroid nodules. These patients were scheduled for surgery and underwent preoperative CEUS with pulse-inversion harmonic imaging after intravenous microbubble contrast medium administration. Using histology as a standard of reference, time-intensity curves of benign and malignant nodules were compared by means of peak enhancement and wash-out enhancement relative to the baseline intensity using a mixed model ANOVA. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant nodules on CEUS. The complete CEUS data of 42 patients (31/42 [73.8%] benign and 11/42 [26.2%] malignant nodules) revealed a significant difference (P benign and malignant nodules. Furthermore, based on ROC analysis, CEUS demonstrated sensitivity of 76.9%, specificity of 84.8% and accuracy of 82.6%. Quantitative analysis of CEUS using a microbubble contrast agent allows the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and may potentially serve, in addition to grey-scale and Doppler ultrasound, as an adjunctive tool in the assessment of patients with thyroid nodules. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) helps differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. • Quantitative CEUS analysis yields sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 84.8%. • CEUS may be a potentially useful adjunct in assessing thyroid nodules.

  17. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation and percutaneous treatment of hepatic and renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Maria Franca; Smolock, Amanda; Cantisani, Vito; Bezzi, Mario; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Proiti, Maria; Lee, Fred; Aiani, Luca; Calliada, Fabrizio; Ferraioli, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Image-guided percutaneous ablation techniques are increasingly being used for the treatment of malignant tumors of the liver and kidney when surgery is not indicated. • Percutaneous ablation relies on imaging at every step of the process in order to detect, guide, and confirm complete tumor coagulation. • CEUS is a real-time dynamic imaging technique that plays an important role in the management of patients treated with ablation for malignant tumors. • This review focuses on the role of CEUS in the evaluation of patients undergoing percutaneous treatments for hepatic and renal tumors. - Abstract: Image-guided percutaneous ablation techniques are increasingly being used for the treatment of malignant tumors of the liver and kidney. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a real-time dynamic imaging technique that plays an important role in the pre-, intra-, and post-procedural management of these patients. This review will focus on the role of CEUS in the evaluation of patients undergoing treatment with percutaneous ablation for hepatic or renal tumors

  18. Evaluation of breast lesions by contrast enhanced ultrasound: Qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caifeng; Du Jing; Fang Hua; Li Fenghua; Wang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis for characterization of breast lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), with histological results used as the reference standard. Methods: Ninety-one patients with 91 breast lesions BI-RADS 3–5 at US or mammography underwent CEUS. All lesions underwent qualitative and quantitative enhancement evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different analytical method for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Results: Histopathologic analysis of the 91 lesions revealed 44 benign and 47 malignant. For qualitative analysis, benign and malignant lesions differ significantly in enhancement patterns (p z1 ), 0.768 (A z2 ) and 0.926(A z3 ) respectively. The values of A z1 and A z3 were significantly higher than that for A z2 (p = 0.024 and p = 0.008, respectively). But there was no significant difference between the values of A z1 and A z3 (p = 0.625). Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of qualitative and combined analysis was significantly higher than that for quantitative analysis. Although quantitative analysis has the potential to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, it has not yet improved the final diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Caroline [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Egels, Sophie; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Lucidarme, Olivier [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7371, INSERM UMRS 1146, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere - Charles Foix, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) frequencies of centrifugal enhancement, spoke-wheel sign and central scar in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a function of lesion size. Ninety-four FNHs were retrospectively reviewed to assess their largest diameter and enhancement pattern, including centrifugal enhancement from one central artery, spoke-wheel sign, diffuse or centripetal enhancement, central scar and late-phase washout. Mean FNH-lesion size was 3.7 ± 2.1 cm. Only 43.6 % of FNHs had centrifugal enhancement, with a spoke-wheel pattern (23.4 %) or without (20.2 %), while 56.4 % showed diffuse or centripetal enhancement. Centrifugal enhancement was observed in 73.9 % of FNHs ≤3.1 cm and 14.6 % of FNHs >3.1 cm (P < 10{sup -4}). Size and frequency of centrifugal enhancement were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 10{sup -4}). The spoke-wheel pattern was also seen more frequently in smaller (37 %) than in larger FNHs (10.4 %) (P < 10{sup -3}). Late-phase washout was described in 5.3 % of FNHs and was not size-dependent. Lesions with a central scar were larger than those without, respectively, 5.7 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 2.0 cm (P = 0.012). Typical centrifugal enhancement yielding a confident FNH diagnosis is seen significantly more frequently when the lesion is ≤3.1 cm. (orig.)

  20. Differential diagnosis of gastric cancer and gastritis: the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Heng; Ge, Hui-Yu; Miao, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jin-Rui; Cui, Li-Gang

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of gastric cancer and gastritis, with histological results as reference standard. From September 2011 to August 2014, 82 patients (50 males and 32 females; mean age ± SD, 59.5 ± 15.0 years; range 19-91 years) with gastric cancer or gastritis were included in this Ethics Committee-approved prospective study. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and CEUS were applied to distinguish the two lesions, and both qualitative and quantitative features were evaluated. Of the 82 histopathologic-proven lesions, 58 were cancer and 24 were gastritis. For US, the gastric wall stratification was not preserved in about one-third of cancer (21/58, 36.2%) compared with gastritis (0/24, 0%) (p gastritis (19/24, 79.2%, p gastritis. CEUS has the potential to make the diagnosis more accurate.

  1. Hepatic contrast-enhance ultrasound: impact of its introduction in the Australian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, So Yeun; Singh, Neha; Lim, Beng Ghee; Stella, Damien; Gibson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a relatively new imaging modality in Australia. We discuss our early experience with CEUS at Royal Melbourne Hospital in assessment of focal liver lesions and its clinical impact. Radiology department and hospital computerised information systems were used to identify and collate information regarding the indication, previous and follow-up imaging, CEUS findings and subsequent final diagnoses of patients who underwent hepatic CEUS from 12/12/2007 to 20/4/2012. A total of 388 hepatic CEUS were performed, examining 409 lesions. The cases were grouped as either 'initial study' or 'follow-up' group, with main focus on the former group. Of the 367 lesions in the 'initial study' group, CEUS was able to distinguish benign from malignant pathology in 344 cases (93.8%). This was especially beneficial in setting of known malignancy with indeterminate liver lesions found on CT to confidently exclude metastatic disease. For 124 of 162 patients who had an incidentally detected indeterminate liver lesion, CEUS was the final imaging investigation required to make a diagnosis. CEUS is a valuable tool in assessment of focal liver lesions in conjunction with other conventional modalities in a variety of clinical settings. In particular, it provided definitive diagnosis in a significant proportion of incidentally identified liver lesions many of which are benign, saving patient anxiety and further unnecessary follow-up.

  2. Influence of ageing on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Emmelie; Paepe, Dominique; Daminet, Sylvie; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vanderperren, Katrien

    2018-05-05

    The degenerative effects of ageing on the kidneys have been extensively studied in humans. However, only recently interest has been focused on renal ageing in veterinary medicine. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows non-invasive evaluation of renal perfusion in conscious cats. Renal perfusion parameters were obtained in 43 healthy cats aged 1-16 years old, and the cats were divided in four age categories: 1-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-10 years and over 10 years. Routine renal parameters as serum creatinine, serum urea, urine-specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio and systolic blood pressure were also measured. No significant differences in any of the perfusion parameters were observed among the different age categories. A trend towards a lower peak enhancement and wash-in area under the curve with increasing age, suggestive for a lower blood volume, was detected when comparing the cats over 10 years old with the cats of 1-3 years old. Additionally, no significant age-effect was observed for the serum and urine parameters, whereas a higher blood pressure was observed in healthy cats over 10 years old. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Artifact reduction method in ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography using exogenous contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Biswal, Nrusingh; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2011-04-01

    In diffuse optical tomography (DOT), a typical perturbation approach requires two sets of measurements obtained at the lesion breast (lesion or target site) and a contra-lateral location of the normal breast (reference site) for image reconstruction. For patients who have a small amount of breast tissue, the chest-wall underneath the breast tissue at both sites affects the imaging results. In this group of patients, the perturbation, which is the difference between measurements obtained at the lesion and reference sites, may include the information of background mismatch which can generate artifacts or affect the reconstructed quantitative absorption coefficient of the lesion. Also, for patients who have a single breast due to prior surgery, the contra-lateral reference is not available. To improve the DOT performance or overcome its limitation, we introduced a new method based on an exogenous contrast agent and demonstrate its performance using animal models. Co-registered ultrasound was used to guide the lesion localization. The results have shown that artifacts caused by background mismatch can be reduced significantly by using this new method.

  4. Balancing stealth and echogenic properties in an ultrasound contrast agent with drug delivery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Lauren J; Alfego, David; Andorko, James I; Eisenbrey, John R; Teraphongphom, Nutte; Wheatley, Margaret A

    2016-10-01

    Contrast agents are currently being modified to combine diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. For ultrasound (US) imaging with polymeric contrast agents, it is necessary to modify the shell to create "stealth" microbubbles but without these modifications sacrificing the agent's ability to interact with the focused US beam. We hypothesize that addition of the classic immune shielding molecule polyethylene glycol (PEG) to a polylactide (PLA) microbubble shell will affect the acoustic and physical properties of the resulting agents. In an effort to determine the best formulation to achieve a balance between stealth and acoustic activity, we compared two PEGylation techniques; addition of increasing amounts of PEG-PLA copolymer and employing incorporation of a PEG lipid (LipidPEG) into the shell. Loss of acoustic enhancement occurred in a dose-dependent manner for both types of PEGylated agents (loss of signal occurred at >5 wt% PEG-PLA and >1 wt% LipidPEG), while immune activation was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner for the PEG-PLA agents. This study shows that the balance between acoustic behavior and improved immune avoidance was scalable and successful to different degrees with both PEGylation methods, and was best achieved using for PEG-PLA at 5 wt% and for LipidPEG at 1 wt%. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the best method for the targeting and drug delivery capabilities of these agents for applications in cancer treatment. This study represents the basis for understanding the consequences of making modifications to the native polymeric shell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiscale modeling of high contrast brinkman equations with applications to deformable porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2013-06-18

    Simulating porous media flows has a wide range of applications. Often, these applications involve many scales and multi-physical processes. A useful tool in the analysis of such problems in that of homogenization as an averaged description is derived circumventing the need for complicated simulation of the fine scale features. In this work, we recall recent developments of homogenization techniques in the application of flows in deformable porous media. In addition, homogenization of media with high-contrast. In particular, we recall the main ideas of the homogenization of slowly varying Stokes flow and summarize the results of [4]. We also present the ideas for extending these techniques to high-contrast deformable media [3]. These ideas are connected by the modeling of multiscale fluid-structure interaction problems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  6. Contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity - pathogenenesis and prevention; Kontrastmittelnephropathie - Pathogenese und Praevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erley, C.M. [Abt. Innere Medizin III, Sektion Nieren- und Hochdruckkrankheiten, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany); Duda, S.H. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1997-07-01

    Contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity continues to be a relevant cause of acute renal failure, especially in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Alterations in renal hemodynamics and direct tubular toxicity by contrast media are the primary factors believed to be responsible for contrast media-associated nephrotoxicity. We review recent insights into the pathogenesis of this complication and summarize prophylactic strategies focussing on hydration, vasoactive pharmacological agents, and prophylactic hemodialysis`. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Kontrastmittelnephropathie (KMN) stellt insbesondere bei Patienten mit eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion ein erhebliches medizinisches Problem dar. Die Genese der KMN ist nach wie vor nicht eindeutig geklaert. Neben haemodynamischen Veraenderungen durch die Kontrastmittel spielen tubulotoxische Schaeden eine grosse Rolle. Die vorliegende Uebersicht beschreibt die zur Zeit bekannten pathophysiologischen Vorgaenge bei der KMN und die zur Zeit angewendeten Praeventivmassnahmen. (orig.)

