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Sample records for ultrasonic temperature measuring

  1. Reactor Coolant Temperature Measurement using Ultrasonic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, YongSun; Bechue, Nicholas [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In NPP, the primary piping temperature is detected by four redundant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) installed 90 degrees apart on the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) piping circumferentially. Such outputs however, if applied to I and C systems would not give balanced results. The discrepancy can be explained by either thermal stratification or improper arrangement of thermo-wells and RTDs. This phenomenon has become more pronounced in the hot-leg piping than in the cold-leg. Normally, the temperature difference among channels is in the range of 1°F in Korean nuclear power Plants. Consequently, a more accurate pipe average temperate measurement technique is required. Ultrasonic methods can be used to measure average temperatures with relatively higher accuracy than RTDs because the sound wave propagation in the RCS pipe is proportional to the average temperature around pipe area. The inaccuracy of RCS temperature measurement worsens the safety margin for both DNBR and LPD. The possibility of this discrepancy has been reported with thermal stratification effect. Proposed RCS temperature measurement system based on ultrasonic technology offers a countermeasure to cope with thermal stratification effect on hot-leg piping that has been an unresolved issue in NPPs. By introducing ultrasonic technology, the average internal piping temperature can be measured with high accuracy. The inaccuracy can be decreased less than ±1℉ by this method.

  2. High-temperature ultrasonic measurements applied to directly heated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus were made of graphite samples heated directly. The samples were cylindrical rods of the same geometry as that used in the multiproperty apparatus for simultaneous/consecutive measurements of a number of thermophysical properties to high temperatures. The samples were resonated in simple longitudinal vibration modes. Measurements were performed up to 2000 K. Incorporation of ultrasonic measurements of Young's modulus in the capabilities of the multiproperty apparatus is valuable because (i) ultrasonic measurements can be related to normal destructive measurements of this property; (ii) they can be used for screening materials or acceptance testing of specimens; (iii) they can be used to increase the understanding of thermophysical properties and property correlations. (author)

  3. The Elastic Constants Measurement of Metal Alloy by Using Ultrasonic Nondestructive Method at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic nondestructive method is introduced into the elastic constants measurement of metal material. The extraction principle of Poisson’s ratio, elastic modulus, and shear modulus is deduced from the ultrasonic propagating equations with two kinds of vibration model of the elastic medium named ultrasonic longitudinal wave and transverse wave, respectively. The ultrasonic propagating velocity is measured by using the digital correlation technique between the ultrasonic original signal and the echo signal from the bottom surface, and then the elastic constants of the metal material are calculated. The feasibility of the correlation algorithm is verified by a simulation procedure. Finally, in order to obtain the stability of the elastic properties of different metal materials in a variable engineering application environment, the elastic constants of two kinds of metal materials in different temperature environment are measured by the proposed ultrasonic method.

  4. Study on Method of Ultrasonic Gas Temperature Measure Based on FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, S H; Xu, F R [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China)

    2006-10-15

    It is always a problem to measure instantaneous temperature of high-temperature and high-pressure gas. There is difficulty for the conventional method of measuring temperature to measure quickly and exactly, and the measuring precision is low, the ability of anti-jamming is bad, etc. So the article introduces a method of measuring burning gas temperature using ultrasonic based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The mathematic model of measuring temperature is built with the relation of velocity of ultrasonic transmitting and gas Kelvin in the ideal gas. The temperature can be figured out by measuring the difference of ultrasonic frequency {delta}f. FPGA is introduced and a high-precision data acquisition system based on digital phase-shift technology is designed. The feasibility of proposed above is confirmed more by measuring pressure of burning gas timely. Experimental result demonstrates that the error is less than 12.. and the precision is heightened to 0.8%.

  5. Temperature dependence of electron mean free path in molybdenum from ultrasonic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, D P; Detwiler, D A; Rayne, J A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1975-09-08

    The temperature dependence of the electronic mean free path in molybdenum has been obtained from ultrasonic attenuation measurements.For temperature up to 30 K a T/sup -2/ law is followed suggesting the importance of electron-electron scattering in the attenuation mechanism.

  6. Ultrasonic thermometry system for measuring very high temperatures in reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Sullivan, W.H.; Plein, H.G.; Kerley, T.M.

    1979-06-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry has many potential applications in reactor safety experiments, where extremely high temperatures and lack of visual access may preclude the use of conventional diagnostics. This report details ultrasonic thermometry requirements for one such experiment, the molten fuel pool experiment. Sensors, transducers, and signal processing electronics are described in detail. Axial heat transfer in the sensors is modelled and found acceptably small. Measurement errors, calculations of their effect, and ways to minimize them are given. A rotating sensor concept is discussed which holds promise of alleviating sticking problems at high temperature. Applications of ultrasonic thermometry to three in-core experiments are described. In them, five 10-mm-length sensor elements were used to measure axial temperatures in a UO 2 or UO 2 -steel system fission-heated to about 2860 0 C

  7. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik

    2010-01-01

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  8. Measurements of the gap/displacement and development of the ultrasonic temperature measuring system applied to severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Cho, Young Ro; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Sim, Chul Moo

    2001-02-01

    This report, in order to measure quantitative LAVA experimental results, focuses on measuring the gap formed on the lower head vessel using a ultrasonic pulse echo method and neutron radiography, measuring displacement of the lower head vessel using capacitance method, building a measuring system and developing high temperature measurement system using ultrasonic method. The scope of gap measurement and system development using the ultrasonic method is 2-dimensional image processing using tomographical B scan method and 2- and 3-dimensional image processing using C scan methods based on the one dimensional time domain A scan signal. For some test specimen, the gap size is quantitative represented apply C scan methods. The important ultrasonic image processing technique is on the development of accurate position control system. The requirements of the position control system are a contact technique on the test specimen and a fine moving technique. Since the specimen is hemispherical, the contact technique is very difficult. Therefore, the gap measurement using the ultrasonic pulse echo method was applied developing the position controlling scanner system. Along with the ultrasonic method, neutron radiography method using KAERI's neutron source was attempted 4 times and the results are compared. The fine displacement of the hemispherical specimen was measured using a capacitive displacement sensor. The requirements for this measuring technique are fixing of the capacitance sensor to the experimental facilities and a remote control position varying system. This remote control position varying system was manufactured with a electrical motor. The development of a high temperature measuring system using a ultrasonic method the second year plan, is performed with developing a sensor which can measure up to 2300 deg C

  9. Development of an ultrasonic flow and temperature measurement system for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Lubnow, T.; Baumgart, G.; Ravetti, D.

    1996-01-01

    In U.S. nuclear plants, primary coolant flow and reactor thermal power are calculated from a measurement of feedwater flow to the steam generator combined with knowledge of steam generator heat transfer characteristics nd measurement of hot leg temperature by resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The calculation of plant thermal output is complicated by an indirect measurement of primary coolant mass flow rate and thermal streaming in the region where hot leg temperature is typically measured. Uncertainty in the thermal output calculation results from uncertainties in steam generator characteristics, in the hot leg temperature due to thermal streaming, and in fouling of venturi nozzles used for feedwater flow measurement. This in turn leads to operation of power plants ar lower levels of efficiency. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has on ongoing project to develop a prototype system to directly measure primary coolant flow rate and bulk average temperature using ultrasonic transducers externally mounted on the pipe. The topic of this paper is a summary of the project experience in developing this system. The technology being developed in this project is based in part upon previously existing ultrasonic feedwater flow measurement technology developed by MPR Associates and Caldon, Inc EPRI is a non-profit company performing research for U.S. and international electric power utilities. (authors)

  10. Torsional mode ultrasonic helical waveguide sensor for re-configurable temperature measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Periyannan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an ultrasonic torsional mode based technique, configured in the form of a helical “spring-like” waveguide, for multi-level temperature measurement. The multiple sensing levels can be repositioned by stretching or collapsing the spring to provide simultaneous measurements at different desired spacing in a given area/volume. The transduction is performed using piezo-electric crystals that generate and receive T(0,1 mode in a pulse echo mode. The gage lengths and positions of measurements are based on machining multiple reflector notches in the waveguide at required positions. The time of fight (TOF measurements between the reflected signals from the notches provide local temperatures that compare well with co-located thermocouples.

  11. High temperature ultrasonic transducers for imaging and measurements in a liquid Pb/Bi eutectic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Voleisis, Algirdas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Mazeika, Liudas; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Kupschus, Peter; Abderrahim, Hamid Aït

    2005-04-01

    In some nuclear reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS) the core is intended to be cooled by means of a heavy liquid metal, for example, lead-bismuth (Pb/Bi) eutectic alloy. For safety and licensing reasons, an imaging method of the interior of ADS, based on application of ultrasonic waves, has thus to be developed. This paper is devoted to description of developed various ultrasonic transducers suitable for long term imaging and measurements in the liquid Pb/Bi alloy. The results of comparative experimental investigations of the developed transducers of different designs in a liquid Pb/Bi alloy up to 450 degrees C are presented. Prototypes with different high temperature piezoelectric materials were investigated: PZT, bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12), lithium niobate (LiNbO3), gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) and aluminum nitride (A1N). For acoustic coupling with the metal alloy, it was proposed to coat the active surface of the transducers by diamond like carbon (DLC). The radiation robustness was assessed by exposing the transducers to high gamma dose rates in one of the irradiation facilities at SCK x CEN. The experimental results proved that the developed transducers are suitable for long-term operation in harsh conditions.

  12. Velocity profile measurement of lead-lithium flows by high-temperature ultrasonic doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Y.; Kunugi, T.; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Nagai, Keiichi; Saito, Junichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Morley, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a high-temperature ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (HT-UDV) technique that has been successfully applied to measure velocity profiles of the lead-lithium eutectic alloy (PbLi) flows. The impact of tracer particles is investigated to determine requirements for HT-UDV measurement of PbLi flows. The HT-UDV system is tested on a PbLi flow driven by a rotating-disk in an inert atmosphere. We find that a sufficient amount of particles contained in the molten PbLi are required to successfully measure PbLi velocity profiles by HT-UDV. An X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to identify those particles in PbLi, and indicates that those particles were made of the lead mono-oxide (PbO). Since the specific densities of PbLi and PbO are close to each other, the PbO particles are expected to be well-dispersed in the bulk of molten PbLi. We conclude that the excellent dispersion of PbO particles enables in HT-UDV to obtain reliable velocity profiles for operation times of around 12 hours. (author)

  13. High temperature ultrasonic immersion measurements using a BS-PT based piezoelectric transducer without a delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is a key enabling technology required for in-service inspection of advanced sodium fast reactors at the hot stand-by operating mode (˜250C). Current work presents development of a single element, 2.4MHz, planar, ultrasonic immersion transducer for a potential application in ranging, inspection and imaging of the reactor components. The prototype immersion transducer is first tested in water for three thermal cycles up to 92C. The transducer is further evaluated for four thermal cycles in silicone oil, with total seven thermal cycles that exceeded operation period of 21 hours. Moreover, the preliminary data acquired for speed of sound in silicone oil indicates 24% reduction from 22C to 142C. Sensitivity of the ultrasonic transducer is also measured as a function of temperature and demonstrates the effect of multiple thermal cycles on the transducer components.

  14. Metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating sensor based on ultrasonic welding for strain-insensitive temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Yumin; Dong, Mingli; Lou, Xiaoping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor characterized by a strain insensitive design is demonstrated. The sensor is fabricated by the one-step ultrasonic welding technique using type-II fiber Bragg grating combined with an aluminum alloy substrate. Finite element analysis is used to perform theoretical evaluation. The result of the experiment illustrates that the metallic-packaging temperature sensor is insensitive to longitudinal strain. The sensor's temperature sensitivity is 36 pm/°C over the range of 50-110 °C, with the correlation coefficient (R2) being 0.999. The sensor's temporal response is 40 s at a sudden temperature change from 21 °C to 100 °C. The proposed sensor can be applied on reliable and precise temperature measurement.

  15. A novel contra propagating ultrasonic flowmeter using glad buffer rods for high temperature measurement. Application to the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Demartonne R. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Cheng-Kuei Jen; Yuu Ono [National Research Council (NRC), Quebec (Canada). Industrial Materials Institute

    2005-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are attractive for process monitoring and control because they are non-intrusive, robust and inexpensive. Two common concerns limiting the high temperature performance of conventional ultrasonic systems for flow measurement are related to transducers and couplants. A suitable approach to overcoming this drawback is to insert a thermal isolating buffer rod with good ultrasonic performance (e.g., high signal-to-noise ratio). This requirement is important because, a priori, the noises generated in the buffer rod may bury the desired signals, so that no meaningful information is extracted. Besides protecting the ultrasonic transducers from overheating in applications such as high temperature flow measurements, buffer rods are also a solution for the couplant between the probe and tested sample, since their probing end can be directly wetted by fluids. Here, we propose clad buffer rods driven by shear transducers as the main building block of contra propagating ultrasonic flowmeters for high temperature application. It is demonstrated that the superior signal-to-noise ratio exhibit by clad buffer rods compared to the reported non-clad counterparts improve precision in transit-time measurement, leading to more accurate flow speed determination. In addition, it is shown that clad buffer rods generate specific ultrasonic signals for temperature calibration of flowmeters, allowing temperature variation while still measuring accurately the flow speed. These results are of interest for the oil and gas industries. (author)

  16. Ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants at temperatures from 20 to 11000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, M.W.; Hammond, J.P.

    1976-09-01

    Measurements of the elastic moduli at temperatures from 20 to 1100 0 C of a number of materials of interest in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor and the High Temperature Gas Reactor were accomplished using acoustic techniques. A two-step process was required to complete the measurements. First, the acoustic velocities were measured accurately on bulk samples at room temperature, then a wire sample was used to make elevated-temperature measurements. A computer was used to calculate the moduli and plot the data. A detailed summary has been made of the sources of error and a calculation of the precision of the measurements is given

  17. Design and installation of high-temperature ultrasonic measuring system and grinder for nuclear fuel containing trans-uranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurosawa, Makoto; Mimura, Hideaki; Abe, Jiro

    2005-07-01

    A high-temperature ultrasonic measuring system had been designed and installed in a glovebox (711-DGB) to study a mechanical property of nuclear fuel containing trans-uranium (TRU) elements. A figuration apparatus for the cylinder-type sample preparation had also been modified and installed in an established glovebox (142-D). The system consists of an ultrasonic probe, a heating furnace, cooling water-circulating system, a cooling air compressor, vacuum system, gas supplying system and control system. An A/D converter board and an pulsar/receiver board for the measurement of wave velocity were installed in a personal computer. The apparatus was modified to install into the glovebox. Some safety functions were supplied to the control system. The shape and size of the sample was revised to minimize the amount of TRU elements for the use of the measurement. The maximum sample temperature is 1500degC. The performance of the installed apparatuses and the glovebox were confirmed through a series of tests. (author)

  18. Noninvasive ultrasonic measurements of temperature distribution and heat fluxes in nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yunlu; Skliar, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and heat fluxes through structural materials are important in many nuclear systems. One such example is dry storage casks (DSC) that are built to store highly radioactive materials, such as spent nuclear reactor fuel. The temperature inside casks must be maintained within allowable limits of the fuel assemblies and the DSC components because many degradation mechanisms are thermally controlled. In order to obtain direct, real-time measurements of temperature distribution without insertion of sensing elements into harsh environment of storage casks, we are developing noninvasive ultrasound (US) methods for measuring spatial distribution of temperature inside solid materials, such as concrete overpacks, steel casings, thimbles, and rods. The measured temperature distribution can then be used to obtain heat fluxes that provide calorimetric characterisation of the fuel decay, fuel distribution inside the cask, its integrity, and accounting of nuclear materials. The physical basis of the proposed approach is the temperature dependence of the speed of sound in solids. By measuring the time it takes an ultrasound signal to travel a known distance between a transducer and a receiver, the indication about the temperature distribution along the path of the ultrasound propagation may be obtained. However, when temperature along the path of US propagation is non-uniform, the overall time of flight of an ultrasound signal depends on the temperature distribution in a complex and unknown way. To overcome this difficulty, the central idea of our method is to create an US propagation path inside material of interest which incorporates partial ultrasound reflectors (back scatterers) at known locations and use the train of created multiple echoes to estimate the temperature distribution. In this paper, we discuss experimental validation of this approach, the achievable accuracy and spatial resolution of the measured temperature profile, and stress the

  19. The effect of non-uniform temperature and velocity fields on long range ultrasonic measurement systems in MYRRHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wyer, Nicolas; Schram, Christophe [von Karman Institute For Fluids Dynamic (Belgium); Van Dyck, Dries; Dierckx, Marc [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Center, is developing MYRRHA, a generation IV liquid metal cooled nuclear research reactor. As the liquid metal coolant is opaque to light, normal visual feedback during fuel manipulations is not available and must therefore be replaced by a system that is not hindered by the opacity of the coolant. In this respect ultrasonic based instrumentation is under development at SCK.CEN to provide feedback during operations under liquid metal. One of the tasks that will be tackled using ultrasound is the detection and localization of a potentially lost fuel assembly. In this application, the distance between ultrasonic sensor and target may be as large as 2.5 m. At these distances, non uniform velocity and temperature fields in the liquid metal potentially influence the propagation of the ultrasonic signals, affecting the performance of the ultrasonic systems. In this paper, we investigate how relevant temperature and velocity gradients inside the liquid metal influence the propagation of ultrasonic waves. The effect of temperature and velocity gradients are simulated by means of a newly developed numerical ray-tracing model. The performance of the model is validated by dedicated water experiments. The setup is capable of creating velocity and temperature gradients representative for MYRRHA conditions. Once validated in water, the same model is used to make predictions for the effect of gradients in the MYRRHA liquid metal environment. (authors)

  20. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  1. Measuring internal friction at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; Russell, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Internal friction measurements provide a sensitive means for probing some structural properties of materials. Defect relaxation processes and phase changes are frequently reflected in internal friction measurements as a function of temperature. Relaxation processes associated with oxygen content have been observed in YBCO and BSCCO (2212). By measuring the internal friction at different frequencies activation energies associated with relaxation processes can be determined. Structural changes are temperature dependent and independent of frequency. The composite bar technique developed employs a piezoelectric quartz bar (with lengths of 2 cm or 3 cm and resonant frequencies of approximately 85 kHz or 120 kHz) with a resonant bar of HTSC attached to one end. The quartz bar is suspended at its nodal points and the system excited electrically using a regenerative feedback system. The composite bar method can also be used at low kilohertz frequencies by attaching the HTSC specimen used in the previous technique to the end of a much longer (e g 30 cm) fused silica rod which has very low damping. The resulting composite bar can be excited electrostatically or electromagnetically at frequencies below 10 kHz. The internal friction can be measured by scanning through the resonant frequency and measuring the bandwidth or by observing the decay of free oscillation in the bar. The advantage of using the two composite bar techniques is that the measurements can be made on the same specimen at different frequencies

  2. Ultrasonic extensometer measures bolt preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extensometer using ultrasonic pulse reflections to measure elongations in tightened belts and studs is much more accurate than conventional torque wrenches in application of specified preload to bolts and other threaded fasteners.

  3. Ultrasonic level, temperature, and density sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.C.; Miller, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    A sensor has been developed to measure simultaneously the level, temperature, and density of the fluid in which it is immersed. The sensor is a thin, rectangular stainless steel ribbon which acts as a waveguide and is housed in a perforated tube. The waveguide is coupled to a section of magnetostrictive magnetic-coil transducers. These tranducers are excited in an alternating sequence to interrogate the sensor with both torsional ultrasonic waves, utilizing the Wiedemann effect, and extensional ultrasonic waves, using the Joule effect. The measured torsional wave transit time is a function of the density, level, and temperature of the fluid surrounding the waveguide. The measured extensional wave transit time is a function of the temperature of the waveguide only. The sensor is divided into zones by the introduction of reflecting surfaces at measured intervals along its length. Consequently, the transit times from each reflecting surface can be analyzed to yield a temperature profile and a density profile along the length of the sensor. Improvements in acoustic wave dampener and pressure seal designs enhance the compatibility of the probe with high-temperature, high-radiation, water-steam environments and increase the likelihood of survival in such environments. Utilization of a microcomputer to automate data sampling and processing has resulted in improved resolution of the sensor

  4. Very high temperature ultrasonic thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorzik, E.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic thermometer comprises an electric pulse transducer head, a pulse transmission line, a notched sensor wire attached to and extending along the axis of said transmission line and a sheath enclosing the transmission line and the sensor wire, a portion of the interior face of the sheath being covered by a stuffing material along at least the length of the notched part of the sensor wire, such that contact between the sensor wire and the stuffing material does not substantially give rise to reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the point of contact. (author)

  5. Ultrasonic level and temperature sensor for power reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.; Miller, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic waveguide employing torsional and extensional acoustic waves has been developed for use as a level and temperature sensor in pressurized and boiling water nuclear power reactors. Features of the device include continuous measurement of level, density, and temperature producing a real-time profile of these parameters along a chosen path through the reactor vessel

  6. Ultrasonic Resonance of Metallic Spheres at Elevated Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson , W.

    1996-01-01

    A unique ultrasonic system has been constructed for measuring resonant frequencies and damping of metallic spheres at elevated temperatures. This system employs electromagnetic-acoustic transduction, with a solenoid coil surrounding the sphere in a uniform magnetic field. Temperature is measured with an optical pyrometer. Since the acoustic and temperature measurements are noncontacting, the uncertainties associated with external damping are relatively small. The resonant frequency and Q of t...

  7. Measurement of temperature elevation in tissue for the optimum and safe use of scalpel-type ultrasonic surgery devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C; Nuernberger, H; Reimann, H P

    2004-01-01

    Using temperature sensors of specific design, the temperature elevation during application of a Harmonic Scalpel was determined in liver tissue. The influence of different treatment techniques and application parameters on the heat produced was determined. The measurements can be used to assess the risk of harmful bioeffects and to optimise performance and treatment techniques with respect to minimum thermal load

  8. Ultrasonic velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwaka, S.

    1977-10-01

    In this paper we present the first results of the sound velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury. The measurements were made at temperatures up to 1600 0 C and pressures up to 1700 kg/cm 2 by means of an ultrasonic pulse transmission/echo technique which was newly developed for such high temperature/pressure condition. When the density is larger than 9 g/cm 3 , the observed sound velocity decreases linearly with decreasing density. At densities smaller than 9 g/cm 3 , the linear dependence on the density is no longer observed. The observed sound velocity approaches a minimum near the liquid-gas critical point (rho sub(cr) asymptotically equals 5.5 g/cm 3 ). The existing theories for sound velocity in liquid metals fail to explain the observed results. (auth.)

  9. Advanced ultrasonic technology for natural gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, due to rising environmental and safety concerns, increasing commodity prices, and operational inefficiencies, a paradigm shift has been taking place with respect to gas measurement. The price of natural gas depends on the location, time of the year, and type of consumer. There is wide uncertainty associated with an orifice meter. This paper presents the use of advanced ultrasonic technology for the measurement of natural gas. For many years, multi-path ultrasonic meters with intelligent sensor technology have been used for gas measurement. This paper gives the various applications of ultrasonic technology along with their advantages and a draws a comparison with orifice meters. From the study it can be concluded that extensive advances in the use of ultrasonic technology for gas measurement have widened the areas of application and that varying frequencies combined with sealed transducer designs make it possible to measure atmospheric and sour gas in custody transfer process control and flaring accurately.

  10. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young Ro and others

    2000-07-01

    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C

  11. Ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) for temperature measurements with limited projection data based on extrapolated filtered back projection (FBP) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ning; Jiang Yong; Kato, Seizo

    2005-01-01

    This study uses ultrasound in combination with tomography to obtain three-dimensional temperature measurements using projection data obtained from limited projection angle. The main feature of the new computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm is to employ extrapolation scheme to make up for the incomplete projection data, it is based on the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) method while on top of that taking into account the correlation between the projection data and Fourier transform-based extrapolation. Computer simulation is conducted to verify the above algorithm. An experimental 3D temperature distribution measurement is also carried out to validate the proposed algorithm. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the extrapolated FBP CT algorithm is highly effective in dealing with projection data from limited projection angle

  12. Helium-flow measurement using ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    While designing cryogenic instrumentation for the Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) helium-distribution system it became clear that accurate measurement of mass flow of helium which varied in temperature from room to sub-cooled conditions would be difficult. Conventional venturi flow meters full scale differential pressure signal would decrease by more than an order of magnitude during cooldown causing unacceptable error at operating temperature. At sub-cooled temperatures, helium would be pumped around cooling loops by an efficient, low head pressure circulating compressor. Additional pressure drop meant more pump work was necessary to compress the fluid resulting in a higher outlet temperature. The ideal mass flowmeter for this application was one which did not add pressure drop to the system, functioned over the entire temperature range, has high resolution and delivers accurate mass flow measurement data. Ultrasonic flow measurement techniques used successfully by the process industry, seemed to meet all the necessary requirements. An extensive search for a supplier of such a device found that none of the commercial stock flowmeters were adaptable to cryogenic service so the development of the instrument was undertaken by the CBA Cryogenic Control and Instrumentation Engineering Group at BNL

  13. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements and 'glassy' behaviour of neutron irradiated quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laermans, C.; Esteves, V.; Vanelstraete, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation of longitudinal acoustic waves in slightly disordered crystalline quartz has been measured over a temperature range from 1.3 to 300 K, using the pulse-echo technique. Neutron irradiation is demonstrated to increase the ultrasonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating the presence of two-level tunneling systems similar to those of glasses. The present low-temperature acoustic results agree with a frequency independence and a T 3 behaviour for the relaxation process predicted by the two-level tunneling TLS-model where the regime ωT 1 >> 1 holds. (author)

  14. Improvement of Ultrasonic Distance Measuring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduces a kind of ultrasonic distance measuring system with AT89C51 single chip as the core component. The paper expounds the principle of ultrasonic sensor and ultrasonic ranging, hardware circuit and software program, and the results of experiment and analysis.The hardware circuit based on SCM, the software design adopts the advanced microcontroller programming language.The amplitude of the received signal and the time of ultrasonic propagation are regulated by closed loop control. [1,2]The double closed loop control technology for amplitude and time improves the measuring accuracy of the instrument. The experimental results show that greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the system.

  15. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  16. Low temperature ultrasonic study of hydrogen in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements were made of the velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in niobium containing 1000 ppM oxygen with additional concentrations of hydrogen, to determine the properties of a relaxation of the hydrogen which appears below 10 K. Measurements were made as a function of temperature, frequency, polarization of the ultrasonic wave, hydrogen isotope, and concentration of hydrogen and oxygen. The Birnbaum--Flynn model of hydrogen tunnelling is modified to take into account the trapping of hydrogen by interstitial impurities. An Orbach process is proposed for a relaxation between the degenerate first excited states. Three parameters which are determined by the hydrogen ultrasonic attenuation data are sufficient to describe the properties of this model. The model correctly predicts the presence of unusual features of the relaxation which are not contained in a classical model of hydrogen motion over a potential barrrier; the decrease of the hydrogen relaxation strength at low temperatures, the decrease in velocity below the relaxation temperature without a corresponding effect in the attenuation, and the broadness of the deuterium decrement peak compared to that for hydrogen. A reasonable fit to the velocity data for low concentration of hydrogen is made by the model with no adjustable parameters. A fit to the heat capacity can be made with the addition of parameters representing the strain effects of the oxygen trapping

  17. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  18. An effective temperature compensation approach for ultrasonic hydrogen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaolong; Li, Min; Arsad, Norhana; Wen, Xiaoyan; Lu, Haifei

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen is a kind of promising clean energy resource with a wide application prospect, which will, however, cause a serious security issue upon the leakage of hydrogen gas. The measurement of its concentration is of great significance. In a traditional approach of ultrasonic hydrogen sensing, a temperature drift of 0.1 °C results in a concentration error of about 250 ppm, which is intolerable for trace amount of gas sensing. In order to eliminate the influence brought by temperature drift, we propose a feasible approach named as linear compensation algorithm, which utilizes the linear relationship between the pulse count and temperature to compensate for the pulse count error (ΔN) caused by temperature drift. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is capable of improving the measurement accuracy and can easily detect sub-100 ppm of hydrogen concentration under variable temperature conditions.

  19. Measurement of a 3D Ultrasonic Wavefield Using Pulsed Laser Holographic Microscopy for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In ultrasonic array imaging, 3D ultrasonic wavefields are normally recorded by an ultrasonic piezo array transducer. Its performance is limited by the configuration and size of the array transducer. In this paper, a method based on digital holographic interferometry is proposed to record the 3D ultrasonic wavefields instead of the array transducer, and the measurement system consisting of a pulsed laser, ultrasonic excitation, and synchronization and control circuit is designed. A consecutive sequence of holograms of ultrasonic wavefields are recorded by the system. The interferograms are calculated from the recorded holograms at different time sequence. The amplitudes and phases of the transient ultrasonic wavefields are recovered from the interferograms by phase unwrapping. The consecutive sequence of transient ultrasonic wavefields are stacked together to generate 3D ultrasonic wavefields. Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed technique, and preliminary results are presented.

  20. Ultrasonic Thermometry for In-Pile Temperature Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.E.; Rempe, J.L.; Wilkins, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently initiated a new effort to evaluate the viability of using ultrasonic thermometry technology as an improved sensor for detecting temperature during irradiation testing. Ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) work on the principle that the speed at which sound travels through a material (acoustic velocity) is dependant on the temperature of the material. By introducing an acoustic pulse to the sensor and measuring the time delay of echoes, temperature may be derived. UTs have several advantages over other sensor types. UTs can be made very small, as the sensor consists only of a small diameter rod which may or may not require a sheath. Measurements may be made near the melting point of the sensor material, as no electrical insulation is required; and shunting effects are avoided. Most attractive, however, is the ability to introduce acoustic discontinuities to the sensor, as this enables temperature measurements at several points along the sensor length (allowing temperature profiling with a single sensor). A typical multi-sensor UT system, with key components identified, is shown in Figure 1. As indicated in this figure, a narrow ultrasonic pulse is generated in a magnetostrictive rod by an excitation coil. The ultrasonic pulse propagates to the sensor wire, where a fraction of the pulse energy is reflected at each discontinuity (notches or diameter change). Each reflected pulse is received by the excitation coil, transformed into an electrical signal, amplified and evaluated in a start/stop counter system. The time interval between two adjacent echoes is evaluated and compared to a calibration curve to give the average temperature in the corresponding sensor segment. When a number of notches are available on the wire sensor, the various measurements give access to a temperature profile along the probe. UTs have been used successfully for several applications; however, several problems have limited the success of these sensors. For

  1. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas Kazys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%.

  2. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). PMID:26262619

  3. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-08-07

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10(-3) g/cm(3) (1%).

  4. Determine bond strength by ultrasonic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Application of ultrasonic methods for the evaluation and measurement of bond strength has been the object of numerous investigations in the last fifteen years. Some investigators have reported good success (in limited application) while others have experienced dismal failure. One problem common to all investigations was the difficulty in extracting and isolating the many components which comprise the ultrasonic signal reflected from a bonded interface. Part of this problem was due to manually extracting individual parameters from large volumes of raw data. However, with the vast technology now available in the field of signal analysis and computerized data processing, it is feasible to isolate and analyze individual parameters within the ultrasonic signal for great volumes of raw data

  5. Degradation evaluation of high temperature pipeline material for power plant using ultrasonic noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Chung, Min Hwa; Cho, Yong Sang; Lee, In Cheol

    2001-01-01

    Boiler high-temperature pipelines such as main steam pipe, header and steam drum in fossil power plants are degraded by creep and thermal fatigue damage due to severe operating conditions such as high temperature and high pressure for an extended period time. Conventional measurement techniques for measuring creep damage have such disadvantages as complex preparation and measurement procedures, too many control parameters. And also these techniques have low practicality and applied only to component surfaces with good accessibility. In this paper, artificial degradation test and ultrasonic measurement for their degraded specimens were carried out for the purpose of evaluation for creep and thermal fatigue damage. Absolute measuring method of quantitative ultrasonic measurement for material degradation was established, and long term creep/thermal fatigue degradation tests using life prediction formula were carried out. As a result of ultrasonic tests for crept and thermal fatigued specimens, we conformed that the ultrasonic noise linearly increased in proportion to the increase of degradation.

  6. Hydrogen-isotope motion in scandium studied by ultrasonic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisure, R.G.; Schwarz, R.B.; Migliori, A.; Torgeson, D.R.; Svare, I.

    1993-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to investigate ultrasonic attenuation in single crystals of Sc, ScH 0.25 , and ScD 0.18 over the temperature range of 10--300 K for frequencies near 1 MHz. Ultrasonic-attenuation peaks were observed in the samples containing H or D with the maximum attenuation occurring near 25 K for ScH 0.25 and near 50 K for ScD 0.18 . The general features of the data suggest that the motion reflected in the ultrasonic attenuation is closely related to the low-temperature motion seen in nulcear-magnetic-resonance spin-lattice-relaxation measurements. The ultrasonic results were fit with a two-level-system (TLS) model involving tunneling between highly asymmetric sites. The relaxation of the TLS was found to consist of two parts: a weakly temperature-dependent part, probably due to coupling to electrons; and a much more strongly temperature-dependent part, attributed to multiple-phonon processes. The strongly temperature-dependent part was almost two orders of magnitude faster in ScH 0.25 than in ScD 0.18 , in accordance with the idea that tunneling is involved in the motion. Surprisingly, the weakly temperature-dependent part was found to be about the same for the two isotopes. The asymmetries primarily responsible for coupling the TLS to the ultrasound are attributed to interactions between hydrogen ions that lie on adjacent c axes. The results are consistent with an isotope-independent strength for the coupling of the TLS to the ultrasound

  7. Elevated-temperature (6000F), manual contact ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manual contact ultrasonic examination at temperatures above 250 0 F has not been successful in providing meaningful results. Sensitivity of standard transducers degrades rapidly at 250 0 F and above. It has been demonstrated that by using standard transducers and commercially available wedges and couplants in combination with a couplant/cooler system, manual contact ultrasonic examination can be performed at 600 0 F for an essentially 100% duty cycle in conformance to the sensitivity requirement of the ASME B and PV Code

  8. Ultrasonic Tomography Imaging for Liquid-Gas Flow Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jaysuman PUSPPANATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to measure two-phase liquid – gas flow regime by using a dual functionality ultrasonic transducer. Comparing to the common separated transmitter–receiver ultrasonic pairs transducer, the dual functionality ultrasonic transceiver is capable to produce the same measurable results hence further improvises and contributes to the hardware design improvement and system accuracy. Due to the disadvantages and the limitations of the separated ultrasonic transmitter–receiver pair, this paper presents a non-invasive ultrasonic tomography system using ultrasonic transceivers as an alternative approach. Implementation of ultrasonic transceivers, electronic measurement circuits, data acquisition system and suitable image reconstruction algorithms, the measurement of a liquid/gas flow was realized.

  9. Multiple temperature sensors embedded in an ultrasonic “spiral-like” waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Periyannan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the propagation of ultrasound in spiral waveguides, towards distributed temperature measurements on a plane. Finite Element (FE approach was used for understanding the velocity behaviour and consequently designing the spiral waveguide. Temperature measurements were experimentally carried out on planar surface inside a hot chamber. Transduction was performed using a piezo-electric crystal that is attached to one end of the waveguide. Lower order axisymmetric guided ultrasonic modes L(0,1 and T(0,1 were employed. Notches were introduced along the waveguide to obtain ultrasonic wave reflections. Time of fight (TOF differences between the pre-defined reflectors (notches located on the waveguides were used to infer local temperatures. The ultrasonic temperature measurements were compared with commercially available thermocouples.

  10. Statistical analysis of ultrasonic measurements in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Chen, Po-Chih

    2002-05-01

    Stress wave techniques such as measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity are often used to evaluate concrete quality in structures. For proper interpretation of measurement results, the dependence of pulse transit time on the average acoustic impedance and the material homogeneity along the sound path need to be examined. Semi-direct measurement of pulse velocity could be more convenient than through transmission measurement. It is not necessary to assess both sides of concrete floors or walls. A novel measurement scheme is proposed and verified based on statistical analysis. It is shown that Semi-direct measurements are very effective for gathering large amount of pulse velocity data from concrete reference specimens. The variability of measurements is comparable with that reported by American Concrete Institute using either break-off or pullout tests.

  11. Effects of high power ultrasonic vibration on temperature distribution of workpiece in dry creep feed up grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknejad, Masih; Abdullah, Amir; Azarhoushang, Bahman

    2017-11-01

    Temperature history and distribution of steel workpiece (X20Cr13) was measured by a high tech infrared camera under ultrasonic assisted dry creep feed up grinding. For this purpose, a special experimental setup was designed and fabricated to vibrate only workpiece along two directions by a high power ultrasonic transducer. In this study, ultrasonic effects with respect to grinding parameters including depth of cut (a e ), feed speed (v w ), and cutting speed (v s ) has been investigated. The results indicate that the ultrasonic vibration has considerable effect on reduction of temperature, depth of thermal damage of workpiece and width of temperature contours. Maximum temperature reduction of 25.91% was reported at condition of v s =15m/s, v w =500mm/min, a e =0.4mm in the presence of ultrasonic vibration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  13. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  14. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  15. Remote measurement of corrosion using ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.; Porter, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technology has the potential of meeting the US Department of Energy's treatment requirements for mixed radioactive waste. A major technical constraint of the SCWO process is corrosion. Safe operation of a pilot plant requires monitoring of the corrosion rate of the materials of construction. A method is needed for measurement of the corrosion rate taking place during operation. One approach is to directly measure the change in wall thickness or growth of oxide layer at critical points in the SCWO process. In FY-93, a brief survey of the industry was performed to evaluate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for remote corrosion monitoring in supercritical vessels. As a result of this survey, it was determined that ultrasonic testing (UT) methods would be the most cost-effective and suitable method of achieving this. Therefore, the objective for FY-94 was to prove the feasibility of using UT to monitor corrosion of supercritical vessels remotely during operation without removal of the insulation

  16. Introducing ultrasonic falling film evaporator for moderate temperature evaporation enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbani, Maryam; Rahimi, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Ultrasonic Falling Film (USFF), as a novel technique has been proposed to increase the evaporation rate of moderate temperature liquid film. It is a proper method for some applications which cannot be performed at high temperature, such as foodstuff industry, due to their sensitivity to high temperatures. Evaporation rate of sodium chloride solution from an USFF on an inclined flat plate compared to that for Falling Film without ultrasonic irradiation (FF) at various temperatures was investigated. The results revealed that produced cavitation bubbles have different effects on evaporation rate at different temperatures. At lower temperatures, size fluctuation and collapse of bubbles and in consequence induced physical effects of cavitation bubbles resulted in more turbulency and evaporation rate enhancement. At higher temperatures, the behavior was different. Numerous created bubbles joined together and cover the plate surface, so not only decreased the ultrasound vibrations but also reduced the evaporation rate in comparison with FF. The highest evaporation rate enhancement of 353% was obtained at 40 °C at the lowest Reynolds number of 250. In addition, the results reveal that at temperature of 40 °C, USFF has the highest efficiency compared to FF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  18. High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer for Real-time Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mohammad Hossein; Sinclair, Anthony N.; Coyle, Thomas W.