  7. Review: kinetics of water-soluble contrast media in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    In neuroradiology, intraarterial, intravenous, and intrathecal injections of water-soluble contrast media are made. With the growing importance of water-soluble myelography, interventional angiography, and enhanced computed tomography (CT), it is essential to have a clear understanding of the response of the nervous system to such procedures. The blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and extracellular fluid of the parenchyma form the fluid compartments of the brain with three interfaces between, namely, the blood-brain interface, the CSF-brain interface, and the blood-CSF interface. One of more of these interfaces are exposed to water-soluble contrast media after intraarterial, intravenous, or intrathecal administration. The behavior of water-soluble contrast media at these interfaces is discussed on the basis of local experience and a review of the literature

  8. Renal function, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and other adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canga, Ana; Kislikova, Maria; Martínez-Gálvez, María; Arias, Mercedes; Fraga-Rivas, Patricia; Poyatos, Cecilio; de Francisco, Angel L M

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder that affects patients with impaired renal function and is associated with the administration of gadolinium-based contrast media used in MRI. Despite being in a group of drugs that were considered safe, report about this potentially serious adverse reaction was a turning point in the administration guidelines of these contrast media. There has been an attempt to establish safety parameters to identify patients with risk factors of renal failure. The close pharmacovigilance and strict observation of current regulations, with special attention being paid to the value of glomerular filtration, have reduced the published cases involving the use of gadolinium-based contrast media. In a meeting between radiologists and nephrologists we reviewed the most relevant aspects currently and recommendations for its prevention.

  9. [Visualization of laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with cine mode 64-row MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudeya, Taku; Otake, Shoichiro; Watabe, Hirotaka; Mitsuoka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Akitoshi

    2010-05-20

    Video fluoroscopic examination of swallowing generally needs a contrast media such as a barium sulfate. Since the examination is usually performed in patients with dysphasia, there is a risk of aspiration. We tried to visualize the laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Cine mode 64-MDCT was performed to visualize the laryngopharynx in 4 healthy volunteers during swallowing of negative contrast media (air). The data were converted to three-dimensional (3D) images of 2 conditions (air and bone) and sagittal images of the soft tissue condition at a workstation. These images were sent to a personal computer and modeled to 3D cine images with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Viewer and Quick Time Player. 3D cine images demonstrated movements of the epiglottis, vallecula, piriform sinus, tongue, pharyngeal wall, hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  10. Economic considerations for the use of low osmolality contrast media in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latchaw, R.

    1989-01-01

    The new low-osmonality contrast media (LOCM) have been shown to be better tolerated, more physiologic, and safer than the older ionic media. Unfortunately, the LOCM are significantly more expensive than the latter and therefore one must wiegh the differential costs of the new drugs against their benefits. In this paper an overview is given of discussions by a number of investigators of the economic implications of the use of LOCM. (H.W.). 25 refs.; 10 tabs

  11. Physical experiments on the utility of non-iodine-containing contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, H.; Burmester, U.; Stringaris, K.; Jentsch, F.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the excellent ability of the CT scanner in analyzing absorption, the use of non-iodine-containing contrast media will be discussed. Experimental studies of the chemical elements with the atomic number Z = 1-83 with a scan tension of 120 kV were made to determine how many atoms of a given element are necessary to replace one iodine atom in an iodine-containing contrast medium, whereby the same contrast enhancement in the scan picture as with the iodine-containing contrast medium is produced. (orig.) 891 ORU/orig. 892 MB [de

  12. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  13. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-07-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be

  14. Contrast Media Delivery in the Assessment of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Charbel; Al-Hamra, Salam; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    A patient with a history of mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation that was corrected with a mitral ring repair 15 years earlier received a diagnosis of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery and underwent repair. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) was employed to image the patient before surgical intervention. Synchronizing contrast media administration to opacify the right coronary artery in the arterial phase and the left coronary artery in the venous phase required a test-bolus approach. Matching compromised cardiovascular dynamics with patient-specific contrast media administration protocols was improved considerably with the use of a test-bolus technique during electrocardiography-gated coronary CTA.

  15. The Use of Acoustic Radiation Force Decorrelation-Weighted Pulse Inversion for Enhanced Ultrasound Contrast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Elizabeth B; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Wang, Shiying; Klibanov, Alexander L; Hossack, John A; Mauldin, Frank William

    2017-02-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging for cancer diagnosis and screening can be enhanced with the use of molecularly targeted microbubbles. Nonlinear imaging strategies such as pulse inversion (PI) and "contrast pulse sequences" (CPS) can be used to differentiate microbubble signal, but often fail to suppress highly echogenic tissue interfaces. This failure results in false-positive detection and potential misdiagnosis. In this study, a novel acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based approach was developed for superior microbubble signal detection. The feasibility of this technique, termed ARF decorrelation-weighted PI (ADW-PI), was demonstrated in vivo using a subcutaneous mouse tumor model. Tumors were implanted in the hindlimb of C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of MC38 cells. Lipid-shelled microbubbles were conjugated to anti-VEGFR2 antibody and administered via bolus injection. An image sequence using ARF pulses to generate microbubble motion was combined with PI imaging on a Verasonics Vantage programmable scanner. ADW-PI images were generated by combining PI images with interframe signal decorrelation data. For comparison, CPS images of the same mouse tumor were acquired using a Siemens Sequoia clinical scanner. Microbubble-bound regions in the tumor interior exhibited significantly higher signal decorrelation than static tissue (n = 9, P < 0.001). The application of ARF significantly increased microbubble signal decorrelation (n = 9, P < 0.01). Using these decorrelation measurements, ADW-PI imaging demonstrated significantly improved microbubble contrast-to-tissue ratio when compared with corresponding CPS or PI images (n = 9, P < 0.001). Contrast-to-tissue ratio improved with ADW-PI by approximately 3 dB compared with PI images and 2 dB compared with CPS images. Acoustic radiation force can be used to generate adherent microbubble signal decorrelation without microbubble bursting. When combined with PI, measurements of the resulting microbubble signal

  16. Double blind evaluation of the effects of various contrast media on extremity veins in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laerum, F.; Dehner, L.P.; Rysavy, J.; Amplatz, K.; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis

    1987-01-01

    Canine superficial extremity veins were examined grossly and microscopically in a double blind fashion for endothelial damage and phlebitis one hour and four days after the injection of ionic monomeric or dimeric, and non-ionic monomeric, 300 mg I/ml, contrast media. Superficial veins of all four extremities and the tail vein were injected with the same amounts of contrast medium after application of tourniquets for 20 minutes following the injections. Silver staining and prefixation of the veins were done in situ. The specimens were evaluated together with cross-sectioned, hematoxylin-eosin stained biopsies. On the basis of a randomized study of 77 dogs, endothelial damage or thrombosis caused by various contrast media as seen in man was not demonstrated. This may be due to species differences. It is postulated that canine endothelium may have a higher resistance to contrast medium injury than human endothelium. (orig.)

  17. Effects of iodinated contrast media on renal function in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Case histories of 89 patients with definite myoloma of the years 1959 to 1974 were investigated in a retrospective study. 41 intravenous urographies were carried out in 31 of these patients. There was no correlation between deterioration of the renal function and contrast medium application. Relevant literature on the subject has been compiled. By 1979, 19 case studies and 5 general studies had been published which have been summarized in tables in the present study. Analyses of these case histories have shown that acute renal failure was often due to other causes and not to contrast medium application. If these cases are left out of account 8 cases remain in which lethal renal failure occurred after intravenous urography of myeloma patients. The diiodinated contrast media formerly used was less well tolerated than the present triiodinated contrast media. Further risk factors were dehydratation and/or abdominal compression. Both measures are no longer employed in intravenous urography. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Myelography in the dog with non-ionic contrast media at different iodine concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatone, G.; Lamagna, F.; Pasolini, M.P.; Potena, A.; Brunetti, A.

    1997-01-01

    Image quality and side effects were evaluated retrospectively in a series of 183 myelographic studies performed with two non-ionic contrast media (iohexol and iopamidol) at different concentrations. Side effects during and following the procedure were recorded. Image quality was assessed using an arbitrary scoring system and statistical analysis was performed with the cross-tabulation test (4 times 2 table) by comparing two groups receiving contrast medium at higher and lower concentrations. No significant differences in side effects were observed between the two groups but the ratings for image quality were significantly higher in the group receiving contrast medium at the higher concentration than in the group receiving the lower concentration. The results suggest that a high concentration of non-ionic contrast media can safely be used in dogs and may improve image quality

  19. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schwarzbach, Hans; Pardun, Anita; Hannemann, Lena; Bogs, Björn; König, Alexander M; Mahnken, Andreas H; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Koehler, Ulrich; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans. Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV), flow velocity (MFV) and blood flow (MBF) calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat) and intermedius (VInt) muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years) and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years) healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT). In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness. During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u.) and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.). In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia) post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG. In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  20. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans.Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV, flow velocity (MFV and blood flow (MBF calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat and intermedius (VInt muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT. In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness.During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u. and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.. In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG.In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  1. Contrast-enhanced versus systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate cancer detection: An overview of techniques and a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmink, Stijn W.T.P.J.; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of the current conventional and contrast-specific transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) techniques for prostate imaging that may be used for guiding biopsy. Subsequently, a systematic literature search resulted in inclusion of four studies that directly compared systematic and contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate. All four studies revealed that contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsy significantly improved the positive biopsy core rate. In the largest study, the mean Gleason score of the contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsies was significantly higher than that of the systematic biopsies. Future randomized clinical trials, preferably in a non-academic multi-institutional set-up, will have to be performed to confirm the value of contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsy in regular clinical practice

  2. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation with one single minimal contrast media injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Mattia; Maisano, Francesco; Haueis, Sabine; Binder, Ronald K; Taramasso, Maurizio; Nietlispach, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the use of minimal contrast in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a major cause of AKI following TAVI and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The amount of contrast media used increases the risk for CIN. Computed tomography was omitted during the screening process. For the procedure transfemoral access was default. The self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis was chosen in all patients to minimize the risk of annular rupture in case of oversizing. Valve sizing was based on echocardiography, aortography, calcification on fluoroscopy, as well as weight and height of the patient. A single contrast injection was performed to confirm correct position of the pigtail catheter at the level of the annulus. The pigtail then served as the marker for the device landing zone. Intraprocedural assessment of the implantation result relied on echocardiography and hemodynamics. Five patients with severe aortic stenosis and at high risk for developing CIN were included. Device success was achieved in all patients and no major complications occurred. The median dose of injected contrast media was 8 ml (4-9). All but one patient had improved renal function after the intervention compared to baseline. Our study shows feasibility of performing TAVI with a single minimal contrast media injection, using a self-expandable valve. This technique has the potential to reduce the incidence of CIN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reduced iodinated contrast media for abdominal imaging by dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for patients with kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Saito, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced computed tomography using iodinated contrast media is useful for diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. However, contrast-induced nephropathy remains problematic for kidney diseases patients. Although current guidelines recommended the use of a minimal dose of contrast media necessary to obtain adequate images for diagnosis, obtaining adequate images with sufficient contrast enhancement is difficult with conventional computed tomography using reduced contrast media. Dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography enables the simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-energy data and the reconstruction of virtual monochromatic images ranging from 40 to 200 keV, retrospectively. Low-energy virtual monochromatic images can enhance the contrast of images, thereby facilitating reduced contrast media. In case 1, abdominal computed tomography angiography at 50 keV using 40% of the conventional dose of contrast media revealed the artery that was the source of diverticular bleeding in the ascending colon. In case 2, ischemia of the transverse colon was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and iodine-selective imaging using 40% of the conventional dose of contrast media. In case 3, advanced esophagogastric junctional cancer was staged and preoperative abdominal computed tomography angiography could be obtained with 30% of the conventional dose of contrast media. However, the texture of virtual monochromatic images may be a limitation at low energy. Keywords: Virtual monochromatic images, Contrast-induced nephropathy

  4. Use of Iodine-based contrast media in digital full-field mammography - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, F.; Diekmann, S.; Taupitz, M.; Bick, U.; Winzer, K.-J.; Huettner, C.; Muller, S.; Jeunehomme, F.; Hamm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the use of iodine-based contrast media in digital full-field mammography. Methods: After performing initial phantom studies, seven patients underwent digital mammography (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, USA) using a specially filtered beam before as well as 60, 120, and 180 seconds after injection of 80 ml of iodine contrast medium (Ultravist 370, Schering AG, Germany). The precontrast mammograms were then subtracted from the postcontrast mammograms and the resulting images compared with a contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI study, performed on all women. Results: Contrast medium accumulation within the tumors was visualized with a good quality in all cases. The conditions under which successful contrast-enhanced digital mammography can be performed were determined in phantom studies. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced digital mammography has a potential for improving the visualization of breast tumors in mammography using special beam filtering, adjusted X-ray parameters, proper timing, and suitable subtraction software. (orig.) [de

  5. A study on utility of magnetic resonance imaging for female pelvic cavity using enteral MRI contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyum

    1997-01-01

    For radiological test in soft tissue or neighboring part with same signal intensity, proper test method and equipment shall be selected as needed. In case of female pelvic cavity, ultrasonography or computed tomography alternatively used, but MRI can be more usefully applied to design treatment method or operation plan by improving the diagnostic accuracy and careful observation of lesion characteristics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging using recently developed Enteral MRI contrast media can acquire more diagnostic information than using only intravenous contrast media. Thus this study attempted to examine the utility of anatomic structure and diagnostic acquisition by imaging the female pelvic cavity using Enteral MRI contrast media. As a result of analyzing magnetic resonance imaging after administering Enteral MRI contrast media to pelvic cavity suspect patients, more diagnostic information media could be acquired than only using intravenous contrast. Especially, in the diagnosis of lesion position, shape, distinction from neighboring tissues it is thought that external Enteral MRI contrast media should be used

  6. Contrast media induced nephropathy: a literature review of the available evidence and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Sheerin, Noella; Noureddine, Samar; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-11-01

    Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN) is a sudden compromise of renal function 24-48 h after administering contrast medium during a CT scan or angiography. CIN accounts for 10% of hospital acquired renal failure and is ranked the third cause of acquiring this condition. Identifying patients at risk through proper screening can reduce the occurrence of this condition. This review paper aims to critique current evidence, provide a better understanding of CIN, inform nursing practice and make recommendations for bedside nurses and future research. An integrative review of the literature was made using the key terms: "contrast media", "nephritis", "nephropathy", "contrast media induced nephropathy scores", "acute kidney failure", "acute renal failure" and "acute kidney injury". MeSH key terms used in some databases were: "prevention and control", "acute kidney failure" and "treatment". Databases searched included Medline, CINAHL and Academic Search Complete, and references of relevant articles were also assessed. The search included all articles between the years 2000 and 2013. Sixty-seven articles were obtained as a result of the search, including RCTs, systematic reviews, and retrospective studies. Contrast media induced nephropathy is an iatrogenic complication occurring secondary to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. At times it is unavoidable but a systematic method of risk assessment should be adopted to identify high risk patients for tailored and targeted approaches to management interventions. As the use of contrast media is increasing for diagnostic purposes, it is important that nurses be aware of the risk factors for CIN, identify and monitor high risk patients to prevent deterioration in renal function when possible. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing EPR-mediated passive drug targeting using contrast-enhanced functional ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theek, Benjamin; Gremse, Felix; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Fokong, Stanley; Pola, Robert; Pechar, Michal; Deckers, Roel; Storm, Gert; Ehling, Josef; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2014-05-28

    The Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect is extensively used in drug delivery research. Taking into account that EPR is a highly variable phenomenon, we have here set out to evaluate if contrast-enhanced functional ultrasound (ceUS) imaging can be employed to characterize EPR-mediated passive drug targeting to tumors. Using standard fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and two different protocols for hybrid computed tomography-fluorescence molecular tomography (CT-FMT), the tumor accumulation of a ~10 nm-sized near-infrared-fluorophore-labeled polymeric drug carrier (pHPMA-Dy750) was evaluated in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. In the same set of animals, two different ceUS techniques (2D MIOT and 3D B-mode imaging) were employed to assess tumor vascularization. Subsequently, the degree of tumor vascularization was correlated with the degree of EPR-mediated drug targeting. Depending on the optical imaging protocol used, the tumor accumulation of the polymeric drug carrier ranged from 5 to 12% of the injected dose. The degree of tumor vascularization, determined using ceUS, varied from 4 to 11%. For both hybrid CT-FMT protocols, a good correlation between the degree of tumor vascularization and the degree of tumor accumulation was observed, within the case of reconstructed CT-FMT, correlation coefficients of ~0.8 and p-values of EPR, and potentially also to pre-select patients likely to respond to passively tumor-targeted nanomedicine treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Detection of Crohn's Disease Activity: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Kłopocka, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Reports on imaging of active Crohn's disease (aCD) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are encouraging. However, the statistical power of most published papers is limited due to the small size of the patient groups included. This study was performed to verify the diagnostic value of CEUS in detecting aCD. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers for articles on the test characteristics of CEUS for the identification of aCD. The quality of the analysed studies was evaluated using a quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2). Pooling was performed using a diagnostic random-effect model and bivariate analysis. Eight articles were included in the final analysis, with a total of 332 patients. There was no significant publication bias. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding CEUS methodology and sonographic definitions of aCD. In a bivariate analysis, pooled sensitivity was 0.94 (95% CI 0.87-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.88). Spearman correlation statistics presented no significant diagnostic threshold effect (r = 0.12, p > 0.9). Subgroup analysis showed that relative intestine wall enhancement had the highest diagnostic value (area under the curve 94%), while the presence of enhancement and analysis of the slope were less useful (area under the curve 91 and 90%, respectively). CEUS presents good sensitivity and moderate specificity in the detection of the aCD. Large-scale randomized trials with quantitative evaluation of CEUS images are necessary to promote this technique in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Small nodules (1-2 cm) in liver cirrhosis: Characterization with contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Kim, Tae Kyoung [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada)], E-mail: taekyoung.kim@uhn.on.ca; Wilson, Stephanie R. [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic efficacy of arterial phase contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for characterizing small hepatic nodules (1-2 cm) in patients with high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Over 12 months, CEUS was performed in 59 patients at high-risk for HCC with small hepatic nodules (1-2 cm; mean, 1.5 cm). Based only on arterial phase (<45 s) vascular intensity and pattern, lesions were prospectively diagnosed as HCC if there was hypervascularity without known features of hemangioma. The diagnosis of HCC was made regardless of the presence or absence of washout. Verification of diagnosis was made by liver transplantation (n = 13), biopsy (n = 12), resection (n = 3) or clinical and imaging follow-up for at least 12 months (n = 31). Results: At of the time of CEUS, the 59 nodules were diagnosed as HCC in 26 and benign lesions in 33, including 20 regenerative/dysplastic nodules (RN/DN), 11 hemangiomas, and 2 focal fat sparing. All 26 nodules with arterial phase hypervascularity without hemangioma-like features were HCC. However, CEUS misdiagnosed HCC as RN/DN in 4 cases with arterial iso- (n = 3) or hypovascularity (n = 1). CEUS correctly diagnosed all 11 hemangiomas. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEUS for diagnosing HCC were 86.7, 100, and 93.2%. Conclusions: Arterial phase vascular intensity and pattern of CEUS are highly accurate for the diagnosis of small (1-2 cm) HCC and hemangioma in liver cirrhosis. On CEUS, arterial phase hypervascularity without a hemangioma-pattern alone may be sufficient for diagnosis of small HCC. Infrequent iso/hypovascular HCC may erroneously suggest RN/DN necessitating biopsy or close follow-up.