    A broadband ultrasonic transducer with a novel porous ceramic backing layer is introduced to operate at 700 °C. 36° Y-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal was selected for the piezoelectric element. By appropriate choice of constituent materials, porosity and pore size, the acoustic impedance and attenuation of a zirconia-based backing layer were optimized. An active brazing alloy with high temperature and chemical stability was selected to bond the transducer layers together. Prototype transducers have been tested at temperatures up to 700 °C. The experiments confirmed that transducer integrity was maintained.

  19. Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel Using Ultrasonic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K. V.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K. K.

    2007-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out in M250 grade maraging steel specimens subjected to solution annealing at 1093 K for 1 hour followed by aging at 755 K for various durations in the range of 0.25 to 100 hours. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness, and ultrasonic parameters (longitudinal and shear wave velocities and Poisson’s ratio) has been studied in order to derive correlations among these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Both hardness and ultrasonic velocities exhibit almost similar behaviors with aging time. They increase with the precipitation of intermetallic phases, Ni3Ti and Fe2Mo, and decrease with the reversion of martensite to austenite. Ultrasonic shear wave velocity is found to be more influenced by the precipitation of intermetallic phases, whereas longitudinal wave velocity is influenced more by the reversion of martensite to austenite. Unlike hardness and ultrasonic velocities, the Poisson’s ratio exhibits a monotonous decrease with aging time and, hence, can be used for unambiguous monitoring of the aging process in M250 maraging steel. Further, none of the parameters, i.e., hardness, ultrasonic velocity, or Poisson’s ratio, alone could identify the initiation of the reversion of austenite at early stage; however, the same could be identified from the correlation between ultrasonic velocity and Poisson’s ratio, indicating the advantage of using the multiparametric approach for comprehensive characterization of complex aging behavior in M250 grade maraging steel.

  20. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepa, M. W., E-mail: mkepa@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Ridley, C. J.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2}.

  1. A New High-Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer for Continuous Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mohammad Hossein; Sinclair, Anthony N; Coyle, Thomas W

    2016-03-01

    A novel design of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is introduced, suitable for operation at temperatures of up to 700 °C-800 °C. Lithium niobate single crystal is chosen as the piezoelectric element primarily due to the high Curie temperature of 1200 °C. A backing element based on a porous ceramic is designed for which the pore volume fraction and average pore diameter in the ceramic matrix can be controlled in the manufacturing process; this enables the acoustic impedance and attenuation to be selected to match their optimal values as predicted by a one-dimensional transducer model of the entire transducer. Porous zirconia is selected as the ceramic matrix material of the backing element to obtain an ultrasonic signal with center frequency of 2.7-3 MHz, and 3-dB bandwidth of 90%-95% at the targeted operating temperature. Acoustic coupling of the piezocrystal to the backing element and matching layer is investigated using commercially available high-temperature adhesives and brazing alloys. The performance of the transducer as a function of temperature is studied. Stable bonding and clear signals were obtained using an aluminum brazing alloy as the bonding agent.

  2. Ultrasonic attenuation of CdSe at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B.J., E-mail: braulio@ula.v [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes Apartado de Correos No.1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calderon, E.; Bracho, D.B. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes Apartado de Correos No.1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perez, J.F. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacion Cientifica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes Apartado de Correos No.1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-08-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation of a single crystal of CdSe has been investigated over the temperature range from 1.2 to 300 K at frequencies of 10, 30 and 90 MHz. We report here the temperature dependence of the attenuation in the range 1.2-30 K for piezoactive and non-piezoactive acoustic waves. A temperature-induced relaxation for two piezoactive waves, which scale with frequency towards higher temperatures, was found. A modified Hutson and White model with a new parameter {gamma} is proposed to explain the relaxation maxima of our data and others in the literature. In this model the parameter {gamma}, which seems to be closely related to the compensation, takes into account the impurities-sound wave piezoelectric coupling. By inverting the proposed expression for the sound attenuation to obtain the electrical conductivity from the relaxation, it is found that impurity conductivity of the hopping type is the dominant conduction process at low temperatures.

  3. Ultrasonic attenuation of CdSe at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.J.; Calderon, E.; Bracho, D.B.; Perez, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation of a single crystal of CdSe has been investigated over the temperature range from 1.2 to 300 K at frequencies of 10, 30 and 90 MHz. We report here the temperature dependence of the attenuation in the range 1.2-30 K for piezoactive and non-piezoactive acoustic waves. A temperature-induced relaxation for two piezoactive waves, which scale with frequency towards higher temperatures, was found. A modified Hutson and White model with a new parameter γ is proposed to explain the relaxation maxima of our data and others in the literature. In this model the parameter γ, which seems to be closely related to the compensation, takes into account the impurities-sound wave piezoelectric coupling. By inverting the proposed expression for the sound attenuation to obtain the electrical conductivity from the relaxation, it is found that impurity conductivity of the hopping type is the dominant conduction process at low temperatures.

  4. Measurement of transitional flow in pipes using ultrasonic flowmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng-Gang, Liu; Guang-Sheng, Du; Zhu-Feng, Shao; Qian-Ran, He; Chun-Li, Zhou, E-mail: lzhenggang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Qian-Fo-shan campus, Shandong University, Jinan City 250061, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-10-01

    The accuracy of an ultrasonic flowmeter depends on the ratio k of average profile velocity of pipe and average velocity of an ultrasonic propagation path. But there is no appropriate method of calculating k for transition flow. In this paper, the velocity field of the transition flow in a pipe is measured by particle image velocimetry. On this basis, the k of U-shaped and V-shaped ultrasonic flowmeter is obtained when Reynolds number is between 2000 and 20 000. It is shown that the k is constant when the Reynolds number is in the range of 2000–2400 and 5400–20 000, and the k decreases with the increasing of Re when the Reynolds number is 2400–5400. The results of study can be used to improve the measurement accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters when flow is transition flow and can provide help for the study of pipe flow. (paper)

  5. Spinodal decomposition mechanism study on the duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 using ultrasonic speed measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C. de; Macedo Silva, Edgard de; Pereira Leite, Josinaldo; Pindo de Moura, Elineudo; Araujo Freitas, Vera Lucia de; Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This work, focuses on the spinodal decomposition mechanism study on the duplex stainless steel duplex UNS S31803, composed by austenite (γ) and ferrite (α) phases, at 425 o C and 475 o C temperatures by ultrasonic speed measurements. This temperature range is responsible for the transformation mechanism of α initial phase to α phases (poor in chromium) and α' (rich in chromium) by spinodal decomposition. The techniques to accomplish this analysis are based mainly on X-ray diffraction measures and ultrasonic speed. The obtained results show that it is possible to conclude that the use of ultrasonic speed measurements indicates a promising technique for following-up the phase transformation and spinodal decomposition on the steel studied.

  6. Use of Ultrasonic Technology for Soil Moisture Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Metzl, R.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Belisle, W.; Coleman, T.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve existing soil moisture measurement techniques or find new techniques using physics principles, a new technique is presented in this paper using ultrasonic techniques. It has been found that ultrasonic velocity changes as the moisture content changes. Preliminary values of velocities are 676.1 m/s in dry soil and 356.8 m/s in 100% moist soils. Intermediate values can be calibrated to give exact values for the moisture content in an unknown sample.

  7. Liquid temperature measuring method and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Fumi; Karasawa, Hirokazu

    1995-06-02

    In the present invention, temperature of liquid metal in coolants in an FBR type reactor can accurately be measured at rapid response time. Namely, ultrasonic waves are emitted from an ultrasonic wave sensor disposed in the air to a guide wave tube. Ultrasonic waves are reflected at reflection plates disposed at front and back or upper and lower portions of a small hole disposed to the wave guide tube. The reflected waves are received by the sensor described above. The difference of the reaching time of the reflected waves from the reflecting plates disposed at the front and the back or the upper and lower portions is measured. The speed of sounds in this case is determined based on the size of the small hole and the distance of the upper and the lower reflection plates. The speed of sounds is determined by the formula below: V(m/s) = 2500 - 0.52 T, where T: temperature. The temperature of the liquid can easily be calculated based on the formula. Accordingly, since the speed of the ultrasonic waves from their emission to the reception is msec order, and the processing of the signals are simple, the temperature can be measured at a response time of several msecs. In addition, since the ultrasonic wave sensor is disposed at the outside of the reactor, no special countermeasure for environmental circumstances is necessary, to improve maintenance ability. (I.S.).

  8. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  9. Distributed temperature sensors development using an stepped-helical ultrasonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the distributed ultrasonic waveguide temperature sensors using some stepped-helical structures. Distributed sensing has several applications in various industries (oil, glass, steel) for measurement of physical parameters such as level, temperature, viscosity, etc. This waveguide incorporates a special notch or bend for obtaining ultrasonic wave reflections from the desired locations (Gage-lengths) where local measurements are desired. In this paper, a multi-location measurement wave-guide, with a measurement capability of 18 locations in a single wire, has been fabricated. The distribution of these sensors is both in the axial as well as radial directions using a stepped-helical spring configuration. Also, different high temperature materials have been chosen for the wave-guide. Both lower order axi-symmetric guided ultrasonic modes (L(0,1) and T(0,1)) were employed. These wave modes were generated/received (pulse-echo approach) using conventional longitudinal and shear transducers, respectively. Also, both the wave modes were simultaneously generated/received and compared using shear transducer for developing the distributed helical wave-guide sensors. The effect of dispersion of the wave modes due to curvature effects will also be discussed.

  10. Using piezoelectric sensors for ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Seong-Hoon; Zhu, Jinying

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test has been a widely used non-destructive testing method for concrete structures. However, the conventional UPV test has limitations in consistency of results and applicability in hard-to-access regions of structures. The authors explore the feasibility of embedded piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for ultrasonic measurements in concrete structures. Two PZT sensors were embedded in a reinforced concrete specimen. One sensor worked as an actuator driven by an ultrasonic pulse-receiver, and another sensor worked as a receiver. A series of ultrasonic tests were conducted to investigate the performance of the embedded sensors in crack-free concrete and concrete specimens having a surface-breaking crack under various external loadings. Signals measured by the embedded sensors show a broad bandwidth with a centre frequency around 80 kHz, and very good coherence in the frequency range from 30 to 180 kHz. Furthermore, experimental variability in ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation is substantially reduced compared to previously reported values from conventional UPV equipment. Findings from this study demonstrate that the embedded sensors have great potential as a low-cost solution for ultrasonic transducers for health monitoring of concrete in structures. (paper)

  11. Measurement of liquid level in a natural circulation circuit using an ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Amanda Cardozo; Su, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The measurement by an ultrasonic technique of the water level in the expansion tank of the Natural Circulation Circuit (NCC) of the Experimental Thermo-Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering is presented. In the single-phase NCC operation the water level in the expansion tank is stable. However, during the two-phase operation, oscillations occur in the water level due to temperature and vacuum fraction variations. Thus, the development of a technique that allows the measurement of these oscillations, will allow an estimation of the variation of the vacuum fraction of the circuit over time. The experimental set - up was performed on a test bench, using an ultrasonic transducer. The ultrasonic technique used is pulse-echo, in which the same transducer is the transmitter and receiver of the signal. The transducer-shoe assembly is part of an ultrasonic system consisting of an ultrasonic signal generating plate, transducers and a computer (PC) with a program in LabView to control the system. The program is able to calculate the transit time that the ultrasonic signals take to cross the tank base wall, the layer (level) of liquid and return to the transducer. Knowing the speed of the ultrasound in the wall and in the liquid it is possible to calculate the thickness of the wall and the height of the liquid. Measurements were made by filling the tank with a known volume of water and under varying temperature conditions, from room temperature to 90 deg C. The liquid heights are determined and the volume of water calculated by measuring the temperature with a digital thermometer. The volumes measured were highly accurate when compared to the known volumes

  12. Ultrasonic instrument for continuous measurement of liquid levels in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic level measurement system which provides a continuous digital readout over a range of 3-180 inches, was tested in 500 0 F liquid sodium. The system proved to be accurate and reliable, required no initial warm-up period and experienced no long term drift. Modifications can extend the present operating temperatures to greater than 1200 0 F

  13. Ultrasonic preliminary measurements of oenological malolactic fermentation parameters in red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Díaz, D. F.; Puig-Pujol, A.; García-Álvarez, J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Mínguez, S.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Bertran, E.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the winemaking process, the malolactic fermentation is an essential process in the production of high quality red wines which concerns the conversion of malate into lactate. In this work, the ultrasonic velocity through wine samples with different concentrations of malate and lactate was measured using the pulse echo technique with 1 MHz tone burst signals. The evolution of these concentrations during malolactic fermentation was taken into account in order to determine the ratio between concentrations of malate and lactate of the different samples. These preliminary results have revealed that the ultrasonic velocity increases during the conversion of malate to lactate. In addition, measurements have been conducted to quantify the influence of variations in turbidity and temperature on test samples. Therefore, these results show the possibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for on-line monitoring the malolactic fermentation of red wine and may help to improve and contribute to the development of the winemaking process.

  14. Ultrasonic preliminary measurements of oenological malolactic fermentation parameters in red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa-Díaz, D F; García-Álvarez, J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; García-Hernández, M J; Salazar, J; Puig-Pujol, A; Mínguez, S; Bertran, E

    2012-01-01

    In the winemaking process, the malolactic fermentation is an essential process in the production of high quality red wines which concerns the conversion of malate into lactate. In this work, the ultrasonic velocity through wine samples with different concentrations of malate and lactate was measured using the pulse echo technique with 1 MHz tone burst signals. The evolution of these concentrations during malolactic fermentation was taken into account in order to determine the ratio between concentrations of malate and lactate of the different samples. These preliminary results have revealed that the ultrasonic velocity increases during the conversion of malate to lactate. In addition, measurements have been conducted to quantify the influence of variations in turbidity and temperature on test samples. Therefore, these results show the possibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for on-line monitoring the malolactic fermentation of red wine and may help to improve and contribute to the development of the winemaking process.

  15. Assessment of precipitates of isothermal aged austenitic stainless steel using measurement techniques of ultrasonic attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun Hee; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Lim, Byeong Soo; Kim, Kyung Cho

    2014-01-01

    AISI 316L stainless steel is widely used as a structural material of high temperature thermoelectric power plants, since austenitic stainless steel has excellent mechanical properties. However, creep damage is generated in these components, which are operated under a high temperature and high pressure environment. Several researches have been done on how microstructural changes of precipitates affect to the macroscopic mechanical properties. And they investigate the relation between ultrasonic parameters and metallurgical results. But, these studies are limited by experiment results only. In this paper, attenuations of ultrasonic with isothermal damaged AISI 316L stainless steel were measured. Also, simulation of ultrasonic attenuation with variation of area fraction and size of precipitates were performed. And, from the measured attenuations, metallographic data and simulation results, we investigate the relations between the ultrasonic attenuations and the material properties which is area fraction of precipitates for the isothermal damaged austenitic stainless steel specimens. And, we studied parametric study for investigation of the relation between ultrasonic parameters and metallurgical results of the isothermal damaged AISI 316L stainless steel specimens using numerical methods.

  16. High temperature flexible ultrasonic transducers for structural health monitoring and NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, J.L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Kobayashi, M.; Jen, C.K.; Tatibouet, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Boucherville, PQ (Canada). Industrial Materials Inst.; Mrad, N. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Vehicles Research Station

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are often used for non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of pipes in nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, petrochemical plants and other structures as a method to improve safety and extend the service life of the structure. In such applications, ultrasonic transducers (UTs) must be able to operate at high temperature, and must come in contact with structures that have surfaces with different curvatures. As such, flexible UTs (FUTs) are most suitable because they ensure self-alignment to the object's surface. The purpose of this study was to develop FUTs that have high flexibility similar to commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF FUTs, but which can operate at up to at least 150 degrees C and have a high ultrasonic performance comparable to commercial broadband UTs. The fabrication of the FUT consisted of a sol-gel based sensor fabrication process. The substrate was a 75 {mu}m thick titanium (Ti) membrane, a piezoelectric composite with a thickness larger than 85 {mu}m and a top electrode. The ultrasonic performance of the FUT in terms of signal strength was found to be at least as good as commercially available broadband ultrasonic transducers at room temperature. Onsite gluing and brazing installation techniques which bond the FUTs onto steel pipes for SHM and NDT purposes up to 100 and 150 degrees C were developed, respectively. The best thickness measurement accuracy of FUT at 150 degrees C was estimated to be 26 {mu}m. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  18. Bullet Ultrasonic Obstruction Detection & Distance Measurement Using AVR Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Pandey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the practical implementation of a short range ultrasonic obstruction detection and distance measurement device. By employing an ultrasonic transducer pair for producing ultrasonic sounds and sensing the reflected sound waves, the obstructions are detected. The hardware interface uses an Atmel ATmega8 AVR microcontroller to facilitate the generation of 40 kHz signal burst which is used in the transmitter circuit, and also to process the received signal for measuring the time of flight of reflected waves and exact distance of the obstruction. The program for this device is developed in WinAVR, and the code generated is dumped into microcontroller using AVR Studio. Educational aspects of this project include the mastery of a programming language and corresponding tools, the design of a functional and intuitive embedded application, and the development of appropriate hardware to build the device.

  19. Metal composite as backing for ultrasonic transducers dedicated to non-destructive measurements in hostile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubenia, R; Rosenkrantz, E; P, P; Ferrandis, J-Y; Despetis, F

    2016-01-01

    Our team is specialized in ultrasonic measurements in hostile environment especially under high temperatures. There is a need for acoustic transducers capable of continuous measurement at temperatures up to 700°C. To improve the performances of acoustic sensors we focus our works on the realisation and characterisation of transducer backings able to operate under very high temperature. Commercially, they are produced by the incorporation of tungsten powder in a plastic matrix, which limits the working temperature. The realisation of ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive measures at high temperatures requires adequate materials, manufacturing and assembly processes. To produce the backings, composites were made using very ductile metals such as tin and tungsten. These composites are manufactured by uniaxial hot pressing. First, we studied the influence of temperature and pressure on the densification of tin pellets. Then, several specimens made of tin/W were made and characterised by measuring the specific weight, speed and attenuation of sound. The acoustic measures were realised by ultrasonic spectroscopy. This test-bench was designed and tested on control samples of PMMA and on standard backings (epoxy / tungsten). (paper)

  20. Advance High Temperature Inspection Capabilities for Small Modular Reactors: Part 1 - Ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Bowler, John R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    The project objective was to investigate the development non-destructive evaluation techniques for advanced small modular reactors (aSMR), where the research sought to provide key enabling inspection technologies needed to support the design and maintenance of reactor component performance. The project tasks for the development of inspection techniques to be applied to small modular reactor are being addressed through two related activities. The first is focused on high temperature ultrasonic transducers development (this report Part 1) and the second is focused on an advanced eddy current inspection capability (Part 2). For both inspection techniques the primary aim is to develop in-service inspection techniques that can be carried out under standby condition in a fast reactor at a temperature of approximately 250°C in the presence of liquid sodium. The piezoelectric material and the bonding between layers have been recognized as key factors fundamental for development of robust ultrasonic transducers. Dielectric constant characterization of bismuth scantanate-lead titanate ((1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3) (BS-PT) has shown a high Curie temperature in excess of 450°C , suitable for hot stand-by inspection in liquid metal reactors. High temperature pulse-echo contact measurements have been performed with BS-PT bonded to 12.5 mm thick 1018-low carbon steel plate from 20C up to 260 C. High temperature air-backed immersion transducers have been developed with BS-PT, high temperature epoxy and quarter wavlength nickel plate, needed for wetting ability in liquid sodium. Ultrasonic immersion measurements have been performed in water up to 92C and in silicone oil up to 140C. Physics based models have been validated with room temperature experimental data with benchmark artifical defects.

  1. Effect of Heat Generation of Ultrasound Transducer on Ultrasonic Power Measured by Calorimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takeyoshi; Kikuchi, Tsuneo

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonic power is one of the key quantities closely related to the safety of medical ultrasonic equipment. An ultrasonic power standard is required for establishment of safety. Generally, an ultrasonic power standard below approximately 20 W is established by the radiation force balance (RFB) method as the most accurate measurement method. However, RFB is not suitable for high ultrasonic power because of thermal damage to the absorbing target. Consequently, an alternative method to RFB is required. We have been developing a measurement technique for high ultrasonic power by the calorimetric method. In this study, we examined the effect of heat generation of an ultrasound transducer on ultrasonic power measured by the calorimetric method. As a result, an excessively high ultrasonic power was measured owing to the effect of heat generation from internal loss in the transducer. A reference ultrasound transducer with low heat generation is required for a high ultrasonic power standard established by the calorimetric method.

  2. Nonlinear propagation in ultrasonic fields: measurements, modelling and harmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, V F

    2000-03-01

    In high amplitude ultrasonic fields, such as those used in medical ultrasound, nonlinear propagation can result in waveform distortion and the generation of harmonics of the initial frequency. In the nearfield of a transducer this process is complicated by diffraction effects associated with the source. The results of a programme to study the nonlinear propagation in the fields of circular, focused and rectangular transducers are described, and comparisons made with numerical predictions obtained using a finite difference solution to the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (or KZK) equation. These results are extended to consider nonlinear propagation in tissue-like media and the implications for ultrasonic measurements and ultrasonic heating are discussed. The narrower beamwidths and reduced side-lobe levels of the harmonic beams are illustrated and the use of harmonics to form diagnostic images with improved resolution is described.

  3. Stress measurement and bolt tensioning by ultrasonic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.F.; Greiner, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past decade, a new technique has been developed for measuring tensile stresses in solids. This ultrasonic technique has been used thus far primarily for measuring fastener tension. The precision of measurement is routinely to 2-3% and, with special care, to approx. 1%. The method is insensitive to the frictional losses which plague tensioning by torque wrench. Though the approach is relatively new, it promises a wide range of applicability

  4. Stress Measurement and Bolt Tensioning by Ultrasonic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. F.; Greiner, John D.

    1980-07-01

    In the past decade, a new technique has been developed for measuring tensile stresses in solids. This ultrasonic technique has been used thus far primarily for measuring fastener tension. The precision of measurement is routinely to 2-3% and, with special care, to ˜1%. The method is insensitive to the frictional losses which plague tensioning by torque wrench. Though the approach is relatively new, it promises a wide range of applicability.

  5. Design and Implementation of High Precision Temperature Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianzhen; Yu, Weiyu; Zhang, Zhijian; Liu, Hancheng

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale neutrino detector requires calibration of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and electronic system in the detector, performed by plotting the calibration source with a group of designated coordinates in the acrylic sphere. Where the calibration source positioning is based on the principle of ultrasonic ranging, the transmission speed of ultrasonic in liquid scintillator of acrylic sphere is related to temperature. This paper presents a temperature measurement unit based on STM32L031 and single-line bus digital temperature sensor TSic506. The measurement data of the temperature measurement unit can help the ultrasonic ranging to be more accurate. The test results show that the temperature measurement error is within ±0.1°C, which satisfies the requirement of calibration source positioning. Take energy-saving measures, with 3.7V/50mAH lithium battery-powered, the temperature measurement unit can work continuously more than 24 hours.

  6. Ultrasonic downcomer flow measurements for recirculating steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, Victor, E-mail: Victor.Janzen@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0 J 1J0 (Canada); Luloff, Brian [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0 J 1J0 (Canada); Sedman, Ken [Nuclear Safety Analysis & Support Department, Bruce Power, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X6 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Measuring recirculating flow in nuclear steam generators provides useful information. • Flow measurements shed light on component performance and degradation mechanisms. • Commonly used ultrasonic technology and application methods are described. • Results of measurements at several power reactors are summarized. • Potential improvements in reliability and flexibility of application are suggested. - Abstract: Measurements of downcomer flow in nuclear steam generators can provide unique fitness for service and performance indicators related to overall thermalhydraulic performance, safety related secondary-side setpoints and certain forms of degradation. This paper reviews the benefits of downcomer-flow measurements to nuclear power–plant operators, and describes methods that are commonly used. It summarizes the history and state-of-the-art of the most widely used technology, non-intrusive ultrasonic systems, including field applications at several nuclear power plants. It also describes the technical challenges that remain, and summarizes recent technical developments and future improvements.

  7. Directivity measurements in aluminum using a laser ultrasonics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, J M S; Pacheco, G M; Tittmann, B R; Baba, A

    2011-01-01

    A laser ultrasonics system was setup to measure the directivity (angular dependence pattern) of the amplitude of ultrasonic waves generated in aluminum samples. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm optical wavelength, with typical pulse width (FWHM) of 8 ns, and energy per pulse of 450 mJ, was used to generate the ultrasound waves in the samples. The laser detection system was a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with typical noise-limited resolution of 0.25 nm (rms), frequency range from 50 kHz to 20 MHz, and measurement range from -75 nm/V to +75 nm/V. Two different optical spot sizes of the Nd:YAG laser were used to generate waves in the ablation regime: one was focused and the other was unfocused. Using the obtained data, the directivity graphics were drawn and compared with the theoretical curves, showing a good agreement. The experiments showed the directivity as a function of the optical spot size. For a point ultrasonic source (or focused optical spot), the directivity shows that the longitudinal waves present considerable amplitude in all directions. For a larger ultrasonic source (or an unfocused optical spot) the directivity shows that the longitudinal waves are generated with the higher amplitudes inside angles around ±10 0 .

  8. Thickness measurement by using cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Yoon, Chan Hoon; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic thickness measurement is a non-destructive method to measure the local thickness of a solid element, based on the time taken for an ultrasound wave to return to the surface. When an element is very thin, it is difficult to measure thickness with the conventional ultrasonic thickness method. This is because the method measures the time delay by using the peak of a pulse, and the pulses overlap. To solve this problem, we propose a method for measuring thickness by using the power cepstrum and the minimum variance cepstrum. Because the cepstrums processing can divides the ultrasound into an impulse train and transfer function, where the period of the impulse train is the traversal time, the thickness can be measured exactly. To verify the proposed method, we performed experiments with steel and, acrylic plates of variable thickness. The conventional method is not able to estimate the thickness, because of the overlapping pulses. However, the cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing that divides a pulse into an impulse and a transfer function can measure the thickness exactly.

  9. Preliminary study of flow velocity measurement by means of ultrasonic waves; Estudo preliminar de medicao de vazao atraves de ondas ultra-sonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pio, Ronald Ribeiro; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio; Lamy, Carlos Alfredo; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.

    1995-10-01

    Different flow velocities of a water loop were associated with different ultrasonic wave velocities that traveled in the water. It was also observed that water temperature influenced the ultrasonic wave velocity but in an inverse manner to that of the water flow velocity. This experiment showed the possibility of using the ultrasonic system to measure a liquid flow velocity with precision. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body.

  11. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs

  12. Research and realization of ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers noncontacting ultrasonic measurements using EMATS

    CERN Document Server

    Hirao, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    This second edition provides comprehensive information on electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), from the theory and physical principles of EMATs to the construction of systems and their applications to scientific and industrial ultrasonic measurements on materials. The original version has been complemented with selected ideas on ultrasonic measurement that have emerged since the first edition was released. The book is divided into four parts: PART I offers a self-contained description of the basic elements of coupling mechanisms along with the practical designing of EMATs for various purposes. Several implementations to compensate for EMATs’ low transfer efficiency are provided, along with useful tips on how to make an EMAT. PART II describes the principle of electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), which makes the most of EMATs’ contactless nature and is the most successful amplification mechanism for precise measurements of velocity and attenuation. PART III applies EMAR to studying physical ...

  14. A flow meter for ultrasonically measuring the flow velocity of fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention regards a flow meter for ultrasonically measuring the flow velocity of fluids comprising a duct having a flow channel with an internal cross section comprising variation configured to generate at least one acoustic resonance within the flow channel for a specific ultrasonic frequency......, and at least two transducers for generating and sensing ultrasonic pulses, configured to transmit ultrasonic pulses at least at said specific ultrasonic frequency into the flow channel such that the ultrasonic pulses propagate through a fluid flowing in the flow channel, wherein the flow meter is configured...

  15. Ultrasonic fluid quantity measurement in dynamic vehicular applications a support vector machine approach

    CERN Document Server

    Terzic, Jenny; Nagarajah, Romesh; Alamgir, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Accurate fluid level measurement in dynamic environments can be assessed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach. SVM is a supervised learning model that analyzes and recognizes patterns. It is a signal classification technique which has far greater accuracy than conventional signal averaging methods. Ultrasonic Fluid Quantity Measurement in Dynamic Vehicular Applications: A Support Vector Machine Approach describes the research and development of a fluid level measurement system for dynamic environments. The measurement system is based on a single ultrasonic sensor. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) based signal characterization and processing system has been developed to compensate for the effects of slosh and temperature variation in fluid level measurement systems used in dynamic environments including automotive applications. It has been demonstrated that a simple ν-SVM model with Radial Basis Function (RBF) Kernel with the inclusion of a Moving Median filter could be used to achieve the high levels...

  16. In service inspection for Superphenix vessels development of ultrasonic techniques available at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondard, C.

    1983-12-01

    The main and safety vessels of SUPERPHENIX 1 were designed to allow in-service inspections. The remote controlled inspection device MIR was developped for this purpose. The ultrasonic examination has required the development of all new transducers fitted with severe operating conditions prevailing in intervessels interval. A list of problems to be resolved and technological solutions which were found is given. Measurements of acoustical properties on actual probes are compared with theoretical values. It appears that concordance is good and that an in-service inspection using high temperature transducers is possible with a good spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio

  17. Performance considerations of ultrasonic distance measurement with well defined properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Hannes; Schweinzer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonic distance measurement systems based on narrow bandwidth ultrasonic bursts and amplitude detection are often used because of their low costs and easy implementation. However, the achievable results strongly depend on the actual environments where the system is implemented: in case of well defined objects that are always located near the measurement direction of the system, in general good results are obtained. If arbitrary objects are expected that are moreover located in arbitrary positions in front of the sensor, strongly object dependent areas where objects are detected with decreasing accuracy towards their borders must be taken into account. In previous works we developed an ultrasonic measurement system that provides accurate distance measurement values within a well defined detection area that is independent of the reflection properties of the objects. This measurement system is based on the One Bit Correlation method that is described in the following. To minimise its implementation efforts, it is necessary to examine the influence of the system parameters as e.g. the correlation length to the results that are expected in case of different signal to noise ratios of the received signal. In the following, these examinations are shown and the obtained results are discussed that allow getting a well conditioned system that makes best use of given system resources

  18. Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cañete

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression.

  19. Bulk ultrasonic NDE of metallic components at high temperature using magnetostrictive transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Antony Jacob; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Kumar, Anish; Rao, B. Purnachandra; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2017-02-01

    Online ultrasonic NDE at high-temperature is of much interest to the power, process and automotive industries in view of possible savings in downtime. This paper describes a novel approach to developing ultrasonic transducers capable of high-temperature in-situ operation using the principle of magnetostriction. Preliminary design from previous research by the authors [1] is extended for operation at 1 MHz, and at elevated temperatures by amorphous metallic strips as the magnetostrictive core. Ultrasonic signals in pulse-echo mode are experimentally obtained from the ultrasonic transducer thus developed, in a simulated high-temperature environment of 350 °C for 10 hours. Advantages and challenges for practical deployment of this approach are discussed.

  20. Highly accurate adaptive TOF determination method for ultrasonic thickness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lianjie; Liu, Haibo; Lian, Meng; Ying, Yangwei; Li, Te; Wang, Yongqing

    2018-04-01

    Determining the time of flight (TOF) is very critical for precise ultrasonic thickness measurement. However, the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signals would induce significant TOF determination errors. In this paper, an adaptive time delay estimation method has been developed to improve the TOF determination’s accuracy. An improved variable step size adaptive algorithm with comprehensive step size control function is proposed. Meanwhile, a cubic spline fitting approach is also employed to alleviate the restriction of finite sampling interval. Simulation experiments under different SNR conditions were conducted for performance analysis. Simulation results manifested the performance advantage of proposed TOF determination method over existing TOF determination methods. When comparing with the conventional fixed step size, and Kwong and Aboulnasr algorithms, the steady state mean square deviation of the proposed algorithm was generally lower, which makes the proposed algorithm more suitable for TOF determination. Further, ultrasonic thickness measurement experiments were performed on aluminum alloy plates with various thicknesses. They indicated that the proposed TOF determination method was more robust even under low SNR conditions, and the ultrasonic thickness measurement accuracy could be significantly improved.

  1. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  2. Ultrasonic fetal size measurements in Brisbane, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluter, P.J.; Pritchard, G.; Gill, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to construct population-specific charts of fetal biometry for 11-41 weeks gestation in relation to known gestational age from a large population of normal Australian pregnancies when examination is performed to a standard protocol by experienced operators. All consenting eligible women attending a large Brisbane clinic between January 1993 and April 2003 were recruited. Menstrual history was taken prior to examination. Measurements were performed to a standard protocol. Prospective assessment was made about the association between gestational age from the last menstrual period and biometry. Exclusion principles were applied. Statistical analyses were performed using polynomial regression models and thorough diagnostic checks were undertaken. Included within the study were separate scans for 20 555 pregnancies from 17 660 women. Equations, means and 95th reference intervals were derived and reported for the following sonographic measurements: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Population-specific regression equations for BPD, HC, AC and FL have been proposed for Australian pregnancies. Once validated by others, we believe they will warrant consideration for adoption by the Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  3. Esterification of jatropha oil via ultrasonic irradiation with auto-induced temperature-rise effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Tacca, Cesar Augusto; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Manh, Do-Van; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ji, Dar-Ren; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Shie, Je-Lueng

    2014-01-01

    Auto-induced temperature-rise effects of ultrasonic irradiation (UI) on the esterification performance of jatropha oil (JO) were studied. Comparisons with other methods of mechanical mixing (MM) and hand shaking mixing were made. Major system parameters examined include: esterification time (t E ), settling time (t S ) after esterification and temperature. Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV) and density of JO and ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. Sulfuric acid was used to catalyze the esterification using methyl alcohol. For esterification without temperature control, η at t E  = 10 and 30 min for UI of 56.73 and 83.23% are much higher than those for MM of 36.76 and 42.48%, respectively. At t E  = 10 min, the jatropha oil esters produced via UI and MM respectively possess AV of 15.82 and 23.12 mg KOH/g, IV of 111.49 and 113.22 g I 2 /100 g, KV of 22.41 and 22.51 mm 2 /s and density of 913.8 and 913.58 kg/m 3 , showing that UI is much better than MM in enhancing the reduction of AV. The t E exhibits more vigorous effect on AV for UI than MM. The UI offers auto-induced temperature-rise, improving the mixing and esterification extents. - Highlights: • Esterification of jatropha oil is pronounced under ultrasonic irradiation (UI). • UI can auto-induce temperature rise. • The induced temperature rise assists the mixing of UI in enhancing esterification. • UI offers better esterification than mechanical mixing with external heating. • An 83.23% reduction of FFA in jatropha-ester is achievable via UI in 30 min

  4. Dynamic tensile tests with superimposed ultrasonic oscillations for stainless steel type 321 at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinke, B.; Malmberg, T.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years various containment codes for Fast Breeder Reactor accidents have been assessed by comparison with explosion tests in water-filled vessels (COVA experiments). Common to the various codes, a systematic underestimation of the circumferential vessel strains was found. In the COVA tests high frequency pressure oscillations in the ultrasonic range were observed and thus it has been conjectured that the phenomenon of ''acoustic softening'' might be relevant in explaining the discrepancies in the strains. To validate this conjecture a hydro-pneumatic tensile test apparatus was developed which allows dynamic tensile testing at room temperature with and without superimposed ultrasonic oscillations. The dynamic tensile tests on the COVA sheet material (stainless steel AISI 321) without ultrasonic insonation show a linear dependence of the flow stress on the logarithm of the strain rate. The results at low strain rates (10 -3 s -1 ) agree favourably with previous measurements but at high rates (50 s -1 ) at 20% lower flow stress is observed. The dynamic tensile tests with continuous and intermittent insonation show the phenomenon of ''acoustic softening'': The average flow stress is reduced by an amount of about half the oscillating amplitude. At high strain rates the reduction is less. A severe ''acoustic softening'' observed by several authors for various metals at low strain rates was not observed. The experimental results were compared with the theory of the superpositon mechanism assuming a rate-independent elastic-plastic and an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive model. Although the rate-independent model is capable to predict qualitatively some of the observed effects, a better description is obtained with the viscoplastic model. The conclusion is that the ''acoustic softening'' of the COVA material is far too small to explain the discrepancies between measured and computed strains found in the containment code validation studies. (orig.)

  5. Instrument maintenance of ultrasonic influences parameters measurement in technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomal V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The contact and non-contact vibration meters for intermittent and continuous control of the vibration amplitude in the ultrasonic technological equipment have been developed. And in order to estimate the cavitation intensity in liquids the authors have developed cavitation activity indicators and cavitation sensitivity meters, allowing to measure the magnitude of the signal level in the range of maximum spectral density of cavitation noise. The developed instruments allow to improve the quality of products, reduce the defect rate and power consumption of equipment by maintaining optimum conditions of the process.

  6. Investigation of PVC physical ageing in field test specimens using ultrasonic and dielectric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Ravanan, M.; Visser, Roy; Loendersloot, Richard; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Physical ageing in PVC is studied using two techniques: a) non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the non-collinear wave interaction theory and b) dielectric measurements. The ultrasonic measurement results are compared with dielectric measurement results. The comparison shows that the used

  7. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  8. Ultrasonic measurement on RPV stud-bolt loading under hot transient of Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jiadi; Dou Yikang; Zhu Shiming; Lu Jie; Wang Yingguan

    1994-01-01

    It is a continuation of research work for sealing analysis and tests on the PRV of PWR. It expounds that the key of solving thermal transient sealing problem lies in giving the thermal increment of stud-bolt fatigue life and transient loading spectrum for vessel analysis. The authors recounted the fundamental works and main results of ultrasonic measurement on RPV stud-bolt loading on the reactor of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. The measuring capability exceeds 1 m length and 300 degree C temperature. Therefore, it is possible to be used in the field of NPP

  9. Effects of the Environment Temperature on the Characteristic of Parallax Ping Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Stănescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some characteristics of the Parallax PING ultrasonic sensor and the way the environmental temperature affects them. The used sensor functions at 40 KHz. There is also presented the experimental test setup and the authors’ conclusions on the functioning of the sensor at various temperatures.

  10. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  11. EMATs for science and industry noncontacting ultrasonic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hirao, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    EMATs for Science and Industry comprises the physical principles of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) and the applications to scientific and industrial ultrasonic measurements on materials. The text is arranged in four parts: -PART I is intended to be a self-contained description of the basic elements of coupling mechanism along with practical designing of EMATs for various purposes. There are several implementations to compensate for the low transfer efficiency of the EMATs. Useful tips to make an EMAT are also presented. -PART II describes the principle of electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), which makes the most of contactless nature of EMATs and is the most successful amplification mechanism for precise velocity and attenuation measurements. -PART III applies EMAR to studying the physical acoustics. New measurements emerged on three major subjects; in situ monitoring of dislocation behavior, determination of anisotropic elastic constants, and acoustic nonlinearity evolution. -PART IV deal...