  10. Quantitative measurement of total cerebral blood flow using 2D phase-contrast MRI and doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Keum Soo; Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Young Il [Dong-A Univ., College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare of quantitative measurement of the total cerebral blood flow using two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound. In 16 volunteers (mean age, 26 years; mean body weight, 66 kg) without abnormal medical histories, two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging was performed at the level of the C2-3 inter vertebral disc for flow measurement of the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. Volume flow measurements using Doppler ultrasound were also performed at the internal carotid arteries 2cm above the carotid bifurcation, and at the vertebral arteries at the level of the upper pole of the thyroid gland. Flows in the four vessels measured by the two methods were compared using Wilcoxon's correlation analysis and the median score. Total cerebral blood flows were calculated by summing these four vessel flows, and mean values for the 16 volunteers were calculated. Cerebral blood flows measured by 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasounds were 233 and 239 ml/min in the right internal carotid artery, 250 and 248 ml/min in the left internal carotid artery, 62 and 56 ml/min in the right vertebral artery, and 83 and 68 ml/min in the left vertebral artery. Correlation coefficients of the blood flows determined by the two methods were 0.48, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.62 in each vessel, while total cerebral blood flows were 628{+-}68 (range, 517 to 779) ml/min and 612{+-}79 (range, 482 to 804)ml/min, respectively. Total cerebral blood flow was easily measured using 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound, and the two noninvasive methods can therefore be used clinically for the measurement of total cerebral blood flow.

  11. Correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound parameters with oncogene expression and cell proliferation activity in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ce Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound parameters with oncogene expression and cell proliferation activity in breast cancer. Methods: Breast cancer lesions and benign breast lesions surgically removed in Zigong Third People's Hospital between May 2014 and February 2017 were selected, contrast-enhanced ultrasound was done before operation to draw the time-intensity curve and calculate the area under the curve (AUC), and the expression of proliferation molecules and tumor suppressor genes were detected after operation. Results:The contrast-enhanced ultrasound parameter AUC of the breast cancer lesion was greatly higher than that of the benign breast lesion; ECT2, ZKSCAN3, USP39 and EphA2 mRNA expression in breast cancer lesions were obviously higher than those in benign breast lesions whereas HPK1, TCEAL17, CCN5, ATG2B and ATG4D mRNA expression were greatly lower than those in benign breast lesions; ECT2, ZKSCAN3, USP39 and EphA2 mRNA expression in breast cancer lesions with high AUC were greatly higher than those in breast cancer lesions with low AUC whereas HPK1, TCEAL17, CCN5, ATG2B and ATG4D mRNA expression were greatly lower than those in breast cancer lesions with low AUC. Conclusion: The contrast-enhanced ultrasound parameter AUC of breast cancer lesion significantly increases and is closely related to the higher expression of pro-proliferation molecules and the lower expression of tumor suppressor genes.

  12. Abdominal ultrasound-scanning versus non-contrast computed tomography as screening method for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Mads; Diederichsen, Axel C.; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Validating non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (nCT) compared to ultrasound sonography (US) as screening method for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening. Methods: Consecutively attending men (n = 566) from the pilot study of the randomized Danish CardioVascular Screening......CT seems superior to US concerning sensitivity, and is able to detect aneurysmal lesions not detectable with US. Finally, the prevalence of AAA in Denmark seems to remain relatively high, in this small pilot study group....

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with multiple intrarenal microaneurysms: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youe Ree; Lee, Young Hwan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic disorder that affects small- and medium- sized vessels in many organs. Although the kidneys are the second most commonly involved organ in patients with GPA, its manifestation as multiple intrarenal aneurysms is rare. We report an unusual manifestation of GPA with multiple intrarenal microaneurysms, as demonstrated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  16. Method for the preparation of new X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The chemical preparation is described of contrast media possessing an optimal combination of the following parameters: non-toxicity, non-ionogenicity, osmolality, viscosity, stability, ease and cheapness of preparation. Triiodinated and substituted isophtalamides are used with hydroxyethyl or hydroxypropyl groups as substituents. The result is an aqueous solution of isomers, from which the meso-isomer was removed by crystallization

  17. Saving radiation dose and contrast media in intravenous digital subtraction angiography by use of bolus chasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckforth, J.; Schuermann, K.; Vorwerk, D.; Guenther, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the dose area product, the amount of contrast media and the examination quality of the bolus chasing technique compared to the single-step technique in intravenous digital subtraction angiography. Material and Methods: 15 examinations each with bolus chasing and single-step technique were compared. The dose area product and the volume of contrast media were recorded. The examination quality was scored by two examiners. Results: With bolus chasing the volume of the administered contrast media could be decreased on average by 114 ml (43%). The difference between the dose area product of bolus chasing (722 dGy/cm 2 ) and single-step technique (1910 dGy/cm 2 ) was significant. No significant difference in examination quality was found. Conclusions: The intravenous bolus chasing technique is a practicable method. Compared to the single-step technique it allows a remarkable dose reduction and a low consumption of contrast media without restriction of examination quality. (orig.) [de

  18. Anaphylactoid reactions to the nonvascular administration of water-soluble iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter L

    2015-06-01

    Anaphylactoidlike reactions occur during the nonvascular administration of iodinated contrast media. Many of these reactions have been severe. These reactions have occurred with many procedures, including gastrointestinal imaging, cystography, sialography, and hysterosalpingography. This article reviews reports of these reactions. It also reviews what the literature recommends concerning how to deal with individuals undergoing these procedures who are at a higher risk for anaphylactoidlike reactions.

  19. Interactions between iodinated contrast media and tissue plasminogen activator: In vitro comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Eszter; Deres, László; Halmosi, Róbert; Várady, Edit; Tóth, Kálmán; Battyáni, István

    2017-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (Xenetix®, Ultravist®, Omnipaque®, Visipaque® and Iomeron®) used for computed tomography (CT) may decrease fibrinolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). We hypothesized that receiving iodinated contrast media before rt-PA may impair thrombolysis as measured by a new model system. Whole blood from Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 10) was obtained and allowed to form blood clots. Thrombolysis was performed by placing individually the prepared clots into 15 mL tubes and adding 5 mL saline buffer, 100μg rt-PA and a different contrast media; adjusting the quantity of iodine to either 30 mg or 60 mg. The thrombolytic efficacy was quantified by measuring the optical density (OD415) of the supernatant at different time points, namely at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. There was a significant decrease in clot lysis efficiency observed in presence of iodine containing contrast media comparing to positive control group. Moreover, when the quantity of iodine was increased from 30 mg to 60 mg; the dissolution rate downturned with additional ∼50%. In conclusion, our study suggests that high dose of iodine potentially could negatively affect the efficiency of the thrombolytic therapy performed by rt-PA.

  20. Application of contrast media in post-mortem imaging (CT and MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Grimm, Jochen; Baumann, Pia; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    The application of contrast media in post-mortem radiology differs from clinical approaches in living patients. Post-mortem changes in the vascular system and the absence of blood flow lead to specific problems that have to be considered for the performance of post-mortem angiography. In addition, interpreting the images is challenging due to technique-related and post-mortem artefacts that have to be known and that are specific for each applied technique. Although the idea of injecting contrast media is old, classic methods are not simply transferable to modern radiological techniques in forensic medicine, as they are mostly dedicated to single-organ studies or applicable only shortly after death. With the introduction of modern imaging techniques, such as post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR), to forensic death investigations, intensive research started to explore their advantages and limitations compared to conventional autopsy. PMCT has already become a routine investigation in several centres, and different techniques have been developed to better visualise the vascular system and organ parenchyma in PMCT. In contrast, the use of PMMR is still limited due to practical issues, and research is now starting in the field of PMMR angiography. This article gives an overview of the problems in post-mortem contrast media application, the various classic and modern techniques, and the issues to consider by using different media.

  1. Tumor microvascular changes in antiangiogenic treatment : Assessment by magnetic resonance contrast media of different molecular weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turetschek, K; Preda, A; Novikov, [No Value; Brasch, RC; Weinmann, HJ; Wunderbaldinger, P; Roberts, TPL

    Purpose: To test magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media of different molecular weights (MWs) for their potential to characterize noninvasively microvascular changes in an experimental tumor treatment model. Materials and Methods: MD-MBA-435, a poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell line, was

  2. Clinical courses and CT findings in the patients with contrast media-associated seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onda, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Norio; Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1987-01-01

    From February 1976 through March 1985, 12,479 patients underwent cranial computed tomography (CT) examinations with 65 % Angiografin (100 ml/kg for adults and 2 ml/kg for children). Among them, five patients experienced contrast media-associated seizures. The present study analyzed (1) the time of occurrence of seizures, (2) CT appearances at the time of seizures, (3) epileptogenecity, and (4) clinical features of seizures. Two patients had malignant gliomas, 2 metastatic brain tumors, and one hemangioendothelioma. Seizures occurred at CT examinations performed after the initial treatment, such as radiation or surgery, with the incidence for each patient varing from 2 to 5. There were lesions near the motor cortex on CT scans, and enhancement was observed in most cases. Three patients had experienced epilepsy attacks due to their underlying diseases. In the other two, contrast media-associated seizures preceded the occasional onset of epilepsy attacks. This strongly suggested the influence of their underlying diseases in the occurrence of contrast media-associated seizures. A careful use of contrast media for cranial CT examination is emphasized. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media. Second expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, N.K

    1998-01-01

    Materials of the second expert meeting of medical radiologists of USA, Germany, and Japan concerning delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media (XRCM) are briefly considered. Attention is paid to the experimental and clinical data on the application of nonionic dimers, pathophysiological and immunological aspects of the reaction to XRCM, certain models and hypotheses, allergy to XRCM

  4. Use of contrast media in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in horses: Techniques, adverse events and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B B; Goodrich, L R; Barrett, M F; Grinstaff, M W; Kawcak, C E

    2017-07-01

    The use of contrast media in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing in horses. These contrast-enhanced imaging techniques provide improved tissue delineation and evaluation, thereby expanding diagnostic capabilities. While generally considered safe, not all contrast media exhibit the same safety profiles. The safety of contrast media use and descriptions of adverse events occurring in horses are sparsely reported. This review summarises the reported evidence of contrast media use and adverse events that occur in horses, with added contribution from other veterinary species and studies in man for comparison. This comprehensive data set empowers equine clinicians to develop use and monitoring strategies when working with contrast media. Finally, it summarises the current state-of-the-art and highlights the potential applications of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for assessment of diseased or injured equine tissues, as well as (patho)physiological processes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Does ultrasound contrast agent improve the diagnostic value of colour and power Doppler sonography in superficial lymph node enlargement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot; Demharter, Johannes; Linne, Renate; Droste, Dirk W.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Buecklein, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to analyse whether ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) improves the diagnostic accuracy to differentiate between benign and malignant superficial lymph node enlargement by using colour-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) and power Doppler (PD). Methods: 32 patients with suspected malignant superficial lymph node enlargement prospectively underwent standardised ultrasound examinations using B-mode sonography and native and contrast-enhanced CCDS and PD immediately before biopsy. Solbiati-Index (longitudinal-transverse diameter ratio) and intranodal flow patterns by using different vascularisation types were assessed. Histological and sonographical findings were correlated. Results: 27 malignant and 5 benign lymph nodes were found. Solbiati-Index was lower in malignant lymph nodes than in benign nodes (mean 1.5 vs. 2.4, P<0.045). More intranodal flow patterns could be detected after UCA (53 vs. 43) but the number of correctly identified malignant nodes decreased after UCA (26 vs. 24) and the number of correctly identified benign nodes remained constant compared with native CCDS and PD. In 31% of the colour-mode studies, PD was considered to visualise more clearly intranodal vascular flow patterns than CCDS. Conclusion: despite depicting more intranodal vascular patterns, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent seems not to improve the diagnostic value of CCDS and PD compared with native colour-mode studies in superficial lymph node enlargement