  12. Measurement of hydroxyl radical production in ultrasonic aqueous solutions by a novel chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Zhujun; Yang, Chunyan

    2008-07-01

    Measurement methods for ultrasonic fields are important for reasons of safety. The investigation of an ultrasonic field can be performed by detecting the yield of hydroxyl radicals resulting from ultrasonic cavitations. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for detecting hydroxyl radicals by a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-K5[Cu(HIO6)2](DPC). The yield of hydroxyl radicals is calculated directly by the relative CL intensity according to the corresponding concentration of H2O2. This proposed CL method makes it possible to perform an in-line and real-time assay of hydroxyl radicals in an ultrasonic aqueous solution. With flow injection (FI) technology, this novel CL reaction is sensitive enough to detect ultra trace amounts of H2O2 with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 4.1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The influences of ultrasonic output power and ultrasonic treatment time on the yield of hydroxyl radicals by an ultrasound generator were also studied. The results indicate that the amount of hydroxyl radicals increases with the increase of ultrasonic output power (< or = 15 W mL(-1)). There is a linear relationship between the time of ultrasonic treatment and the yield of H2O2. The ultrasonic field of an ultrasonic cleaning baths has been measured by calculating the yield of hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Mechanized scaling with ultrasonics: Perils and proactive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanized scaling for plaque removal is a routine procedure in the practice of periodontics. Though it appears innocuous by itself, there are retinues of hazards associated with it on various organ systems in the body. Some of these unwanted effects and measures to avoid or ameliorate the same are elaborated here. Exposure to ultrasonic scaling is inevitable before any other treatment procedure. Aerosol contamination, vibrational hazards, thermal effects on the dental pulp, altered vascular dynamics, disruption in electromagnetic device, diminished hearing and dental unit waterline contamination are some of the probable off-shoots a patient has to bear. Uses of barrier devices, proper attention to usage of equipment, protection for ear and water treatment are few of solutions for the same. Though documented evidence for the existence of all effects is lacking, it is never the less significant for the overall safety of the patient. A conscientious clinician should therefore inculcate the available steps to overcome the hazards of ultrasonic scaling.

  14. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  15. Impact of applied ultrasonic power on the low temperature drying of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, J V; Contreras, M; Simal, S; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature drying (LTD) allows high-quality dried products to be obtained, preserving the nutritional properties of fresh foods better than conventional drying, but it is a time-consuming operation. Power ultrasound (US) could be used to intensify LTD, but it should be taken into account that process variables, such as the level of applied power, have an influence on the magnitude and extension of the ultrasonic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of the level of applied ultrasonic power on the LTD of apple, analyzing the drying kinetics and the quality of the dried product. For that purpose, apple (Malus domestica cv. Granny Smith) cubes (8.8mm side) were dried (2m/s) at two different temperatures (10 and -10°C), without and with (25, 50 and 75 W) US application. In the dried apple, the rehydration kinetics, hardness, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and microstructure were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the level of applied ultrasonic power. At both temperatures, 10 and -10°C, the higher the ultrasonic power level, the shorter the drying time; the maximum shortening of the drying time achieved was 80.3% (at -10°C and 75 W). The ultrasonic power level did not significantly (pfruits, like apple, with only a mild impact on the quality of the dried product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  17. A fully automated system for ultrasonic power measurement and simulation accordingly to IEC 61161:2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Felix, R.P.B.; Alvarenga, A.V.; Hekkenberg, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ultrasonic power measurement, worldwide accepted, standard is the IEC 61161, presently in its 2nd edition (2006), but under review. To fulfil its requirements, considering that a radiation force balance is to be used as ultrasonic power detector, a large amount of raw data (mass measurement)

  18. Temperature measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature measuring device is equipped with an electric resistor installed within a metal shroud tube so as to be insulated from it, the noise voltage of which resistor is fed to a measuring unit. The measuring junctions of one or two thermocouples are connected with the electric resistor and the legs of one or both thermocouples can be connected to the measuring unit by means of a switch. (orig.) [de

  19. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Christian; Lions, Noel.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a temperature measuring system that can be applied in particular to monitoring the temperature of the cooling liquid metal of the outlet of the core assemblies of a fast reactor. Said device combines a long hollow metallic pole, at least partially dipped into the liquid metal and constituting a first thermocouple junction between said pole, and two metallic conductors of different nature, joined at one of their ends to constitute the second thermocouple junction. Said conductors suitably insulated are arranged inside a sheath. Said sheath made of the same metals as the pole extends inside the latter and is connected with the pole through a soldered joint. Said reliable system permits an instantaneous measurement of a quantity representing the variations in the recorded temperature and a measurement of the mean surrounding temperature that can be direcly used as a reference for calibrating the first one [fr

  20. A study on the ultrasonic measurement for damage evaluation of power plant bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of monitoring by ultrasonic test of the ball bearing conditions in rotating machinery, a system for their diagnosis was developed. Ultrasonic technique is used to detect abnormal conditions in the bearing system. And various data such as frequency spectrum, energy and amplitude of ultrasonic signals, and ultrasonic parameters were acquired during experiments with the simulated ball bearing system. Based on the above results and practical application for power plant, algorithms and judgement criteria for diagnosis system was established. Bearing diagnosis system is composed of four parts as follows : sensing part for ultrasonic sensor and preamplifier, signal processing part for measuring frequency spectrum, energy and amplitude, interface part for connecting ultrasonic signal to PC using A/D converter, graphic display and software part for display of bearing condition and for managing of diagnosis program

  1. Gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement through genetic-ant colony optimization based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huirang; Zheng, Dandan; Nie, Laixiao

    2015-04-01

    For gas ultrasonic flowmeters, the signals received by ultrasonic sensors are susceptible to noise interference. If signals are mingled with noise, a large error in flow measurement can be caused by triggering mistakenly using the traditional double-threshold method. To solve this problem, genetic-ant colony optimization (GACO) based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model is proposed. Furthermore, in consideration of the real-time performance of the flow measurement system, the improvement of processing only the first three cycles of the received signals rather than the whole signal is proposed. Simulation results show that the GACO algorithm has the best estimation accuracy and ant-noise ability compared with the genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, double-threshold and enveloped zero-crossing. Local convergence doesn’t appear with the GACO algorithm until -10 dB. For the GACO algorithm, the converging accuracy and converging speed and the amount of computation are further improved when using the first three cycles (called GACO-3cycles). Experimental results involving actual received signals show that the accuracy of single-gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement can reach 0.5% with GACO-3 cycles, which is better than with the double-threshold method.

  2. Gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement through genetic-ant colony optimization based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Huirang; Zheng, Dandan; Nie, Laixiao

    2015-01-01

    For gas ultrasonic flowmeters, the signals received by ultrasonic sensors are susceptible to noise interference. If signals are mingled with noise, a large error in flow measurement can be caused by triggering mistakenly using the traditional double-threshold method. To solve this problem, genetic-ant colony optimization (GACO) based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model is proposed. Furthermore, in consideration of the real-time performance of the flow measurement system, the improvement of processing only the first three cycles of the received signals rather than the whole signal is proposed. Simulation results show that the GACO algorithm has the best estimation accuracy and ant-noise ability compared with the genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, double-threshold and enveloped zero-crossing. Local convergence doesn’t appear with the GACO algorithm until –10 dB. For the GACO algorithm, the converging accuracy and converging speed and the amount of computation are further improved when using the first three cycles (called GACO-3cycles). Experimental results involving actual received signals show that the accuracy of single-gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement can reach 0.5% with GACO-3 cycles, which is better than with the double-threshold method. (paper)

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with Low-Temperature Wafer Direct Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fabrication method of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs by wafer direct bonding, which utilizes both the wet chemical and O2plasma activation processes to decrease the bonding temperature to 400 °C. Two key surface properties, the contact angle and surface roughness, are studied in relation to the activation processes, respectively. By optimizing the surface activation parameters, a surface roughness of 0.274 nm and a contact angle of 0° are achieved. The infrared images and static deflection of devices are assessed to prove the good bonding effect. CMUTs having silicon membranes with a radius of 60 μm and a thickness of 2 μm are fabricated. Device properties have been characterized by electrical and acoustic measurements to verify their functionality and thus to validate this low-temperature process. A resonant frequency of 2.06 MHz is obtained by the frequency response measurements. The electrical insertion loss and acoustic signal have been evaluated. This study demonstrates that the CMUT devices can be fabricated by low-temperature wafer direct bonding, which makes it possible to integrate them directly on top of integrated circuit (IC substrates.

  4. Temperature measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

    1999-10-19

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  5. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  6. Ultrasonic measurements of undamaged concrete layer thickness in a deteriorated concrete structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Visser, Roy; Akkerman, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave propagation in deteriorated concrete structures was studied numerically and experimentally. Ultrasonic single-side access immersion pulse-echo and diffuse field measurements were performed in deteriorated concrete structures at 0.5 MHz center frequency. Numerically and experimentally

  7. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in bovine incisors were exposed to a standardized volume of NaOCl at different temperatures (24 °C and 38 °C) and exposure times (20, 60 and 180 s). The irrigant was refreshed and ultrasonically activated four times for 20 s followed by a 40 s rest interval, with no refreshment and no activation as the controls. The reaction rate was determined by measuring the amount of active chlorine in the NaOCl solution before and after being exposed to dentine during the specific experimental conditions. Calorimetry was used to measure the electrical-to-sonochemical conversion efficiency during ultrasonic activation. Refreshment, activation and exposure time all increased the reaction rate of NaOCl (P reaction rate of NaOCl (P > 0.125). The reaction rate of NaOCl with dentine is enhanced by refreshment, ultrasonic activation and exposure time. Temperature rise of irrigant during ultrasonic activation was not sufficient to alter the reaction rate. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  9. Use of the ultrasonic cavitation in wool dyeing process: Effect of the dye-bath temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2017-03-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of the liquid temperature on the performance of ultrasounds (US) in a dyeing process. The approach was both theoretical and experimental. In the theoretical part the simplified model of a single bubble implosion is used to demonstrate that the "maximum implosion pressure" calculated with the well known Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a single bubble can be correlated with the cavitation intensity experimentally measured with an Ultrasonic Energy Meter (by PPB Megasonics). In particular the model was used to study the influence of the fluid temperature on the cavitation intensity. The "relative" theoretical data calculated from the implosion pressure were satisfactorily correlated with the experimental ones and evidence a zone, between 50 and 60°C, were the cavitation intensity is almost constant and still sufficiently high. Hence an experimental part of wool dyeing was carried out both to validate the previous results and to verify the dyeing quality at low temperatures (40-70°C) in presence of US. A prototype dyeing equipment able to treat textile samples with US system of 600W power, was used. The dyeing performances in the presence and absence of US were verified by measuring ΔE (colour variation), R e,% (reflectance percentage), K/S (colour strength) and colour fastness. The US tests performed in the temperature range of 40-70°C were compared with the conventional wool dyeing at 98°C. The obtained results show that a temperature close to 60°C should be chosen as the recommended US dyeing condition, being a compromise between the cavitation intensity and the kinetics which rules the dyestuff diffusion within the fibres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hardware Developments of an Ultrasonic Tomography Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudabiyah ARSHAD AMARI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research provides new technique in ultrasonic tomography by using ultrasonic transceivers instead of using separate transmitter-receiver pair. The numbers of sensors or transducers used to acquire data plays an important role to generate high resolution tomography images. The configuration of these sensors is a crucial factor in the efficiency of data acquisition. Instead of using common separated transmitter – receiver, an alternative approach has been taken to use dual functionality ultrasonic transceiver. A prototype design of sensor’s jig that will hold 16 transceivers of 14.1mm has been design. Transmission-mode approach with fan beam technique has been used for sensing the flow of gas, liquid and solid. This paper also explains the circuitry designs for the Ultrasonic Tomography System.

  11. Hardware Developments of an Ultrasonic Tomography Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Hudabiyah ARSHAD AMARI; Ruzairi ABDUL RAHIM; Mohd Hafiz FAZALUL RAHIMAN; Herlina ABDUL RAHIM; Muhammad Jaysuman PUSPPANATHAN

    2010-01-01

    This research provides new technique in ultrasonic tomography by using ultrasonic transceivers instead of using separate transmitter-receiver pair. The numbers of sensors or transducers used to acquire data plays an important role to generate high resolution tomography images. The configuration of these sensors is a crucial factor in the efficiency of data acquisition. Instead of using common separated transmitter – receiver, an alternative approach has been taken to use dual functionality ul...

  12. Ultrasonic and metallographic studies on AISI 4140 steel exposed to hydrogen at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruganti, Malavika

    This thesis conducts an investigation to study the effects of hydrogen exposure at high temperature and pressure on the behavior of AISI 4140 steel. Piezoelectric ultrasonic technique was primarily used to evaluate surface longitudinal wave velocity and defect geometry variations, as related to time after exposure to hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. Critically refracted longitudinal wave technique was used for the former and pulse-echo technique for the latter. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to correlate the ultrasonic results with the microstructure of the steel and to provide better insight into the steel behavior. The results of the investigation indicate that frequency analysis of the defect echo, determined using the pulse-echo technique at regular intervals of time, appears to be a promising tool for monitoring defect growth induced by a high temperature and high pressure hydrogen-related attack.

  13. Defects and Materials Characterization by Analysis of Ultrasonic Signals. Study of a Technique to Measure Ultrasonic Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    de Ensayos No Destructivos de Control de la Calidad de los Materiales". Editado por Instituto Nacional de T6cnica AeroespaciaL...STUDY OF A TECH!4IUE TO MEASURE ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION. Carlos Valdecantos; Jos6 Miguel instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) Torrej6n de ...Ardoz, Madrid, SPAIN. Mayo 1985 DTIC ELECTE OCT2 I85 0SI. Final Report. 0 .. 3 Approved for public release; Distribution unlimited. " .Prepared for: AIR

  14. Measurement and visualization of file-to-wall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsioukis, C; Verhaagen, B; Walmsley, A D; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2013-11-01

    (i) To quantify in a simulated root canal model the file-to-wall contact during ultrasonic activation of an irrigant and to evaluate the effect of root canal size, file insertion depth, ultrasonic power, root canal level and previous training, (ii) To investigate the effect of file-to-wall contact on file oscillation. File-to-wall contact was measured during ultrasonic activation of the irrigant performed by 15 trained and 15 untrained participants in two metal root canal models. Results were analyzed by two 5-way mixed-design anovas. The level of significance was set at P root canal (P root canal (P irrigant activation. Therefore, the term 'Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation' should be amended to 'Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation'. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Standard practice for measuring the ultrasonic velocity in polyethylene tank walls using lateral longitudinal (LCR) waves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for measuring the ultrasonic velocities in the outer wall of polyethylene storage tanks. An angle beam lateral longitudinal (LCR) wave is excited with wedges along a circumferential chord of the tank wall. A digital ultrasonic flaw detector is used with sending-receiving search units in through transmission mode. The observed velocity is temperature corrected and compared to the expected velocity for a new, unexposed sample of material which is the same as the material being evaluated. The difference between the observed and temperature corrected velocities determines the degree of UV exposure of the tank. 1.2 The practice is intended for application to the outer surfaces of the wall of polyethylene tanks. Degradation typically occurs in an outer layer approximately 3.2-mm (0.125-in.) thick. Since the technique does not interrogate the inside wall of the tank, wall thickness is not a consideration other than to be aware of possible guided (Lamb) wave effects or reflection...

  16. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Soichiro; Tomizaki, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinning of the crystal within a levitating droplet ensured an efficient sampling of the reciprocal space. The datasets were processed with a program suite developed for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX). The structure, which was solved by molecular replacement, was found to be identical to the structure obtained by the conventional oscillation method for up to a 1.8-Å resolution limit. In particular, the absence of protein crystal damage resulting from the acoustic levitation was carefully established. These results represent a key step towards a fully automated sample handling and measurement pipeline, which has promising prospects for a high acquisition rate and high sample efficiency for room temperature X-ray crystallography.

  17. Preparation and Characteristics of Ultrasonic Transducers for High Temperature Using PbNb2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Junichiro; Sato, Kokichi; Nagata, Kunihiro

    2000-05-01

    The substance PZT(Pb(Zr, Ti)O3) is chiefly used for piezoceramic transducers in many ultrasonic flow meters. It is difficult to use PZT transducers for flow meters for automobile exhaust gas at high temperatures over 350°C. Lead niobate (PbNb2O6) has a high Curie temperature of 540°C and a low mechanical quality factor, and is the most suitable as the sensor element in flow meters for automobile exhaust gas. However, it is difficult to fabricate dense PbNb2O6 ceramics that have good piezoelectric properties. In this study, ceramics with high density and a high piezoelectric effect were fabricated by adding various elements such as Mn and Ca to PbNb2O6 and by examining the sintering process. A Langevin transducer with a resonance frequency of 80 kHz was made for measuring automobile exhaust gas flow using PbNb2O6 ceramics.

  18. Experimental investigations of two-phase flow measurement using ultrasonic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Abbagoni, Baba Musa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the investigations conducted in the use of ultrasonic technology to measure two-phase flow in both horizontal and vertical pipe flows which is important for the petroleum industry. However, there are still key challenges to measure parameters of the multiphase flow accurately. Four methods of ultrasonic technologies were explored. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was first applied to the ultrasound signals of air-water flow on horizontal flow for measur...

  19. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.L.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40 K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  20. Design and Functional Validation of a Complex Impedance Measurement Device for Characterization of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cock, Wouter; Cools, Jan; Leroux, Paul

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and practical implementation of a complex impedance measurement device capable of characterization of ultrasonic transducers. The device works in the frequency range used by industrial ultrasonic transducers which is below the measurement range of modern high end network analyzers. The device uses the Goertzel algorithm instead of the more common FFT algorithm to calculate the magnitude and phase component of the impedance under test. A theoretical overview is given followed by a practical approach and measurement results. (authors)

  1. Study of ultrasonic propagation through vortices for acoustic monitoring of high-temperature and turbulent fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massacret, Nicolas; Moysan, Joseph; Ploix, Marie-Aude; Chaouch, Naim; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic monitoring in high temperature fluids with turbulences requires the knowledge of wave propagation in such media and the development of simulation tools. Applications could be the monitoring of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The objectives are mainly acoustic telemetry and thermometry, which involve the propagation of ultrasounds in turbulent and heated sodium flows. We developed a ray-tracing model to simulate the wave propagation and to determine wave deviations and delays due to an inhomogeneous medium. In previous work we demonstrated the sensitivity of ultrasounds to temperature gradients in liquid sodium. To complete that study, we need to investigate the sensitivity of ultrasounds to vortices created in a moving fluid. We designed a specific experimental setup called IKHAR (Instabilities of Kelvin-Helmholtz for Acoustic Research) in order to assess the validity of the ray-tracing model and the potential of ultrasounds for monitoring such fluid. In this experiment, Von Karman instabilities were created in a flow of water. Fluid temperature was homogeneous in our experimental setup. Through a careful choice of the parameters, periodic vortices were generated. The experiment was also simulated using Comsol registered to allow discussion about repeatability. The throughtransmission method was used to measure wave delays due to the vortices. Arrays of transducers were used to measure time of flight variations of several nanoseconds with a high spatial resolution. Results were similar to simulation results. They demonstrate that beam delays due to vortices can be measured and confirm the potential of ultrasounds in monitoring very inhomogeneous fluid media such as liquid sodium used as coolant fluid in nuclear fast reactors.

  2. Measurement of void swelling in thick non-uniformly irradiated 304 stainless steel blocks using nondestructive ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Okita, T.; Isobe, Y.; Etoh, J.; Sagisaka, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Freyer, P.D.; Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.; Porter, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Void swelling is of potential importance in PWR austenitic internals, especially in components that will see higher doses during plant lives beyond 40 years. Proactive surveillance of void swelling is required to identify its emergence before swelling reaches levels that cause high levels of embrittlement and distortion. Non-destructive measurements of ultrasonic velocity can measure swelling at fractions of a percent. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for PWR application we have investigated five blocks of 304 stainless steel that were irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor. These blocks were of hexagonal cross-section, with thickness of about 50 mm and lengths of about 218-245 mm. They were subjected to significant axial and radial gradients in gamma heating, temperature and dpa rate, producing complex internal distributions of swelling, reaching about 3.5% maximum at an off-center mid-core position. Swelling decreases both the density and the elastic moduli, thereby impacting the ultrasonic velocity. Concurrently, carbide precipitates form, producing increases in density and decreases in elastic moduli. Using blocks from both low and high dpa levels it was possible to separate the ultrasonic contributions of voids and carbides. Time-of-flight ultrasonic measurements were used to non-destructively measure the internal distribution of void swelling. These distributions were confirmed using non-destructive profilometry followed by destructive cutting to provide density change and electron microscopy data. It was demonstrated that the four measurement types produce remarkably consistent results. Therefore ultrasonic measurements offer great promise for in-situ surveillance of voids in PWR core internals. (authors)

  3. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  4. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.L.; Campbell, G.W.; Singh, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in X-ray detection efficiency are common in a normal population of individuals of differing body composition and have been determined in the past by means of elaborate and costly ultrasonic measurements of the subject's chest. Methods using simple 40 K and biometric measurement techniques have been investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods compare favorably with ultrasonic measurements and allow laboratories not possessing ultrasonic equipment to make appropriate corrections for x-ray detection efficiency. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. (author)

  5. Lower sintering temperature of nanostructured dense ceramics compacted from dry nanopowders using powerful ultrasonic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, O.; Reichel, U.; Dvilis, E.; Khasanov, A.

    2011-10-01

    Nanostructured high dense zirconia ceramics have been sintered from dry nanopowders compacted by uniaxial pressing with simultaneous powerful ultrasonic action (PUA). Powerful ultrasound with frequency of 21 kHz was supplied from ultrasonic generator to the mold, which was the ultrasonic wave-guide. Previously the mold was filled by non-agglomerated zirconia nanopowder having average particle size of 40 nm. Any binders or plasticizers were excluded at nanopowder processing. Compaction pressure was 240 MPa, power of ultrasonic generator at PUA was 1 kW and 3 kW. The fully dense zirconia ceramics has been sintered at 1345°C and high-dense ceramics with a density of 99.1%, the most grains of which had the sizes Dgr <= 200 nm, has been sintered at low sintering temperature (1325°C). Applied approach prevents essential grain growth owing to uniform packing of nanoparticles under vibrating PU-action at pressing, which provides the friction forces control during dry nanopowder compaction without contaminating binders or plasticizers.

  6. Property and microstructural nonuniformity in the yttrium-barium-copper-oxide superconductor determined from electrical, magnetic, and ultrasonic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation is presented in two major chapters. In the first chapter, the use of ultrasonic velocity for estimating pore fraction in YBCO and other polycrystalline materials is reviewed, modeled, and statistically analyzed. This chapter provides the basis for using ultrasonic velocity to interrogate microstructure. In the second chapter, (1) the effect of pore fraction (0.10-0.25) on superconductor properties of YBCO samples is characterized, (2) spatial (within-sample) variations in microstructure and superconductor properties are investigated and (3) the effect of oxygen content on elastic behavior is examined. Experimental methods used included a.c. susceptibility, electrical, and ultrasonic-velocity measurements. Superconductor properties measured included transition temperature, magnetic transition width, transport and magnetic critical current density, magnetic shielding, a.c. loss, and sharpness of the voltage-current characteristic. Superconductor properties including within-sample uniformity were generally poorest for samples containing the lowest (0.10) pore fraction. Ultrasonic velocity was linearly related to pore fraction thereby allowing sample classification. Changes in superconducting behavior were observed consistent with changes in oxygen content

  7. Ultrasonic acoustic levitation for fast frame rate X-ray protein crystallography at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Tsujino; Takashi Tomizaki

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the data acquisition rate of X-ray diffraction images for macromolecular crystals at room temperature at synchrotrons has the potential to significantly accelerate both structural analysis of biomolecules and structure-based drug developments. Using lysozyme model crystals, we demonstrated the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction datasets by combining a high frame rate pixel array detector with ultrasonic acoustic levitation of protein crystals in liquid droplets. The rapid spinn...

  8. Site ultrasonic measurement on RPV stud-bolt loading under hot transient of Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jiadi; Dou Yikang; Zhu Shiming

    1994-08-01

    It expounds that the key of solving thermal transient sealing problem is to obtain the thermal increment of stud-bolt loading. This loading, as a primary stress loading, is directly related to the bolt fatigue life and transient loading spectrum for vessel analysis. The fundamental works and main results of ultrasonic measurement on RPV stud-bolt loading on Qinshan site are also presented. The measuring capability has exceeded 1 m in length and temperature of 280 degree C, therefore, it is possible to be used in the field of NPP. The paper is the continuation of research work for sealing analysis and tests on the RPV (see SMiRT-9, 10)

  9. A numerical model for ultrasonic measurements of swelling and mechanical properties of a swollen PVA hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakan, M; Jamnongkan, T; Pintavirooj, C; Kaewpirom, S; Boonsang, S

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical model for the evaluation of mechanical properties of a relatively thin hydrogel. The model utilizes a system identification method to evaluate the acoustical parameters from ultrasonic measurement data. The model involves the calculation of the forward model based on an ultrasonic wave propagation incorporating diffraction effect. Ultrasonic measurements of a hydrogel are also performed in a reflection mode. A Nonlinear Least Square (NLS) algorithm is employed to minimize difference between the results from the model and the experimental data. The acoustical parameters associated with the model are effectively modified to achieve the minimum error. As a result, the parameters of PVA hydrogels namely thickness, density, an ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and dispersion velocity are effectively determined. In order to validate the model, the conventional density measurements of hydrogels were also performed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process.

  11. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process

  12. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  13. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  14. Flexible metallic ultrasonic transducers for structural health monitoring of pipes at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jeanne-Louise; Kobayashi, Makiko; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2010-09-01

    Piezoelectric films have been deposited by a sol-gel spray technique onto 75-μm-thick titanium and stainless steel (SS) membranes and have been fabricated into flexible ultrasonic transducers (FUTs). FUTs using titanium membranes were glued and those using SS membranes brazed onto steel pipes, procedures that serve as on-site installation techniques for the purpose of offering continuous thickness monitoring capabilities at up to 490 °C. At 150 °C, the thickness measurement accuracy of a pipe with an outer diameter of 26.6 mm and a wall thickness of 2.5 mm was estimated to be 26 μm and the center frequency of the FUT was 10.8 MHz. It is demonstrated that the frequency bandwidth of the FUTs and SNR of signals using glue or brazing materials as high-temperature couplant for FUTs are sufficient to inspect the steel pipes even with a 2.5 mm wall thickness.

  15. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairi, Mohd Taufiq; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Md Yunus, Mohd Amri; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated. (topical review)

  16. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq Mohd Khairi, Mohd; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated.

  17. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P K; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  18. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  19. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigations on temperature distribution at the joint interface for copper joints using ultrasonic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Sooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic welding is a solid-state joining process that produces joints by the application of high frequency vibratory energy in the work pieces held together under pressure without melting. Copper and its alloys are extensively used in electrical and electronic industry because of its excellent electrical and thermal properties. This paper mainly focused on temperature distribution and the influence of process parameters at the joint interface while joining copper sheets using ultrasonic welding process. Experiments are carried out using Cu sheets (0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thickness and the interface temperature is measured using Data Acquisition (DAQ System (thermocouple and thermal imager. Numerical and finite element based model for temperature distribution at the interface are developed and solved the same using Finite Difference Method (FDM and Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The results obtained from FDM and FEA model shows similar trend with experimental results and are found to be in good agreement.

  1. Measurement of flaw size in a weld sample by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L. Jr.; Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-05-01

    An ultrasonic frequency analysis technique has been developed and applied to the measurement of flaws in an 8-in.-thick heavy-section steel specimen belonging to the Pressure Vessel Research Committee program. Using the technique the flaws occurring in the weld area were characterized in quantitative terms of both dimension and orientation. Several modifications of the technique were made during the study to include the application of several transducers and to consider ultrasonic mode conversion. (U.S.)

  2. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  3. Reference-free fatigue crack detection using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation under various temperature and loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon; DeSimio, Martin P.; Brown, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a reference-free fatigue crack detection technique using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation. When low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) inputs generated by two surface-mounted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers are applied to a structure, the presence of a fatigue crack can provide a mechanism for nonlinear ultrasonic modulation and create spectral sidebands around the frequency of the HF signal. The crack-induced spectral sidebands are isolated using a combination of linear response subtraction (LRS), synchronous demodulation (SD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) filtering. Then, a sequential outlier analysis is performed on the extracted sidebands to identify the crack presence without referring any baseline data obtained from the intact condition of the structure. Finally, the robustness of the proposed technique is demonstrated using actual test data obtained from simple aluminum plate and complex aircraft fitting-lug specimens under varying temperature and loading variations.

  4. Ultra-sonic testing for brittle-ductile transition temperature of ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomakuchi, Michiyoshi

    1979-01-01

    The ultra-sonic testing for the brittle-ductile transition temperature, the USTB test for short, of ferritic steels is proposed in the present paper. And also the application of the USTB test into the nuclear pressure vessel surveillance is discussed. The USTB test is based upon the experimental results in the present work that the ultrasonic pressure attenuation coefficient of a ferritic steel has the evident transition property with its temperature due to the nature from which the brittle-ductile fracture transition property of the steel come and for four ferritic steels the upper boundary temperatute of the region in which the transition of the attenuation coefficient of a steel takes place is 4 to 5 0 C higher than the sub(D)T sub(E), i.e. the transition temperature of the fracture absorption energy of the steel by the DWTT test. The USTB test estimates the crack arrest temperature which is defined to be the fracture transition elastic temperature by the upper boundary temperature. (author)

  5. High temperature ultrasonic sensor for fission gas characterization in MTR harsh environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsa, O.; Combette, P.; Rozenkrantz, E.; Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Ferrandis, J. Y. AD(; )

    2018-01-01

    In the contemporary world, the measurements in hostile environment is one of the predominant necessity for automotive, aerospace, metallurgy and nuclear plant. The measurement of different parameters in experimental reactors is an important point in nuclear power strategy. In the near past, IES (Institut d'Électronique et des Systèmes) on collaboration with CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) have developed the first ultrasonic sensor for the application of gas quantity determination that has been tested in a Materials Testing Reactor (MTR). Modern requirements state to labor with the materials that possess stability on its parameters around 350°C in operation temperature. Previous work on PZT components elaboration by screen printing method established the new basis in thick film fabrication and characterization in our laboratory. Our trials on Bismuth Titanate ceramics showed the difficulties related to high electrical conductivity of fabricated samples that postponed further research on this material. Among piezoceramics, the requirements on finding an alternative solution on ceramics that might be easily polarized and fabricated by screen printing approach were resolved by the fabrication of thick film from Sodium Bismuth Titanate (NBT) piezoelectric powder. This material exhibits high Curie temperature, relatively good piezoelectric and coupling coefficients, and it stands to be a good solution for the anticipated application. In this paper, we present NBT thick film fabrication by screen printing, characterization of piezoelectric, dielectric properties and material parameters studies in dependence of temperature. Relatively high resistivity in the range of 1.1013 Ohm.cm for fabricated thick film is explained by Aurivillius structure in which a-and b-layers form perovskite structure between oxides of c-layer. Main results of this study are presented and discussed in terms of feasibility for an application to a new sensor

  6. Ultrasonic speed, densities and viscosities of xylitol in water and in aqueous tyrosine and phenylalanine solutions at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Bidhuri, P.; Uzair, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic speed u, densities ρ and viscosities η of xylitol in water and in 0.001 m aqueous l-tyrosine (Tyr) and l-phenylalanine (Phe) have been measured at different temperatures. From the density and ultrasonic speed measurements apparent molar isentropic compression κ_{φ}, apparent molar isentropic compressions at infinite dilution κ_{{S,φ}}0 , experimental slope S K , hydration number n H , transfer partial molar isentropic compressibility Δ_{tr} κ_{{S,φ}}0 of xylitol from water to aqueous Tyr and Phe have been obtained. From the viscosity data, B-coefficient and B-coefficient of transfer Δ tr B of xylitol from water to aqueous Phe and Tyr at different temperatures have also been estimated. Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of solvent Δ μ 1 0# and per mole of solute Δ μ 2 0# have been calculated by using Feakins transition state theory for the studied systems. The calculated parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and hydration behavior of xylitol.

  7. Anisotropy analysis of low cement concrete by ultrasonic measurements and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Sanja P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analized material was high alumina low cement castable sintered at three different temperatures. Influence of initial material anisotropy on the thermal shock resistance as well as changes of anisotropy level during the thermal shock were studied. Water quench test was used as an experimental method for the thermal stability testing. Surface anisotropy was analysed by image analysis and structural anisotropy using ultrasonic measurements. The results pointed out that the highest homogeinity and the lowest surface and structural anisotropy was for the samples sintered at 1600ºC. Surface anistoropy had prevailing infuence on behavior of material during the thermal shock, but the structural anisotropy should not be neglected. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33007

  8. An advanced ultrasonic technique for slow and void fraction measurements of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, J.L.H.; Su, J.; Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid type counterpropagating transmission ultrasonic technique (CPTU) for flow and time averaging ultrasonic transmission intensity void fraction measurements (TATIU) of air-water two-phase flow, which is tested in the new two-phase flow test section mounted recently onto an existing single phase flow rig. The circular pipe test section is made of 51.2 mm stainless steel, followed by a transparent extruded acrylic pipe aimed at flow visualization. The two-phase flow rig operates in several flow regimes: bubbly, smooth stratified, wavy stratified and slug flow. The observed flow patterns are compared with previous experimental and numerical flow regime map for horizontal two phase flows. These flow patterns will be identified by time averaging transmission intensity ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. A counterpropagating transmission ultrasonic flowmeter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid phase. A pulse-echo TATIU ultrasonic technique used to measure the void fraction of the horizontal test section is presented. We can draw the following conclusions: 1) the ultrasonic system was able to characterize the 2 flow patterns simulated (stratified and plug flow); 2) the results obtained for water volumetric fraction require more experimental work to determine exactly the technique uncertainties but, a priori, they are consistent with earlier work; and 3) the experimental uncertainties can be reduced by improving the data acquisition system, changing the acquisition time interval from seconds to milliseconds

  9. Low temperature ultrasonic investigation of ZnSe crystals doped with Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Vladimir [Institute for Metal Physics, Ural Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, Kovalevskaya st., 620219 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University, 11, Mashinostroitelei st., 620012 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Lonchakov, Alexander; Sokolov, Victor; Zhevstovskikh, Irina; Gruzdev, Nikita [Institute for Metal Physics, Ural Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, Kovalevskaya st., 620219 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-03-01

    The peak of ultrasonic absorption observed at {approx}13 K in ZnSe:Ni crystals with dopant concentration of 5.5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} was interpreted as due to the Jahn-Teller effect. The dynamic contribution to the effective elastic modulus was accounted for and the temperature dependences of relaxation time, relaxed and unrelaxed modulus C{sub 44} were obtained. The procedure of accounting for the dynamic contribution resulted in a more accurate determination of the temperature of phase transition. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. An optical, electrical and ultrasonic layered single sensor for ingredient measurement in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, A; Kitajima, T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an optical, electrical and ultrasonic layered single sensor is proposed as a new, non-invasive sensing method for the measurement of ingredients in liquid, particularly in the food industry. In the proposed sensor, the photo sensors and the PVDF films with the transparent conductive electrode are layered and the optical properties of the liquid are measured by a light emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor (PT). In addition, the electrical properties are measured by indium tin oxide (ITO) film electrodes as the transparent conductive electrodes of PVDF films arranged on the surfaces of the LED and PT. Moreover, the ultrasonic properties are measured by PVDF films. Thus, the optical, electrical and ultrasonic properties in the same space of the liquid can be simultaneously measured at a single sensor. To test the sensor experimentally, three parameters of the liquid—such as concentrations of yellow color, sodium chloride (NaCl) and ethanol in distilled water—were estimated using the measurement values of the optical, electrical and ultrasonic properties obtained with the proposed sensor. The results suggested that it is possible to estimate the three ingredient concentrations in the same space of the liquid from the optical, electrical and ultrasonic properties measured by the proposed single sensor, although there are still some problems such as measurement accuracy that must be solved

  11. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of central corneal thickness(CCTmeasured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry, and to evaluate the correlation and consistency of the results for providing a theoretical basis for clinical application.METHODS: The mean value of CCT in 70 eyes of 35 patients measured three times by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry underwent statistical analysis. The difference of CCT was compared, and the correlation and consistency of three measurements were analyzed to provide theoretical basis for clinical application. CCT values measured by different methods were analyzed with randomized block variance analysis. LSD-t test was used for pairwise comparison between groups. The correlation of three measurement methods were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman was used to analyze the consistency.RESULTS: The mean CCT values measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry were 542.75±40.06, 528.74±39.59, 538.54±40.93μm, respectively. The mean difference of CCT measurement was 4.21±8.78μm between Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry, 14.01±13.39μm between Lenstar LS900 and Orbscan Ⅱ, 9.8±10.57μm between ultrasonic pachmetry and Orbscan Ⅱ. The difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05: There was positive correlation between CCT with Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry(r=0.977, 0.944; PCONCLUSION: There are excellent correlation among Lenstar LS900, Orbscan Ⅱ and ultrasonic pachmetry. Lenstar LS900 can be used as CCT non-contact measurement tool.

  12. Development of nuclear thermal hydraulic verification tests and evaluation technology - Development of the ultrasonic method for two-phase mixture level measurement in nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Sang Jae; Kim, Hyung Tae; Moon, Young Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    An ultrasonic method is developed for the measurement of the two-phase mixture level in the reactor vessel or steam generator. The ultrasonic method is selected among the several non-nuclear two-phase mixture level measurement methods through two steps of selection procedure. A commercial ultrasonic level measurement method is modified for application into the high temperature, pressure, and other conditions. The calculation method of the ultrasonic velocity is modified to consider the medium as the homogeneous mixture of air and steam, and to be applied into the high temperature and pressure conditions. The cross-correlation technique is adopted as a detection method to reduced the effects of the attenuation and the diffused reflection caused by surface fluctuation. The waveguides are developed to reduce the loss of echo and to remove the effects of obstructs. The present experimental study shows that the developed ultrasonic method measures the two-phase mixture level more accurately than the conventional methods do. 21 refs., 60 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  13. High-pressure behavior of amorphous selenium from ultrasonic measurements and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Liu, X. R.; Hong, S. M., E-mail: hpswjtu@gmail.com, E-mail: smhong@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Z. G. [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, H. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Peng, J. P. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-07-07

    The high-pressure behavior of melt-quenched amorphous selenium (a-Se) has been investigated via ultrasonic measurements and Raman scattering at room temperature. The ultrasonic measurements were conducted on a-Se in a multi-anvil apparatus with two different sample assemblies at pressures of up to 4.5 and 4.8 GPa. We discovered that similar kinks occur in the slopes of the pressure dependence characteristics of the travel time and the sound velocity in both shear and longitudinal waves in the 2.0–2.5 GPa range. These kinks are independent of the sample assemblies, indicating an intrinsic transformation of the a-Se. Additionally, we deduced the pressure-volume relationship of a-Se from the sound velocity characteristics using the Birch–Murnaghan equation of state, and the results agreed well with those of previous reports. In situ high-pressure Raman scattering measurements of a-Se were conducted in a diamond anvil cell with an 830 nm excitation line up to a pressure of 4.3 GPa. We found that the characteristic band of a-Se at ∼250 cm{sup −1} experienced a smooth shift to a lower frequency with pressure, but a sharp slope change in the band intensity versus pressure occurred near 2.5 GPa. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate that the samples remain in their amorphous states after decompression. Thus, we proposed that the abnormal compression behavior of a-Se in the 2.0–2.5 GPa range can be attributed to pressure-induced local atomic reconfiguration, implying an amorphous-amorphous transition of the elementary selenium.

  14. Investigation of magnetic transitions through ultrasonic measurements in double-layered CMR manganite La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. S.; Vishnuvardhan Reddy, C.

    2014-03-01

    A polycrystalline, double-layered, colossal magnetoresistive manganite La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 is synthesized by sol-gel process and its magnetic and ultrasonic properties were investigated in the temperature range 80-300 K. The sample has Curie temperature at 124 K, where the sample exhibits a transition from paramagnetic insulator to ferromagnetic metallic state. The longitudinal sound velocity measurements show a significant hardening of sound velocity below TC, which may be attributed to the coupling between ferromagnetic spins and longitudinal acoustic phonons. The magnetization and ultrasonic studies reveal the presence of secondary transition at ≈ 260 K in this sample. The present sound velocity measurement results confirm the reliability of ultrasonic investigations as an independent tool to probe magnetic transitions in manganites.

  15. Temperature measurement in the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamacharyulu, R.J.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The importance of measuring sea temperature is explained and the various methods employed for this purpose are reviewed. Instruments used for spot measurement of water temperature at the sea surface and at discrete depths (bucket thermometer...

  16. Temperature measurement with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Marques, M.; Peter, J.; Tamain, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results presented in this report were obtained from the information provided by charged products. Another alternative consists in detecting the neutrons abundantly emitted particularly by heavy nuclei. The residue channel was studied in the 40 Ar + 197 Au at 60 MeV/nucleon by means of the neutron multidetector DEMON. The evolution of the multiplicity of neutrons emitted backwards in the framework of the heavy nucleus forwardly detected as a function of the residue velocity by a silicon detector, placed at 8 degrees and at 24.5 cm from target, agrees with the expected results i.e. an increase with the residue velocity hence with the collision violence. For the same detector the first measurements show similarly a linear increase of the apparent temperature of 4.0 to around 6.5 MeV for residue velocities varying from 0.5 to 1.3 cm/ns and masses ranging from 140 to 160 uma. This first results of the analysis show therefore a good behaviour of the assembly and especially of the couple DeMoN-SyReP

  17. Recent progress in online ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Szu-Sheng L.; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Ramos-Franca, Demartonne; Nguyen, Ky T.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei; Ihara, Ikuo; Derdouri, A.; Garcia-Rejon, Andres

    1998-03-01

    On-line ultrasonic monitoring of polymer co-extrusion and gas-assisted injection molding are presented. During the co- extrusion of high density polyethylene and Santoprene ultrasonic sensors consisting of piezoelectric transducers and clad ultrasonic buffer rods are used to detect the interface between these two polymers and the stability of the extrusion. The same ultrasonic sensor also measures the surface temperature of the extruded polymer. The results indicate that temperature measurements using ultrasound have a faster response time than those obtained by conventional thermocouple. In gas-assisted injection molding the polymer and gas flow front positions are monitored simultaneously. This information may be used to control the plunger movement.

  18. A fully automated system for ultrasonic power measurement and simulation accordingly to IEC 61161:2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B; Alvarenga, Andre V; Hekkenberg, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The ultrasonic power measurement, worldwide accepted, standard is the IEC 61161, presently in its 2nd edition (2006), but under review. To fulfil its requirements, considering that a radiation force balance is to be used as ultrasonic power detector, a large amount of raw data (mass measurement) shall be collected as function of time to perform all necessary calculations and corrections. Uncertainty determination demands calculation effort of raw and processed data. Although it is possible to be undertaken in an old-fashion way, using spread sheets and manual data collection, automation software are often used in metrology to provide a virtually error free environment concerning data acquisition and repetitive calculations and corrections. Considering that, a fully automate ultrasonic power measurement system was developed and comprehensively tested. A 0,1 mg of precision balance model CP224S (Sartorius, Germany) was used as measuring device and a calibrated continuous wave ultrasound check source (Precision Acoustics, UK) was the device under test. A 150 ml container filled with degassed water and containing an absorbing target at the bottom was placed on the balance pan. Besides the feature of automation software, a routine of power measurement simulation was implemented. It was idealized as a teaching tool of how ultrasonic power emission behaviour is with a radiation force balance equipped with an absorbing target. Automation software was considered as an effective tool for speeding up ultrasonic power measurement, while allowing accurate calculation and attractive graphical partial and final results.

  19. First experiments on visualisation of two-phase high pressure and temperature flows using an ultrasonic mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, V.I.; Khokhlov, V.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kontelev, V.V.; Zoi, V.R.; Zavinov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel device for fast visualisation of gas-liquid two-phase flows was developed and tested during loss-off-coolant accident simulations at the thermal hydraulic test facility PSB-VVER, a 1:300 integral model of the VVER-1000. The device is an ultrasonic mesh sensor. It consists of a metallic frame where transmitter and receiver wave-guides are fixed, that form two grids inside the measurement cross section. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted into the fluid by the 8 wave-guides of the first plane. A second plane of another 8 wave-guides, that cross the ones of the first plane under an angle of 90 deg, serves as receives. The measurement is based on the acoustic conductivity of the two-phase mixture at the locations where the wave-guides cross. The sampling frequency is 250 frames per second. This allows both void fraction measurements and a fast flow visualisation. The sensor is applicable to high pressures and temperatures. All parts and surfaces that are in contact with the fluid are manufactured from stainless steel. During the tests at PSB-VVER the flow pattern in the hot leg of the primary circuit model was visualised for the first time. (orig.)

  20. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  1. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  2. Dynamic measurement of liquid film thickness in stratified flow by using ultrasonic echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Nagane, K.; Kamei, T.; Kawara, Z.; Ebisu, T.; Torikoshi, K.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a technique to measure time-dependent local film thickness in stratified air-water flow over a horizontal plate by using a time of flight of ultrasonic transmission. The ultrasonic echoes reflected at the liquid/air interfaces are detected by a conventional ultrasonic instrumentation, and the signals are analyzed by a personal computer after being digitalized by an A/D converter to give the time of flight for the ultrasonic waves to run over a distance of twice of the film thickness. A 3.8 mm diameter probe type ultrasonic transducer was used in the present work which transmits and receives 10 MHz frequency ultrasonic waves. The estimated spatial resolution with this arrangement is 0.075 mm in film thickness for water. The time resolution, which depends on both the A/D converter and the memory capacity was up to several tens Hz. We also discussed the sensitivity of the method to the inclination angle of the interfaces. (author)

  3. Ultrasonic Measurement of Corrosion Depth Development in Concrete Exposed to Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yingfang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion depth of concrete can reflect the damage state of the load-carrying capacity and durability of the concrete structures servicing in severe environment. Ultrasonic technology was studied to evaluate the corrosion depth quantitatively. Three acidic environments with the pH level of 3.5, 2.5, and 1.5 were simulated by the mixture of sulfate and nitric acid solutions in the laboratory. 354 prism specimens with the dimension of 150 mm × 150 mm × 300 mm were prepared. The prepared specimens were first immersed in the acidic mixture for certain periods, followed by physical, mechanical, computerized tomography (CT and ultrasonic test. Damage depths of the concrete specimen under different corrosion states were obtained from both CT and ultrasonic test. Based on the ultrasonic test, a bilinear regression model is proposed to estimate the corrosion depth. It is shown that the results achieved by ultrasonic and CT test are in good agreement with each other. Relation between the corrosion depth of concrete specimen and the mechanical indices such as mass loss, compressive strength, and elastic modulus is discussed in detail. It can be drawn that the ultrasonic test is a reliable nondestructive way to measure the damage depth of concrete exposed to acidic environment.

  4. The Influence Study of Ultrasonic honing parameters to workpiece surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration honing(UVH, a machine technology, has a lot of advantages. Lower grinding temperature is a significant character and is beneficial for both processing and workpiece surface. But the high temperature caused by big honing pressure becomes the main factor to produce workpiece heat damage in grinding zone. In various honing parameter combinations, the showing effect is different. Based on the thermodynamics classical theory, established the heat transfer equation for grinding zone, simplified the model and obtained the two-dimenssion temperature field expression for workpiece, then simulated the temperature changing trend in a variety of conditions. It is shown that themain temp is in a range of 700K to 1200K. In addition, the variation is huge for every parameter. The study provides a theoretical basis for deeply seeking reasonable machining parameter and obtaining better workpiece quality.

  5. Application of focus-variation Technique in Measurements of Ultrasonic Vibrations of Grinding pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wdowik Roman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of focus-variation technique in measurements of ultrasonic vibrations of grinding pins. Ultrasonic vibrations of tools are applied in ultrasonic assisted grinding. Their measurements are significant for development of this hybrid machining process. Alumina and zirconia ceramic materials in the final fired state were machined in experiments which are known as scratch tests. Diamond grinding pin was used as a tool to machine scratches. Marks of diamond grains, left on the surface of workpieces after machining process, were investigated using The Infinite Focus Real 3D optical microscope. Focus-variation is the principle of operation of this microscope. Investigations concerned possibilities of measurements of an amplitude of axial and radial vibrations in the case of two ceramic materials. Results of performed measurements are presented and discussed for selected machining parameters.

  6. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  7. Special instrumentation developed for FARO and KROTOS FCI experiments: High temperature ultrasonic sensor and dynamic level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Jorzik, E.; Anselmi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Development and application of special instrumentation for FARO and KROTOS fuel-coolant interaction experiments at JRC-Ispra are described. A temperature sensor based on ultrasonic techniques is described with the discussion on the improvements in sensor fabrication technique and design. The sensor can be used to measure temperatures in the range from 1800 deg C to 3100 deg C with an accuracy of ± 50 deg C. The design allows local temperature measurements in multiple zones along the sensor element. This sensor has been used successfully in a number of FARO experiments where temperature distributions in molten corium pools have been measured. It will be also used in the future Phebus FP tests. Furthermore, a water level meter sensor based on the time domain reflectometry technique is described. This high speed sensor allows monitoring of liquid level under very demanding ambient conditions, as e.g. 5MPa, 550 K in FARO. This sensor has been successfully applied in a number of FARO and KROTOS tests where the water level rise caused by a molten corium and Al 2 O 3 pours have been measured. (author)

  8. A survey of temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltvold, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    Many different techniques for measuring temperature have been surveyed and are discussed. The concept of temperature and the physical phenomena used in temperature measurement are also discussed. Extensive tables are presented in which the range and accuracy of the various techniques and other related data are included. (author)

  9. PSO-based PID Speed Control of Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor under Temperature Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Traveling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUSMs) have a time varying dynamics characteristics. Temperature rise in TWUSMs remains a problem particularly in sustaining optimum speed performance. In this study, a PID controller is used to control the speed of TWUSM under temperature disturbance. Prior to developing the controller, a linear approximation model which relates the speed to the temperature is developed based on the experimental data. Two tuning methods are used to determine PID parameters: conventional Ziegler-Nichols(ZN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The comparison of speed control performance between PSO-PID and ZN-PID is presented. Modelling, simulation and experimental work is carried out utilizing Fukoku-Shinsei USR60 as the chosen TWUSM. The results of the analyses and experimental work reveal that PID tuning using PSO-based optimization has the advantage over the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method.

  10. Ultrasonic measurement of high burn-up fuel elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, D.; Despaux, G.; Augereau, F.; Attal, J.; Gatt, J.; Basini, V.

    2006-01-01

    The ultrasonic method developed for the evaluation of high burn-up fuel elastic properties is presented hereafter. The objective of the method is to provide data for fuel thermo-mechanical calculation codes in order to improve industrial nuclear fuel and materials or to design new reactor components. The need for data is especially crucial for high burn-up fuel modelling for which the fuel mechanical properties are essential and for which a wide range of experiments in MTR reactors and high burn-up commercial reactor fuel examinations have been included in programmes worldwide. To contribute to the acquisition of this knowledge the LAIN activity is developing in two directions. First one is development of an ultrasonic focused technique adapted to active materials study. This technique was used few years ago in the EdF laboratory in Chinon to assess the ageing of materials under irradiation. It is now used in a hot cell at ITU Karlsruhe to determine the elastic moduli of high burnup fuels from 0 to 110 GWd/tU. Some of this work is presented here. The second on going programme is related to the qualification of acoustic sensors in nuclear environments, which is of a great interest for all the methods, which work, in a hostile nuclear environment

  11. Development of ultrasonic heat transfer tube thickness measurement apparatus. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Katoh, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suetugu, Hidehiko; Yano, Masaya [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes of the acid recovery evaporator in corrosion test, we have developed thickness measurement apparatus for heat transfer tubes by ultrasonic immersion method with high resolution. The ultrasonic prove in a heat transfer tube can be moved vertically and radially. The results obtained by this apparatus coincident well with those obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  12. Ultrasonic measurements and other allied parameters of yttrium soaps in mixed organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Tandon, K.

    1990-01-01

    The ultrasonic measurements of yttrium soaps were made in a mixture of 70 % benzene and 30 % dimethylsulfoxide (ν/ν) to determine the critical micelle concentration, soap-solvent interaction and various acoustic and thermodynamic parameters. The values of the CMC decrease with increasing chainlength of fatty acid constituent of the soap molecule and are in agreement with the values obtained from other micellar properties. The various acoustic parameters (intermolecular freelength, adiabatic compressibility, apparent molar compressibility, specific acoustic impedance, apparent molar volume, molar sound velocity, solvation number, available volume and relative association) for yttrium soaps (myristate, palmitate, stearate and oleate) have been evaluated by ultrasonic velocity measurements. (Authors)

  13. Ultrasonic applications for the enhancement of turbulence flow by using the PIV measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; Choi, W. C.; Koo, J. H.; Song, M. G.; Ju, E. S.

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasonic applications for the enhancement of turbulence flow by using the PIV measurement were carried out according to the angle of the ultrasonic oscillator, materials of the reflector and each section when ultrasonic is reflected several times. Angles of the ultrasonic oscillator such as 30 deg., 45 .deg., 60 .deg., 90 .deg., 120 .deg., 135 .deg. and 150 .deg. were selected, and turbulent intensities were compared at Reynolds No. 2,000 and 4,000. Materials of the reflector such as wood, acryl, iron and glass were selected, and time mean velocity vector and turbulent intensity were compared at Reynolds No. 4,000. The zone which was observed was selected from first section to fourth section when ultrasonic was reflected several times. Every data such as time mean velocity vector and time mean turbulent intensity which was obtained by PIV measurement was examined, compared and discussed at Reynolds No. 2,000 and 4,000 to know the degree of turbulence enhancement in each case

  14. Chaos weak signal detecting algorithm and its application in the ultrasonic Doppler bloodstream speed measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H Y; Lv, J T; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, L G; Li, J

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, the ultrasonic Doppler measuring means has been extensively used in the human body's bloodstream speed measuring. The ultrasonic Doppler measuring means can achieve the measuring of liquid flux by detecting Doppler frequency shift of ultrasonic in the process of liquid spread. However, the detected sound wave is a weak signal that is flooded in the strong noise signal. The traditional measuring method depends on signal-to-noise ratio. Under the very low signal-to-noise ratio or the strong noise signal background, the signal frequency is not measured. This article studied on chaotic movement of Duffing oscillator and intermittent chaotic characteristic on chaotic oscillator of Duffing equation. In the light of the range of the bloodstream speed of human body and the principle of Doppler shift, the paper determines the frequency shift range. An oscillator array including many oscillators is designed according to it. The reflected ultrasonic frequency information can be ascertained accurately by the intermittent chaos quality of the oscillator. The signal-to-noise ratio of -26.5 dB is obtained by the result of the experiment. Compared with the tradition the frequency method compare, the dependence to signal-to-noise ratio is lowered consumedly. The measuring precision of the bloodstream speed is heightened

  15. Using the analysis of stress waves to build research for experimentation on ultrasonic film measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Shing; Wu, John H.

    1993-09-01

    After the 2th world war, although the application of ultrasonic wave in industries is becoming more and more popular. But due to the restriction of the precise equivelent , experimental method and the support of the basic theoremsetc. Ultrasonic wave is not applied in precise measurement. Nowadays due to many conditions - the improvement in the production technic, the precise of the equivelent, causes to increase the application of ultrasonic wave. But it's still limited due to the lack of measurement and analysis theorem. In this paper, first we caculate translation of the stress wave (elastic wave) in material for the free surface of material by a normal impulse load. as the theorem analysis base in real application. It is applied to an experiment of film measurement. We can find the partical motion in material and the arriving time of wave front. Then we can estimate the thickness of layers and can prove the actual condition with the result of experiment. This resarch is not only in the theoretical investigation but also in setting overall the measurement system, and excutes the following three experiments: the thickness measurement of two layers, the thickness measurement of film material. the thickness measurement of air propagation. About the data processing, we relied on the frequency analysis to evalute the time difference of two overlapped ultrasonic wave signal. in the meanwhile. we also designed several computer programs to assist the sonic wave identification and signal analysis.

  16. Application of ultrasonic sensor for measuring distances in robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmud, V. A.; Kondratiev, N. O.; Kuznetsov, K. A.; Trubin, V. G.; Dimitrov, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasonic sensors allow us to equip robots with a means of perceiving surrounding objects, an alternative to technical vision. Humanoid robots, like robots of other types, are, first, equipped with sensory systems similar to the senses of a human. However, this approach is not enough. All possible types and kinds of sensors should be used, including those that are similar to those of other animals and creations (in particular, echolocation in dolphins and bats), as well as sensors that have no analogues in the wild. This paper discusses the main issues that arise when working with the HC-SR04 ultrasound rangefinder based on the STM32VLDISCOVERY evaluation board. The characteristics of similar modules for comparison are given. A subroutine for working with the sensor is given.

  17. Analysis of ultrasound propagation in high-temperature nuclear reactor feedwater to investigate a clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Wada, Sanehiro; Aritomi, Masanori; Kikura, Hiroshige; Sakai, Yukihiro

    2008-01-01

    The flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of a nuclear power reactor. Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rate. Other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy and permit the flow rate and reactor power to be increased. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler system is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profile across the pipe cross section, which changes with time. For accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasound entering the fluid should be estimated using Snell's law. However, evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward, especially for a high-temperature pipe with a clamp-on ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. The ultrasound beam path may differ from what is expected from Snell's law due to the temperature gradient in the wedge and variation in the acoustic impedance between interfaces. Recently, simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation, using 3D-FEM simulation code plus the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to flow profile measurement in nuclear reactor feedwater with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler system. (author)

  18. Potential impact of thermal effects during ultrasonic neurostimulation: retrospective numerical estimation of temperature elevation in seven rodent setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Charlotte; Mateo, Philippe; Tanter, Mickaël; Aubry, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, a handful but growing number of groups have reported worldwide successful low intensity focused ultrasound induced neurostimulation trials on rodents. Its effects range from movement elicitations to reduction of anesthesia time or reduction of the duration of drug induced seizures. The mechanisms underlying ultrasonic neuromodulation are still not fully understood. Given the low intensities used in most of the studies, a mechanical effect is more likely to be responsible for the neuromodulation effect, but a clear description of the thermal and mechanical effects is necessary to optimize clinical applications. Based on five studies settings, we calculated the temperature rise and thermal doses in order to evaluate its implication in the neuromodulation phenomenon. Our retrospective analysis shows thermal rise ranging from 0.002 °C to 0.8 °C in the brain for all setups, except for one setup for which the temperature increase is estimated to be as high as 7 °C. We estimate that in the latter case, temperature rise cannot be neglected as a possible cause of neuromodulation. Simulations results were supported by temperature measurements on a mouse with two different sets of parameters. Although the calculated temperature is compatible with the absence of visible thermal lesions on the skin, it is high enough to impact brain circuits. Our study highlights the usefulness of performing thermal simulations prior to experiment in order to fully take into account not only the impact of the peak intensity but also pulse duration and pulse repetition.

  19. Inferring bread doneness with air-pulse/ultrasonic ranging measurements of the loaf elastic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Loren Elbert

    This research marks the discovery of a method by which bread doneness may be determined based on the elastic properties of the loaf as it bakes. The purpose of the study was to determine if changes in bread characteristics could be determined by non-contact methods during baking, as the basis for improved control of the baking process. Current control of the baking process is based on temperature and dwell time, which are determined by experience to produce a produce which is approximately ``done.'' There is no direct measurement of the property of interest, doneness. An ultrasonic measurement system was developed to measure the response of the loaf to an external stimulus. ``Doneness,'' as reflected in the internal elastic consistency of the bakery product, is assessed in less than 1/2 second, and requires no closer approach to the moving bakery product than about 2 inches. The system is designed to be compatible with strapped bread pans in a standard traveling-tray commercial oven.

  20. Ultrasonic density detector for vessel and reactor core two-phase flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arave, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia

  1. Ultrasonic delay measurements for the determination of the size of quasi-natural defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proegler, H.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria in the form of delay measurements and phase assessments on ultrasonic pulses were worked out for a series of the most different reflection positions of the artificial, quasi-natural and natural kind which in many cases enable an differentiation of defects and the determination of the defect size. Even though it was not possible to completely clarify all effects occuring, such as reflection positions with undefined pulse orientations, the results sofar are still a contribution to the improvement of the stating ability of ultrasonic testing. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Ultrasonic Surface Measurements for the investigation of superficial alteration of natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Bilgili, Filiz; Christen, Sandra; Cristiano, Luigia; Krompholz, Rolf; Mosca, Ilaria; Rose, David

    2013-04-01

    Seismic waveform analysis is applicable also to the centimeter and decimeter scale for non-destructive testing of pavement, facades, plaster, sculptures, or load-bearing structures like pillars. Mostly transmission measurements are performed and travel-times of first arriving P-waves are considered that have limited resolution for the upper centimeters of an object. In contrast, surface measurements are well suited to quantify superficial alterations of material properties e.g. due to weathering. A number of surface measurements have been carried out in the laboratory as well as on real structures in order to study systematically the information content of ultrasonic waveforms and their variability under real conditions. As a preposition for ultrasonic waveform analysis, reproducible, broad-band measurements have to be carried out with a definite radiation pattern and an about 1 mm accuracy of the measurement geometry. We used special coupling devices for effective ultrasonic surface measurements in the laboratory as well as at real objects. Samples of concrete with varying composition and samples of natural stone - marble, tuff, and sandstone - were repeatedly weathered and tested by ultrasonic measurements. The resistance of the samples to weathering and the penetration depth of the weathering are analyzed. Furthermore, material specific calibration curves for changes in velocities of elastic waves due to weathering can be obtained by these tests. Tests on real structures have been carried out for marble (Schlossbrücke, Berlin) and sandstone (Porta Nigra, Trier). Altogether, these test measurements show clearly that despite of the internal inhomogeneity of many real objects, their surface roughness and topography especially ultrasonic Rayleigh waves are well suited to study material alterations in the upper centimeters. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves may be inverted for shear-wave velocity as a function of depth.

  3. Ultrasonic measurements on residual stress in autofrettged thick walled petroleum pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woias, G.; Mizera, J.

    2008-01-01

    The residual stresses in a component or structure are caused by incompatible permanent deformation and related gradient of plastic/elastic strains. They may be generated or modified at every stage in the components life cycle, from original material production to final disposal. Residual stresses can be measured by non-destructive techniques, including X-ray and neutron diffraction, magnetic and ultrasonic methods. The selection of the optimum measurement technique should take account volumetric resolution, material, geometry and access to the component. For large metallic components neutron diffraction is of prime importance as it provides quantitative information on stresses in relatively large volume of methods disregarding its shape complexity. Residual stresses can play a significant role in explaining or preventing failure of components of industrial installations. One example of residual stresses preventing failure are the ones generated by shot peening, inducing surface compressive stresses that improve the fatigue life. Petroleum refinery piping is generally characterized by large-diameters, operated at elevated temperature and under high pressure. Pipelines of a polyethylene plant working in one of the Polish refineries are subjected to pressures exceeding 300 MPa at temperatures above 200 o C. The pipes considered here were pressurized with pressure of 600 MPa. The wall thickness of the pipes is 27 mm and pipe dimensions are 46 x 100 mm. The material is steel with Re=580 MPa. Due to pressurizing, the components retain compressive stresses at the internal surface. These stresses increase resistance to cracking of the pipes. Over the period of exploitation these stresses diminish due to temperature activated relaxation or creep. The purpose of the project is to verify kinetics of such a relaxation process and calibrate alternative methods of their measurements. To avoid stress relaxation, numerical analysis from Finite Element Modelling (FEM)gave an

  4. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  5. Ultrasonic surface measurements at the Porta Nigra, Trier, and the Neptungrotte, Park Sanssouci Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Fehr, Moritz; Köhn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 300 kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.3 cm to 3 cm. The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future. It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble. 71 and 46 surface measurements have been carried out, respectively. At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. 0.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s and at the Neptungrotte between ca. 0.7 km/s and 3.0 km/s pointing to alterations in the Rayleigh- and S-wave velocities of more than 50 % due to weathering. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e.g. because of the formation of black crusts like at the Porta Nigra or they may be strongly reduced due to weathering. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two

  6. Determination of gas pressure in voids in epoxy casting using an ultrasonic measuring technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Petersen, C. Bak; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results of measurements performed on a large open void, where pressure can be controlled from the outside, are compared to the theory of ultrasound transmission. The results verify the theory that the attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic signals through a void depends on the gas pressure inside ...

  7. Novel approach of wavelet analysis for nonlinear ultrasonic measurements and fatigue assessment of jet engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Tilmon, Brevin; Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Rogers, James; Webster, Matthew; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz; Pepi, Marc; Ghoshal, Anindya

    2018-04-01

    Widespread damage in aging aircraft is becoming an increasing concern as both civil and military fleet operators are extending the service lifetime of their aircraft. Metallic components undergoing variable cyclic loadings eventually fatigue and form dislocations as precursors to ultimate failure. In order to characterize the progression of fatigue damage precursors (DP), the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is measured as the primary indicator. However, using proven standard ultrasonic technology for nonlinear measurements presents limitations for settings outside of the laboratory environment. This paper presents an approach for ultrasonic inspection through automated immersion scanning of hot section engine components where mature ultrasonic technology is used during periodic inspections. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements were analyzed using wavelet analysis to extract multiple harmonics from the received signals. Measurements indicated strong correlations of nonlinearity coefficients and levels of fatigue in aluminum and Ni-based superalloys. This novel wavelet cross-correlation (WCC) algorithm is a potential technique to scan for fatigue damage precursors and identify critical locations for remaining life prediction.

  8. Ultrasonic motion analysis system - measurement of temporal and spatial gait parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Hof, AL; Postema, K

    The duration of stance and swing phase and step and stride length are important parameters in human gait. In this technical note a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system is described that is capable of measuring these temporal and spatial parameters while subjects walk on the floor. By using the

  9. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  10. Evaluation of Die-Attach Bonding Using High-Frequency Ultrasonic Energy for High-Temperature Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Bum; Aw, Jie-Li; Rhee, Min-Woo

    2014-09-01

    Room-temperature die-attach bonding using ultrasonic energy was evaluated on Cu/In and Cu/Sn-3Ag metal stacks. The In and Sn-3Ag layers have much lower melting temperatures than the base material (Cu) and can be melted through the heat generated during ultrasonic bonding, forming intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Samples were bonded using different ultrasonic powers, bonding times, and forces and subsequently aged at 300°C for 500 h. After aging, die shear testing was performed and the fracture surfaces were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the shear strength of Cu/In joints reached an upper plateau after 100 h of thermal aging and remained stable with aging time, whereas that of the Cu/Sn-3Ag joints decreased with increasing aging time. η-Cu7In4 and (Cu,Au)11In9 IMCs were observed at the Cu/In joint, while Cu3Sn and (Ag,Cu)3Sn IMCs were found at the Cu/Sn-3Ag joint after reliability testing. As Cu-based IMCs have high melting temperatures, they are highly suitable for use in high-temperature electronics, but can be formed at room temperature using an ultrasonic approach.

  11. Method and system of measuring ultrasonic signals in the plane of a moving web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Maclin S.; Jackson, Theodore G.; Wink, Wilmer A.; Knerr, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the machine direction, MD, and a cross direction, CD, generally perpendicular to the direction of the traveling web, therefor, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web.

  12. Experience in ultrasonic gap measurement between calandria tubes and liquid injection shutdown systems nozzles in Bruce Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abucay, R.C.; Mahil, K.S.; Goszczynski, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The gaps between calandria tubes (CT) and Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) nozzles at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station ''A'' (Bruce A) are known to decrease with time due to radiation induced creep/sag of the calandria tubes. If this gap decreases to a point where the calandria tubes come into contact with the LISS nozzle, the calandria tubes could fail as a result of fretting damage. Proximity measurements were needed to verify the analytical models and ensure that CT/LISS nozzle contact does not occur earlier than predicted. The technique used was originally developed at Ontario Hydro Technologies (formerly Ontario Hydro Research Division) in the late seventies and put into practical use by Research and Productivity Council (RPC) of New Brunswick, who carried out similar measurements at Point Lepreau NGS in 1989 and 1991. The gap measurement was accomplished y inserting an inspection probe, containing four ultrasonic transducers (2 to measure gaps and 2 to check for probe tilt) and a Fredericks electrolytic potentiometer as a probe rotational sensor, inside LISS Nozzle number-sign 7. The ultrasonic measurements were fed to a system computer that was programmed to convert the readings into fully compensated gaps, taking into account moderator heavy water temperature and probe tilt. Since the measured gaps were found to be generally larger than predicted, the time to CT/LISS nozzle contact is now being re-evaluated and the planned LISS nozzle replacement will likely be deferred, resulting in considerable savings

  13. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  14. Measurement and analysis. Ultrasonic testing. Study of the attenuation of ultrasonic beams through steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canella, G.

    1977-01-01

    Anisotropy, inclusions, segregations and grain size are factors affecting the mechanical properties of steel and determining, at the same time, attenuation of an untrasonic beam crossing it. A system was developed, which offers guarantees of good reproducibility (within 5%) obtained with a device applying a constant and uniform pressure on the probe and using oil with very low viscosity and surface tension as couplant liquid. This oil, generally used as penetrant, is excellent by the rapidity of its constant response and by the thin layer formed which is free from air bubbles between probe and piece. Measurements of reflection loss were also carried out and investigated about the influence on such loss of: couplant liquid; type of transducer; type of piezoelectric protection. For transducers whose surface is protected by an hard coat loss by reflection (about 1 dB) varies within the measuring error, for the different couplant liquids. For transducers with unprotected sensitive surface, loss depends on the type of crystal and is significantly reduced (from 3 dB to 0,5 dB approximately) with an appropriate rubber layer. In both cases; loss proved to be independent of frequency. The samples were subjected to different heat treatments and, for each measurement of amplitude and frequency attenuation and structure micrographies were carried out. These methods of inspections can be applied in industry without any great difficulty

  15. Preliminary design of high temperature ultrasonic transducers for liquid sodium environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Qiao, H.; Good, M. S.; Larche, M. R.; Sexton, S. S.; Ramuhalli, P.

    2018-04-01

    Advanced reactor concepts include fast reactors (including sodium-cooled fast reactors), gas-cooled reactors, and molten-salt reactors. Common to these concepts is a higher operating temperature (when compared to light-water-cooled reactors), and the proposed use of new alloys with which there is limited operational experience. Concerns about new degradation mechanisms, such as high-temperature creep and creep fatigue, that are not encountered in the light-water fleet and longer operating cycles between refueling intervals indicate the need for condition monitoring technology. Specific needs in this context include periodic in-service inspection technology for the detection and sizing of cracking, as well as technologies for continuous monitoring of components using in situ probes. This paper will discuss research on the development and evaluation of high temperature (>550°C; >1022°F) ultrasonic probes that can be used for continuous monitoring of components. The focus of this work is on probes that are compatible with a liquid sodium-cooled reactor environment, where the core outlet temperatures can reach 550°C (1022°F). Modeling to assess sensitivity of various sensor configurations and experimental evaluation have pointed to a preferred design and concept of operations for these probes. This paper will describe these studies and ongoing work to fabricate and fully evaluate survivability and sensor performance over extended periods at operational temperatures.

  16. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  17. Temperature radiation measuring equipment. Temperaturstrahlungsmessgeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzer, W

    1981-01-22

    The invention is concerned with a temperature radiation measuring equipment for non-contact temperature measurement by the light intensity variation method, with a photoelectric resistance as the measuring element. By having a circuit with a transistor, the 'dark resistance' occurring in the course of time is compensated for and thus gives a genuine reading (ie. the voltage drop across the photoelectric resistance remains constant).

  18. Assessment and Calibration of Ultrasonic Measurement Errors in Estimating Weathering Index of Stone Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating the degree of weathering in stone cultural heritage, such as pagodas and statues is very important to plan conservation and restoration. The ultrasonic measurement is one of commonly-used techniques to evaluate weathering index of stone cultual properties, since it is easy to use and non-destructive. Typically we use a portable ultrasonic device, PUNDIT with exponential sensors. However, there are many factors to cause errors in measurements such as operators, sensor layouts or measurement directions. In this study, we carried out variety of measurements with different operators (male and female), different sensor layouts (direct and indirect), and sensor directions (anisotropy). For operators bias, we found that there were not significant differences by the operator's sex, while the pressure an operator exerts can create larger error in measurements. Calibrating with a standard sample for each operator is very essential in this case. For the sensor layout, we found that the indirect measurement (commonly used for cultural properties, since the direct measurement is difficult in most cases) gives lower velocity than the real one. We found that the correction coefficient is slightly different for different types of rocks: 1.50 for granite and sandstone and 1.46 for marble. From the sensor directions, we found that many rocks have slight anisotropy in their ultrasonic velocity measurement, though they are considered isotropic in macroscopic scale. Thus averaging four different directional measurement (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°) gives much less errors in measurements (the variance is 2-3 times smaller). In conclusion, we reported the error in ultrasonic meaurement of stone cultural properties by various sources quantitatively and suggested the amount of correction and procedures to calibrate the measurements. Acknowledgement: This study, which forms a part of the project, has been achieved with the support of national R&D project, which has been hosted by

  19. High speed ultrasonic system to measure bubbles velocities in a horizontal two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Jian Su; Farias, Marcos S.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Lamy, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a non invasive technique consisting of a high speed ultrasonic multitransducer pulse-echo system was developed to characterize gas-liquid two-phase flow parameters that are important in the study of the primary refrigeration circuit of nuclear reactors. The high speed ultrasonic system consists of two transducers (10 MHz/φ 6.35 mm), a generator/multiplexer board, and software that selects and has a data acquisition system of the ultrasonic signals. The resolutions of the system and the pulse time generated from each transducer are, respectively, 10 ns and 1.06 ms. The system initially was used in the local instantaneous measurement of gas-liquid interface in a circular horizontal pipe test section made of a 5 m long stainless steel pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter, where the elongated bubbles velocity was measured (Taylor bubbles). The results show that the high speed ultrasonic pulse-echo system provides good results for the determination of elongated bubbles velocities. (author)

  20. Basic study of water-cement ratio evaluation for fresh mortar using an ultrasonic measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza Haffies Ismail; Murata, Yorinobu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is for the basic study of ultrasonic evaluation method for the determination of the water-cement-ratio (W/C) in fresh concrete at the early age of hardening. Water-cement ratio is a important parameter to evaluate the strength of concrete for concrete construction. Using an ultrasonic pulse measurement technique, wave velocity and frequency variations depend on the age of concrete during hardening process could be evaluated. As a sample test, fresh mortar of water-cement ratio of 40 %, 50% and 60 % was poured into cylindrical plastic mould form (φ100 mm x 50 mm). For an ultrasonic pulse wave transmission technique, two wide band ultrasonic transducers were set on the top and bottom surface of mortar, and start measuring from 10 minutes after pouring water until 60 minutes of 5 minutes of intervals. As a result, it was confirmed that wave velocity and center frequency were changed with the age of mortar depends on the water-cement ratio. (author)

  1. Temperature measurements in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, D.

    1958-01-01

    The temperatures needed to produce thermonuclear reactions are of the order of several million degrees Kelvin. Devising methods for measuring such temperatures has been the subject of research in many countries. In order to present the problem clearly and to demonstrate its importance, the author reviews the various conditions which must be fulfilled in order that reactions may be qualified as thermonuclear. The relationship between the temperature and the cross-section of the reactions is studied, and it is shown that the notion of temperature in the plasmas is complex, which leads to a consideration of the temperature of the ions and that of the electrons. None of the methods for the temperature measurements is completely satisfactory because of the hypotheses which must be made, and which are seldom fulfilled during high-intensity discharges in the plasmas. In practice it is necessary to use several methods simultaneously. (author) [fr

  2. Thermal Properties of Some Organic Liquids Using Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramadoss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debye temperature and thermal relaxation time has been calculated in normal and boiling temperature. Using thermal relaxation time, the heat of fusion has been calculated for nineteen organic liquids and the results throw light on the method of calculating heat of fusion.

  3. Study of an ultrasonic method of estimating local temperatures of liquid sodium at the output of the core of SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massacret, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of research on Sodium cooled Fast nuclear Reactor (SFR), CEA aims to develop an innovative instrumentation, specific to these reactors. The present work relates to the measurement of the sodium temperature at the outlet of the assemblies of the reactor's core by an ultrasonic method. This instrumentation involves the propagation of ultrasonic waves in liquid sodium, thermally inhomogeneous and turbulent. Environment causes deviations of the acoustic beam that must be understood to predict and quantify to consider ultrasound as a measure means in a core of SFR reactor. To determine the magnitude of these influences, a code named AcRaLiS (Acoustic Ray in Liquid Sodium) has been implemented. In a first step, a thermal-hydraulic study specific to the medium, was conducted to provide an adequate description of the environment and choose a suitable acoustic propagation model. Then an implementation has been performed to allow rapid simulations of the wave propagation at several megahertz in this particular environment. This code provides ultrasounds deviations and changes in beam intensity.Two experiments were designed and conducted to verify the code. The first, named UPSilon innovates by replacing sodium by silicone oil in order to have a stable thermal inhomogeneity during the experiment. It allows to determine the validity of the code AcRaLiS with thermal inhomogeneities. The second, called IKHAR allows to study the influence of water turbulence on the propagation of waves, using the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Conclusions and perspectives are presented, including perspectives for other application domains. (author) [fr

  4. Ultrasonic technique for measuring porosity of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, S.; Tittmann, B. R.; Onesto, E. J.

    1997-12-01

    Porosity is an important factor in plasma-sprayed coatings, especially ceramic coatings. Excessive poros-ity can adversely affect the performance of the coated component in various ways. An ultrasonic nonde-structive measurement technique has been developed to measure porosity in plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. The technique is generic and can be extended to other ceramic coating systems. To test the tech-nique, freestanding alumina coatings with varying levels of porosity were fabricated via plasma spray. Samples with varying porosity, obtained through innovative fabrication techniques, were used to gener-ate a calibration curve. The ultrasonic velocity in the low-frequency range was found to be dependent on the density of freestanding coatings (measured via Archimedian techniques). This dependence is the basis of the development of a technique to measure the density of coatings.

  5. Ultrasonic velocity measurements- a potential sensor for intelligent processing of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkadesan, S.; Palanichamy, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Development of sensors based on Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques for on-line sensing of microstructure and properties requires a thorough knowledge on the relation between the sensing mechanism/measurement of an NDE technique and the microstructure. As a first step towards developing an on-line sensor for studying the dynamic microstructural changes during processing of austenitic stainless steels, ultrasonic velocity measurements have been carried out to study the microstructural changes after processing. Velocity measurements could follow the progress of annealing starting from recovery, onset and completion of recrystallization, sense the differences in the microstructure obtained after hot deformation and estimate the grain size. This paper brings out the relation between the sensing method based on ultrasonic velocity measurements and the microstructure in austenitic stainless steel. (author)

  6. Assessment of microstructure stability of cold worked Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel during aging using ultrasonic velocity measurements and correlation with mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, M.; Palanichamy, P.