  6. Evaluation of high frequency ultrasound methods and contrast agents for characterising tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, Anne, E-mail: arix@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Lederle, Wiltrud, E-mail: wlederle@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Siepmann, Monica, E-mail: monica.siepmann@rub.de [Department of Medical Engineering, Universitätstraße 150, 44780 Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fokong, Stanley, E-mail: sfokong@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Behrendt, Florian F., E-mail: fbehrendt@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Bzyl, Jessica, E-mail: jbzyl@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Grouls, Christoph, E-mail: cgrouls@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian, E-mail: fkiessling@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz, E-mail: mpalmowski@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced high-frequency 3D Doppler ultrasound with contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D B-mode imaging for assessing tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic treatment using soft-shell and hard-shell microbubbles. Materials and methods: Antiangiogenic therapy effects (SU11248) on vascularity of subcutaneous epidermoid-carcinoma xenografts (A431) in female CD1 nude mice were investigated longitudinally using non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced 3D Doppler at 25 MHz. Additionally, contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D B-mode scans were performed by injecting hard-shell (poly-butyl-cyanoacrylate-based) and soft-shell (phospholipid-based) microbubbles. Suitability of both contrast agents for high frequency imaging and the sensitivity of the different ultrasound methods to assess early antiangiogenic therapy effects were investigated. Ultrasound data were validated by immunohistology. Results: Hard-shell microbubbles induced higher signal intensity changes in tumors than soft-shell microbubbles in 2D B-mode measurements (424 ± 7 vs. 169 ± 8 A.U.; p < 0.01). In 3D measurements, signals of soft-shell microbubbles were hardly above the background (5.48 ± 4.57 vs. 3.86 ± 2.92 A.U.), while signals from hard-shell microbubbles were sufficiently high (30.5 ± 8.06 A.U). Using hard-shell microbubbles 2D and 3D B-mode imaging depicted a significant decrease in tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic therapy from day 1 on. Using soft-shell microbubbles significant therapy effects were observed at day 4 after therapy in 2D B-mode imaging but could not be detected in the 3D mode. With non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced Doppler imaging significant differences between treated and untreated tumors were found from day 2 on. Conclusion: Hard-shell microbubble-enhanced 2D and 3D B-mode ultrasound achieved highest sensitivity for assessing therapy effects on tumor vascularisation and were superior to B-mode ultrasound with soft-shell microbubbles and to Doppler

  7. Data on consistency among different methods to assess atherosclerotic plaque echogenicity on standard ultrasound and intraplaque neovascularization on contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in human carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Cattaneo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the correlation among different carotid ultrasound (US variables to assess echogenicity n standard carotid US and to assess intraplaque neovascularization on contrast enhanced US. We recruited 45 consecutive subjects with an asymptomatic≥50% carotid artery stenosis. Carotid plaque echogenicity at standard US was visually graded according to Gray–Weale classification (GW and measured by the greyscale median (GSM, a semi-automated computerized measurement performed by Adobe Photoshop®. On CEUS imaging IPNV was graded according to the visual appearance of contrast within the plaque according to three different methods: CEUS_A (1=absent; 2=present; CEUS_B a three-point scale (increasing IPNV from 1 to 3; CEUS_C a four-point scale (increasing IPNV from 0 to 3. We have also implemented a new simple quantification method derived from region of interest (ROI signal intensity ratio as assessed by QLAB software. Further information is available in “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of intraplaque neovascularization and its correlation to plaque echogenicity in human carotid arteries atherosclerosis (M. Cattaneo, D. Staub, A.P. Porretta, J.M. Gallino, P. Santini, C. Limoni et al., 2016 [1].

  8. Safety of non-ionic contrast media during renal artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Jun; Shen Weifeng; Zhang Ruiyan; Zhang Qi; Zhang Xian; Zheng Aifang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of non-ionic contras media during interventional treatment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Methods: Fifty four coronary artery disease patients associated with RAS (luminal narrowing > 50%) underwent renal artery stent implantation and percutaneous coronary intervention, only 10 of them with merely renoarterial stenosis undergone renal artery stent implantation. The successful rates of the procedure and complication together with the volumes of contrast media were recorded respectively. And the serum creatine before and 12 hours after the successful procedure were also measured. Results: Both rates of procedural success and complication were similar among the three groups. The serum creatine levels, 12 hours after the procedure, showed no difference in comparing with the baseline. Conclusion: Non-ionic contrast media (Iopamiro 370) could be safely used in patients with RAS. (authors)

  9. Compatibility of epirubicin-loaded DC bead™ with different non-ionic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, Iman; Krämer, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compatibility of epirubicin-loaded DC bead™ with different non-ionic contrast media over a period of seven days when stored light protected under refrigerated conditions. DC bead™ (2 ml) (Biocompatibles UK Ltd) of the bead size 70-150 µm ( = DC bead M1) or bead size 100-300 µm were loaded with 75 mg epirubicin powder formulation (Farmorubicin® dissolved in 3 ml water for injection to a concentration of 25 mg/ml) or 76 mg epirubicin injection solution (Epimedac® 2 mg/ml) within 2 h or 6 h, respectively. After removal of the excess solution, the epirubicin-loaded beads were mixed in polypropylene syringes with an equal volume (∼1.5 ml) of contrast media, i.e. Accupaque™ 300 (Nycomed Inc.), Imeron® 300 (Bracco S.p.A), Ultravist® 300 (Bayer Pharma AG), Visipaque™ 320 (GE Healthcare) and agitated in a controlled manner to get a homogenous suspension. Syringes with loaded beads in contrast media were stored protected from light under refrigeration (2-8℃). Compatibility was determined by measuring epirubicin concentrations in the suspensions in triplicate on day 0, 1, and 7. A reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection was utilized to analyze the concentration and purity of epirubicin. Mixing of epirubicin-loaded beads with different non-ionic contrast media released 0.1-0.5% of epirubicin over a period of 24 h, irrespectively, of the DC bead™ size or type of contrast media. No further elution or degradation was observed after seven days when the admixtures were stored protected from light under refrigeration. Compatibility of epirubicin-loaded DC bead™ with an equal volume of different contrast media in polypropylene syringes is given over a period of seven days. Due to a maximum elution of 0.1-0.5% of epirubicin from loaded DC bead™, admixtures with contrast media can be prepared in advance in centralized cytotoxic preparation units

  10. Technique of application of contrast media in computed tomography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, L.; Friedmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cardiac imaging by means of CT requires administration of intravenous contrast medium which can be applied by infusion or by rapid bolus injection. Contrast infusion is easier in performance and yields opacification of all cardiac cavities. Using bolus technique selective enhancement of cardiac chambers can be obtained which provides increased image quality and better resolution of cardiac structures. Both techniques are described and the results of 221 examinations are analysed with special respect to image quality, technical amount and contrast media side effects. (orig.) [de

  11. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  12. Clinical utility of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differentiation between noninvasive and invasive neoplasms of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-yang; Tang, Jie; He, En-hui; Li, Yan-mi; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Guangfu

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differentiating invasive and noninvasive neoplasms of urinary bladder. A total of 60 lesions in 60 consecutive patients with bladder tumors received three dimensional ultrasonography, low acoustic power contrast enhanced ultrasonography and low acoustic power three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination. The IU22 ultrasound scanner and a volume transducer were used and the ultrasound contrast agent was SonoVue. The contrast-specific sonographic imaging modes were PI (pulse inversion) and PM (power modulation). The three dimensional ultrasonography, contrast enhanced ultrasonography, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound images were independently reviewed by two readers who were not in the images acquisition. Images were analyzed off-site. A level of confidence in the diagnosis of tumor invasion of the muscle layer was assigned on a 5° scale. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess overall confidence in the diagnosis of muscle invasion by tumor. Kappa values were used to assess inter-readers agreement. Histologic diagnosis was obtained for all patients. Final pathologic staging revealed 44 noninvasive tumors and 16 invasive tumors. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound depicted all 16 muscle-invasive tumors. The diagnostic performance of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound was better than those of three dimensional ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography. The receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.976 and 0.967 for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound, those for three dimensional ultrasonography were 0.881 and 0.869, those for contrast enhanced ultrasonography were 0.927 and 0.929. The kappa values in the three dimensional ultrasonography, contrast enhanced ultrasonography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound for inter-reader agreements

  13. Clinical utility of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differentiation between noninvasive and invasive neoplasms of urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiu-yang; Tang, Jie; He, En-hui; Li, Yan-mi; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Guangfu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differentiating invasive and noninvasive neoplasms of urinary bladder. Methods: A total of 60 lesions in 60 consecutive patients with bladder tumors received three dimensional ultrasonography, low acoustic power contrast enhanced ultrasonography and low acoustic power three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination. The IU22 ultrasound scanner and a volume transducer were used and the ultrasound contrast agent was SonoVue. The contrast-specific sonographic imaging modes were PI (pulse inversion) and PM (power modulation). The three dimensional ultrasonography, contrast enhanced ultrasonography, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound images were independently reviewed by two readers who were not in the images acquisition. Images were analyzed off-site. A level of confidence in the diagnosis of tumor invasion of the muscle layer was assigned on a 5° scale. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess overall confidence in the diagnosis of muscle invasion by tumor. Kappa values were used to assess inter-readers agreement. Histologic diagnosis was obtained for all patients. Results: Final pathologic staging revealed 44 noninvasive tumors and 16 invasive tumors. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound depicted all 16 muscle-invasive tumors. The diagnostic performance of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound was better than those of three dimensional ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography. The receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.976 and 0.967 for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound, those for three dimensional ultrasonography were 0.881 and 0.869, those for contrast enhanced ultrasonography were 0.927 and 0.929. The kappa values in the three dimensional ultrasonography, contrast enhanced ultrasonography and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound

  14. Stratified premedication strategy for the prevention of contrast media hypersensitivity in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Yang, Min Suk; Choi, Young-Hoon; Park, Chang Min; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-03-01