    2003-01-01

    As ultrasonic velocity is sensitive to the changes in texture, it is a more reliable technique than mechanical property measurements for assessment of microstructural stability (recrystallization behaviour) of cold worked alloy where recrystallization is coupled with precipitation. Hence ultrasonic velocity measurements have been employed for studying the influence of Ti/C ratio on the microstructural stability of cold worked Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel during isochronal aging. In this alloy precipitation of TiC is known to retard recovery and recrystallization. The variation in ultrasonic velocity with aging temperature exhibited a three stage behaviour at all three frequencies employed (2, 10 and 20 MHz) and correlated well with the microstructural changes. Based on the microstructural investigations, the three stages have been identified to be recovery, progress of recrystallization and completion of recrystallization. There was one to one correspondence between the variation in the hardness, strength values and the variation in the ultrasonic velocity values as a function of aging temperature in assessing the microstructural changes, except when the interaction between the TiC precipitation and recrystallization is stronger

  7. Real-time measurement of relative sensor position changes using ultrasonic signal evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yastrebova, O.; Bulavinov, A.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer Institute Nondestructive Testing IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ultrasonic testing is considered to be one of the most commonly applied nondestructive testing techniques for flaw detection and material characterization. Traditional Nondestructive Testing (NDT) provides detection of material discontinuities that may cause failure within the designed lifetime of a part or component. In addition, Quantitative Nondestructive Testing (QNDT) provides means to obtain required information about type, size and location of deficiencies to the integrity of the inspected structure and further use under specific, given load conditions. The ''Acoustic Mouse'' technique has been developed as a tool for manual ultrasonic inspection to provide test results that can be evaluated quantitatively. The ultrasonic data are processed by real-time variation methods to extract position information from backscattered acoustic noise and geometric scatter signals in the inspection volume. The position and positional changes of the ''Acoustic Mouse'' sensor (transducer) are determined by the sequential analysis of ultrasonic data (highresolution sector-scans), which are acquired and reconstructed using the Sampling Phased Array technique. The results of first experiments conducted with linear scanning and intentional lift-offs demonstrate sufficient accuracy in position measurements. (orig.)

  8. Study of a new technique for measuring the travel time of ultrasonic waves using the frequency spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Allan Xavier dos

    2010-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant and other industrial plants, the operational time and the exposition to severe working conditions may cause the wear of its components, consequently, compromising the safety and the performance of the installation. The implementation of periodical inspections helps to ensure the safe operation and the best performance of the plant. In this way, the use of ultrasonic techniques for inspection and materials characterization becomes more and more attractive, since they offer quick, precise results and are technically ease to implement. The usual ultrasonic techniques, need to the measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in the material examined in order to extract information useful to characterize it. Thus, the measurement of the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave is the overriding factor in most of the applications made with ultrasound. In this work a new technique was developed for measuring the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave using a Fourier's Fast Transformer (FFT). It will be shown mathematically and experimentally that it is possible to use the ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave. Five experiments were carried out for the experimental validation of this new technique. The materials used were 20 ceramic pastilles with different porosities and 3 aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The obtained results have shown that the new technique proposed in this work was able to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave with the same precision as the conventional technique. It was shown, furthermore, that this new technique is able to measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in situations where the conventional technique cannot be applied greatly expanding the range of application of ultrasonic testing and inspections. (author)

  9. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.; Rempe, J.; Palmer, J.; Tittmann, B.; Reinhardt, B.; Kohse, G.; Ramuhalli, P.; Montgomery, R.; Chien, H.T.; Villard, J.F.

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. (authors)

  10. Feasibility of ultrasonic and eddy current methods for measurement of residual stress in shot peened metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyev, Anton I.; Stucky, Paul A.; Veronesi, William A.

    2000-01-01

    Shot peening is a well-known method for extending the fatigue life of metal components by introducing compressive residual stresses near their surfaces. The capability to nondestructively evaluate the near surface residual stress would greatly aid the assurance of proper fatigue life in shot-peened components. This paper presents preliminary results from a feasibility study examining the use of ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods for residual stress measurement in components where the stress has been introduced by shot peening. With an ultrasonic method, a variation of ultrasonic surface wave speed with shot peening intensity was measured. Near surface conductivity was measured by eddy current methods. Since the effective penetration depth of both methods employed is inversely related to the excitation frequency, by making measurements at different frequencies, each method has the potential to provide the stress-depth profile. Experiments were conducted on aluminum specimens (alloy 7075-T7351) peened within the Almen peening intensity range of 4C to 16C. The experimental results obtained demonstrate a correlation between peening intensity and Rayleigh wave velocity and between peening intensity and conductivity. The data suggests either of the methods may be suitable, with limitations, for detecting unsatisfactory levels of shot peening. Several factors were found to contribute to the measured responses: surface roughness, near surface plastic deformation (cold work) and residual stress. The contribution of each factor was studied experimentally. The feasibility of residual stress determination from the measured data is discussed

  11. Lower sintering temperature of nanostructured dense ceramics compacted from dry nanopowders using powerful ultrasonic action

    OpenAIRE

    Khasanov, O.; Reichel, U.; Dvilis, E.; Khasanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured high dense zirconia ceramics have been sintered from dry nanopowders compacted by uniaxial pressing with simultaneous powerful ultrasonic action (PUA). Powerful ultrasound with frequency of 21 kHz was supplied from ultrasonic generator to the mold, which was the ultrasonic wave-guide. Previously the mold was filled by non-agglomerated zirconia nanopowder having average particle size of 40 nm. Any binders or plasticizers were excluded at nanopowder processing. Compaction pressur...

  12. Measuring the surface-heating of medical ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmann, Chr; Vacariu, G; Fialka-Moser, V; Bergmann, H

    2004-01-01

    Due to converting losses the probe's surface itself is heated up, especially when emitting into air. Possible temperature increases in an ensemble of 15 different diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound probes from 7 manufacturers in the frequency range between 0.05-7.5 MHz have been examined. Surface temperatures were detected by means of a calibrated IR-thermographic camera using a scheme of various power and pulse settings, as well as different imaging modalitites as used in clinical routine. Depending on the setup and the output power, the absolute surface temperatures of some of the probes emitting in air can be beyond 43 deg. C within 5-7 min.; a maximum surface temperature of 84 deg. C has been detected. Continuous mode or high pulse repetition frequencies on the therapeutic system side, small focused Doppler modes on the diagnostic system side combined with increased emitted acoustic intensities result in high surface temperatures. Within a worst case scenario a potential risk of negative skin changes (heat damage) or non-optimal therapeutic effects seems to be possible if a therapeutic system is used very often and if its emission continues unintentionally. In general the user should be aware that low emission intensities of e.g. 50 mW cm -2 could already produce hot surfaces

  13. Assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a capacitance probe for measurement of two-phase mixture level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon

    2004-01-01

    We perform a comparison of two-phase mixture levels measured by an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe with visual data under the same experimental conditions. A series of experiments are performed with various combinations of airflow and initial water level using a test vessel with a height of 2m and an inner diameter of 0.3 m under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ultrasonic sensor measures the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% with respect to the visual data. The capacitance probe severely under-predicts the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error is identified as the change of the dielectric constant as the void fraction changes when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces a r.m.s. error of 5.4%. (author)

  14. Longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation in normal and superconducting lead at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, S.; Samudravijaya, K.; Basu, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation along the [110] direction in normal and superconducting states in two single crystals of lead, one made from high-purity lead and the other made with high-purity lead doped with 0.1 at % gold. In both specimens an amplitude-dependent effect in the superconducting state has been observed. The data have been taken in the frequency range from 12 to 108 MHz. In high-purity lead the amplitude-independent ratio α/sub s//α/sub n/ shows the frequency dependence observed by Randorff and Marshall, whereas in the doped specimen this ratio shows a very small spread with frequency. In both specimens deformation does not change the α/sub s//α/sub n/ ratio appreciably

  15. Ultrasonic Measurement of Interfacial Layer Thickness of Sub-Quarter-Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, No Hyu; Lee, Sang Soon [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This paper describes a new technique for thickness measurement of a very thin layer less than one-quarter of the wavelength of ultrasonic wave used in the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. The technique determines the thickness of a thin layer in a tapered medium from constructive interference of multiple reflection waves. The interference characteristics are derived and investigated in theoretical and experimental approaches. Modified total reflection wave g(t) defined as difference between total and first reflection waves increases in amplitude as the interfacial layer thickness decreases down to zero. A layer thickness less than one-tenth of the ultrasonic wavelength is measured using the maximum amplitude of g(t) with a good accuracy and sensitivity. The method also requires no inversion process to extract the thickness information from the waveforms of reflected waves, so that it makes possible to have the on-line thickness measurement of a thin layer such as a lubricating oil film in thrust bearings and journal bearings during manufacturing process

  16. Ultrasonic Measurement of Interfacial Layer Thickness of Sub-Quarter-Wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No Hyu; Lee, Sang Soon

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for thickness measurement of a very thin layer less than one-quarter of the wavelength of ultrasonic wave used in the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. The technique determines the thickness of a thin layer in a tapered medium from constructive interference of multiple reflection waves. The interference characteristics are derived and investigated in theoretical and experimental approaches. Modified total reflection wave g(t) defined as difference between total and first reflection waves increases in amplitude as the interfacial layer thickness decreases down to zero. A layer thickness less than one-tenth of the ultrasonic wavelength is measured using the maximum amplitude of g(t) with a good accuracy and sensitivity. The method also requires no inversion process to extract the thickness information from the waveforms of reflected waves, so that it makes possible to have the on-line thickness measurement of a thin layer such as a lubricating oil film in thrust bearings and journal bearings during manufacturing process

  17. Development of gap measurement technique in-vessel corium retention using ultrasonic pulse echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sang Baik; Sim, Cheul Muu

    1999-03-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of Sonata-IV program. In this technical report, quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method are presented. This report aims at development of an appropriate ultrasonics test method, by analyzing the problems from the external environmental reason and the internal characteristic reason. The signal analyzing methods to improve the S/N ratio in these problems are divided into the time variant synthesized signal analyzing method and the time invariant synthesized signal analyzing method. In this report, the possibility of the application of these two methods to the gap signal and the noise is considered. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel. The quantitative gap measurement using the off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method was available for a little of the scanned region. But furtherly using DSP technique and imaging technique, the better results will be obtained. Some of the measured signals are presented as 2-dimensional spherical mapping method using distance and amplitude. Other signals difficult in quantitative measurement are saved for a new signal processing method. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  18. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  19. Operational measurements of stack flow rates in a nuclear power plant with ultrasonic anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, E.; Kirtzel, H.-J.; Ebenhoech, E.

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of the impact of radio nuclides within the surroundings of nuclear power stations requires quantitative measurements of the stack emission. As a standard method, propeller anemometers have been installed inside the stack, but due to the wear and tear of the moving parts in such conventional sensors the servicing and maintenance are costly and may cause restrictions in the operation of the stack. As an alternative to propeller anemometers ultrasonic sensors have been applied which employ no moving parts and are almost free of maintenance. Furthermore, any shifts in internal calibration parameters can be identified by the sensor electronics with on-line plausibility checks. The tests have proven that ultrasonic systems are able to measure adequately and reliably the flow inside the stack. (orig.)

  20. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rui Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness.

  1. Instrument for thickness measuring of a workpiece with the help of ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Martin, R.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed ultrasonic measuring instrument has a generator for pulsed ultrasonic signals, a detector as well as a contact arrangement that connects both with the work piece. The transportation lag of the signals through the contact arrangements amounts to at least five times the transportation lag of the signals due to the thickness of a work piece. Furthermore there is an arrangement for the measurement of the delay between two successive echos from the back of the work piece with the help of a zero passage detector for the generation of a time-reference value on each echo signal. This permits an exact time control of the pulses which range in the field around nano seconds. The instrument is explained with 8 drawings and a detailed description. (RW) [de

  2. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  3. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; wang, Anmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displa...

  4. Characterization of the alumina-zirconia ceramic system by ultrasonic velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Medina, Ariosto; Barrera, Gerardo; Zarate, Juan

    2009-01-01

    In this work an alumina-zirconia ceramic composites have been prepared with α-Al 2 O 3 contents from 10 to 95 wt.%. The alumina-zirconia ceramic system was characterized by means of precise ultrasonic velocity measurements. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in wave velocity, the ceramic composite have been examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the ultrasonic velocity measurements changed considerably with respect to the ceramic composite composition. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the ceramic composite mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the longitudinal and shear wave velocities. Shear wave velocities exhibited a stronger interaction with microstructural and sub-structural features as compared to that of longitudinal waves. In particular, this phenomena was observed for the highest α-Al 2 O 3 content composite. Interestingly, an excellent correlation between ultrasonic velocity measurements and ceramic composite hardness was observed.

  5. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  6. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-09-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displaying Kerr nonlinearity. We obtain the analytical equations and numerically calculate the precision with parameters within the reach of current technology, proving that the precision of temperature can be greatly enhanced by using a nonlinear medium. Our results show that one can create an accurate thermometer by measuring the photons in the Michelson interferometer, with no need to directly measure the population of thermalized sample.

  7. Void fraction measurement in two-phase flow processes via symbolic dynamic filtering of ultrasonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Keller, Eric; Talley, Justin; Srivastav, Abhishek; Ray, Asok; Kim, Seungjin

    2009-01-01

    This communication introduces a non-intrusive method for void fraction measurement and identification of two-phase flow regimes, based on ultrasonic sensing. The underlying algorithm is built upon the recently reported theory of a statistical pattern recognition method called symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF). The results of experimental validation, generated on a laboratory test apparatus, show a one-to-one correspondence between the flow measure derived from SDF and the void fraction measured by a conductivity probe. A sharp change in the slope of flow measure is found to be in agreement with a transition from fully bubbly flow to cap-bubbly flow. (rapid communication)

  8. Measurement of Mechatronic Property of Biological Gel with Micro-Vibrating Electrode at Ultrasonic Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A measurement system has been designed with a micro-vibrating electrode at ultrasonic frequency to measure local impedance of biological gel in vitro. The designed system consists of two electrodes, where one of the electrodes vibrates with a piezoelectric actuator. The component of variation at impedance between two electrodes with vibration of one electrode is analyzed at the corresponding spectrum. The manufactured system was applied to measure impedance of a physiological saline solution, a potassium chloride solution, a dextran aqueous solution, and an egg. The experimental results show that the designed system is effective to measure local mechatronic property of biological gel.

  9. Measurements of the acoustic field on austenitic welds: a way to higher reliability in ultrasonic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemnitz, P.; Richter, U.; Klueber, H.

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear power plants many of the welds in austenitic tubes have to be inspected by means of ultrasonic techniques. If component-identical test pieces are available, they are used to qualify the ultrasonic test technology. Acoustic field measurements on such test blocks give information whether the beam of the ultrasonic transducer reaches all critical parts of the weld region and which transducer type is best suited. Acoustic fields have been measured at a bimetallic, a V-shaped and a narrow gap weld in test pieces of wall thickness 33, 25 and 17 mm, respectively. Compression wave transducers 45, 60 and 70 and 45 shear wave transducers have been included in the investigation. The results are presented: (1) as acoustic C-scans for one definite probe position, (2) as series of C-scans for the probe moving on a track perpendicular to the weld, (3) as scan along the weld and (4) as effective beam profile. The influence of the scanning electrodynamic probe is also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  11. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P; Kaste, Sue C

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  12. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C, E-mail: hoffmeister@rhodes.edu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  13. Ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satittada, Gannaga

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is one of the most widely used methods for nondestructive inspection. The beam of high-frequency sound wave, ultrasonic wave, is introduced into the material. It travels through the material with some attendant loss of energy and can be reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed. Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect flaws in metal parts as well as in welded, brazed and bonded joints during research work and developing production and service. It is also used to detect and locate porosity, pipe, and flakes. In addition, it can be used for the measurement of metal thickness. Ultrasonic inspection is therefore used for quality control and material inspection in all major industries

  14. Studies on thermo-acoustic parameters in binary liquid mixtures of phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) with different diluents at temperature 303.15 K: an ultrasonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamila, Susmita; Jena, Satyaban; Swain, Bipin Bihari

    2005-01-01

    Acoustical investigations for the binary mixtures of phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), used as liquid-liquid extractant, have been made in various diluents such as benzene, toluene, and xylene from ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at temperature 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. This study involves evaluation of different thermo-acoustic parameters along with the excess properties, which are interpreted in the light of molecular interaction between a polar extractant, Cyanex 272 with non-polar diluent, benzene and weakly polar diluents, toluene and xylene. The excess values are correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation, and corresponding adjustable parameters are derived

  15. Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, W. R.; Meindl, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive evaluation of the practical and theoretical limitations encountered in the use of totally implantable CW Doppler flowmeters is provided. Theoretical analyses, computer models, in-vitro and in-vivo calibration studies describe the sources and magnitudes of potential errors in the measurement of blood flow through the renal artery, as well as larger vessels in the circulatory system. The evaluation of new flowmeter/transducer systems and their use in physiological investigations is reported.

  16. Temperature effects on the ultrasonic separation of fat from natural whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Thomas; Juliano, Pablo; Johansson, Linda; Mawson, Raymond; McArthur, Sally L; Manasseh, Richard

    2014-11-01

    This study showed that temperature influences the rate of separation of fat from natural whole milk during application of ultrasonic standing waves. In this study, natural whole milk was sonicated at 600kHz (583W/L) or 1MHz (311W/L) with a starting bulk temperature of 5, 25, or 40°C. Comparisons on separation efficiency were performed with and without sonication. Sonication using 1MHz for 5min at 25°C was shown to be more effective for fat separation than the other conditions tested with and without ultrasound, resulting in a relative change from 3.5±0.06% (w/v) fat initially, of -52.3±2.3% (reduction to 1.6±0.07% (w/v) fat) in the skimmed milk layer and 184.8±33.2% (increase to 9.9±1.0% (w/v) fat) in the top layer, at an average skimming rate of ∼5g fat/min. A shift in the volume weighted mean diameter (D[4,3]) of the milk samples obtained from the top and bottom of between 8% and 10% relative to an initial sample D[4,3] value of 4.5±0.06μm was also achieved under these conditions. In general, faster fat separation was seen in natural milk when natural creaming occurred at room temperature and this separation trend was enhanced after the application of high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  18. Temperature rise during removal of fractured components out of the implant body: an in vitro study comparing two ultrasonic devices and five implant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisberger, Eric W; Bakker, Sjoerd J G; Cune, Marco S

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasonic instrumentation under magnification may facilitate mobilization of screw remnants but may induce heat trauma to surrounding bone. An increase of 5°C is considered detrimental to osseointegration. The objective of this investigation was to examine the rise in temperature of the outer implant body after 30 s of ultrasonic instrumentation to the inner part, in relation to implant type, type of ultrasonic equipment, and the use of coolants in vitro. Two ultrasonic devices (Satelec Suprasson T Max and Electro Medical Systems (EMS) miniMaster) were used on five different implant types that were provided with a thermo couple (Astra 3.5 mm, bone level Regular CrossFit (RC) 4.1 mm, bone level Narrow CrossFit (NC) 3.3 mm, Straumann tissue level regular body regular neck 3.3 mm, and Straumann tissue level wide body regular neck 4.8 mm), either with or without cooling during 30 s. Temperature rise at this point in time is the primary outcome measure. In addition, the mean maximum rise in temperature (all implants combined) was assessed and statistically compared among devices, implant systems, and cooling mode (independent t-tests, ANOVA, and post hoc analysis). The Satelec device without cooling induces the highest temperature change of up to 13°C, particularly in both bone level implants (p < 0.05) but appears safe for approximately 10 s of continuous instrumentation, after which a cooling down period is rational. Cooling is effective for both devices. However, when the Satelec device is used with coolant for a longer period of time, a rise in temperature must be anticipated after cessation of instrumentation, and post-operational cooling is advised. The in vitro setup used in this experiment implies that care should be taken when translating the observations to clinical recommendations, but it is carefully suggested that the EMS device causes limited rise in temperature, even without coolant.

  19. New Ultrasonic Controller and Characterization System for Low Temperature Drying Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R. R.; Blanco, A.; Acosta, V. M.; Riera, E.; Martínez, I.; Pinto, A.

    Process intensification constitutes a high interesting and promising industrial area. It aims to modify conventional processes or develop new technologies in order to reduce energy needs, increase yields and improve product quality. It has been demonstrated by this research group (CSIC) that power ultrasound have a great potential in food drying processes. The effects associated with the application of power ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and may constitute a way for process intensification. The objective of this work has been the design and development of a new ultrasonic system for the power characterization of piezoelectric plate-transducers, as excitation, monitoring, analysis, control and characterization of their nonlinear response. For this purpose, the system proposes a new, efficient and economic approach that separates the effect of different parameters of the process like excitation, medium and transducer parameters and variables (voltage, current, frequency, impedance, vibration velocity, acoustic pressure and temperature) by observing the electrical, mechanical, acoustical and thermal behavior, and controlling the vibrational state.

  20. Getting the most out of your new plant with a chordal ultrasonic feedwater flow measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Herb; Hauser, Ernie

    2007-01-01

    The economic advantages of a chordal ultrasonic feedwater flow measurement system over conventional (flow nozzle-based) feedwater instrumentation are analyzed for new plants having ratings ranging from 1100 MWe to 1600 MWe. Specifically, each of the following topics is considered: The value of a 1.7% increase in the rating of the new plant, made possible by the reduced uncertainty in the determination of thermal power. The value of reduced startup time owing to enhanced steam supply water level control. The value of the reduced feedwater pumping power brought about by the elimination of flow nozzles. The value of the reduced calibration burden owing to the elimination of the feedwater flow differential pressure transmitters and resistance thermometers. The net difference in the acquisition costs of the ultrasonic system versus conventional feedwater flow instrumentation. The net savings in installation costs of the ultrasonic system vis-a-vis conventional feedwater flow instrumentation. The potential savings in outage time due to the reduced frequency of low steam supply water level trips (scrams) of the reactor. (author)

  1. Experimental testing facilities for ultrasonic measurements in heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nicolescu, D.; Nitu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), like lead or its alloy, Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), makes them attractive as coolant candidates in advanced nuclear systems. The opaqueness, that is common to all liquid metals, disables all optical methods. For this reason ultrasound waves are used in different applications in heavy liquid metal technology, for example for flow and velocity measurements and for inspection techniques. The practical use of ultrasound in heavy liquid metals still needs to be demonstrated by experiments. This goal requires heavy liquid metal technology facility especially adapted to this task. In this paper is presented an experimental testing facility for investigations of Heavy Liquid Metals acoustic properties, designed and constructed in RATEN ICN. (authors)

  2. Determination of corrective factors for an ultrasonic flow measuring method in pipes accounting for perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etter, S.

    1982-01-01

    By current ultrasonic flow measuring equipment (UFME) the mean velocity is measured for one or two measuring paths. This mean velocity is not equal to the velocity averaged over the flow cross-section, by means of which the flow rate is calculated. This difference will be found already for axially symmetrical, fully developed velocity profiles and, to a larger extent, for disturbed profiles varying in flow direction and for nonsteady flow. Corrective factors are defined for steady and nonsteady flows. These factors can be derived from the flow profiles within the UFME. By mathematical simulation of the entrainment effect the influence of cross and swirl flows on various ultrasonic measuring methods is studied. The applied UFME with crossed measuring paths is shown to be largely independent of cross and swirl flows. For evaluation in a computer of velocity network measurements in circular cross-sections the equations for interpolation and integration are derived. Results of the mathematical method are the isotach profile, the flow rate and, for fully developed flow, directly the corrective factor. In the experimental part corrective factors are determined in nonsteady flow in a measuring plane before and in form measuring planes behind a perturbation. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  4. Measurements of the ultrasonic attenuation and velocity variation in neutron irradiated quartz for an intermediate dose of 2.6x1019 n/cm2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppens, V.; Laermans, C.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements in neutron-irradiated quartz are carried out for an intermediate dose of 2.6x10 19 n/cm 2 . The variation of the velocity of sound has been measured and previous attenuation measurements are extended to temperatures below 1.2 K. The TS-parameters anti P and γ 1 are calculated from numerical fittings to the tunneling model. The obtained values continue the tendency of previous measurements for lower neutron doses, where a linear increase of anti P with the dose was found. This behaviour, however, is not followed by a higher dose, situated near the ''threshold regime''. (orig.)

  5. Central corneal thickness measurements in unoperated eyes and eyes after PRK for myopia using Pentacam, Orbscan II, and ultrasonic pachymetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Woong; Byun, Yeo Jue; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Tae-im

    2007-11-01

    To compare central corneal thickness measurements obtained in unoperated eyes and eyes after myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam), a scanning slit corneal topography system (Orbscan II), and ultrasonic pachymetry. Corneal thickness was measured using Pentacam, Orbscan II, and ultrasonic pachymetry in 25 unoperated eyes (unoperated group), 24 eyes 1 to 3 months after myopic PRK (early postoperative PRK group), and 21 eyes 4 months or more after myopic PRK (late postoperative PRK group). In the unoperated group, corneal thickness measurements were similar for all three methods (P=.125). In the early postoperative PRK group, Orbscan measurements were thinner than Pentacam and ultrasonic measurements by a mean of 69.4 microm and 63.4 microm (PPRK group, Orbscan measurements were thinner than Pentacam measurements by a mean of 36.0 microm (P=.017). Pentacam and ultrasonic pachymetry measurements were similar for all three groups with a mean difference of approximately 10 microm. Following myopic PRK, Pentacam was comparable to ultrasonic pachymetry in measuring corneal thickness, whereas Orbscan measurements were thinner.

  6. Ultrasonic measurement of gap between calandria tube and liquid injection shutdown system tube in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Sohn, Seok Man; Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Sun Ki; Lee, Jong Po

    2001-01-01

    Sag of CT or liquid injection shutdown system tubes in pressurized heavy water reactor is known to occur due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of CT is big enough, the CT tube possibly comes in contact with liquid injection shutdown system tube (LIN) crossing beneath the CT, which subsequently may prevent the safe operation. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to confirm no contacts when using a proper measure periodically during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be fed through viewing port installed on the calandria was developed and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor in Korea. It was found that the centerlines of CT and LIN can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. But the measured gap data observed at the viewing port were actually not the data at the crossing point of CT and LIN. To get the actual gap between two tubes, mathematical modeling for the deflection curves of two tubes was used. The sags of CT and LIN tubes were also obtained by comparison of the present centerlines with the initial elevations at the beginning of plant operation. The gaps between two tubes in the unmeasurable regions were calculated based on the measurement data and the channel power distribution

  7. Ultrasonic measurement of elastic moduli of 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum from -400C to 8000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieske, J.H.

    1980-10-01

    Young's Modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio for 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum are calculated from ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities determined from -40 0 C to 800 0 C. The ultrasonic velocities were determined at elevated temperatures using a through-transmission buffer rod arrangement. An indium-gallium slurry bond was used as an ultrasonic couplant between Cupernickel 10 alloy buffer rods and the specimen. Microstructural changes and phase transitions in the specimens are evident from the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic data. 10 figures, 3 tables

  8. Calculation of acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on ultrasonic transducer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Zhao, Nannan; Gao, Zhijian; Mao, Kai; Chen, Wenyu; Fu, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Determination of the distribution of a generated acoustic field is valuable for studying ultrasonic transducers, including providing the guidance for transducer design and the basis for analyzing their performance, etc. A method calculating the acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on the ultrasonic transducer surface is proposed in this paper. Without knowing the inner structure of the transducer, the acoustic field outside it can be calculated by solving the governing partial differential equation (PDE) of the field based on the specified boundary conditions (BCs). In our study, the BC on the transducer surface, i.e. the distribution of the vibration velocity on the surface, is accurately determined by laser scanning measurement of discrete points and follows a data fitting computation. In addition, to ensure the calculation accuracy for the whole field even in an inhomogeneous medium, a finite element method is used to solve the governing PDE based on the mixed BCs, including the discretely measured velocity data and other specified BCs. The method is firstly validated on numerical piezoelectric transducer models. The acoustic pressure distributions generated by a transducer operating in an homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium, respectively, are both calculated by the proposed method and compared with the results from other existing methods. Then, the method is further experimentally validated with two actual ultrasonic transducers used for flow measurement in our lab. The amplitude change of the output voltage signal from the receiver transducer due to changing the relative position of the two transducers is calculated by the proposed method and compared with the experimental data. This method can also provide the basis for complex multi-physical coupling computations where the effect of the acoustic field should be taken into account.

  9. Ultrasonic study of the temperature and hydrostatic-pressure dependences of the elastic properties of polycrystalline cementite (Fe{sub 3}C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, S.P.; Saunders, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Cankurtaran, M. [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); James, B. [DSTL-Chertsey (Armour Group), Chobham Lane, Chertsey, Surrey KT16 OEE (United Kingdom); Acet, M. [Tieftemperaturephysik, Universitaet Duisburg, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Pulse-echo-overlap measurements of ultrasonic wave velocity have been used to determine the dependences of the elastic stiffness moduli of polycrystalline cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) on temperature in the range 75-295 K and hydrostatic pressure up to 0.1 GPa at room temperature. The longitudinal stiffness (C{sub L}) and adiabatic bulk modulus (B{sup S}) stiffen, while the shear stiffness ({mu}) and Young's modulus (E) soften with decreasing temperature. The ultrasonic velocities increase approximately linearly with pressure, much more steeply for the longitudinal than the shear mode. The values obtained at 295 K for the hydrostatic-pressure derivatives ({partial_derivative}C{sub L}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0}, ({partial_derivative}{mu}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0} and ({partial_derivative}B{sup S}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0} of cementite are 7.9{+-} 1.7, 1.4{+-}0.1 and 6.1{+-}1.7, respectively: the zone-centre acoustic phonons stiffen under pressure. The longitudinal ({gamma}{sub L}), shear ({gamma}{sub S}) and mean ({gamma}{sup el}) acoustic-mode Grueneisen parameters of cementite are positive; {gamma}{sub S} is markedly smaller than {gamma}{sub L} indicating that the shear acoustic modes are less anharmonic than the longitudinal modes. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Ultrasonic testing and inspection of steel castings for use in elevated temperatures acc. to DIN 17245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianus, D.; Fischer, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Up to present, the non-destructive testing in german steel castings and delivery conditions has hardly been described. DIN 17245 was an exception for heat-resistant ferrite cast steel (July 1967 version) which for the first time contained data on maximum permissible defects in irradiation testing. The US (ultrasonic) method to find internal defects was named together with irradiation, the error limits however were also valid for this method according to the reference picture series of ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). It is clear to every practician that especially in the case of steel, due to the numerous possible defects and their unpredictable orientation, it is not always possible to determine the true type of defects based on reflection behaviour of an inhomogenity. In any case one cannot directly compare two physically different methods. If one considers foreign cast steel norms, then one finds somewhat more about non-destructive testing. The set standard measures mostly however take after the irradiation testing guidelines according to ASTM. A Westinghouse regulation, norm ASTM-A-609 and the ASME (Am. Soc. of Mech. Engineers) regulations for components of nuclear reactors are the exception. (orig.) [de

  11. Measure of pore size in micro filtration polymeric membrane using ultrasonic technique and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Carla de Souza

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a study of the pore size in micro filtration polymeric membranes, used in the nuclear area for the filtration of radioactive liquid effluent, in the residual water treatment of the petrochemical industry, in the electronic industry for the ultrapure water production for the manufacture of conductors and laundering of microcircuits and in many other processes of separation. Diverse processes for measures of pores sizes in membranes exist, amongst these, electronic microscopy, of bubble point and mercury intrusion porosimetry, however the majority of these uses destructive techniques, of high cost or great time of analysis. The proposal of this work is to measure so great of pore being used ultrasonic technique in the time domain of the frequency and artificial neural networks. A receiving/generator of ultrasonic pulses, a immersion transducer of 25 MHz was used, a tank of immersion and microporous membranes of pores sizes of 0,2 μm, 0,4 μm, 0,6 μm, 8 μm, 10 μm and 12 μm. The ultrasonic signals after to cover the membrane, come back to the transducer (emitting/receiving) bringing information of the interaction of the signal with the membranes. These signals had been used for the training of neural networks, and these had supplied the necessary precision the distinction of the same ones. Soon after, technique with the one of electronic microscopy of sweepings was made the comparison of this. The experiment showed very resulted next to the results gotten with the MEV, what it indicated that the studied technique is ideal for measure of pore size in membranes for being not destructive and of this form to be able to be used also on-line of production. (author)

  12. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements in neutron-irradiated quartz: a microscopic model for the tunneling states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppens, V.; Laermans, C.; Coeck, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements are carried out in neutron-irradiated z-cut quartz for three different doses, in a frequency range from 70 to 320 MHz. The data are analyzed using the tunneling model, and the typical TS-parameters are derived. A comparison with the results obtained from similar x-cut samples shows that the coupling of the tunneling states with the longitudinal phonons is direction-dependent. This confirms the anisotropic behaviour of the tunneling states and gives support to the microscopic picture of the TS as a rotation of coupled SiO 4 tetrahedra. (orig.)

  13. Two Capacitive Micro-Machined Ultrasonic Transducers for Wind Speed Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Gia Thinh; Jiang, Yu-Tsung; Pang, Da-Chen

    2016-06-02

    This paper presents a new wind speed measurement method using a single capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). The CMUT was arranged perpendicular to the direction of the wind flow, and a reflector was set up a short distance away, facing the CMUT. To reduce the size, weight, cost, and power consumption of conventional ultrasonic anemometers this study proposes two CMUT designs for the measurement of wind speed using either the amplitude of the signal or the time of flight (TOF). Each CMUT with a double array element design can transmit and receive signals in five different operation modes. Experiments showed that the two CMUT designs utilizing the TOF were better than those utilizing the amplitude of the signal for wind speed measurements ranging from 1 m/s to 10 m/s, providing a measurement error of less than 0.2 m/s. These results indicate that the sensitivity of the TOF is independent of the five operation modes.

  14. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  15. Practical ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature applications using bismuth titanate and Ceramabind 830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Janet L.; Batista, Caio F. G.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Structural health monitoring of large valve bodies in high-temperature environments such as power plants faces several limitations: commercial transducers are not rated for such high temperatures, gel couplants will evaporate, and measurements cannot be made in-situ. To solve this, we have furthered the work of Ledford in applying a practical transducer in liquid form which hardens and air dries directly onto the substrate. The transducer material is a piezoceramic film composed of bismuth titanate and a high-temperature binding agent, Ceramabind 830. The effects of several fabrication conditions were studied to optimize transducer performance and ensure repeatability. These fabrication conditions include humidity, binder ratio, water ratio, substrate roughness, and film thickness. The final product is stable for both reactive and non-reactive substrates, has a quick fabrication time, and has an operating temperature up to the Curie temperature of BIT, 650°C, well beyond the safe operating temperature of PZT (150°C).

  16. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  17. Accurate Fluid Level Measurement in Dynamic Environment Using Ultrasonic Sensor and ν-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny TERZIC

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A fluid level measurement system based on a single Ultrasonic Sensor and Support Vector Machines (SVM based signal processing and classification system has been developed to determine the fluid level in automotive fuel tanks. The novel approach based on the ν-SVM classification method uses the Radial Basis Function (RBF to compensate for the measurement error induced by the sloshing effects in the tank caused by vehicle motion. A broad investigation on selected pre-processing filters, namely, Moving Mean, Moving Median, and Wavelet filter, has also been presented. Field drive trials were performed under normal driving conditions at various fuel volumes ranging from 5 L to 50 L to acquire sample data from the ultrasonic sensor for the training of SVM model. Further drive trials were conducted to obtain data to verify the SVM results. A comparison of the accuracy of the predicted fluid level obtained using SVM and the pre-processing filters is provided. It is demonstrated that the ν-SVM model using the RBF kernel function and the Moving Median filter has produced the most accurate outcome compared with the other signal filtration methods in terms of fluid level measurement.

  18. The measurement of layer thickness by the deconvolution of ultrasonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.J.

    1977-07-01

    An ultrasonic technique for measuring layer thickness, such as oxide on corroded steel, is described. A time domain response function is extracted from an ultrasonic signal reflected from the layered system. This signal is the convolution of the input signal with the response function of the layer. By using a signal reflected from a non-layered surface to represent the input, the response function may be obtained by deconvolution. The advantage of this technique over that described by Haines and Bel (1975) is that the quality of the results obtained using their method depends on the ability of a skilled operator in lining up an arbitrary common feature of the signals received. Using deconvolution no operator manipulations are necessary and so less highly trained personnel may successfully make the measurements. Results are presented for layers of araldite on aluminium and magnetite of steel. The results agreed satisfactorily with predictions but in the case of magnetite, its high velocity of sound meant that thicknesses of less than 250 microns were difficult to measure accurately. (author)

  19. Custom ultrasonic instrumentation for flow measurement and real-time binary gas analysis in the CERN ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhroob, M.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Boyd, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; Di Girolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Madsen, A.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Stanecka, E.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Vaglio, R.; Young, J.; Zwalinski, L.

    2017-01-01

    The development of custom ultrasonic instrumentation was motivated by the need for continuous real-time monitoring of possible leaks and mass flow measurement in the evaporative cooling systems of the ATLAS silicon trackers. The instruments use pairs of ultrasonic transducers transmitting sound bursts and measuring transit times in opposite directions. The gas flow rate is calculated from the difference in transit times, while the sound velocity is deduced from their average. The gas composition is then evaluated by comparison with a molar composition vs. sound velocity database, based on the direct dependence between sound velocity and component molar concentration in a gas mixture at a known temperature and pressure. The instrumentation has been developed in several geometries, with five instruments now integrated and in continuous operation within the ATLAS Detector Control System (DCS) and its finite state machine. One instrument monitors C3F8 coolant leaks into the Pixel detector N2 envelope with a molar resolution better than 2ṡ 10-5, and has indicated a level of 0.14 % when all the cooling loops of the recently re-installed Pixel detector are operational. Another instrument monitors air ingress into the C3F8 condenser of the new C3F8 thermosiphon coolant recirculator, with sub-percent precision. The recent effect of the introduction of a small quantity of N2 volume into the 9.5 m3 total volume of the thermosiphon system was clearly seen with this instrument. Custom microcontroller-based readout has been developed for the instruments, allowing readout into the ATLAS DCS via Modbus TCP/IP on Ethernet. The instrumentation has many potential applications where continuous binary gas composition is required, including in hydrocarbon and anaesthetic gas mixtures.