    Although the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media varies, it is well correlated with the severity of recurrent reactions; however, prophylaxis protocols are not severity-stratified. To assess the outcomes of tailored prophylaxis according to the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Our premedication protocols were stratified based on the severity of previous reactions: (1) 4 mg of chlorpheniramine for mild reactions, (2) adding 40 mg of methylprednisolone for moderate reactions, and (3) adding multiple doses of 40 mg of methylprednisolone for severe index reactions. Cases of reexposure in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions were routinely monitored and mandatorily recorded. Among a total of 850 patients who underwent enhanced computed tomography after severity-tailored prophylaxis, breakthrough reactions occurred in 17.1%, but most breakthrough reactions (89.0%) were mild and did not require medical treatment. Additional corticosteroid use did not reduce the breakthrough reaction rate in cases with a mild index reaction (16.8% vs 17.2%, P = .70). However, underpremedication with a single dose of corticosteroid revealed significantly higher rates of breakthrough reaction than did double doses of corticosteroid in cases with a severe index reaction (55.6% vs 17.4%, P = .02). Changing the iodinated contrast media resulted in an additional reduction of the breakthrough reaction rate overall (14.9% vs 32.1%, P = .001). In a total severity-based stratified prophylaxis regimens and changing iodinated contrast media can be considered in patients with a history of previous hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media to reduce the risk of breakthrough reactions. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A severe, late reaction to radiological contrast media mimicking a sepsis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, P.R.; Jarmolowski, E.; Raineri, F.; Buist, M.D.; Wriedt, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual, severe delayed reaction to non-ionic intravenous contrast media was observed. A 44-year-old man underwent a computed tomography scan with non-ionic contrast media. Four hours later the patient collapsed with hypotension and cardiovascular shock. Aggressive management (including inotropic support and fluid resuscitation) was instituted in the intensive care unit. Rigorous imaging and biochemical and microbiological investigation failed to identify a source of this man's circulatory collapse. A rapid recovery ensued and at 3 months follow-up the patient was suffering no residual effects from this event. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a severe delayed reaction to radiological contrast media and the first that manifested as a prolonged hypotensive syndrome. Despite the introduction of non-ionic low osmolar radiological contrast media (NIM), the incidence of adverse reactions to these agents remains at between 3 and 12%. Most of these reactions are acute, self-limiting events (nausea, vomiting, urticaria, diarrhoea) and no treatment is required. The mortality rate of these adverse reactions has been quoted at 0.0020.009% of all procedures. Most of these severe reactions are acute anaphylactoid events manifested by hypotension and bronchospasm. Delayed adverse reactions to NIM have been reported to occur with a frequency of between 8.0 and 27.1%. These reactions are almost uniformly self-limiting and non-life threatening, requiring minimal intervention. We report an unusual late adverse reaction to NIM, which presented with many of the features of a severe sepsis syndrome. Non-ionic low osmolar radiological contrast media has the capacity to cause severe delayed reactions in rare instances, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of these reactions are poorly understood and, therefore, diagnosis and management of this clinical situation presented many difficulties. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  17. Contrast generation in the nuclear-spin tomography by pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehms, Ole Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [de

  18. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Grisan, E; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. (paper)

  19. Detection of the Single-Session Complete Ablation Rate by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound during Ultrasound-Guided Laser Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the single-session complete ablation rate of ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation (LA for benign thyroid nodules. LA was performed in 90 patients with 118 benign thyroid nodules. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was used to evaluate complete nodule ablation one day after ablation. Thyroid nodule volumes, thyroid functions, clinical symptoms and complications were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after ablation. Results showed that all benign thyroid nodules successfully underwent LA. The single-session complete ablation rates for nodules with maximum diameters ≤2 cm, 2-3 cm and ≥3 cm were 93.4%, 70.3% and 61.1%, respectively. All nodule volumes significantly decreased than that one day after ablation (P0.05. Three patients had obvious pain during ablation; one (1.1% had recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, but the voice returned to normal within 6 months after treatment. Thus, ultrasound-guided LA can effectively inactivate benign thyroid nodules. LA is a potentially viable minimally invasive treatment that offers good cosmetic effects.

  20. Contrast media in computed tomography of the mediastinum and the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, O.-H.; Claussen, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    An administration of contrast medium is frequently indicated for problems of mediastinal diagnosis. The reason for this is that previous diagnosis or a clear set of clinical symptoms justifies the suspicion of a space-occupying process. Moreover, CT should lead to diagnoses which are as definite and differentiated as possible. In the majority of examinations, contrast media should be applied to evaluate the mediastinum. Infusion technique is suitable for extensive or disseminated processes, whereby the dose depends on the duration of the examination. An intravasal enhancement exceeding 60 Hounsfield Units (HU) should be achieved for the entire period. For focal lesions bolus injections should be used to clarify the degree of vascularization of the expected process. Besides site and radiodensity, it is the degree of vascularization that narrows down the differential diagnosis in mediastinal disease. At present an indication for application of contrast media in lung diseases does not exist. (Auth.)

  1. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completed. Young children may need additional preparation. When scheduling an ultrasound for yourself or your child, ask ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  2. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  3. Comparative analysis of contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma with controlled velocity of ultrasound in normal and fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Jin; Han, Joon Koo; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Dong Hyuk

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma with controlled velocities of ultrasound in normal and fatty liver. 31 patient with normal liver and 39 patients with moderate degree of fatty liver were studies with sonography with controlled velocities of ultrasound (1,580 m/sec, 1,540 m/sec, 1,500 m/sec, 1,460 m/sec). Sonographic images were captured with picture grabbing (Sono-PACS) and were recalled with visual C++(Microsoft Redmond. WA, USA). The contrast between hepatic vein and parenchyma was measured and analyzed on each sonographic image. The number of patients with the highest contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma among the 31 patients with normal liver were 5 (16.1%) with 1,580 m/sec, 12 (38.8%) with 1,540 m/sec, 9 (29.0%) with 1,500 m/sec, and 5 (16.1%) with 1,460 m/sec. The number of patients with highest contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma among the 39 patients with fatty liver were 3 (7.7%) with 1,580 m/sec, 7 (17.9%) with 1,540 m/sec, 12 (30.8%) with 1,500 m/sec and 17 (43.6%) with 1,460 m/sec. The velocity of ultrasound for the highest contrast between hepatic vein and hepatic parenchyma in normal liver was 1,540 m/sec, and 1,460 m/sec in fatty liver.

  4. Contrast ultrasound targeted treatment of gliomas in mice via drug-bearing nanoparticle delivery and microvascular ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Caitlin W; Price, Richard J

    2010-12-15

    We are developing minimally-invasive contrast agent microbubble based therapeutic approaches in which the permeabilization and/or ablation of the microvasculature are controlled by varying ultrasound pulsing parameters. Specifically, we are testing whether such approaches may be used to treat malignant brain tumors through drug delivery and microvascular ablation. Preliminary studies have been performed to determine whether targeted drug-bearing nanoparticle delivery can be facilitated by the ultrasound mediated destruction of "composite" delivery agents comprised of 100nm poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) nanoparticles that are adhered to albumin shelled microbubbles. We denote these agents as microbubble-nanoparticle composite agents (MNCAs). When targeted to subcutaneous C6 gliomas with ultrasound, we observed an immediate 4.6-fold increase in nanoparticle delivery in MNCA treated tumors over tumors treated with microbubbles co-administered with nanoparticles and a 8.5 fold increase over non-treated tumors. Furthermore, in many cancer applications, we believe it may be desirable to perform targeted drug delivery in conjunction with ablation of the tumor microcirculation, which will lead to tumor hypoxia and apoptosis. To this end, we have tested the efficacy of non-theramal cavitation-induced microvascular ablation, showing that this approach elicits tumor perfusion reduction, apoptosis, significant growth inhibition, and necrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that our ultrasound-targeted approach has the potential to increase therapeutic efficiency by creating tumor necrosis through microvascular ablation and/or simultaneously enhancing the drug payload in gliomas.

  5. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - ...

  7. Comparison of CO2 DSA and conventional angiography using non-ionic contrast media in lower extremity angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Sung Jae; Koh, Seok Wan; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyon De

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare CO 2 DSA and nonionic contrast media angiography in respect to the quality of the opacification of collaterals and incidence of side-effects in peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Sixteen patients who were suspected to have peripheral occlusive arterial disease were performed angiography with nonionic contrast media and CO 2 at the same location with the same catheter. The causes of the lesions were atherosclerosis(n=7) and Buerger's disease(n=9). CO 2 DSA was compared with nonionic contrast media angiography in respect to the quality of image in the diagnosis of the lesions, opacifications of collaterals and side-effects. In atherosclerosis; quality of the images of CO 2 DSA was same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 6 patients and was poor in 1 patient; opacifications of collaterals of CO 2 DSA were same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 5 patients and was poor in 2 patients. In Buerger's disease; quality of the images of CO 2 DSA was same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 2 patients and was poor in 7 patients; opacifications of collaterals of CO 2 DSA were same as that of nonionic contrast media angiography in 1 patient and was poor in 8 patients. Leg pain was the only side-effect after CO 2 injection occurring in 4 out of 16 patients. CO 2 could be used as safe contrast media in patient with risk factors for nonionic contrast media and for diagnosis of the atherosclerosis in lower extremity. For the procedures such as vascular intervention requiring large amount of contrast media CO 2 could effectively replace nonionic contrast media

  8. Post-operative monitoring of tissue transfers: advantages using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast enhanced MRI (ceMRI) with dynamic perfusion analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamby, P; Prantl, L; Fellner, C; Geis, S; Jung, E M

    2011-01-01

    The immediate evaluation of microvascular tissue flaps with respect to microcirculation after transplantation is crucial for optimal monitoring and outcome. The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) for monitoring the integrity of tissue flaps in plastic surgery. To this end, we investigated 10 patients (47 ± 16 a) between postoperative day 7 and 14 who underwent flap surgery in order to cover tissue defects in various body regions. For CEUS we utilized the GE LOGIQ E9 equipped with a linear transducer (6-9 MHz). After application of 2.4 ml SonoVue, the tissue perfusion was detected in Low MI-Technique (MI present, both technologies provide an optimal assessment of perfusion in cutaneous, subcutaneous and muscle tissue layers, whereby the detection of fatty tissue perfusion is currently more easily detected using CEUS compared to ceMRI.