  20. Ultrasonic attenuation as a function of heat treatment and grain size in 79Ni--6Mo--15Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieske, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    A pulse echo ultrasonic technique was used to measure the attenuation coefficient for 79Ni-6Mo-15Fe alloy specimens. The attenuation coefficient was determined using a 25 MHz ultrasonic transducer for specimens which had undergone different time-temperature heat treatments. The ultrasonic attenuation data versus heat treat time was used to assess grain size growth in the specimens

  1. Timelapse ultrasonic tomography for measuring damage localization in geomechanics laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Erika; Roux, Philippe; Hall, Stephen A; Viggiani, Giulia M B; Viggiani, Gioacchino

    2015-03-01

    Variation of mechanical properties in materials can be detected non-destructively using ultrasonic measurements. In particular, changes in elastic wave velocity can occur due to damage, i.e., micro-cracking and particles debonding. Here the challenge of characterizing damage in geomaterials, i.e., rocks and soils, is addressed. Geomaterials are naturally heterogeneous media in which the deformation can localize, so that few measurements of acoustic velocity across the sample are not sufficient to capture the heterogeneities. Therefore, an ultrasonic tomography procedure has been implemented to map the spatial and temporal variations in propagation velocity, which provides information on the damage process. Moreover, double beamforming has been successfully applied to identify and isolate multiple arrivals that are caused by strong heterogeneities (natural or induced by the deformation process). The applicability of the developed experimental technique to laboratory geomechanics testing is illustrated using data acquired on a sample of natural rock before and after being deformed under triaxial compression. The approach is then validated and extended to time-lapse monitoring using data acquired during plane strain compression of a sample including a well defined layer with different mechanical properties than the matrix.

  2. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Diethylene Glycol with 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, and 1,4-Butanediol at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anwar; Ansari, Sana; Uzair, Sahar; Tasneem, Shadma; Nabi, Firdosa

    2015-11-01

    Densities ρ and ultrasonic speeds u for pure diethylene glycol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol and for their binary mixtures over the entire composition range were measured at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, and 313.15 K. Using these data, the excess molar volumes, VE_m, deviations in isentropic compressibilities, {\\varDelta }ks, apparent molar volumes, V_{φi} , partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i} , and excess partial molar volumes, overline{V}_{m,i}^E , have been calculated over the entire composition range, and also the excess partial molar volumes of the components at infinite dilution, overline{V}_{m,i}^{E,infty } have been calculated. The excess functions have been correlated using the Redlich-Kister equation at different temperatures. The variations of these derived parameters with composition and temperature are presented graphically.

  3. Speed of sound as a function of temperature for ultrasonic propagation in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used for characterization of liquid in several productive sectors and research. This work presents the studied about the behavior of the speed of sound in soybean oil with increasing temperature. The pulse echo technique allowed observing that the speed of sound decreases linearly with increasing temperature in the range 20 to 50 °C at 1 MHz. As result, a characteristic function capable to reproduce the speed of sound behavior in soybean oil, as a function of temperature was established, with the respective measurement uncertainty.

  4. Ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic flowmeter was assembled and tested. The theoretical basis of this prototype ultrasonic flowmeter is reviewed; the equipment requirements for a portable unit are discussed; the individual electronic modules contained in the prototype are described; the operating procedures and configuration are explained; and the data from preliminary calibrations are presented. The calibration data confirm that the prototype operates according to theoretical predictions and can indeed provide nonintrusive flow measurements to predicted accuracies for pipes larger than two inches, under single phase stable flow conditions

  5. Mn-Doped CaBi4Ti4O15/Pb(Zr,TiO3 Ultrasonic Transducers for Continuous Monitoring at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Kobayashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous ultrasonic in-situ monitoring for industrial applications is difficult owing to the high operating temperatures in industrial fields. It is expected that ultrasonic transducers consisting of a CaBi4Ti4O15(CBT/Pb(Zr,TiO3(PZT sol-gel composite could be one solution for ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT above 500 °C because no couplant is required and CBT has a high Curie temperature. To verify the high temperature durability, CBT/PZT sol-gel composite films were fabricated on titanium substrates by spray coating, and the CBT/PZT samples were tested in a furnace at various temperatures. Reflected echoes with a high signal-to-noise ratio were observed up to 600 °C. A thermal cycle test was conducted from room temperature to 600 °C, and no significant deterioration was found after the second thermal cycle. To investigate the long-term high-temperature durability, a CBT/PZT ultrasonic transducer was tested in the furnace at 600 °C for 36 h. Ultrasonic responses were recorded every 3 h, and the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio were stable throughout the experiment.

  6. Turbulent slurry flow measurement using ultrasonic Doppler method in rectangular pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareš, V.; Krupička, J.; Picek, T.; Brabec, J.; Matoušek, V.

    2014-03-01

    Distribution of velocity and Reynolds stress was measured using ultrasonic velocimetry in flows of water and Newtonian water-ballotini slurries in a pressurized Plexiglas pipe. Profiles of the measured parameters were sensed in the vertical plane at the centreline of a rectangular cross section of the pipe. Reference measurements in clear water produced expected symmetrical velocity profiles the shape of which was affected by secondary currents developed in the rectangular pipe. Slurry-flow experiments provided information on an effect of the concentration of solid grains on the internal structure of the flow. Strong attenuation of velocity fluctuations caused by a presence of grains was identified. The attenuation increased with the increasing local concentration of the grains.

  7. Standard-free Pressure Measurement by Ultrasonic Interferometry in a Multi-Anvil Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H. J.; Lathe, C.; Schilling, F. R.; Lauterjung, J.

    2002-12-01

    A key question to all high pressure research arises from the reliability of pressure standards. There is some indication and discussion of an uncertainty of 10-20% for higher pressures in all standards. Simultaneous and independent investigation of the dynamical (ultrasonic interferometry of elastic wave velocities) and static (XRD-measurement of the pressure-induced volume decline) compressibility on a sample reveal the possibility of a standard-free pressure calibration (see Getting, 1998) and, consequently an absolute pressure measurement. Ultrasonic interferometry is used to measure velocities of elastic compressional and shear waves in the multi-anvil high pressure device MAX80 at HASYLAB Hamburg enabling simultaneous XRD and ultrasonic experiments. Two of the six anvils were equipped with overtone polished lithium niobate transducers of 33.3 MHz natural frequency, for generation and detection of ultrasonic waves with a frequency sweep between 5 and 55 MHz. Different buffer - reflector combinations were tested to optimize the critical interference between both sample echoes. NaCl powder of 99.5 % purity (analytical grade by Merck) was used as starting material for manufacturing the samples used as pressure calibrant after Decker (1971). The medium grain size was 50 μm. The powder was pressed to a crude sample cylinder of 10 mm diameter and a length of 20 mm using a load of 6 tons resulting in an effective pressure of 0.25 to 0.3 GPa. The millimeter sized samples (diameter 2.4 mm and 1.6 mm length for 6 mm anvil truncation and diameter 3.1 mm and 1.1 mm length for 3.5 mm anvil truncation) for the high pressure experiments were shaped with a high-precision (+/- 0.5 μm) cylindrical grinding machine and polished at the front faces. From the ultrasonic wave velocity data we calculated the compressibility of NaCl. This requires in situ density data. Therefore the sample deformation during the high pressure experiments was analyzed in detail and the results were

  8. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  9. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-05-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.

  10. Measurements of stiff-material compliance on the nanoscale using ultrasonic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, F.; Biswas, S. K.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Kolosov, O. V.

    2000-05-01

    Ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) was introduced to probe nanoscale mechanical properties of stiff materials. This was achieved by vibrating the sample far above the first resonance of the probing atomic force microscope cantilever where the cantilever becomes dynamically rigid. By operating UFM at different set force values, it is possible to directly measure the absolute values of the tip-surface contact stiffness. From this an evaluation of surface elastic properties can be carried out assuming a suitable solid-solid contact model. In this paper we present curves of stiffness as a function of the normal load in the range of 0-300 nN. The dependence of stiffness on the relative humidity has also been investigated. Materials with different elastic constants (such as sapphire lithium fluoride, and silicon) have been successfully differentiated. Continuum mechanics models cannot however explain the dependence of stiffness on the normal force and on the relative humidity. In this high-frequency regime, it is likely that viscous forces might play an important role modifying the tip-surface interaction. Plastic deformation might also occur due to the high strain rates applied when ultrasonically vibrating the sample. Another possible cause of these discrepancies might be the presence of water in between the two bodies in contact organizing in a solidlike way and partially sustaining the load.

  11. Measurement of liquid turbulent structure in bubbly flow at low void fraction using ultrasonic doppler method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakawa, Hideki; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic structure in bubbly flows has been a topic of interest in the study of fluid dynamics. In the present paper, the ultrasonic Doppler method was applied to the measurement of bubbly. The experiments were carried out for an air-water dispersed bubbly flow in a 20 mm x 100 mm vertical rectangular channel having a void fraction smaller than 3%. Two ultrasonic transducers were installed on the outer surface of the test section with a contact angle of 45deg off the vertical axis, one facing upward and the other facing downward. By applying statistical methods to the two directional velocity profiles. Reynolds stress profiles were calculated. Furthermore, to clarify the wake effect induced by the leading bubbles, the velocity profiles were divided into two types of data. The first one is for all of the liquid data and the other is the data which did not include the wake effect. For Re m ≥ 1,593, it was observed that the bubbles suppressed the liquid turbulence. Furthermore, comparing with the Reynolds stress profiles in bubbly flow, it was found that Reynolds stress profiles varied with the amount of bubbles present in the flow and the effect of wake causes turbulence in the liquid. (author)

  12. Quantitative measurement of phase variation amplitude of ultrasonic diffraction grating based on diffraction spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Meiyan, E-mail: yphantomohive@gmail.com; Zeng, Yingzhi; Huang, Zuohua, E-mail: zuohuah@163.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    A new method based on diffraction spectral analysis is proposed for the quantitative measurement of the phase variation amplitude of an ultrasonic diffraction grating. For a traveling wave, the phase variation amplitude of the grating depends on the intensity of the zeroth- and first-order diffraction waves. By contrast, for a standing wave, this amplitude depends on the intensity of the zeroth-, first-, and second-order diffraction waves. The proposed method is verified experimentally. The measured phase variation amplitude ranges from 0 to 2π, with a relative error of approximately 5%. A nearly linear relation exists between the phase variation amplitude and driving voltage. Our proposed method can also be applied to ordinary sinusoidal phase grating.

  13. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable

  14. Power dissipated measurement of an ultrasonic generator in a viscous medium by flowmetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, Valérie; Leclercq, Didier

    2008-09-01

    A new flowmetric method of the power dissipated by an ultrasound generator in an aqueous medium has been developed in previous works and described in a preceding paper [V. Mancier, D. Leclercq, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 14 (2007) 99-106]. The works presented here are an enlargement of this method to a high viscosity liquid (glycerol) for which the classical calorimetric measurements are rather difficult. As expected, it is shown that the dissipated power increases with the medium viscosity. It was also found that this flowmetric method gives good results for various quantities of liquid and positioning of the sonotrode in the tank. Moreover, the important variation of viscosity due to the heating of the liquid during experiments does not disturb flow measurements.

  15. The effect of different temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite on the elimination of E.Faecalis using rotary instrumentation and intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMadi, Ebtissam M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intracanal bacterial reduction using rotary instrumentation and intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation (IPUI) with different concentrations and temperatures of NaOCl in different canal tapers. The root canals of seventy-two extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented up to size 20k file and inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were divided into 5 experimental groups and one control. The root canals in the control group were shaped to a 0.04 taper using ProFile rotary files, with 1.5 minute of IPUI by NaOCl at a concentration of 2.5% and room temperature of 25degreeC for 30 seconds at a time at three intervals. In Group 1, the canals were shaped to a 0.06 taper, and in Groups 2 and 3 - the temperature of NaOCl used was 37degreeC and 45degreeC respectively, and in Groups 4 and 5 - the concentrations of NaOCl were 1% and 5% respectively. The canals were incubated at 37 degree C for 48 hours and bacterial samples were obtained using paper points and plated on agar plates. The zones of bacterial growth were measured and statistical analysis was performed. There was significantly more bacterial growth in the control group than in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in bacterial growth in Group V compared to Group 4. The result of this study showed that significant bacterial reduction in contaminated root canals could be obtained using intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation combined with 2.5% NaOCl at 37degreeC in canals prepared to a taper of 0.06. In addition, complete bacterial eradication could be obtained using IPUI with 2.5% NaOCl at 45degreeC or 5% NaOCl at room temperature (37degreeC). (author)

  16. On-line measurement of residual monomer during polymerisation of acrylamide using ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Sebastian, Letha; Viswanathan, S.; Natarajan, A.; Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique for the estimation of residual acrylamide monomer during the polymerization of aqueous acrylamide solution has been investigated. Polyacrylamide gel medium serves as a sensitive medium for detection and dosimetry of fast and thermal neutrons. This technique is based on the fact that the velocity of ultrasonic wave increases with the increase in elasticity due to polymerization. The percentage of residual acrylamide monomer is estimated using ultraviolet spectrophotometric analysis. The ultrasonic velocity is correlated with the residual monomer concentration

  17. Application of SH surface acoustic waves for measuring the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Rostocki, A J; Tefelski, D B

    2011-12-01

    Viscosity measurements were carried out on triolein at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10°C to 40°C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein-Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Additionally, pressure changes occurring during phase transition have been measured over the same temperature range. Application of ultrasonic SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Internal properties assessment in agar wood trees using ultrasonic velocity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Fakhruzi, M.; Hashim, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of ultrasonic velocity in agar wood trees (Aquilaria crassna) with the purpose of evaluating the relationship of the ultrasonic velocity to the variations of internal properties of trees. In this study, three circular cross-sectional discs from the freshly cut tree were selected as samples. First sample with a big hole (decay) in the middle, second sample with internal resinous and the last one is the sample with no defects. The through transmission ultrasonic testing method was carried out using Tico ultrasonic pulse velocity tester which is from Switzerland. Two-dimensional image of internal properties evaluation by an ultrasonic investigation was obtained using Matlab. The results showed that the ultrasonic wave cannot pass through the internal decay or resinous so that the wave went round it and thus ultrasonic wave velocity significantly decreased by increasing the hole or resinous. The difference in color of the image generated by Matlab software based on variation of ultrasonic velocity between the internal decay area and its surrounding area was obvious. Therefore, the properties of internal properties of the three could be detected by ultrasonic line imaging technique. (author)

  19. Development of the ultrasonic fatigue testing machine due to study on giga-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature. 2001 annual report. Document on collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Itoh, Takamoto

    2002-03-01

    An ultrasonic fatigue testing machine was developed to obtain the giga-cycle fatigue life at elevated temperature for safety and reliability of structural components in the faster breeder reactor (FBR). This testing machine consists of an amplifier, booster, horn and the equipments such as a system controller and data acquisition. The test specimen is attached at the end of the horn. The electric power generated in the amplifier is transformed into the mechanical vibration in the converter and is magnified in the booster and horn. The vibration was enough to fatigue the specimen. Since the test frequency is set at a resonant frequency, the shape and dimensions of specimen were designed so as to vibrate itself resonantly. However, the maximum amplitudes of stress and strain in the specimen can be calculated easily by measuring the amplitude of displacement at the end of the specimen. The developed ultrasonic fatigue testing machine enables to carry out the fatigue tests at 20 kHz so that it can perform the giga-cycle fatigue test within a very short time as compared with the regular fatigue testing machines such as a hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By clarifying the material strength characteristics in giga-cycle region, the life evaluation, design and examination of components will be more suitable than ever. This study will contribute to improve the safety and reliability of components in FBR. In this technical report, the specification and characteristics of the testing machine were described along with the several experimental results. (author)

  20. An ultrasonic methodology for muscle cross section measurement of support space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Thomas R.; Klaus, David M.; Simske, Steven J.

    2004-09-01

    The number one priority for any manned space mission is the health and safety of its crew. The study of the short and long term physiological effects on humans is paramount to ensuring crew health and mission success. One of the challenges associated in studying the physiological effects of space flight on humans, such as loss of bone and muscle mass, has been that of readily attaining the data needed to characterize the changes. The small sampling size of astronauts, together with the fact that most physiological data collection tends to be rather tedious, continues to hinder elucidation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed changes that occur in space. Better characterization of the muscle loss experienced by astronauts requires that new technologies be implemented. To this end, we have begun to validate a 360° ultrasonic scanning methodology for muscle measurements and have performed empirical sampling of a limb surrogate for comparison. Ultrasonic wave propagation was simulated using 144 stations of rotated arm and calf MRI images. These simulations were intended to provide a preliminary check of the scanning methodology and data analysis before its implementation with hardware. Pulse-echo waveforms were processed for each rotation station to characterize fat, muscle, bone, and limb boundary interfaces. The percentage error between MRI reference values and calculated muscle areas, as determined from reflection points for calf and arm cross sections, was -2.179% and +2.129%, respectively. These successful simulations suggest that ultrasound pulse scanning can be used to effectively determine limb cross-sectional areas. Cross-sectional images of a limb surrogate were then used to simulate signal measurements at several rotation angles, with ultrasonic pulse-echo sampling performed experimentally at the same stations on the actual limb surrogate to corroborate the results. The objective of the surrogate sampling was to compare the signal

  1. Development of measurement technique for crack depth in weld zone of thick stainless steel pipe with ultrasonic phased array TOFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Phased array TOFD (time of flight diffraction) method which makes possible to detect tip diffraction echoes and measure crack depth in an austenitic stainless steel weld zone with a thickness of more than 25 mm to which region it was difficult to apply ultrasonic test due to scattering of ultrasonic waves has been developed. The developed method uses a single array transducer to have a short distance between incident points of transmitter and receiver in order to propagate waves in shorter pass in the weld region. Transmitting and receiving ultrasonic beams from a single array probe can be set a crossing point and a focal point at desired depth. This method makes possible to scan with 16 kinds of combination of crossing points and focal pints of ultrasonic beam at a time. We have examined fundamental characteristics of depth measurement with electric discharge machining slits on base metal of a stainless steel with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could measure the slit depth with 0.2mm error from the slit depth with a estimating method of a lateral wave propagation time with back wall echo. (2) The largest error of the depth measurement from the slit depth with the ultrasonic beam crossing point set at the 4mm different point from the tip of the slit was 0.3 mm. (3) The largest error of the depth measurements due to the difference of focal point depth of ultrasonic beam was 0.2 mm. (4) The highest tip diffraction echo could be observed with the ultrasonic beam cross point set at the tip of the slit. The difference of 4 mm between the cross point and the tip of the slit caused attenuation of tip diffraction echo height in -6.8 dB. Furthermore we have measured a depth of electric discharge machining slits, fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on stainless steel welded pipe specimens with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could detect the tip diffraction echoes which have a signal noise ratio with more than 2.4 from the fatigue

  2. Feasibility of using ultrasonic pulse velocity to measure the bond between new and old concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Hameed Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Connecting new and old concrete is required in many practical situations, such as repairing, strengthening or extending existing reinforced concrete buildings or members. In addition to using this technique at construction joints. It is obvious the practical difficulties to measure the bond attained at the interface surface between the new and old concrete. Doing the destructive shear test at the interface surface is not an option in most practical cases due to its destructive character. So, this paper aims to study the feasibility of using the nondestructive ultrasonic pulse velocity to evaluate the bond attained at the interface surface between new and old concrete. An experimental work has been done to 24 specimens of normal and high strength concrete, with and without using an epoxy bonding agent at the interface that connect the two materials. The results of experiments clearly shown that this method can be used to evaluate the acquired bond between the new and old concrete.

  3. Instrument for ultrasonic measurement of physical quantities of flowing media, especially the flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, N.; Brown, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is based on the task to present an instrument for ultrasonic measurement of flow velocities with high accuracy which may be produced substantially cheaper because of the use of a simple circuit design and normal components. The task is solved according to the invention by connecting the output of the first signal level transmitter as main signal and the output of the second signal level transmitter as auxiliary signal with a summing circuit forming a control signal by adding and/or subtracting the auxiliary signal to/from the main signal and providing for a switch, controlled by the transmitting direction, causing alternatingly two different delay times for the reference signal to become effective. (orig./RW) [de

  4. Light scattering by ultrasonically-controlled small particles: system design, calibration, and measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassamakov, Ivan; Maconi, Göran; Penttilä, Antti; Helander, Petteri; Gritsevich, Maria; Puranen, Tuomas; Salmi, Ari; Hæggström, Edward; Muinonen, Karri

    2018-02-01

    We present the design of a novel scatterometer for precise measurement of the angular Mueller matrix profile of a mm- to µm-sized sample held in place by sound. The scatterometer comprises a tunable multimode Argon-krypton laser (with possibility to set 1 of the 12 wavelengths in visible range), linear polarizers, a reference photomultiplier tube (PMT) for monitoring the beam intensity, and a micro-PMT module mounted radially towards the sample at an adjustable radius. The measurement angle is controlled by a motor-driven rotation stage with an accuracy of 15'. The system is fully automated using LabVIEW, including the FPGA-based data acquisition and the instrument's user interface. The calibration protocol ensures accurate measurements by using a control sphere sample (diameter 3 mm, refractive index of 1.5) fixed first on a static holder followed by accurate multi-wavelength measurements of the same sample levitated ultrasonically. To demonstrate performance of the scatterometer, we conducted detailed measurements of light scattered by a particle derived from the Chelyabinsk meteorite, as well as planetary analogue materials. The measurements are the first of this kind, since they are obtained using controlled spectral angular scattering including linear polarization effects, for arbitrary shaped objects. Thus, our novel approach permits a non-destructive, disturbance-free measurement with control of the orientation and location of the scattering object.

  5. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproduction of pressure field in ultrasonic-measurement-integrated simulation of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flow is used to analyze the velocity and pressure fields by applying feedback signals of artificial body forces based on differences of Doppler velocities between ultrasonic measurement and numerical simulation. Previous studies have revealed that UMI simulation accurately reproduces the velocity field of a target blood flow, but that the reproducibility of the pressure field is not necessarily satisfactory. In the present study, the reproduction of the pressure field by UMI simulation was investigated. The effect of feedback on the pressure field was first examined by theoretical analysis, and a pressure compensation method was devised. When the divergence of the feedback force vector was not zero, it influenced the pressure field in the UMI simulation while improving the computational accuracy of the velocity field. Hence, the correct pressure was estimated by adding pressure compensation to remove the deteriorating effect of the feedback. A numerical experiment was conducted dealing with the reproduction of a synthetic three-dimensional steady flow in a thoracic aneurysm to validate results of the theoretical analysis and the proposed pressure compensation method. The ability of the UMI simulation to reproduce the pressure field deteriorated with a large feedback gain. However, by properly compensating the effects of the feedback signals on the pressure, the error in the pressure field was reduced, exhibiting improvement of the computational accuracy. It is thus concluded that the UMI simulation with pressure compensation allows for the reproduction of both velocity and pressure fields of blood flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  8. Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

  9. Measurement and visualization of file-to-wall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Walmsley, A.D.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim (i) To quantify in a simulated root canal model the file-to-wall contact during ultrasonic activation of an irrigant and to evaluate the effect of root canal size, file insertion depth, ultrasonic power, root canal level and previous training, (ii) To investigate the effect of file-to-wall

  10. Measurement and visualization of file-to-wall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Walmsley, A. D.; Versluis, M.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim(i) To quantify in a simulated root canal model the file-to-wall contact during ultrasonic activation of an irrigant and to evaluate the effect of root canal size, file insertion depth, ultrasonic power, root canal level and previous training, (ii) To investigate the effect of file-to-wall

  11. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of energy dissipation in meat with an experimental ultrasonic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiak, D.M.; Dolatowski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The phenomena concomitant with acoustic energy dissipation in meat were studied. An experimental ultrasonic device (25-37 kHz, 2 W/square cm) was applied. Measurements of meat temperature in ultrasonic field showed the temperature rise significant for technological reasons. In this respect the changes in water absorption ability and acidity of meat were also examined

  13. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  14. Ultrasonic thermometry for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Kumar, S.; Arunraj, A.L.R.; Swaminathan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer provides a method of measurement of temperature in industrial tanks and boilers containing different liquids with varied salt content. This method is used to measure the average temperature continuously where other traditional methods available do not offer. Traditional methods used for temperature measurement like infrared thermometers, thermocouples, measures temperature at a single location. Numerous thermocouples are to be fixed at various part of the boiler in order to measure the temperature of the entire boiler, which incurs high cost. Reliability of the system decreases, with increasing number of thermocouples. When they fail at a point, the time incurred in finding the faulty part or faulty thermocouple is high. Ultrasonic transducer provides continuous measurement for all different characteristic liquids with higher accuracy and lesser response time. Fault location and clearance time is also less in ultrasonic measurement method, since only a couple of transducers used for the entire boiler structure. Additionally ultrasonic thermometry along support measuring electronic system can be built of low cost. (author)

  15. Improvement of a measurement method of purified flows in a reflector of HANARO by an ultra-sonic flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-San; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Kang, In-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Sub; Jung, Hoan-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Heavy water is used in the reflector system in HANARO and the flow in the system is measured by a flowmeter and indicated in a control room. The Turbine Flowmeter to measure the purified flow, which had been used from the start up of reactor was broken down in the end of 2001. In order to avoid the exposure of tritium generated from heavy water leaked during a replacement, instead of fixing the flowmeter, an ultrasonic flowmeter was selected and installed and has been used to measure the flow. This paper describes the measurement principles, issues and calibration errors of the turbine flowmeter that was broken down. Also, it explains in detail the measurement principles of the ultrasonic flowmeter, the results of its field test and the results of its periodic tests for five years after the installation

  16. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  17. Quality control of disinfection in ultrasonic baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Technical University Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Jatzwauk, L. [University Hospital of the Technical University Dresden (Germany). Abt. Krankenhaushygiene

    2002-07-01

    Numerous investigations under laboratory conditions confirmed the microbicidal efficacy of ultrasonication. Morphological destruction was shown on bacteria and fungi as well as on different virus species. Ultrasonic treatment seems to increase the effect of different antibiotics and disinfectants. Reasons for this synergism are largely unknown and uninvestigated, but the active principle seems to bee the dispersing effect of ultrasonication in combination with the destruction of cell wall or cell membrane. Unfortunately no validation of test conditions exists for most of these investigations, regarding intensity and frequency of ultrasonic waves, temperature of liquid medium and measurement of cavitation which is an essential part of physical and chemical effects in ultrasonic baths. In contrast to most laboratory experiments sound density of ultrasound for treatment of medical instruments is below 1 W/cm{sup 2} because instruments will be destroyed under stronger ultrasonic conditions. The frequency is below 50 KHz. This paper describes bactericidal and fungicidal effects of low- intensity-ultrasonication and its synergistical support to chemical disinfection. (orig.)

  18. Field and Laboratory Investigation of USS3 Ultrasonic Sensors Capability for Non-contact Measurement of Pistachio Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maghsoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic canopy characterization to determine structural properties is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used sensors for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To achieve this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage distance and to the effects of interference with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results showed that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions was 0.64 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduced the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations was 3.19 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error was ±14.65 cm. When adjacent sensors were placed apart by 60 cm, the average error became 6.73 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in pistachio garden conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and can, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  19. Velocity Measurement of ultrasonic for evaluation of aging epoxy coating in containment structure of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Gil Soo; Kim, Noh Yu; Nah, Hwan Seon; Song, Young Chol

    2001-01-01

    Relative variation of ultrasonic velocity in aging epoxy coating in nuclear plant is measured for evaluation of the degradation of the epoxy coating. Time delay for ultrasound to travel through the epoxy film due to change of ultrasonic velocity is measured indirectly using ultrasonic interferometry which compares two reflection waves from the same point of coating surface at two different distances. Magnitude of the difference of two waves increases or decreases depending on change of the time of flight of ultrasound in the epoxy film caused by heat damage in the epoxy coating. Based on the transfer functions of the wedge and the epoxy coating in frequency domain, the reflection wave is analyzed and related to the velocity of ultrasound in the epoxy coating. A specially designed conical wedge is adopted to minimize the waviness effect of the surface of the epoxy coating. Epoxy films are fabricated, degraded under the accelerated aging conditions and tested to evaluate the change of ultrasonic velocity in the films. The experimental results show that the method can be applied to evaluate quantitatively the sealing quality of the epoxy coating.

  20. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B [National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies ({<=} 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  1. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media

  2. Measuring the photodetector frequency response for ultrasonic applications by a heterodyne system with difference- frequency servo control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christian

    2010-05-01

    A technique for the calibration of photodiodes in ultrasonic measurement systems using standard and cost-effective optical and electronic components is presented. A heterodyne system was realized using two commercially available distributed feedback lasers, and the required frequency stability and resolution were ensured by a difference-frequency servo control scheme. The frequency-sensitive element generating the error signal for the servo loop comprised a delay-line discriminator constructed from electronic elements. Measurements were carried out at up to 450 MHz, and the uncertainties of about 5% (k = 2) can be further reduced by improved radio frequency power measurement without losing the feature of using only simple elements. The technique initially dedicated to the determination of the frequency response of photodetectors applied in ultrasonic applications can be transferred to other application fields of optical measurements.

  3. Noncontact measurement of guided ultrasonic wave scattering for fatigue crack characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.

    2013-04-01

    Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and the defect depth. These results provide the basis for the defect characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.

  4. Temperature measurement in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degas, P.

    1986-12-01

    Some criterions, that the used sensors have to follow, are given together with the conditions they may encountered. They may be used in irradiation or safety test devices, in experiments concerning mock-up or plant element, or even in nuclear plants themselves. The most suitable sensor type are mentioned, with their characteristics and their fiability. Two use examples of temperature probes are given, chosen to illustrate two sensor types: thermocouples in Superphenix-1 and platinum resistance probes in research reactor Orphee [fr

  5. Elastic Wave Velocity Measurements on Mantle Peridotite at High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler, G. W.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, B.

    2002-12-01

    With the success of conducting ultrasonic measurements at high pressure and high temperature in large volume high pressure apparatus with in-situ measurement of the sample length by X-ray imaging, it is now possible to measure elastic wave velocities on aggregate samples with candidate compositions of the mantle to the conditions of the Earth's transition zone in the laboratory. These data can be directly compared with seismic data to distinguish the compositional models in debate. In this work, we carried out velocity measurements on natural peridotite KLB-1 at the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Fine powered sample of natural KLB-1 was used as starting material. Specimens for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed and equilibrated at various pressure and temperature conditions along geotherm up to the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized with density measurement, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. Bench top P and S wave velocities of KLB-1 sample sintered at 3-4 GPa and 1400 degree centigrade showed a very good agreement with the VRH average of pyrolite. High pressure and high temperature measurements was conducted up to 7 GPa and 800 degree centigrade using ultrasonic interferometric method in a DIA-type high pressure apparatus in conjunction with X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging. The utilization of X-ray imaging technique provides direct measurements of sample lengths at high pressure and high temperature, ensuring a precise determination of velocities. The results of P and S wave velocities at high pressure and high temperature as well as their comparison with calculated pyrolite model will be presented.

  6. Bismuth Titanate Fabricated by Spray-on Deposition and Microwave Sintering For High-Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searfass, Clifford T; Pheil, C; Sinding, K; Tittmann, B R; Baba, A; Agrawal, D K

    2016-01-01

    Thick films of ferroelectric bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) have been fabricated by spray-on deposition in conjunction with microwave sintering for use as high-temperature ultrasonic transducers. The elastic modulus, density, permittivity, and conductivity of the films were characterized. Electro-mechanical properties of the films were estimated with a commercial d33 meter which gave 16 pC/N. This value is higher than typically reported for bulk bismuth titanate; however, these films withstand higher field strengths during poling which is correlated with higher d33 values. Films were capable of operating at 650 °C for roughly 5 min before depoling and can operate at 600 °C for at least 7 days.

  7. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. Methodology The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in

  8. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  9. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  10. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  11. Ultrasonic Measurement of Erosion/corrosion Rates in Industrial Piping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A. N.; Safavi, V.; Honarvar, F.

    2011-06-01

    Industrial piping systems that carry aggressive corrosion or erosion agents may suffer from a gradual wall thickness reduction that eventually threatens pipe integrity. Thinning rates could be estimated from the very small change in wall thickness values measured by conventional ultrasound over a time span of at least a few months. However, measurements performed over shorter time spans would yield no useful information—minor signal distortions originating from grain noise and ultrasonic equipment imperfections prevent a meaningful estimate of the minuscule reduction in echo travel time. Using a Model-Based Estimation (MBE) technique, a signal processing scheme has been developed that enables the echo signals from the pipe wall to be separated from the noise. This was implemented in a laboratory experimental program, featuring accelerated erosion/corrosion on the inner wall of a test pipe. The result was a reduction in the uncertainty in the wall thinning rate by a factor of four. This improvement enables a more rapid response by system operators to a change in plant conditions that could pose a pipe integrity problem. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the effectiveness of new corrosion inhibiting agents under plant operating conditions.

  12. Development of ultrasonic technique for measure of porosity of UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroni, Douglas Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of nuclear fuel is of great importance to guarantee the efficiency and even the safety in the power stations. At present, the techniques used implicate elevated costs with equipment, materials and installations of radiological protection. Besides, because of being destructive techniques, they impose that the checking of the characteristics of this material is done by sampling. In this work a not destructive technique was developed for measures of porosity in ceramic materials with efficiency and precision. The objective of this work is to this technique will be able to be used in laboratory practice for measures in UO 2 pellets, so it would become viable the inspection of up to 100% of the nuclear fuel, guaranteeing bigger control of the characteristics of the used material, turning in increasing safety, efficiency and economy. The innovation of the technique is due to the fact of analysing the specter of frequency of the ultrasonic wrist, and not his time of course in the material, frequently used. In this work 40 ceramic pellets of alumina were used with values of porosity between 5,09% and 37,30%. A system of recognition of signs using artificial neural networks made possible to distinguish pellets with differences of porosity of 0,04%. It was observed that this technique can be used for several others aims, for example, in the determination of the void fraction in regimen of two-phase flow, what is very important to guarantee the efficiency and safety of nuclear reactors. (author)

  13. An ultrasonic instrument for measuring density and viscosity of tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    An estimated 381,000 m 3 /1.1 x 10 9 Ci of radioactive waste are stored in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Savannah River, Idaho Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and West Valley facilities. This nuclear waste has created one of the most complex waste management and cleanup problems that face the United States. Release of radioactive materials into the environment from underground waste tanks requires immediate cleanup and waste retrieval. Hydraulic mobilization with mixer pumps will be used to retrieve waste slurries and salt cakes from storage tanks. To ensure that transport lines in the hydraulic system will not become plugged, the physical properties of the slurries must be monitored. Characterization of a slurry flow requires reliable measurement of slurry density, mass flow, viscosity, and volume percent of solids. Such measurements are preferably made with on-line nonintrusive sensors that can provide continuous real-time monitoring. With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM-50), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing an ultrasonic instrument for in-line monitoring of physical properties of radioactive tank waste

  14. Image-based overlay measurement using subsurface ultrasonic resonance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, M. S.; van der Lans, M. J.; Sadeghian, H.

    2018-03-01

    Image Based Overlay (IBO) measurement is one of the most common techniques used in Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing to extract the overlay error values. The overlay error is measured using dedicated overlay targets which are optimized to increase the accuracy and the resolution, but these features are much larger than the IC feature size. IBO measurements are realized on the dedicated targets instead of product features, because the current overlay metrology solutions, mainly based on optics, cannot provide sufficient resolution on product features. However, considering the fact that the overlay error tolerance is approaching 2 nm, the overlay error measurement on product features becomes a need for the industry. For sub-nanometer resolution metrology, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is widely used, though at the cost of very low throughput. The semiconductor industry is interested in non-destructive imaging of buried structures under one or more layers for the application of overlay and wafer alignment, specifically through optically opaque media. Recently an SPM technique has been developed for imaging subsurface features which can be potentially considered as a solution for overlay metrology. In this paper we present the use of Subsurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) used for IBO measurement. We used SSURFM for imaging the most commonly used overlay targets on a silicon substrate and photoresist. As a proof of concept we have imaged surface and subsurface structures simultaneously. The surface and subsurface features of the overlay targets are fabricated with programmed overlay errors of +/-40 nm, +/-20 nm, and 0 nm. The top layer thickness changes between 30 nm and 80 nm. Using SSURFM the surface and subsurface features were successfully imaged and the overlay errors were extracted, via a rudimentary image processing algorithm. The measurement results are in agreement with the nominal values of the programmed overlay errors.

  15. An optimal baseline selection methodology for data-driven damage detection and temperature compensation in acousto-ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Arredondo, M-A; Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2016-01-01

    The process of measuring and analysing the data from a distributed sensor network all over a structural system in order to quantify its condition is known as structural health monitoring (SHM). For the design of a trustworthy health monitoring system, a vast amount of information regarding the inherent physical characteristics of the sources and their propagation and interaction across the structure is crucial. Moreover, any SHM system which is expected to transition to field operation must take into account the influence of environmental and operational changes which cause modifications in the stiffness and damping of the structure and consequently modify its dynamic behaviour. On that account, special attention is paid in this paper to the development of an efficient SHM methodology where robust signal processing and pattern recognition techniques are integrated for the correct interpretation of complex ultrasonic waves within the context of damage detection and identification. The methodology is based on an acousto-ultrasonics technique where the discrete wavelet transform is evaluated for feature extraction and selection, linear principal component analysis for data-driven modelling and self-organising maps for a two-level clustering under the principle of local density. At the end, the methodology is experimentally demonstrated and results show that all the damages were detectable and identifiable. (paper)

  16. An optimal baseline selection methodology for data-driven damage detection and temperature compensation in acousto-ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2016-05-01

    The process of measuring and analysing the data from a distributed sensor network all over a structural system in order to quantify its condition is known as structural health monitoring (SHM). For the design of a trustworthy health monitoring system, a vast amount of information regarding the inherent physical characteristics of the sources and their propagation and interaction across the structure is crucial. Moreover, any SHM system which is expected to transition to field operation must take into account the influence of environmental and operational changes which cause modifications in the stiffness and damping of the structure and consequently modify its dynamic behaviour. On that account, special attention is paid in this paper to the development of an efficient SHM methodology where robust signal processing and pattern recognition techniques are integrated for the correct interpretation of complex ultrasonic waves within the context of damage detection and identification. The methodology is based on an acousto-ultrasonics technique where the discrete wavelet transform is evaluated for feature extraction and selection, linear principal component analysis for data-driven modelling and self-organising maps for a two-level clustering under the principle of local density. At the end, the methodology is experimentally demonstrated and results show that all the damages were detectable and identifiable.

  17. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided

  18. Automatic Speed Control and Turning ON/OFF for Smart Fan by Temperature and Ultrasonic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanasatian, Keeratiburt

    2018-03-01

    When it is hot, using a fan is an inexpensive choice compared to spending more on using an air conditioner especially in some areas where high temperature is naturally normal. Some problems, nonetheless, arisen such as users forget to turn off when being away, some people might get a feeling of annoyance and perhaps frustration when getting up from the seat in order to adjust the speed. These result in a rise of electricity bill from leaving the fan on when it is not in use and it may cause disasters, fire for example, when the motor get heated up. A prototype of smart fan was built in this research using ESP8266 as a microcontroller, DHT22 and HC-SR04 are used to measure temperature for speed control and detect the user for automatic on/off respectively. A group of participants used the prototype and they were interviewed to give some feedbacks, comments, and suggestions from the experiences after using it. The results show that they were satisfied from the automation; it gave the sense of staying in a modern house with an automatic wind blower. It also assisted to reduce energy consumption according to target group. Some users stated that the environment and atmosphere in the room was not too hot because the fan was working in the background. This has shown that the prototype significantly gave the participants a feeling of relaxation and comfortability and also was a part of energy and cost reduction.

  19. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide (WO3 is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL for organic solar cells (OSCs. The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  20. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  1. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements at very high SNR: Correlation, information theory and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challis, Richard; Ivchenko, Vladimir; Al-Lashi, Raied

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a system for ultrasonic wave attenuation measurements which is based on pseudo-random binary codes as transmission signals combined with on-the-fly correlation for received signal detection. The apparatus can receive signals in the nanovolt range against a noise background in the order of hundreds of microvolts and an analogue to digital convertor (ADC) bit-step also in the order of hundreds of microvolts. Very high signal to noise ratios (SNRs) are achieved without recourse to coherent averaging with its associated requirement for high sampling times. The system works by a process of dithering – in which very low amplitude received signals enter the dynamic range of the ADC by 'riding' on electronic noise at the system input. The amplitude of this 'useful noise' has to be chosen with care for an optimised design. The process of optimisation is explained on the basis of classical information theory and is achieved through a simple noise model. The performance of the system is examined for different transmitted code lengths and gain settings in the receiver chain. Experimental results are shown to verify the expected operation when the system is applied to a very highly attenuating material – an aerated slurry

  2. Measuring time-of-flight in an ultrasonic LPS system using generalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villladangos, José Manuel; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan Jesús; Mazo, Manuel; Hernández, Alvaro; Jiménez, Ana; Ruíz, Daniel; De Marziani, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a time-of-flight detection technique in the frequency domain is described for an ultrasonic local positioning system (LPS) based on encoded beacons. Beacon transmissions have been synchronized and become simultaneous by means of the DS-CDMA (direct-sequence code Division multiple access) technique. Every beacon has been associated to a 255-bit Kasami code. The detection of signal arrival instant at the receiver, from which the distance to each beacon can be obtained, is based on the application of the generalized cross-correlation (GCC), by using the cross-spectral density between the received signal and the sequence to be detected. Prior filtering to enhance the frequency components around the carrier frequency (40 kHz) has improved estimations when obtaining the correlation function maximum, which implies an improvement in distance measurement precision. Positioning has been achieved by using hyperbolic trilateration, based on the time differences of arrival (TDOA) between a reference beacon and the others.

  3. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, S.; Gołebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  4. Overview of the ultrasonic instrumentation research in the MYRRHA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, M.; Leysen, W.; Van Dyck, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN is in the process of developing MYRRHA, a new generation IV fast flux research reactor to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is conceptualized as an accelerator driven system cooled with lead bismuth eutectic mixture (LBE). As LBE is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are employed as the main technology to provide feedback where needed. This paper we will give an overview of the R and D at SCK.CEN with respect to ultrasonic instrumentation in heavy liquid metals. High temperature ultrasonic transducers are deployed into the reactor to generate and receive the required ultrasonic signals. The ultrasonic waves are generated and sensed by means of a piezo-electric disc at the heart of the transducer. The acoustic properties of commonly used piezo-electric materials match rather well with the acoustic properties of heavy liquid metals, simplifying the design and construction of high bandwidth ultrasonic transducers for use in heavy liquid metals. The ultrasonic transducers will operate in a liquid metal environment, where radiation and high temperature limit the choice of materials for construction. Moreover, the high surface tension of the liquid metal hinders proper wetting of the transducer, required for optimal transmission and reception of the ultrasonic waves. In a first part of the paper, we will discuss the effect of these parameters on the performance of the overall ultrasonic system. In the second part of the paper, past, present and future ultrasonic experiments in LBE will be reviewed. We will show the results of an experiment where a transducer is scanned near the free surface of an LBE pool to render ultrasonic images of objects submerged in the heavy liquid metal. Additionally, the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment that measures the evolution of LBE wetting on different types of metals and various surface conditions will be reported. The evolution of wetting is an important

  5. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  6. Estimation of complete temperature fields from measured temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, S.T.; Roemer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In hyperthermia treatments, it is desirable to be able to predict complete tissue temperature fields from sampled temperatures taken at a few locations. This is a difficult problem in hyperthermia treatments since the tissue blood perfusion is unknown. An initial attempt to do this automatically using unconstrained optimization techniques to minimize the differences between steady state temperatures measured during a treatment and temperatures (at the same locations) predicted from treatment simulations has been previously reported. A second technique using transient temperatures following a step decrease in power has been developed. This technique, which appears to be able to better predict complete temperature fields is presented and both it and the steady state technique are applied to data from both simulated and experimental hyperthermia treatments. The results of applying the two techniques are compared for one-dimensional situations. One particularly important problem which the transient technique can solve (and the steady state technique does not seem to be able to do as well) is that of predicting the complete temperature field in situations where the true maximum and/or minimum temperatures present are not measured by the available instrumentation

  7. Designing an accurate system for temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochan Orest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.

  8. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  9. Using ultrasonic measurements and a two-phase composite model to assess radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasonic methods used in the study of radiation damage and recovery in single crystals appear to also be useful for similar studies on polycrystalline alloys. Ultrasonic methods have demonstrated a sensitivity to radiation damage as affected by neutron fluence, irradiation temperature, large changes in composition, and possibly, as well, by neutron energy spectrum. On the microstructure defect evolution, only the residual defects created through the radiation event will contribute to the final macroscopic material property change. From a microstructure point, it is generally accepted that radiation hardening and embrittlement in metals are caused by clusters of vacancies, interstitial, and solute atoms that impede the motion of slip dislocations. Although vacancy-type defects are a major contributor to the material hardening, they also indicate the presence of other interstitial defects. Thus the total volume change of vacancy-type defects before and after irradiation can serve as a direct index to the final material property changes. The volume change of the vacancy-type defects can be determined by utilizing the two -phase composite model (matrix and void-type inclusion) to interpret wave velocities of baseline and irradiated specimens that are obtained from the ultrasonic wave experiment. This is a relatively economic and straightforward procedure. The correlation of the volume change of the vacancy-type defects with the existing destructive mechanical test results may play an important role in the future for the prediction of the radiation embrittlement and remaining plant lifetime, especially for the older plants on the verge of exhausting all the available mechanical test specimens loaded in the surveillance capsules. The above hypothesis was supported by the limited irradiated data analyzed and presented in his paper. The proposed ultrasonic methodology also has a potential application to assess creep damage in fossil power plants

  10. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  11. Measurement of tidal volume using respiratory ultrasonic plethysmography in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russold, Elena; Ambrisko, Tamas D; Schramel, Johannes P; Auer, Ulrike; Van Den Hoven, Rene; Moens, Yves P

    2013-01-01

    To compare tidal volume estimations obtained from Respiratory Ultrasonic Plethysmography (RUP) with simultaneous spirometric measurements in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Five experimental horses. Five horses were anaesthetized twice (1 week apart) in random order in lateral and in dorsal recumbency. Nine ventilation modes (treatments) were scheduled in random order (each lasting 4 minutes) applying combinations of different tidal volumes (8, 10, 12 mL kg(-1)) and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) (0, 10, 20 cm H(2)O). Baseline ventilation mode (tidal volume=15 mL kg(-1), PEEP=0 cm H(2)O) was applied for 4 minutes between all treatments. Spirometry and RUP data were downloaded to personal computers. Linear regression analyses (RUP versus spirometric tidal volume) were performed using different subsets of data. Additonally RUP was calibrated against spirometry using a regression equation for all RUP signal values (thoracic, abdominal and combined) with all data collectively and also by an individually determined best regression equation (highest R(2)) for each experiment (horse versus recumbency) separately. Agreement between methods was assessed with Bland-Altman analyses. The highest correlation of RUP and spirometric tidal volume (R(2)=0.81) was found with the combined RUP signal in horses in lateral recumbency and ventilated without PEEP. The bias ±2 SD was 0±2.66 L when RUP was calibrated for collective data, but decreased to 0±0.87 L when RUP was calibrated with individual data. A possible use of RUP for tidal volume measurement during IPPV needs individual calibration to obtain limits of agreement within ±20%. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  12. Critical temperatures and a critical chain length in saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines: calorimetric, ultrasonic and Monte Carlo simulation study of chain-melting/ordering in aqueous lipid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharakoz, Dmitry P; Panchelyuga, Maria S; Tiktopulo, Elizaveta I; Shlyapnikova, Elena A

    2007-12-01

    Chain-ordering/melting transition in a series of saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (PCs) in aqueous dispersions have been studied experimentally (calorimetric and ultrasonic techniques) and theoretically (an Ising-like lattice model). The shape of the calorimetric curves was compared with the theoretical data and interpreted in terms of the lateral interactions and critical temperatures determined for each lipid studied. A critical chain length has been found (between 16 and 17 C-atoms per chain) which subdivides PCs into two classes with different phase behavior. In shorter lipids, the transition takes place above their critical temperatures meaning that this is an intrinsically continuous transition. In longer lipids, the transition occurs below the critical temperatures of the lipids, meaning that the transition is intrinsically discontinuous (first-order). This conclusion was supported independently by the ultrasonic relaxation sensitive to density fluctuations. Interestingly, it is this length that is the most abundant among the saturated chains in biological membranes.

  13. Temperature measurements of the aluminium claddings of fuel elements in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1986-01-01

    A method for embedding the sheathed thermocouples in the aluminium claddings of some fuel elements of experimental reactors by ultrasonic welding technique is described. The measurement results of the cladding temperature of fuel elements in reactors are given. By means of this method, the joint between the sheathed thermocouples and the cladding of fuel elements can be made very tight, there are no bulges on the cladding surfaces, and the sheathed thermocouples are embedded strongly and reliably. Therefore an essential means is provided for acquiring the stable and dynamic state data of the cladding temperature of in-core fuel elements

  14. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  15. Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossmann, Yvan; Paci, Alexandre; Auclair, Francis; Lepilliez, Mathieu; Cid, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are large amplitude stable waves propagating in regions of high density gradients such as the ocean pycnocline. Their dynamics has often been investigated in two-dimensional approaches, however, their three-dimensional evolution is still poorly known. Experiments have been conducted in the large stratified water tank of CNRM-GAME to study the generation of ISWs in two academic configurations inspired by oceanic regimes. First, ultrasonic probes are used to measure the interfacial displacement in the two configurations. In the primary generation case for which the two layers are of constant density, the generation of ISWs is investigated in two series of experiments with varying amplitude and forcing frequency. In the secondary generation case for which the lower layer is stratified, the generation of ISWs from the impact of an internal wave beam on the pycnocline and their subsequent dynamics is studied. The dynamics of ISWs in these two regimes accords well with analytical approaches and numerical simulations performed in analogous configurations. Then, recent developments of a stereo correlation technique are used to describe the three-dimensional structure of propagating ISWs. In the primary generation configuration, small transverse effects are observed in the course of the ISW propagation. In the secondary generation configuration, larger transverse structures are observed in the interfacial waves dynamics. The interaction between interfacial troughs and internal waves propagating in the lower stratified layer are a possible cause for the generation of these structures. The magnitude of these transverse structures is quantified with a nondimensional parameter in the two configurations. They are twice as large in the secondary generation case as in the primary generation case

  16. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  17. Ultrasonic measurement of β-type pyrochlore oxide KOs2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Ryosuke; Yoshizawa, Masahito; Nakanishi, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Mitsuteru; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the elastic constants of KOs2O6 single crystal. The longitudinal elastic constant 1/3(C11 + 2C12 + 4C44) and the transverse one 1/3(C11 - C12 + C44), which are obtained by the corresponding sound velocities propagating along direction, show a remarkable elastic softening toward low temperatures. No elastic anomaly was observed at the superconducting transition temperature. On the other hand, an anomaly was found at TP = 7.5 K. These results suggests that the irreducible representation of T2 in Td point group play an important role for the phase transition at Tp.

  18. Temperature measurement with industrial color camera devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidradler, Dieter J.; Berndorfer, Thomas; van Dyck, Walter; Pretschuh, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses color camera based temperature measurement. Usually, visual imaging and infrared image sensing are treated as two separate disciplines. We will show, that a well selected color camera device might be a cheaper, more robust and more sophisticated solution for optical temperature measurement in several cases. Herein, only implementation fragments and important restrictions for the sensing element will be discussed. Our aim is to draw the readers attention to the use of visual image sensors for measuring thermal radiation and temperature and to give reasons for the need of improved technologies for infrared camera devices. With AVL-List, our partner of industry, we successfully used the proposed sensor to perform temperature measurement for flames inside the combustion chamber of diesel engines which finally led to the presented insights.

  19. General temperature field measurement by digital holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan; Kopecký, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), A319-A325 ISSN 1559-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : digital holography * temperature field measurement * tomography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2013

  20. Noise thermometry - a new temperature measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Rittinghaus, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal Johnson-Niquist noise is the basis of noise thermometry. This temperature measuring method is, e.g., of interest insofar as the noise thermometer gives absolute values as a primary thermometer and is in principle extensively independent of environmental influences and material properties. The resistance values of the measuring probe are about 10 Ohm to a few kOhm. The demands of electronics are high, the self-noise of the measuring apparatus must be as small as possible; a comparative measuring method is advantageous. 1 to 2,500 K are given as a possible temperature range. An accuracy of 0.1% could be achieved in laboratory measurements. Temperature measurements to be used in operation in a few nuclear reactors are mentioned. (HP/LH) [de

  1. Multiphase flow measurement in the slug regime using ultrasonic measurement techniques and slug closure model

    OpenAIRE

    Al-lababidi , Salem

    2006-01-01

    Multiphase flow in the oil and gas industry covers a wide range of flows. Thus, over the last decade, the investigation, development and use of multiphase flow metering system have been a major focus for the industry worldwide. However, these meters do not perform well in slug flow conditions. The present work involves experimental investigations of multiphase flow measurement under slug flow conditions. A two-phase gas/liquid facility was designed and constructed at Cranfie...

  2. Ultrasonic signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, E.; Crutzen, S.

    1974-12-01

    The unique and tamperproof identification technique developed at Ispra is based on ultrasonic Non-Destructive-Techniques. Reading fingerprints with ultrasonic requires high reproducibility of standard apparatus and transducers. The present report gives an exhaustive description of the ultrasonic technique developed for identification purposes. Different applications of the method are described

  3. Wideband filter radiometers for blackbody temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L. P.; Bamber, C.; Gaertner, A. A.; Gerson, R. K.; Woods, D. J.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2010-10-01

    The use of high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) radiators to realize primary spectral irradiance scales requires that the operating temperature of the HTBB be accurately determined. We have developed five filter radiometers (FRs) to measure the temperature of the National Research Council of Canada's HTBB. The FRs are designed to minimize sensitivity to ambient temperature fluctuations. They incorporate air-spaced colored glass filters and a Si photodiode detector that are housed in a cell whose temperature is controlled to ±0.1°C by means of annular thermoelectric elements at the front and rear of the cell. These wideband filter radiometers operate in four different wavelength bands. The spectral responsivity measurements were performed in an underfill geometry for a power-mode calibration that is traceable to NRC's cryogenic radiometer. The spectral temperature sensitivity of each of these FRs has been measured. The apertures for these FRs were cold-formed by swaging machine-cut apertures onto precision dowel pins. A description of the filter radiometer design, fabrication and testing, together with a detailed uncertainty analysis, is presented. We derive the equations that relate the spectral irradiance measured by the FRs to the spectral radiance and temperature of the HTBB, and deal specifically with the change of index of refraction over the path of the radiation from the interior of the HTBB to the FRs. We believe these equations are more accurate than recently published derivations. Our measurements of the operating temperature of our HTBB working at temperatures near 2500 K, 2700 K and 2900 K, together with measurements using a pyrometer, show agreement between the five filter radiometers and with the pyrometer to within the estimated uncertainties.

  4. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Mechanical failure-which is the primary cause of CSF shunt malfunction-is not readily diagnosed, and the specific reasons for mechanical failure are not easily discerned. Prior attempts to measure CSF flow noninvasively have lacked the ability to either quantitatively or qualitatively obtain data. To address these needs, this preliminary study evaluates an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor in pediatric and adult patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). One goal was to confirm the stated accuracy of the sensor in a clinical setting. A second goal was to observe the sensor's capability to record real-time continuous CSF flow. The final goal was to observe recordings during instances of flow blockage or lack of flow in order to determine the sensor's ability to identify these changes. METHODS A total of 5 pediatric and 11 adult patients who had received EVDs for the treatment of hydrocephalus were studied in a hospital setting. The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. Comparisons were made between the weight of the drainage bag and the flow measured via the sensor in order to confirm its accuracy. Data from the pressure transducer and the flow sensor were recorded continuously at 100 Hz for a period of 24 hours by a data acquisition system, while the hourly CSF flow into the drip chamber was recorded manually. Changes in the patient's neurological status and their time points were noted. RESULTS The flow sensor demonstrated a proven accuracy of ± 15% or ± 2 ml/hr. The flow sensor allowed real-time continuous flow waveform data recordings. Dynamic analysis of CSF flow waveforms allowed the calculation of the pressure-volume index. Lastly, the sensor was able to diagnose a blocked catheter and distinguish between the blockage and lack of flow. CONCLUSIONS The Transonic flow sensor accurately measures CSF output within ± 15% or ± 2 ml

  5. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Cutting Temperature and Tool Wear in 2 Dimensional Ultrasonic Vibrations Assisted Micro-Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohd Rasidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional Ultrasonic vibration assisted milling (2D UVAM well knows process that involved in high tech system to generate ultra range of frequency applied to the milling process. More industries nowadays become aware taking this opportunity to improve their productivity without decreasing their product accuracies. This paper investigate a comparative machining between UVAM and conventional machining (CM in tool wear and cutting temperature in milling process. Micro amplitude and sine wave frequency will be generate into the workpiece jig by piezo-actuator. Thus, creating a micro gap that allow heat remove effectively with the chip produces. A more complex tool trajectory mechanics of 2D UVAM has been found during this research. The approaching the tool tip into the workpiece surfaces is affected by the amplitude displacement along the frequency applied. It is found that the tool wear was reduce and surface roughness improvement by applying the 2D UVAM compared to the CM when choosing the optimum amplitude and appropriate frequency.

  7. High temperature ultrasonic sensor for fission gas characterization in MTR harsh environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatsa O.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present NBT thick film fabrication by screen printing, characterization of piezoelectric, dielectric properties and material parameters studies in dependence of temperature. Relatively high resistivity in the range of 1.1013 Ohm.cm for fabricated thick film is explained by Aurivillius structure in which a-and b-layers form perovskite structure between oxides of c-layer. Main results of this study are presented and discussed in terms of feasibility for an application to a new sensor device operating at high temperature level (400°. Piezoelectric parameters enhancement and loss reduction at elevated temperatures are envisaged to be optimized. Further sensor development and test in MTR are expected to be realized in the near future.

  8. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  9. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  10. Ultrasonic spectroscopy study into the nature of a high-temperature phase transformation in V203

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, G.O.; Drichko, I.L.; Lakhtman, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    The velocity of longitudinal sound wave propagation in V 2 O 3 vanadium sesquioxide was studied in the temperature range of 250-550 K in a wide range of ultrasound frequencies from 70 to 1500 MHz. The investigation was carried out in order to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the transition and to define the nature of high-temperature anomalies in V 2 O 3 . The sound velocity dispersion was observed. The frequency dependence of the sound velocity can be adequately described by the Mandelstam-Leontovich formula. Values and temperature dependences of tau, Vsub(infinity) and (Vsub(infinity)-Vsub(0)/Vsub(infinity) were calculated where tau is the relaxation time; Vsub(0), Vsub(infinity) are the values of velocitiea when ω→0 and ω→infinity respectively. The acoustic anomalies in the temperature range under investigation are shown to be well described qualitatively by the overlapping zone model. A deep maximum in the sound velocity at T=520 K can be explained by fluctuations in the neighbourhood of the magnetic phase transformation

  11. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  12. Photocatalytic Graphene-TiO2 Thin Films Fabricated by Low-Temperature Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Spin and Spray Coating in a Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we communicate a facile and low temperature synthesis process for the fabrication of graphene-TiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films. A sol-gel chemical route is used to synthesize TiO2 from the precursor solutions and spin and spray coating are used to deposit the films. Excitation of the wet films during the casting process by ultrasonic vibration favorably influences both the sol-gel route and the deposition process, through the following mechanisms. The ultrasound energy imparted to the wet film breaks down the physical bonds of the gel phase. As a result, only a low-temperature post annealing process is required to eliminate the residues to complete the conversion of precursors to TiO2. In addition, ultrasonic vibration creates a nanoscale agitating motion or microstreaming in the liquid film that facilitates mixing of TiO2 and graphene nanosheets. The films made based on the above-mentioned ultrasonic vibration-assisted method and annealed at 150 °C contain both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2, which is the most favorable configuration for photocatalytic applications. The photoinduced and photocatalytic experiments demonstrate effective photocurrent generation and elimination of pollutants by graphene-TiO2 composite thin films fabricated via scalable spray coating and mild temperature processing, the results of which are comparable with those made using lab-scale and energy-intensive processes.

  13. Temperature measurement in the flowing medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a brief description of methods of temperature measurements in a flowing water steam. Attention is paid to the measurement of pseudo static temperature by a single sealed thermocouple entering the flowing liquid through the flown-by wall. Then three types of probes for stagnation temperature measurement are shown, whose properties were tested using CFD calculations. The aim was to design a probe of stagnation parameters of described properties which can be used for measuring flow parameters in a real steam turbine. An important factor influencing the construction is not only the safe manipulation of the probe when inserting and removing it from the machine in operation, but also the possibility to traverse the probe along the blade length.

  14. Measurement of liquid level in a natural circulation circuit using an ultrasonic technique; Medição de nível de líquido em um circuito de circulação natural utilizando uma técnica ultrassônica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Amanda Cardozo, E-mail: amandabarbosa@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, José L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Su, Jian, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The measurement by an ultrasonic technique of the water level in the expansion tank of the Natural Circulation Circuit (NCC) of the Experimental Thermo-Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering is presented. In the single-phase NCC operation the water level in the expansion tank is stable. However, during the two-phase operation, oscillations occur in the water level due to temperature and vacuum fraction variations. Thus, the development of a technique that allows the measurement of these oscillations, will allow an estimation of the variation of the vacuum fraction of the circuit over time. The experimental set - up was performed on a test bench, using an ultrasonic transducer. The ultrasonic technique used is pulse-echo, in which the same transducer is the transmitter and receiver of the signal. The transducer-shoe assembly is part of an ultrasonic system consisting of an ultrasonic signal generating plate, transducers and a computer (PC) with a program in LabView to control the system. The program is able to calculate the transit time that the ultrasonic signals take to cross the tank base wall, the layer (level) of liquid and return to the transducer. Knowing the speed of the ultrasound in the wall and in the liquid it is possible to calculate the thickness of the wall and the height of the liquid. Measurements were made by filling the tank with a known volume of water and under varying temperature conditions, from room temperature to 90 deg C. The liquid heights are determined and the volume of water calculated by measuring the temperature with a digital thermometer. The volumes measured were highly accurate when compared to the known volumes.

  15. Design and measurement of a piezoresistive ultrasonic sensor based on MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiaqi; He Changde; Yuan Kejing; Xue Chenyang; Zhang Wendong; Lian Deqin

    2013-01-01

    A kind of piezoresistive ultrasonic sensor based on MEMS is proposed, which is composed of a membrane and two side beams. A simplified mathematical model has been established to analyze the mechanical properties of the sensor. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, the structural size and layout location of the piezoresistors are determined by simulation analysis. The boron-implanted piezoresistors located on membrane and side beams form a Wheatstone bridge to detect acoustic signal. The membrane-beam microstructure is fabricated integrally by MEMS manufacturing technology. Finally, this paper presents the experimental characterization of the ultrasonic sensor, validating the theoretical model used and the simulated model. The sensitivity reaches −116.2 dB (0 dB reference = 1 V/μbar, 31 kHz), resonant frequency is 39.6 kHz, direction angle is 55°. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Initial evaluation of ultrasonic attenuation measurements for estimating fracture toughness of RPV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, A.L. Jr.; Green, R.E. Jr. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Nondestructive Evaluation

    1999-08-01

    Neutron bombardment of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes reductions in fracture toughness in these steels, termed neutron irradiation embrittlement. Currently, there are no accepted methods for nondestructive determination of the extent of the irradiation embrittlement nor the actual fracture toughness of the reactor pressure vessel. This paper provides initial results of an effort addressing the use of ultrasonic attenuation as a suitable parameter for nondestructive determination of irradiation embrittlement in RPV steels. (orig.)

  17. Flaw-size measurement in a weld samples by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Whaley, H.L. Jr.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic frequency-analysis technique was developed and applies to characterize flaws in an 8-in. (203-mm) thick heavy-section steel weld specimen. The technique applies a multitransducer system. The spectrum of the received broad-band signal is frequency analyzed at two different receivers for each of the flaws. From the two spectra, the size and orientation of the flaw are determined by the use of an analytic model proposed earlier. (auth)

  18. Effect of Temperature on Ultrasonic Signal Propagation for Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abdul; Sophian, A.

    2017-11-01

    Fraud cases involving adulteration of extra virgin olive oil has become significant nowadays due to increasing in cost of supply and highlight given the benefit of extra virgin olive oil for human consumption. This paper presents the effects of temperature variation on spectral formed utilising pulse-echo technique of ultrasound signal. Several methods had been introduced to characterize the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other fluid sample such as mass chromatography, standard method by ASTM (density test, distillation test and evaporation test) and mass spectrometer. Pulse-echo method of ultrasound being a non-destructive method to be used to analyse the sound wave signal captured by oscilloscope. In this paper, a non-destructive technique utilizing ultrasound to characterize extra virgin olive oil adulteration level will be presented. It can be observed that frequency spectrum of sample with different ratio and variation temperature shows significant percentages different from 30% up to 70% according to temperature variation thus possible to be used for sample characterization.

  19. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D 2 and H 2 up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems

  20. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  1. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  2. High temperature measurement by noise thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.C.

    1982-06-01

    Noise thermometry has received a lot of attention for measurements of temperatures in the high range around 1000-2000 deg. K. For these measurements, laboratory type experiments have been mostly performed. These have shown the interest of the technique when long term stability, high precision and insensibility to external conditions are concerned. This is particularly true for measurements in nuclear reactors where important drifts due to irradiation effects are experienced with other measurement techniques, as thermocouple for instance. Industrial noise thermometer experiments have not been performed extensively up to now. The subject of the present study is the development of a 1800 deg. K noise thermometer for nuclear applications. The measurement method is based on a generalized noise power approach. The rms noise voltage (Vsub(s)) and noise current (Isub(s)) are successively measured on the resistive sensor. The same quantities are also measured on a dummy short circuited probe (Vsub(d) and Isub(d)). The temperature is then deduced from these measured values by the following formula: cTsub(s) = (Vsub(s) 2 - Vsub(d) 2 )(Vsub(s)/Isub(s) - Vsub(d)/Isub(d)) - 1 , where c is a constant and Tsub(s) the absolute temperature of the sensor. This approach has the particular advantage of greatly reducing the sensibility to environmental perturbations on the leads and to the influence of amplifier noise sources. It also eliminates the necessity of resistance measurement and keeps the electronic circuits as simple as possible

  3. Simultaneous sound velocity and thickness measurement by the ultrasonic pitch-catch method for corrosion-layer-forming polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Takizawa, Shota; Sakai, Tetsuya; Arao, Yoshihiko; Kubouchi, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    Since thermosetting resins have excellent resistance to chemicals, fiber reinforced plastics composed of such resins and reinforcement fibers are widely used as construction materials for equipment in chemical plants. Such equipment is usually used for several decades under severe corrosive conditions so that failure due to degradation may result. One of the degradation behaviors in thermosetting resins under chemical solutions is "corrosion-layer-forming" degradation. In this type of degradation, surface resins in contact with a solution corrode, and some of them remain asa corrosion layer on the pristine part. It is difficult to precisely measure the thickness of the pristine part of such degradation type materials by conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic testing, because the sound velocity depends on the degree of corrosion of the polymeric material. In addition, the ultrasonic reflection interface between the pristine part and the corrosion layer is obscure. Thus, we propose a pitch-catch method using a pair of normal and angle probes to measure four parameters: the thicknesses of the pristine part and the corrosion layer, and their respective sound velocities. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by measuring a two-layer sample and a sample including corroded parts. The results demonstrate that the pitch-catch method can successfully measure the four parameters and evaluate the residual thickness of the pristine part in the corrosion-layer-forming sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature measurements at the LMFBR core outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argous, J.P.; Berger, R.; Casejuane, R.; Fournier, C.; Girard, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    Over the last few years the temperature sensors used to measure the subassembly outlet temperature in French designed LMFBRs have been modified, basically in an effort to reduce the dispersion of the chromel-alumel thermocouple time constant, and to extend the frequency spectrum of the measurement signals by adding a steel electrode to from a stainless steel-sodium thermocouple. The result of this evolution is the temperature probe immersed in sodium which will be used in the SUPER PHENIX reactor. This paper describes the tests already completed or in progress on this probe. It also presents measurement data on the two basic probe parameters: the thermoelectric power of the stainless steel-sodium thermocouple and the time constant of the chromel-alumel thermocouple

  5. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  6. Ultrasonic measurements of chest wall thickness and realistic chest phantom for calibration of Pu lung counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirotani, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    There are four important problems for the measurements of chest wall thickness using ultrasonic device: (1) selection of optimum position of transducer and the number of measured points on the chest covered with detector, (2) estimation of adipose-to-muscle ratio in the chest wall, especially for dispersed adipose like 'marbled beef', (3) determination of regression equations for the prediction of chest wall thickness, derived from groups of different body shape, i.e. corpulent and lean, and (4) estimation of effective chest wall thickness involved self-absorption layer of lung tissue, which changes with distribution of activity in the lungs. This quantity can not be measured with ultrasonic device. Realistic chest phantom was developed. The phantom contains removable model organs (lungs, liver, kidneys and heart), model trachea and artificial rib cage, and also includes chest plates that can be placed over the chest to simulate wide range adipose-to-muscle ratio in the chest wall. Various soft tissue substitutes were made of polyurethane with different concentrations of additive, and the rib cage were made of epoxy resin with calcium carbonate. The experimental data have shown that the phantom can be used as a standard phantom for the calibration. (author)

  7. Assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a capacitance probe for measurement of two-phase mixture level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon

    2004-01-01

    We performed a comparison of two-phase mixture levels measured by an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe with visual data under the same experimental conditions. A series of experiments are performed with various combinations of airflow and initial water level using a test vessel with a height of 2m and an inner diameter of 0.3m. The ultrasonic sensor measured the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% with respect to the visual data. The capacitance probe severely under-predicted the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error was identified as the change of the dielectric constant as the void fraction changes when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of the dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces a r.m.s. error of 5.4%. The present experimental data are compared with the existing pool void fraction correlations based on drift-flux model. The Kataoka-Ishii correlation has the best agreement with the present experimental data with an r.m.s error of 2.5%

  8. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP's and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 μs, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity

  9. Methodology of investigation of the effect of ultrasonic oscillations on mechanical properties of structural materials in a wide range of temperatures and strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakay, S.O.; Gurin, V.A.; Gurin, I.V.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Gorbatenko, V.M.; Netesov, V.M.; Dub, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    The present message is devoted to the description of a method of research of influence of ultrasound on physicomechanical properties of constructional materials during plastic deformation in vacuum. The functional diagram and the description of created experimental facility which allows to carry out researches by this method is resulted. The created method and the equipment it has been approved for studying influence of ultrasound on physicomechanical properties of carbon composite materials of nuclear industry. Mechanical properties of carbon - carbon composite materials are investigated in a range of temperatures from room up to 600 degree C, at various strain rates, in conditions of ultrasonic vibrations and without them. The analysis of results received is carried out at use of a method of mechanical tests of samples of carbon before ultrasonic processing on nanohardness. The comparative estimation of the received experimental data is resulted

  10. Measurement of rotational temperature at Kolhapur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Mukherjee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the hydroxyl rotational temperature for the (8,3 Meinel band have been reported from the observations of the ratio of the relative intensities of P1(2 and P1(4 lines of the OH(8,3 band at Kolhapur (16.8° N, 74.2° E, dip lat. 10.6° N in India during the period 1 November 2002-29 April 2003 using tilting-filter photometers. Mean values of rotational temperature have been computed for 60 nights. The monthly mean value of temperature lies in the range 194(±11-208(±18K. The mean rotational temperature obtained from all the measurements was found to be 202±15K. The results agree with other low-latitude measurements of rotational temperature using photometric airglow techniques. Quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of about one to two hours have been prominent on many nights. Furthermore, the results show the general agreement between observations and model (MSIS-86 predictions.

  11. Temperature measurements in ZT-40M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.M.; Haberstich, A.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Electron temperatures derived from Thomson scattering and ultrasoft x-ray (USXR) measurements taken before and after machine modifications are compared for ZT-40M. Modifications were made to the magnetic field windings to reduce field errors and the joints in the aluminum shell were coated with joint compound to reduce resistance and make all joints electrically uniform. These modifications resulted in increased plasma lifetime in ZT-40M from less than 10 ms to over 20 ms. Thomson scattering measurements were made with a single-point Thomson scattering apparatus. The scattered spectrum is collected by a three-grating spectrometer. The soft x rays are collected by a two-foil differential transmission system whose foil ratios may be easily varied. Before modifications the Thomson scattering and soft x-ray temperatures agreed up until 3 to 4 ms into the discharge. After this time the Thomson scattering temperature decreased slowly while the soft x-ray ''temperature'' increased rapidly. field errors resulted in Thomson scattering and USXR ''temperature'' time histories remaining fairly flat out to 10 to 11 ms, but introduced a small discrepancy (about 50 eV) in the absolute value of the temperatures. This change may be due either to the change in foil thickness used or to changes in radial temperature profiles. Profile changes may have been caused by the addition of four poloidal limiters or improvements to the magnetic field topology. After modifications the temperatures from both Thomson scattering and USXR were lower and the plasma density was higher. This is probably a result of the lower plasma-wall interaction with the new configuration

  12. Two methods to measure granular gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2017-07-01

    Grains are vibrated so as to achieve a granular gas, here regarded as an archetype of a dissipative non equilibrium steady state (NESS). We report on two distinct and concordant experimental measures of the system effective temperature. To do so, a blade fastened to the shaft of a small DC-motor, immersed in the grains, behaves as a driven 1D Brownian rotator, which is used as both actuator and sensor simultaneously. On the one hand, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, which involves a measure of the asymmetry of the energy exchanges between the rotator and the NESS reservoir, provides a first effective temperature. On the other hand, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which involves the relation between the spontaneous fluctuations and the response to a weak perturbation, defines a second, independent, effective temperature. Both methods, even though they are based on drastically different ideas, give nicely concordant results.

  13. Measurement of very rapidly variable temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographical research and visits to laboratories were undertaken in order to survey the different techniques used to measure rapidly variable temperatures, specifying the limits in maximum temperature and variation rate (time constant). On the basis of the bibliographical study these techniques were classified in three categories according to the physical meaning of their response time. Extension of the bibliographical research to methods using fast temperature variation measurement techniques and visits to research and industrial laboratories gave in an idea of the problems raised by the application of these methods. The use of these techniques in fields other than those for which they were developed can sometimes be awkward in the case of thermometric probe devices where the time constant cannot generally be specified [fr

  14. Low-temperature elastic properties of YbSbPt probed by ultrasound measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Ohyama, R.; Hasegawa, J.; Nakamura, M.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2018-03-01

    The elastic properties of a single crystal of the half-Heusler compound YbSbPt have been investigated by means of the ultrasonic measurement. In particular, careful measurements of the temperature (T) dependent elastic constant C 11(T) was performed in the vicinity of its phase transition point near T N of 0.5 K. A clear step-like anomaly accompanied by spin-density-wave type antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition was found in the C 11(T) curve. The low-temperature magnetic phase diagram is proposed on the basis of the results. The phase diagram consists of, at least two main distinct phases: a low-field and high-field regime with a transition field of approximately 0.6 T at zero field. We discuss the low-temperature elastic property based on analysis of Landau-type free energy.

  15. Experimental investigation on the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing asphaltene deposition and improving oil recovery under temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Dehshibi, Reza; Mohebbi, Ali; Riazi, Masoud; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2018-07-01

    A well-known complication in the oil reservoir during oil production is asphaltene deposition in and around the production wellbore. Deposition of asphaltene around the production wellbore may cause a significant pressure drop and in turn loss of efficiency in the production process. Various mechanical and chemical methods have been employed in order to reduce asphaltene formation or to eliminate the precipitate. A novel technique which presented a great potential for prevention or elimination of asphaltene is spreading out the high energy ultrasound wave within the oil reservoir. In this study, in a glass micro-model, asphaltene precipitation was first simulated in a transparent porous medium and its removal by application of high energy ultrasound wave was then investigated. To simulate asphaltene precipitation, the micro-model was first saturated with oil and then a normal-pentane was injected. This was followed by flooding the porous media with brine while propagating ultrasound waves (30 kHz and 100 W) to eliminate asphaltene precipitation. The experiment setup was equipped with a temperature controller. The results indicate a significant reduction in asphaltene precipitation in the oil reservoir may be achieved by application of ultrasound energy. Asphaltene particle deposition has been solved reversibly in the oil layer of porous medium and with the oil layering mechanism, the rate of oil production has been increased. In some spots, water/oil emulsion has been formed because of the ultrasonic vibration on the wall. Both the crude and synthetic oils were examined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

    2008-06-01

    Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 degrees C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (> or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2.

  17. Measurement of low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of low-temperature specific heat (LTSH) (0.1 K< T<60 K) has seen a number of breakthroughs both in design concepts and instrumentation in the last 15 years: particularly in small sample calorimetry. This review attempts to provide an overview of both large and small sample calorimetry techniques at temperatures below 60 K, with sufficient references to enable more detailed study. A comprehensive review is made of the most reliable measurements of the LTSH of 84 of the elements to illustrate briefly some of the problems of measurements and analysis, as well as to provide additional references. More detail is devoted to three special areas of low-temperature calorimetry that have seen rapid development recently: (1) measurement of the specific heat of highly radioactive samples, (2) measurement of the specific heat of materials in high magnetic fields (18 T), and (3) measurement of the specific heat of very small (100 μg) samples. The review ends with a brief discussion of the frontier research currently underway on microcalorimetry for nanogram sample weights

  18. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, N; Sovio, U; Mayo, R Plitman; Charnock-Jones, D S; Smith, G C S

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry have not previously been studied in relation to postnatal placental morphometry in detail. We conducted a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women in The Rosie Hospital, Cambridge (UK). We studied a group of 2120 women who had complete data on uterine and umbilical Doppler velocimetry and fetal biometry at 20, 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age, digital images of the placenta available, and delivered a liveborn infant at term. Associations were expressed as the difference in the standard deviation (SD) score of the gestational age adjusted ultrasound measurement (z-score) comparing the lowest and highest decile of the given placental morphometric measurement. The lowest decile of placental surface area was associated with 0.87 SD higher uterine artery Doppler mean pulsatility index (PI) at 20 weeks (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.07, P flow, respectively, and both are associated with fetal growth rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a multi-path ultrasonic flow meter for the application to feedwater flow measurement in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, J. C.; Ha, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Jang, W. H.; Park, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Park, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we propose a method to measure the feedwater flow using multi-path ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Since the UFM measures a path velocity at which the ultrasonic wave is propagated, the flow profile may be important to convey the path velocity to the velocity averaged over the entire cross section of the flowing medium. The conventional UFM has used the smooth-wall circular pipe model presented by Nikurades. However, this model covers a lower range which is less than 3.2 million while the Reynolds number of the feedwater flow in operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) is about 20 million. Therefore, we feedwater flow in operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) is about 20 million. Therefore, we proposed the non-linear correlation model that combines the ratio between the DP output and proposed the non-linear correlation model that combines the ratio between the DP output and UFM output. Experiments were performed using both computer simulation and newly constructed NPPs' test data. The uncertainty analysis result shows that the proposed method has reasonably lower uncertainty than conventional UFM

  20. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  1. Measuring Thermal Conductivity at LH2 Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) produced reference materials for materials testing. One such reference material was intended for use with a guarded hot plate apparatus designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C177-97, "Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus." This apparatus can be used to test materials in various gaseous environments from atmospheric pressure to a vacuum. It allows the thermal transmission properties of insulating materials to be measured from just above ambient temperature down to temperatures below liquid hydrogen. However, NIST did not generate data below 77 K temperature for the reference material in question. This paper describes a test method used at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to optimize thermal conductivity measurements during the development of thermal protection systems. The test method extends the usability range of this reference material by generating data at temperatures lower than 77 K. Information provided by this test is discussed, as are the capabilities of the MSFC Hydrogen Test Facility, where advanced methods for materials testing are routinely developed and optimized in support of aerospace applications.