  9. The prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media are relatively common and potentially life threatening. Opinion is divided as to the utility of medications for preventing these reactions. We performed a systematic review to assess regimes for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media. Methods Searches for studies were conducted in the Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases. Bibliographies of included studies and review articles were examined and experts were contacted. Randomised clinical trials that examined agents given prior to iodinated contrast material for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions were included in the review. The validity of the included studies was examined using a component approach. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria, but only one of these fulfilled all of the validity criteria. There were four studies that examined the use of H1 antihistamines, each was used to prevent anaphylactoid reactions to ionic contrast. The random effects pooled relative risk demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall rate of anaphylactoid reactions (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-0.9, p = 0.027. There were insufficient studies to produce a pooled statistic for the use of corticosteroids, however regimes of steroids (methylprednisolone 32 mg given at least six hours and again two hours prior to the administration of contrast suggested a reduction in the incidence of anaphylactoid reactions. Conclusion In conclusion, there are few high quality randomised clinical trials that have addressed the question of the optimal methods to prevent allergic type reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media. Allowing for these limitations, the results suggest that H1 antihistamines given immediately prior to the administration of ionic contrast may be useful in preventing reactions to ionic contrast and are suggestive of a protective effect of corticosteroids when given in two doses

  10. Comparison of neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Kalra, Naveen; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis (MDCTE) in various small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: 40 patients with suspicion of small bowel diseases were divided randomly into two equal groups. In one group, water was used as neutral enteral contrast and in other group, 2% water soluble iodinated contrast was used as positive enteral contrast. All MDCTE were done on a 16-slice multidetector row CT unit. The findings of MDCTE were compared with the standards of reference. Results: There were 12 cases of abdominal tuberculosis (30%), 5 cases of bowel masses (12%), 4 cases of Crohn's disease (10%), 3 cases of small bowel adhesions (7%), 2 cases of midgut volvulus (5%), 2 cases of segmental enteritis (5%) and 12 of all cases (30%) were normal. There was no statistically significant difference between neutral and positive enteral contrast with regards to bowel distention, contrast reflux and evaluation of duodenum. Abnormal bowel wall enhancement was appreciated only with use of neutral enteral contrast (n = 12). Evaluation of ileocaecal junction was possible in all 20 patients (100%) with positive enteral contrast but in only 17 patients (85%) with neutral enteral contrast. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MDCTE with use of neutral contrast medium (100 and 88% respectively) was greater for evaluation of small bowel diseases, when compared to MDCTE using positive enteral contrast medium (92.8 and 83.3% respectively). Conclusions: Water is a good enteral contrast medium for MDCT enteroclysis examination and allows better evaluation of abnormal bowel wall enhancement. Ileocaecal junction evaluation is better with positive enteral contrast medium.

  11. A theoretical and experimental investigation of nonlinear propagation of ultrasound through tissue mimicking media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rielly, Matthew Robert

    An existing numerical model (known as the Bergen code) is used to investigate finite amplitude ultrasound propagation through multiple layers of tissue-like media. This model uses a finite difference method to solve the nonlinear parabolic KZK wave equation. The code is modified to include an arbitrary frequency dependence of absorption and transmission effects for wave propagation across a plane interface at normal incidence. In addition the code is adapted to calculate the total intensity loss associated with the absorption of the fundamental and nonlinearly generated harmonics. Measurements are also taken of the axial nonlinear pressure field generated from a circular focused, 2.25 MHz source, through single and multiple layered tissue mimicking fluids, for source pressures in the range from 13 kPa to 310 kPa. Two tissue mimicking fluids are developed to provide acoustic properties similar to amniotic fluid and a typical soft tissue. The values of the nonlinearity parameter, sound velocity and frequency dependence of attenuation for both fluids are presented, and the measurement procedures employed to obtain these characteristics are described in detail. These acoustic parameters, together with the measured source conditions are used as input to the numerical model, allowing the experimental conditions to be simulated. Extensive comparisons are made between the model's predictions and the axial pressure field measurements. Results are presented in the frequency domain showing the fundamental and three subsequent harmonic amplitudes on axis, as a function of axial distance. These show that significant nonlinear distortion can occur through media with characteristics typical of tissue. Time domain waveform comparisons are also made. An excellent agreement is found between theory and experiment indicating that the model can be used to predict nonlinear ultrasound propagation through multiple layers of tissue-like media. The numerical code is also used to model the

  12. Rôle of contrast media viscosity in altering vessel wall shear stress and relation to the risk of contrast extravasations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Sophia; Li, Wenguang; Paul, Manosh C; Roditi, Giles

    2016-12-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the most commonly used injectables in radiology today. A range of different media are commercially available, combining various physical and chemical characteristics (ionic state, osmolality, viscosity) and thus exhibiting distinct in vivo behaviour and safety profiles. In this paper, numerical simulations of blood flow with contrast media were conducted to investigate the effects of contrast viscosity on generated vessel wall shear stress and vessel wall pressure to elucidate any possible relation to extravasations. Five different types of contrast for Iodine fluxes ranging at 1.5-2.2gI/s were modelled through 18G and 20G cannulae placed in an ideal vein at two different orientation angles. Results demonstrate that the least viscous contrast media generate the least maximum wall shear stress as well as the lowest total pressure for the same flow rate. This supports the empirical clinical observations and hypothesis that more viscous contrast media are responsible for a higher percentage of contrast extravasations. In addition, results support the clinical hypothesis that a catheter tip directed obliquely to the vein wall always produces the highest maximum wall shear stress and total pressure due to impingement of the contrast jet on the vessel wall. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Myths and misconceptions concerning contrast media-induced anaphylaxis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ingrid; Morelli, John; Nairz, Knud; Silva Hasembank Keller, Patricia; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiological examinations are an increasingly important diagnostic tool in modern medicine. All approved and available contrast media (iodinated and gadolinium-based) are safe compounds that are well-tolerated by most patients. However, a small percentage of patients exhibit contrast medium-induced adverse drug reactions that are dose-dependent and predictable (type A) or an even smaller cohort experience so-called type B (dose-independent, non-predictable). To increase patients' safety, recommendations/guidelines have been put forth in the literature and advice passed down informally by radiologists in practice to ensure contrast media safety. Through these, both reasonable suggestions as well as misinterpretations and myths (such as the misleading terms "allergy-like" reactions, and "iodine-allergy", the wrong assumption that the initial contact to a contrast medium could not induce an allergy, the estimation that an anti-allergy premedication could suppress all possible adverse reactions, and interleukin-2 as a risk/trigger for contrast medium adverse events) have arisen. Since the latter are not only unhelpful but also potentially reduce patients' safety, such myths and misconceptions are the focus of this review.

  14. Lower extremity revascularization without preoperative contrast arteriography: experience with duplex ultrasound arterial mapping in 485 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Enrico; Hingorani, Anil; Markevich, Natalia; Costa, Tatiana; Kallakuri, Shreedhar; Khanimoy, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This study reviews our experience with duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) for preoperative evaluation in 466 patients (262 men) who underwent 485 lower extremity revascularization procedures from January 1, 1998 to May 30, 2001. Preoperative imaging consisted of DUAM alone in 449 procedures and DUAM and contrast angiography (CA) in 36. An attempt to image from the distal aorta to the pedal arteries was made in all the patients. The selection of optimal inflow and outflow bypasses anastomotic sites was based on a schematic drawing following DUAM examination. Inflow disease was also assessed by intraoperative pressure gradient (IPG) between the distal anastomosis and radial arteries, and completion arteriography of the runoff vessels was obtained, which was correlated with the preoperative findings. Indications for surgery were severe claudication in 91 (19%) limbs, tissue loss in 197 (40%), rest pain in 113 (23%), acute ischemia in 46 (10%), popliteal aneurysm in 18 (4%), superficial femoral artery aneurysm in 1, abdominal aortic aneurysm with claudication in 1, and failing graft in 18 (4%). Age ranged from 30 to 97 years (mean 72 +/- 12 (SD) years) and risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, use of tobacco, coronary artery disease, and end-stage renal disease were present in 45%, 45%, 44%, 44%, and 13% of the patients, respectively. One hundred twenty-one (25%) limbs had at least 1 previous ipsilateral revascularization. The mean DUAM time was 66 +/- 20 (SD) min (30-150 min). Additional preoperative imaging was deemed necessary in 36 cases due to extensive ulcers, edema, severe arterial wall calcification, and very poor runoff. The distal anastomosis was to the popliteal artery in 173 cases and to the tibial and pedal arteries in 255. Inflow procedures to the femoral arteries, embolectomy, thrombectomy, balloon angioplasty, and patch angioplasty accounted for the remaining 57 cases. Overall, 6-, 12-, and -24- month secondary patency rates were 86%, 80

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for quantitative assessment of portal pressure in canine liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lin; Qiu, Lan-Yan; Zu, Yuan; Yan, Yan; Ren, Xiao-Zhuan; Zhao, Jun-Feng; Liu, Yu-Jiang; Liu, Ji-Bin; Qian, Lin-Xue

    2015-04-21

    To explore the feasibility of non-invasive quantitative estimation of portal venous pressure by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in a canine model. Liver fibrosis was established in adult canines (Beagles; n = 14) by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). CEUS parameters, including the area under the time-intensity curve and intensity at portal/arterial phases (Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia, respectively), were used to quantitatively assess the blood flow ratio of the portal vein/hepatic artery at multiple time points. The free portal venous pressures (FPP) were measured by a multi-channel baroreceptor using a percutaneous approach at baseline and 8, 16, and 24 wk after CCl4 injections in each canine. Liver biopsies were obtained at the end of 8, 16, and 24 wk from each animal, and the stage of the fibrosis was assessed according to the Metavir scoring system. A Pearson correlation test was performed to compare the FPP with Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia. Pathologic examination of 42 biopsies from the 14 canines at weeks 8, 16, and 24 revealed that liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 and represented various stages of liver fibrosis, including F0 (n = 3), F1 (n = 12), F2 (n = 14), F3 (n = 11), and F4 (n = 2). There were significant differences in the measurements of Qp/Qa (19.85 ± 3.30 vs 10.43 ± 1.21, 9.63 ± 1.03, and 8.77 ± 0.96) and Ip/Ia (1.77 ± 0.37 vs 1.03 ± 0.12, 0.83 ± 0.10, and 0.69 ± 0.13) between control and canine fibrosis at 8, 16, and 24 wk, respectively (all P fibrosis model. Prediction of elevated FPP based on Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia was highly sensitive, as assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (0.866 and 0.895, respectively). CEUS is a potential method to accurately, but non-invasively, estimate portal venous pressure through measurement of Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia parameters.

  16. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after the Use of Gadolinium Contrast Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Byun, Il Hwan; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Jung-Won

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical emergency that threatens life. To this day, ARDS is very rarely reported by iodine contrast media, and there is no reported case of ARDS induced by gadolinium contrast media. Here, we present a case with ARDS after the use of gadobutrol (Gadovist) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast medium. A 26 years old female without any medical history, including allergic diseases and without current use of drugs, visited the emergency room for abdominal pain. Her abdominopelvic computed tomography with iodine contrast media showed a right ovarian cyst and possible infective colitis. Eighty-three hours later, she underwent pelvis MRI after injection of 7.5 mL (0.1 mL/kg body weight) of gadobutrol (Gadovist) to evaluate the ovarian cyst. She soon presented respiratory difficulty, edema of the lips, nausea, and vomiting, and we could hear wheezing upon auscultation. She was treated with dexamethasone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Her chest X-ray showed bilateral central bat-wing consolidative appearance. Managed with mechanical ventilation, she was extubated 3 days later and discharged without complications.

  17. Evaluation of efficacy of metal artefact reduction technique using contrast media in Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusob, Diana; Zukhi, Jihan; Aziz Tajuddin, Abd; Zainon, Rafidah

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of metal artefact reduction using contrasts media in Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. A water-based abdomen phantom of diameter 32 cm (adult body size) was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material. Three different contrast agents (iodine, barium and gadolinium) were filled in small PMMA tubes and placed inside a water-based PMMA adult abdomen phantom. The orthopedic metal screw was placed in each small PMMA tube separately. These two types of orthopedic metal screw (stainless steel and titanium alloy) were scanned separately. The orthopedic metal crews were scanned with single-energy CT at 120 kV and dual-energy CT at fast kV-switching between 80 kV and 140 kV. The scan modes were set automatically using the current modulation care4Dose setting and the scans were set at different pitch and slice thickness. The use of the contrast media technique on orthopedic metal screws were optimised by using pitch = 0.60 mm, and slice thickness = 5.0 mm. The use contrast media can reduce the metal streaking artefacts on CT image, enhance the CT images surrounding the implants, and it has potential use in improving diagnostic performance in patients with severe metallic artefacts. These results are valuable for imaging protocol optimisation in clinical applications.

  18. Radiographic and Histologic Study After Infusion of Contrast Media into Rabbit Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Park, Tae Won

    1990-01-01

    50 submandibular glands of rabbits were examined historadiologically after infusion with normal and over volumes of physiologic saline and 5 radiographic contrast media. The results were as follows: 1. All water soluble contrast media showed similar radiographic contrasts and absorbed about 5 minutes after infusion except Telebrix 30 which took 30 minutes in both normal and overfilled glands. 2. Lipid soluble medium, Lipiodol UF had excellent radiographic contrast and could be seen on the radiograms even after 24 hours after infusion. 3. Salivary glands infused with physiologic saline didn't show any histologic changes except slight duct dilation right after infusion. 4. Telebrix 30 caused mild to moderate duct dilation and inflammation at immediate and 24 hours after infusion which was more severe in overfilled glands. At 7 days after infusion, there were mild to moderate fibrosis of the gland and areas of necrosis was seen in overfilled glands. 5. Hypaque 60% showed similar histologic reactions to Telebrix 30 except more severe tissue destruction at 7 days after infusion. 6. Urografin 60% showed mildest histologic changes among the media used in the study. 7. Biliscopin had mild duct dilation which returned to normal after 7 days but there were moderate inflammation and tissue necrosis at that time. 8. Lipiodol UF showed severe duct dilation with numerous vacuoles and there were tissue fibrosis at 7 days after infusion but no tissue necrosis was seen.

  19. Stability of iodinated contrast media in UV-laser irradiation and toxicity of photoproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewaeller, E.F.; Kehlbach, R.; Claussen, C.D.; Duda, S.H.; Wahl, H.G.; Rodemann, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In XeCl-Excimer laser angioplasty, unintended and possibly harmful interaction of the UV-laser light and the contrast media may occur due to the high concentration of contrast medium proximal to the occlusion or subtotal stenosis. Methods: One ml of three nonionic monomeric contrast agents (iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol), one nonionic dimetric (jotrolane), and one ionic monomeric (amidotrizoate) X-ray contrast agent were irradiated with a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm, pulse duration 120 ns, 50 Hz) using a 9 French multifiber catheter (12 sectors). Up to 20 000 pulses (106 J) were applied. Using high performance liquid chromatography the amount of liberated iodide as well as the fraction of unchanged contrast media were measured. Cytotoxicity of the photoproducts was tested in a colony formation assay of human skin fibroblasts. The contrast agents were irradiated with 2000 pulses/ml (5.3 mJ/pulse; 10.6 J) and then added to the cell cultures for a period of three hours in a concentration of 10%. Results: Excimer laser irradiation induced iodide liberation of up to 3.3 mg iodide/ml. Up to 19% of the contrast agents changed their original molecular structure. Incubation of irradiated contrast agents resulted in a significantly decreased potential for colony formation (p values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.0102) with significantly higher toxicity of amidotrizoate and iomeprol in comparison to iopromide, iotrolan, and iopamidol. Discussion: Due to the cytotoxic photoproducts and the high level of liberated iodide, it is recommended to flush the artery with physiological saline solution before applying a pulsed excimer laser in human arterial obstructions in order to reduce the contrast agent concentration at the site of irradiation. (orig.) [de

  20. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-01-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be

  1. Therapeutic response assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound therapy for uterine fibroid: Utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Ren Xiaolong; Zhang Jun; He Guangbin; Zheng Minjuan; Tian Xue; Li Li; Zhu Ting; Zhang Min; Wang Lei; Luo Wen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (ceUS) in the assessment of the therapeutic response to high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in patients with uterine fibroid. Materials and methods: Sixty-four patients with a total of 64 uterine fibroids (mean: 5.3 ± 1.2 cm; range: 3.2-8.9 cm) treated with HIFU ablation under the ultrasound guidance were evaluated with ceUS after receiving an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) within 1 week after intervention. We obtained serial ceUS images during the time period from beginning to 5 min after the initiation of the bolus contrast injection. All of the patients underwent a contrast enhanced MRI (ceMRI) and ultrasound guided needle puncture biopsy within 1 week after HIFU ablation. And as a follow-up, all of the patients underwent US at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after HIFU treatment. The volume change was observed and compared to pre- and post-HIFU ablation. The results of the ceUS were compared with those of the ceMRI in terms of the presence or absence of residual unablated tumor and pathologic change in the treated lesions. Results: On ceUS, diagnostic accuracy was 100%, while residual unablated tumors were found in three uterine fibroids (4.7%) and failed treatment was found in eight uterine fibroids (12.5%). All the 11 fibroids were subjected to additional HIFU ablation. Of the 58 ablated fibroids without residual tumors on both the ceUS and ceMRI after the HIFU ablation, the volumes of all the fibroids decreased in different degrees during the 1 year follow-up USs. And histologic examinations confirmed findings of necrotic and viable tumor tissue, respectively. Conclusion: CEUS is potentially useful for evaluating the early therapeutic effect of percutaneous HIFU ablation for uterine fibroids

  2. Complementary contrast media for metal artifact reduction in dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jack W; Edic, Peter M; FitzGerald, Paul F; Torres, Andrew S; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2015-07-01

    Metal artifacts have been a problem associated with computed tomography (CT) since its introduction. Recent techniques to mitigate this problem have included utilization of high-energy (keV) virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images, produced via dual-energy CT (DECT). A problem with these high-keV images is that contrast enhancement provided by all commercially available contrast media is severely reduced. Contrast agents based on higher atomic number elements can maintain contrast at the higher energy levels where artifacts are reduced. This study evaluated three such candidate elements: bismuth, tantalum, and tungsten, as well as two conventional contrast elements: iodine and barium. A water-based phantom with vials containing these five elements in solution, as well as different artifact-producing metal structures, was scanned with a DECT scanner capable of rapid operating voltage switching. In the VMS datasets, substantial reductions in the contrast were observed for iodine and barium, which suffered from contrast reductions of 97% and 91%, respectively, at 140 versus 40 keV. In comparison under the same conditions, the candidate agents demonstrated contrast enhancement reductions of only 20%, 29%, and 32% for tungsten, tantalum, and bismuth, respectively. At 140 versus 40 keV, metal artifact severity was reduced by 57% to 85% depending on the phantom configuration.

  3. Intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Er-jiao [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Zheng, Rong-qin, E-mail: zhengrq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Su, Zhong-zhen; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Guo, Huan-yi [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aimed of this study was to investigate the value of intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound (IB-CEUS) for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Materials and methods: 80 patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent IB-CEUS during PTBD were enrolled. The diluted ultrasound contrast agent was injected via the drainage catheter to perform IB-CEUS. Both conventional ultrasound and IB-CEUS were used to detect the tips of the drainage catheters and to compare the detection rates of the tips. The obstructive level and degree of biliary tract were evaluated by IB-CEUS. Fluoroscopic cholangiography (FC) and computer tomography cholangiography (CTC) were taken as standard reference for comparison. Results: Conventional ultrasound displayed only 43 tips (43/80, 53.8%) of the drainage catheters within the bile ducts while IB-CEUS identified all 80 tips (80/80, 100%) of the drainage catheters including 4 of them out of the bile duct (P < 0.001). IB-CEUS made correct diagnosis in 44 patients with intrahepatic and 36 patients with extrahepatic biliary obstructions. IB-CEUS accurately demonstrated complete obstruction in 56 patients and incomplete obstruction in 21 patients. There were 3 patients with incomplete obstruction misdiagnosed to be complete obstruction by IB-CEUS. The diagnostic accuracy of biliary obstruction degree was 96.3% (77/80). Conclusion: IB-CEUS could improve the visualization of the drainage catheters and evaluate the biliary obstructive level and degree during PTBD. IB-CEUS may be the potential substitute to FC in the PTBD procedure.

  4. Development and implementation of a critical pathway for prevention of adverse reactions to contrast media for computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Keun Jo [Presbyterian Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol; Kim, Myeong Goo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a critical pathway (CP) for the prevention of adverse reactions to contrast media for computed tomography. The CP was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary group is Seoul National University Hospital. The CP was applied to CT patients. Patients who underwent CT scanning were included in the CP group from March in 2004. The satisfaction of the patients with CP was compared with non-CP groups. We also investigated the degree of satisfaction among the radiological technologists and nurses. The degree of patient satisfaction with the care process increased patient information (24%), prevention of adverse reactions to contrast media (19%), pre-cognitive effect of adverse reactions to contrast media (39%) and information degree of adverse reactions to contrast media (19%). This CP program can be used as one of the patient care tools for reducing the adverse reactions to contrast media and increasing the efficiency of care process in CT examination settings.

  5. Development and implementation of a critical pathway for prevention of adverse reactions to contrast media for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Keun Jo; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Kim, Myeong Goo; Yoo, Beong Gyu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a critical pathway (CP) for the prevention of adverse reactions to contrast media for computed tomography. The CP was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary group is Seoul National University Hospital. The CP was applied to CT patients. Patients who underwent CT scanning were included in the CP group from March in 2004. The satisfaction of the patients with CP was compared with non-CP groups. We also investigated the degree of satisfaction among the radiological technologists and nurses. The degree of patient satisfaction with the care process increased patient information (24%), prevention of adverse reactions to contrast media (19%), pre-cognitive