  2. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  3. Electron temperature measurement in Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusov, A.V.; Orlov, M.M.; Terent'ev, A.R.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of temperature of emitting plasma sheath in noncylindrical Z-pinch in neon at the stage of convergence to the axis, based on comparing the intensity of spectral lines belonging to Ne1, Ne2, is performed. Line intensity relation dependence was determined using calculations according to emitting-collision model. Spectra were recorded by electron-optical converter and relative intensity was determined by subsequent photometry of photolayer. Cylindric symmetrical MHD-calculations during which temperature and the observed line intensity relation were determined, are conducted

  4. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  5. Irradiation temperature measurements in the surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pav, T.; Krhounek, V.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the diamond monitor method for the determination of the irradiation temperature in the surveillance programme of WWER-440 reactors is discussed. One of the difficulties with the practical application of the method is that the measured values of irradiation temperature are unlikely high. Using a thermodynamical model of the processes in the annealing of the irradiated diamond crystals, it was shown that experimental difficulties came from the principles of the method used. An analysis was performed of the thermal field inside the capsule of the surveillance chain in operational conditions, using the finite element method. The diamond monitor method was suggested to be eliminated from the surveillance programme and the use was proposed of the value of 273+-3 degC (as the most likely value) for the irradiation temperature of surveillance samples in WWER-440 reactors. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 6 figs., 4 refs

  6. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  7. Ultrasonic determination of thermodynamic threshold parameters for irreversible cutaneous burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo ultrasonic measurements of the depth of conductive cutaneous burns experimentally induced in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs are reported as a function of burn time for the case in which the skin surface temperature is maintained at 100 C. The data are used in the solution of the one-dimensional heat diffusion equation with time-dependent boundary conditions to obtain the threshold temperature and the energy of transformation per unit mass associated with the transition of the tissue from the state of viability to the state of necrosis. The simplicity of the mathematical model and the expediency of the ultrasonic measurements in studies of thermal injury are emphasized.

  8. Influence of power density and primer application on polymerization of dual-cured resin cements monitored by ultrasonic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Chikako; Yasuda, Genta; Murayama, Ryosuke; Ogura, Yukari; Tonegawa, Motoka; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2010-08-01

    We used ultrasonic measurements to monitor the influence of power density and primer application on the polymerization reaction of dual-cured resin cements. The ultrasonic equipment comprised a pulser-receiver, transducers, and an oscilloscope. Resin cements were mixed and inserted into a transparent mould, and specimens were placed on the sample stage, onto which the primer, if used, was also applied. Power densities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, or 600 mW cm(-2) were used for curing. The transit time through the cement disk was divided by the specimen thickness to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity. When resin cements were light-irradiated, each curve displayed an initial plateau of approximately 1,500 m s(-1), which rapidly increased to a second plateau of 2,300-2,900 m s(-1). The rate of sound velocity increase was retarded when the cements were light-irradiated at lower power densities, and increased when the primer was applied. The polymerization behaviour of dual-cured resin cements was therefore shown to be affected by the power density of the curing unit and the application of self-etching primer. (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Study of ultrasonic melt treatment on the quality of horizontal continuously cast Al-1%Si alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Tao; Li, Ting-Ju; Li, Xi-Meng; Jin, Jun-Ze

    2006-02-01

    The fluctuation of the melt temperature in a tundish was measured during casting and experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ultrasonic melt treatment on the surface quality and solidification structures of Al-1%Si ingots. The results show that the uniformity of melt temperature was enhanced with the application of ultrasonic melt treatment. When the ultrasonic power is 1,000W, the surface quality was evidently improved and grains of cast ingots were refined. Moreover, EPMA analysis was adopted to study the relationship between the ultrasonic power and boundary segregation of Si element. The result shows that boundary segregation is suppressed with the increase of ultrasonic power and the phenomenon was theoretically interpreted.

  10. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux; Gerard Grehan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm 3 . The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  11. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire DSU/SERAC, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gerard Grehan [UMR 6614 CORIA, Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires Site Universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l' universite BP 12, 76 801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm{sup 3}. The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  12. Standard practice for evaluating performance characteristics of ultrasonic Pulse-Echo testing instruments and systems without the use of electronic measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures for evaluating the following performance characteristics of ultrasonic pulse-echo examination instruments and systems: Horizontal Limit and Linearity; Vertical Limit and Linearity; Resolution - Entry Surface and Far Surface; Sensitivity and Noise; Accuracy of Calibrated Gain Controls. Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this practice are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic testing. Instrument characteristics expressed in purely electronic terms may be measured as described in E1324. 1.2 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be ev...

  13. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  14. Prediction of strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.K.; Emam, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wood is a biological material integrating a very large variability of its mechanical properties (tensile and compressive), on the two directional longitudinal and transverse Ultrasonic method has been utilized to measure both wood physical and / or wood mechanical properties. The aim of this article is to show the development of ultrasonic technique for quality evaluation of trees, wood material and wood based composites. For quality assessment of these products we discuss the nondestructive evaluation of different factors such as: moisture content, temperature, biological degradation induced by bacterial attack and fungal attack. These techniques were adapted for trees, timber and wood based composites. The present study discusses the prediction of tensile and compressive strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic testing. Empirical relationships between the tensile properties, compression strength and ultrasonic were proposed. The experimental results indicate the possibility of establishing a relationship between tensile strength and compression values. Moreover, the fractures in tensile and compressive are discussed by photographic

  15. Ultrasonic measurements for in-service assessment of wrought Inconel 625 cracker tubes of heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Anish; Rajkumar, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Mishra, B.

    2006-01-01

    The degradation in mechanical properties of Inconel 625 ammonia cracker tubes occurs during the service for long duration in heavy water plants. The present study brings out the possibility of using Poisson's ratio (derived from measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic waves) in combination with hardness measurements, as an effective non-destructive tool for assessment of in-service degradation of Inconel 625 cracker tubes and qualification of re-solution annealing heat treatment for their rejuvenation. Further, the study also indicates the feasibility of extending the life of some of the tubes beyond the presently followed 120 000 h, before they are taken up for re-solution annealing, without affecting their serviceability. However, further studies are required to identify quantitative criterion for Poisson's ratio and hardness values, for deciding on the basis for removal of the tubes for rejuvenation

  16. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  17. Nuclear Radiation Tolerance of Single Crystal Aluminum Nitride Ultrasonic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Brian; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Suprock, Andrew

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models, (Rempe et al., 2011; Kazys et al., 2005). These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The irradiation is also supported by a multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET ASI) program. The results from this irradiation, which started in February 2014, offer the potential to enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. Hence, results from this irradiation offer the potential to bridge the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the

  18. Nut tightening and bolt tension measuring apparatus for control guide tube with ultrasonic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzoni, M.

    1985-01-01

    Control rods are guided by elements set in the prolongation of the fuel assembly guide-tubes in which the control rods are introduced. These elements are inside guide-tubes fixed on the upper plate of the core by means of pins having a thread on which a nut is screwed bearing on the foot of the guide-tube. The pin is fixed inside the upper core plate by means of its lower part. An insufficient mechanical resistance and even failures have been observed with these pins. These failures have been involved by an unadequate screwing. The present invention proposes to control the pretension during the operation itself with an ultrasonic test [fr

  19. Temperature measuring element in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily measure the partial maximum temperature at a portion within the nuclear reactor where the connection with the external portion is difficult. Constitution: Sodium, potassium or the alloy thereof with high heat expansion coefficient is packed into an elastic vessel having elastic walls contained in a capsule. A piercing member formed into an acute triangle is attached to one end in the direction of expansion and contraction of the elastic container. The two sides of the triangle form an acute knife edge. A diaphragm is disposed within a capsule at a position opposed to the sharpened direction of the piercing member. Such a capsule is placed in a predetermined position of the nuclear reactor. The elastic vessel causes thermal expansion displacement depending on the temperature at a certain position, by which the top end of the pierce member penetrates through the diaphragm. A pierced scar of a penetration length depending on the temperature is resulted to the diaphragm. The length of the piercing damage is electroscopically observed and compared with the calibration curve to recognize the maximum temperature in the predetermined portion of the nuclear reactor. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  1. Density and temperature measurement using CARS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, A.; Vollrath, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) a technique derived from nonlinear optics offers two major advantages compared with the spontaneous Raman method: improved scattering efficiency and spatial coherence of the scattered signal. The theory of the coherent mixing in resonant media serves as a quantitative background of the CARS technique. A review of several applications on plasma physics and gasdynamics is given, which permits to consider the CARS spectroscopy as a potential method for nonintrusive measurement of local concentration and temperature in gas flows and reactive media. (Auth.)

  2. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  3. An ultrasound-based liquid pressure measurement method in small diameter pipelines considering the installation and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Song, Zhengxiang

    2015-04-09

    Liquid pressure is a key parameter for detecting and judging faults in hydraulic mechanisms, but traditional measurement methods have many deficiencies. An effective non-intrusive method using an ultrasound-based technique to measure liquid pressure in small diameter (less than 15 mm) pipelines is presented in this paper. The proposed method is based on the principle that the transmission speed of an ultrasonic wave in a Kneser liquid correlates with liquid pressure. Liquid pressure was calculated using the variation of ultrasonic propagation time in a liquid under different pressures: 0 Pa and X Pa. In this research the time difference was obtained by an electrical processing approach and was accurately measured to the nanosecond level through a high-resolution time measurement module. Because installation differences and liquid temperatures could influence the measurement accuracy, a special type of circuit called automatic gain control (AGC) circuit and a new back propagation network (BPN) model accounting for liquid temperature were employed to improve the measurement results. The corresponding pressure values were finally obtained by utilizing the relationship between time difference, transient temperature and liquid pressure. An experimental pressure measurement platform was built and the experimental results confirm that the proposed method has good measurement accuracy.

  4. Measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Properties and Simulations Probed with Electromagnetic Containerless Technique (PROSPECT) is a measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties to be able to measure thermophysical properties with high precision by combining AC magnetic field (electromagnetic levitation device) and DC magnetic field (superconducting magnet) to realize the static floating state of metallic melt, in other words, the state of suppressing the surface vibration of droplets, translational motion, and internal convection. The electromagnetic levitation method is a method to obtain a floating force due to the Lorentz force generated by the interaction between high-frequency current flowing in the coil and the induced current generated in a sample, and to heat/melt the sample with the Joule heat generated by its induced current. This paper roughly explains the element technologies of PROSPECT with a focus on the laser modulation calorimetry (laser periodic heating method), normal spectral emissivity measurement method, density measurement, and surface tension measurement method. Furthermore, as the application of PROSPECT to new research deployment, it introduces the observation of phase separation structure in the supercooled solidification structure of Cu-Co alloy. (A.O.)

  5. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Nastaran; Sovio, U.; Mayo, R. Plitman; Charnock-Jones, D. S.; Smith, G. C. S.

    Introduction: Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and

  6. Effect of window function for measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter using fast fourier transform of tone-burst signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Jong Beom; Song, Dong Gil; Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In ultrasonic nonlinear parameter measurement using the fast Fourier transform(FFT) of tone-burst signals, the side lobe and leakage on spectrum because of finite time and non-periodicity of signals makes it difficult to measure the harmonic magnitudes accurately. The window function made it possible to resolve this problem. In this study, the effect of the Hanning and Turkey window functions on the experimental measurement of nonlinear parameters was analyzed. In addition, the effect of changes in tone burst signal number with changes in the window function on the experimental measurement was analyzed. The result for both window functions were similar and showed that they enabled reliable nonlinear parameter measurement. However, in order to restore original signal amplitude, the amplitude compensation coefficient should be considered for each window function. On a separate note, the larger number of tone bursts was advantageous for stable nonlinear parameter measurement, but this effect was more advantageous in the case of the Hanning window than the Tukey window.

  7. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  8. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characteristics in Heat-Treated Aluminum Alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been known to be more sensitive to minute variation of elastic properties in material than the conventional linear ultrasonic method. In this study, the ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics in the heat-treated aluminum alloy (Al-Mg-Si-Cu have been evaluated. For this, the specimens were heat treated for various heating period up to 50 hours at three different heating temperatures: 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. The ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics of each specimen were evaluated by measuring the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β from the amplitudes of fundamental and second harmonic frequency components in the transmitted ultrasonic wave. After the ultrasonic test, tensile strengths and elongations were obtained by the tensile test to compare with the parameter β. The heating time showing a peak in the parameter β was identical to that showing critical change in the tensile strength and elongation, and such peak appeared at the earlier heating time in the higher heating temperature. These results suggest that the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter β can be used for monitoring the variations in elastic properties of aluminum alloys according to the heat treatment.

  9. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Daw; J. Rempe; J. Palmer; P. Ramuhalli; R. Montgomery; H.T. Chien; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; P. Keller

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters during irradiation of fuels and materials, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues that currently limit in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. The harsh nature of in-pile testing and the variety of desired measurements demand that an enhanced signal processing capability be developed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. To address these issues, the NEET ASI program funded a three year Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation and Signal Processing Enhancements project, which is a collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Pennsylvania State University. The objective of this report is to document the objectives and accomplishments from this three year project. As summarized within this document, significant work has been accomplished during this three year project.

  10. Experimental POD measurement using ultrasonic phased arrays for incorporating nondestructive testes in probabilistic failure analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Jochen H.; Dobmann, Gerd; Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Roos, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, nondestructive tests are carried out during construction and during inspections. The type and extent of the tests are specified in the KTA rules. All tests must be qualified. In the past, the qualifications were made by extensive performance demonstrations of the test teams and equipment, which were judged by experts. This provided primarily pragmatic information on fault detection performance. In the USA, qualification of EPRI test teams also includes testing of test pieces with hidden (unknown) defects, of which a certain percentage must be detected. There is still a lack of information on the probability of detection (POD), in the form of POD curves, of specific defects in given test situations, using specifically selected testing techniques. Quantification of POD and the integration of relevant data in the probabilistic evaluation chain is one of the key goals of a research project whose first results are presented here. The concept of the project and first results of ultrasonic tests are presented. Defect distributions in the test pieces, experiment planning, and test specifications are gone into more closely. One of the most important goals is the specification of the residual uncertainty of components failure on the basis of the investigations. An outlook is presented for this.

  11. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue–bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Su Zhongqing; Cheng Li; Foiret, Josquin; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue–bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue–bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone. (paper)

  12. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  13. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Static modulus of elasticity of concrete measured by the ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Rodrigues, S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lately, a huge number of accidents caused by problems found in the durability of concrete structures due to inappropriate project design, lack of control of quality during the project s execution, inadequate maintenance practices and an aggressive environment has been reported. This finding has required from the professionals constant inspections and evaluations of the real conditions of all concrete structures. In order to perform those inspections, one should know not only the elastic modulus to analyze the concrete structural behaviour but also to investigate its performance, since the strains may yield cracks able to compromise the durability- of structures. Non-destructive testing techniques, particularly the ultrasonic testing, are performed to evaluate and determine the quality of a concrete structure or element. Currently, such essays have been widely researched and analyzed all over the world because they enable the examination of structures without damaging them. The purpose of the present study was to correlate the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the elastic modulus of several concrete specimens molded with a range of water-cement ratios, different kinds of aggregates and curing methods. All the concrete specimens were tested in different ages to determine the pulse velocity and the static modulus of elasticity standardized according to KBR 8522, through mechanical extensometers, electrical strain gauge and LVTD inductive transducer.

    Recientemente se ha registrado un gran número de accidentes causados por problemas relacionados con la durabilidad de las estructuras de hormigón y debidos a un inadecuado proyecto de diseño, ausencia de control de calidad durante la ejecución del proyecto, prácticas inadecuadas de construcción y un ambiente agresivo. Este hallazgo ha dado lugar a que los ingenieros realicen constantes inspecciones y evaluaciones de la condición real de todas las estructuras de hormigón. Para llevar a cabo

  15. Temperature measurements inside nuclear reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarassenko, Serge

    1969-11-01

    Non negligible errors may happen in nuclear reactor temperature measurements using magnesium oxide insulated and stainless steel sheathed micro-wire thermocouples, when these thermometric lines are placed under operational conditions typical of electrical power stations. The present work shows that this error is principally due to electrical hysteresis and polarization phenomena in the insulator subjected to the strong fields generated by common-mode voltages. These phenomena favour the unsymmetrical common-mode current flow and thus lead to the differential-mode voltage generation which is superposing on the thermoelectric hot junction potential. A calculation and an experimental approach make possible the importance of the magnesium oxide insulating characteristics, the hot junction insulation, the choice of the main circuits in the data processing equipment as well as the galvanic isolation performances and the common-mode rejection features of all the measurement circuits. A justification is thereby given for the severe conditions imposed for the acceptance of thermoelectric materials; some particular precautions to be taken are described, as well as the high performance characteristics which have to be taken into account in choosing measurement systems linked to thermometric circuits with sheathed micro-wire thermocouples. (author) [fr

  16. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  17. Pipe Wall Thickness Monitoring Using Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Waveguide Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, Ha Nam; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor a corrosion or FAC (Flow Accelerated Corrosion) in a pipe, there is a need to measure pipe wall thickness at high temperature. Ultrasonic thickness gauging is the most commonly used non-destructive testing technique for wall thickness measurement. However, current commonly available ultrasonic transducers cannot withstand high temperatures, such as above 200 .deg. C. It is therefore necessary to carry out manual measurements during plant shutdowns. The current method thus reveals several disadvantages: inspection have to be performed during shutdowns with the possible consequences of prolonging down time and increasing production losses, insulation has to be removed and replaced for each manual measurement, and scaffolding has to be installed to inaccessible areas, resulting in considerable cost for interventions. It has been suggested that a structural health monitoring approach with permanently installed ultrasonic thickness gauges could have substantial benefits over current practices. The main reasons why conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers cannot be used at high temperatures are that the piezo-ceramic becomes depolarized at temperature above the Curie temperature and because differential thermal expansion of the substrate, couplant, and piezoelectric materials cause failure. In this paper, a shear horizontal waveguide technique for wall thickness monitoring at high temperature is investigated. Two different designs for contact to strip waveguide are shown and the quality of output signal is compared and reviewed. After a success of acquiring high quality ultrasonic signal, experiment on the wall thickness monitoring at high temperature is planned

  18. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  19. Primary flow and temperature measurements in PWRS using non-invasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.M.; Jossinet, G.; Thomas, P.

    1995-08-01

    PWR primary flow and temperature measurements are classically done with either indirect or invasive techniques. EDF has developed and installed non-invasive innovative techniques on an industrial nuclear power plant (Chooz N1 type PWR). Primary flow-rate is determined by measurement of velocity of primary water in the hot leg: the time fluctuation of γ-ray activity from Nitrogen-16 (produced by neutron activation of 016) is measured outside of the pipe by two specially-designed detectors. The signals from both detectors are then cross-correlated to determine the transit time of primary water between the two detectors; primary flow-rate is then deduced Primary temperature is determined by measurement of sound velocity in hot and cold leg: two pairs of ultrasonic transducers, installed on pipe outer wall, emit pulses periodically, for which the time of flight along the two pipes diameters are determined. The sound velocity thus computed (diameter over time of flight) is then converted into temperature, by use of a calibration formula relating sound velocity to temperature and pressure. This paper addresses metrological and technical aspects of the methods. Experience feedback on industrial PWRs is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 13 figs

  20. Study of a new technique for measuring the travel time of ultrasonic waves using the frequency spectrum; Estudo de uma nova tecnica de medida do tempo de percurso da onda ultra-sonica usando o espectro de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allan Xavier dos

    2010-07-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant and other industrial plants, the operational time and the exposition to severe working conditions may cause the wear of its components, consequently, compromising the safety and the performance of the installation. The implementation of periodical inspections helps to ensure the safe operation and the best performance of the plant. In this way, the use of ultrasonic techniques for inspection and materials characterization becomes more and more attractive, since they offer quick, precise results and are technically ease to implement. The usual ultrasonic techniques, need to the measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in the material examined in order to extract information useful to characterize it. Thus, the measurement of the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave is the overriding factor in most of the applications made with ultrasound. In this work a new technique was developed for measuring the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave using a Fourier's Fast Transformer (FFT). It will be shown mathematically and experimentally that it is possible to use the ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave. Five experiments were carried out for the experimental validation of this new technique. The materials used were 20 ceramic pastilles with different porosities and 3 aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The obtained results have shown that the new technique proposed in this work was able to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave with the same precision as the conventional technique. It was shown, furthermore, that this new technique is able to measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in situations where the conventional technique cannot be applied greatly expanding the range of application of ultrasonic testing and inspections. (author)

  1. Experimental analysis of the evolution of thermal shock damage using transit time measurement of ultrasonic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhof, F.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal shock is a principal cause of catastrophic wear of the refractory lining of high temperature installations in metal making processes. To investigate thermal shock experimentally with realistic and reproducible heat transfer conditions, chamotte and corund refractory samples of ambient

  2. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  3. Application of ultrasonic thermometry in LMFBR safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Sullivan, W.H.; Plein, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry has many potential applications in reactor safety research, where extremely high temperatures and lack of visual access may preclude the use of conventional diagnostics. An application (the in-core molten fuel pool experiment) will be described in which thoriated tungsten ultrasonic thermometers were used to measure temperatures in UO 2 to incipient melt (2860 0 ). Each thermometer included five sensor elements 10 mm long, providing five temperatures within the UO 2 at various axial locations. The 10 mm spatial resolution is about five times better than previous applications of the technique. Temperature resolution of +-10 0 C was indicated by calibration data. Besides providing temperature data approximately 1000 0 C higher than were obtained with thermocouples, the thermometer yielded valuable axial temperature profile data. Details of the sensors, exciting coils, and signal conditioning electronics will be given

  4. Preliminary test of an ultrasonic liquid film sensor for high-temperature steam-water two-phase flow experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Goro; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Baba, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A prototype liquid film sensor for high-temperature steam-water experiments has been developed. The sensor shape simulates a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rod. The pulse-echo method can be utilized to measure the thickness of the liquid film covering the sensor surface. A piezoelectric element is soldered onto the inside of the sensor casing which consists of two curved casing pieces. After the piezoelectric element is attached, the two casing pieces are laser welded together. It is confirmed that the temperature rise at the time of the laser welding does not influence soldering of the piezoelectric element. The pressure proof test shows that the sensor can be used at a high-pressure condition of 7 MPa. Simple air-water experiments are done at atmospheric pressure to confirm the liquid film thickness can be measured with the sensor. The fluctuation of the liquid film thickness is satisfactorily captured with the sensor. The minimum and maximum thicknesses are 0.084 and 0.180 mm, respectively. The amplitude of the waveform at 286°C is predicted by the calculation based on the acoustic impedance. It is expected that the sensor is able to measure the liquid film thickness even at BWR operating conditions. (author)

  5. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  6. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    An automated electronic intruder simulator for testing ultrasonic intrusion detectors is described. This simulator is primarily intended for use in environmental chambers to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on the operation of ultrasonic intrusion detectors

  7. Ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids and phenolics from loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... ultrasonic pharmaceutical managing machine (Sinobest electronic. Co. Ltd., Jining, Shangdong ... During the ultrasonic treatment, the temperature ..... essential oil extraction by a hydrodistillation process using a 2(4) complete ...

  8. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  9. Frequency and amplitude dependences of molding accuracy in ultrasonic nanoimprint technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    We use neither a heater nor ultraviolet lights, and are researching and developing an ultrasonic nanoimprint as a new nano-patterning technology. In our ultrasonic nanoimprint technology, ultrasonic vibration is not used as a heat generator instead of the heater. A mold is connected with an ultrasonic generator, and mold patterns are pushed down and pulled up at a high speed into a thermoplastic. Frictional heat is generated by ultrasonic vibration between mold patterns and thermoplastic patterns formed by an initial contact force. However, because frictional heat occurs locally, the whole mold is not heated. Therefore, a molding material can be comprehensively processed at room temperature. A magnetostriction actuator was built into our ultrasonic nanoimprint system as an ultrasonic generator, and the frequency and amplitude can be changed between dc–10 kHz and 0–4 µm, respectively. First, the ultrasonic nanoimprint was experimented by using this system on polyethylene terephthalate (PET, T g = 69 °C), whose the glass transition temperature (T g ) is comparatively low in engineering plastics, and it was ascertained that the most suitable elastic material for this technique was an ethyl urethane rubber. In addition, we used a changeable frequency of the magnetostriction actuator, and nano-patterns in an electroformed-Ni mold were transferred to a 0.5 mm thick sheet of PET, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), which are typical engineering plastics, under variable molding conditions. The frequency and amplitude dependence of ultrasonic vibration to the molding accuracy were investigated by measuring depth and width of imprinted patterns. As a result, regardless of the molding material, the imprinted depth was changed drastically when the frequency exceeded 5 kHz. On the other hand, when the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration grew, the imprinted depth gradually deepened. Influence of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration was not

  10. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  11. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A computer controlled ultrasonic measurement and testequipment for rotation-symmetrical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abend, K.; Lang, R.; Schmidt, U.; Schuett, U.; Sterberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    During production of rotation-symmetrical thin wall precision tubes, dimensions must be measured and the tubes have to be inspected for surface defects. Within the production area of the tubes, several measurement points for different applications are located at different places. The paper describes their on-line connection to a process-computer system

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  14. Laser-Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Anodized Aluminum Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, F.

    Anodized aluminum oxide plays a great role in many industrial applications, e.g. in order to achieve greater wear resistance. Since the hardness of the anodized films strongly depends on its processing parameters, it is important to characterize the influence of the processing parameters on the film properties. In this work the elastic material parameters of anodized aluminum were investigated using a laser-based ultrasound system. The anodized films were characterized analyzing the dispersion of Rayleigh waves with a one-layer model. It was shown that anodizing time and temperature strongly influence Rayleigh wave propagation.

  15. Increasing Accuracy of Tissue Shear Modulus Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Strain Tensor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, C.

    Previously, we developed three displacement vector measurement methods, i.e., the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM), and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM). To increase the accuracies and stabilities of lateral and elevational displacement measurements, we also developed spatially variant, displacement component-dependent regularization. In particular, the regularization of only the lateral/elevational displacements is advantageous for the lateral unmodulated case. The demonstrated measurements of the displacement vector distributions in experiments using an inhomogeneous shear modulus agar phantom confirm that displacement-component-dependent regularization enables more stable shear modulus reconstruction. In this report, we also review our developed lateral modulation methods that use Parabolic functions, Hanning windows, and Gaussian functions in the apodization function and the optimized apodization function that realizes the designed point spread function (PSF). The modulations significantly increase the accuracy of the strain tensor measurement and shear modulus reconstruction (demonstrated using an agar phantom).

  16. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  17. NDE (Nondestructive examination) by ultrasonic, photo-elastic, strain measuring and FEM (Finite Element Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Fangyu; Zeng Xiao

    1990-01-01

    It is considered impossible to inspect flaw by using ordinary mechanical measuring methods. In this paper, it is found that the stree and strain distortions of pressure vessel with 2D linear shape crack in the deep location appear the 'cat effect' on the surface of stracture, and that the location and size of the crack can be determined with strain measuring and FEM according to 'cat effect' of strain distortion

  18. Operational methods of thermodynamics. Volume 1 - Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, F. X.

    The principles of thermometry are examined, taking into account the concept of temperature, the Kelvin scale, the statistical theory of heat, negative absolute temperatures, the thermodynamic temperature scale, the thermodynamic temperature scale below 1 K, noise thermometry, temperature scales based on black-body radiation, acoustical thermometry, and the International Practical Temperature Scale 1968. Aspects of practical temperature measurement are discussed, giving attention to thermometers based on the expansion of a gas or a liquid, instruments utilizing the relative thermal expansion of two different metals, devices measuring the vapor pressure of a liquid, thermocouples, resistance thermometers, radiation pyrometers of various types, instruments utilizing the temperature dependence of a number of material characteristics, devices for temperature control, thermometer calibration, and aspects of thermometer installation and inertia. A description is presented of the approaches employed for the measurement of low temperatures.

  19. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliar, Mikhail [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  20. An ultrasonic inspection tool for production tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, K; Martin, R; Ravenscroft, F [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-06-01

    Advances in ultrasonic technology, high temperature techniques and remote processing power are enabling a new generation of inspection tools to be developed. This paper describes a particular new ultrasonic caliper system, developed by AEA Technology, with the aim of providing improved information about the condition of production tubulars of oil and gas wells. The system is designed to provide enhanced surface area coverage compared to the current devices, which are typically mechanical 'finger' calipers. It also provides a non-contacting measure of corrosion and wear together with direct on-line output and automated data analysis. The new tool is designed to operate in oil and gas, vertical or deviated wells and has the potential for modification to inspect small diameter pipes in topside or other plant. (author)

  1. Updated Results of Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, 38415-3840 (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth and Engr. Sciences Building, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, LLC, 360 Stillwater, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Villard, J.F. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, Centre d' etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. A multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET-ASI) program also provided initial support for this effort. This irradiation, which started in February 2014, is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data are collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers continue to operate under irradiation. (authors)

  2. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  3. Ultrasonic Vocalizations as a Measure of Affect in Preclinical Models of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David J; Simmons, Steven J; West, Mark O

    2015-01-01

    The present review describes ways in which ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have been used in studies of substance abuse. Accordingly, studies are reviewed which demonstrate roles for affective processing in response to the presentation of drug-related cues, experimenter- and self-administered drug, drug withdrawal, and during tests of relapse/reinstatement. The review focuses on data collected from studies using cocaine and amphetamine, where a large body of evidence has been collected. Data suggest that USVs capture animals' initial positive reactions to psychostimulant administration and are capable of identifying individual differences in affective responding. Moreover, USVs have been used to demonstrate that positive affect becomes sensitized to psychostimulants over acute exposure before eventually exhibiting signs of tolerance. In the drug-dependent animal, a mixture of USVs suggesting positive and negative affect is observed, illustrating mixed responses to psychostimulants. This mixture is predominantly characterized by an initial bout of positive affect followed by an opponent negative emotional state, mirroring affective responses observed in human addicts. During drug withdrawal, USVs demonstrate the presence of negative affective withdrawal symptoms. Finally, it has been shown that drug-paired cues produce a learned, positive anticipatory response during training, and that presentation of drug-paired cues following abstinence produces both positive affect and reinstatement behavior. Thus, USVs are a useful tool for obtaining an objective measurement of affective states in animal models of substance abuse and can increase the information extracted from drug administration studies. USVs enable detection of subtle differences in a behavioral response that might otherwise be missed using traditional measures.

  4. Ultrasonic measurement process of the ratio volume of gas in an enclosure containing a gas-liquid mixture to the total volume of the enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.; Heinrich, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves with two different frequencies are sent through the fluid in the containment. Time of propagation are measured and the difference is calculated. If propagation times are identical the gas phase forms a layer on the top of the liquid phase and void fraction is determined from propagation speeds in the gas and in the liquid. If propagation times are different, part of the gas forms bubbles and void fraction is the sum of gas on top of the liquid and gas bubbles in the liquid determined separatly. Void fraction coming from the gas over the liquid is determined by waves reflected at the interface gas-liquid. Void fraction coming from the bubbles is determined by relations between the speed of ultrasonic waves and their frequency as a function of pressure and void fraction [fr

  5. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement. 91.309 Section 91.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in...

  6. Substrate Temperature Effect on Charge Transport Performance of ZnO Electron Transport Layer Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for high-quality ZnO films based on zinc-ammonia solution was achieved in air. To investigate the structural and optical properties as well as the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs, ZnO films at different substrate temperatures and thicknesses were prepared. The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM based PSC was found to be improved due to the ZnO films. The crystal structure and roughness of the ZnO films fabricated at different temperatures were found to affect the performance of PSCs. The optimized power conversion efficiency was found to be maximum for PSCs with ZnO films prepared at 200°C. The growth process of these ZnO films is very simple, cost-effective, and compatible for larger-scale PSC preparation. The precursor used for spray pyrolysis is environmentally friendly and helps to achieve ZnO film preparation at a relative low temperature.

  7. The ultrasonic wave pattern analysis and the frequency diversity signal processing in multi-layered gap measurement for in-vessel corium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, K. M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower head vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of SONATA-IV program. In this paper, the quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method by frequency diversity signal processing are presented. However, the gap measurement signal using an ordinary ultrasonic test would be lack of reliability due to the structural complexity of the specimen. The structural complexity may result from the external reason from the shape and the internal reason from the material characteristics. This paper aims at the development of an appropriate ultrasonic test method, by analyzing the problems from the internal characteristic reason. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel

  8. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  9. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F. ...

  10. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with <200 µm dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  11. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with < 200 m dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  12. Measurement of the argon plasma temperature by use of pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fanhou; Jing Fuqian

    2002-01-01

    The author describes in detail how to use pyrometer to measure the plasma temperature. The temperatures of shock-generated argon plasmas are given in the present work. Measured results of temperature-pressure curve are compared with calculated results using Saha-Debye-Huckel model, which are in good agreement

  13. A miniature ultrasonic actuator-control system for plant stem diameter micro-variation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of micro-variations in plant stem diameter are potentially useful to optimize irrigation decision support systems that are based on plant physiological responses. However, for this technology to be suitable for field applications, problems associated with stem softness and micro variati...

  14. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  15. Measuring the temperature of hot nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschel, S.; Bonasera, A.; May, L.W.; Souliotis, G.A.; Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Kohley, Z.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D.V.; Huseman, K.; Soisson, S.N.; Stein, B.C.; Yennello, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin, etc.) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  16. The measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhou Zaiping; Zhang Longfang

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a experiment equipment used for measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators; gives some measurement results of temperature effect of light output for NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, ZnS(Ag), anthracene crystal glass scintillator; analyzes the error factors affecting the measurement results. The total uncertainty of the temperature effect measurement for NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator is 11%

  17. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  18. Ultrasonic attenuation in niobium II: measurements near Bsub(c2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgan, E.M.; Gough, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    The attenuation of 10 to 90 MHz longitudinal sound waves has been measured from 1.2 K upwards in the superconducting mixed state of niobium near Bsub(c2). The attenuation was determined as a function of the directly measured average induction, B, within single crystal specimens which had resistance ratios ranging from 83 to 3380. The specimens tended to the 'clean' limit (electron mean free path, 1 much greater than xi 0 , the superconducting coherence length) in which there is a strong purity dependence of the relative attenuation. For the purest crystals close to Bsub(C2), the results are in reasonable agreement with the purity and field dependence predicted by microscopic theories, and agree over a much wider field range with a phenomenological modification of these theories. Measurements of attenuation and other transport properties in clean type II superconductors by other authors are discussed and it is shown that many of the evident discrepancies can be attributed to neglect of the effects of magnetic irreversibility and crystalline anisotropy. (author)

  19. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  20. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    tics—emission lines. Dwivedi, Curdt & Wilhelm (1997, 1999a) carried out an observing sequence based on a theoretical study by Dwivedi & Mohan (1995), with intercombination/forbidden. Ne VI and Mg VI lines, which are formed at essentially the same temperature. (4 × 105 K), according to Arnaud & Rothenflug (1985).

  1. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [de

  2. Isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurement in TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Direct measurement of an isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient at room temperatures in TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is presented. Temperature reactivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range between 15 o C and 25 o C. All reactivity measurements were performed at almost zero reactor power to reduce or completely eliminate nuclear heating. Slow and steady temperature decrease was controlled using the reactor tank cooling system. In this way the temperatures of fuel, of moderator and of coolant were kept in equilibrium throughout the measurements. It was found out that TRIGA reactor core loaded with standard fuel elements with stainless steel cladding has small positive isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient in this temperature range.(author)

  3. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    power law form spectrum. Besides the inevitable ... measurement of the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 1280 MHz. 2. The receiver ... from the feed assembly and the third term is the receiver temperature as referred to the circulator ...

  4. New flowmetric measurement methods of power dissipated by an ultrasonic generator in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, Valérie; Leclercq, Didier

    2007-02-01

    Two new determination methods of the power dissipated in an aqueous medium by an ultrasound generator were developed. They are based on the use of a heat flow sensor inserted between a tank and a heat sink that allows to measure the power directly coming through the sensor. To be exploitable, the first method requires waiting for stationary flow. On the other hand, the second, extrapolated from the first one, makes it possible to determine the dissipated power in only five minutes. Finally, the results obtained with the flowmetric method are compared to the classical calorimetric ones.

  5. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  6. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  7. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Pu [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Wenzhong, E-mail: lwz7410@hust.edu.cn [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  8. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  9. Optimal determination of the elastic constants of composite materials from ultrasonic wave-speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnède, Bernard; Jenkins, James T.; Sachse, Wolfgang; Baste, Stéphane

    1990-03-01

    A method is described to optimally determine the elastic constants of anisotropic solids from wave-speeds measurements in arbitrary nonprincipal planes. For such a problem, the characteristic equation is a degree-three polynomial which generally does not factorize. By developing and rearranging this polynomial, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained. The elastic constants are then recovered by minimizing a functional derived from this overdetermined system of equations. Calculations of the functional are given for two specific cases, i.e., the orthorhombic and the hexagonal symmetries. Some numerical results showing the efficiency of the algorithm are presented. A numerical method is also described for the recovery of the orientation of the principal acoustical axes. This problem is solved through a double-iterative numerical scheme. Numerical as well as experimental results are presented for a unidirectional composite material.

  10. Noise temperature measurements for the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, F.; Kuhne, M.; Tegeler, E. [Bundesanstalt Physikalisch-Technische, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium in air was measured by noise thermometric methods. The temperature measurement was based on noise comparison using a two-channel arrangement to eliminate parasitic noises of electronic components by cross correlation. Three miniature fixed points filled with pure palladium (purity: {approx}99.99%, mass: {approx}90 g) were used to realize the melts of the fixed point metal. The measured melting temperature of palladium in air amounted to 1552.95 deg C {+-} 0.21 K (k = 2). This temperature is 0.45 K lower than the temperature of the melting point of palladium measured by radiation thermometry. (authors)

  11. Measurement of temperature, electric conductivity and density of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevova, I.; Nefedov, A.; Oberman, F.; Urinson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Three instruments are briefly described developed by the High Temperatures Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the measurement of plasma temperature, electric conductivity and density. The temperature measuring instrument uses as a standard a light source whose temperature may significantly differ from plasma temperature because three light fluxes are compared, namely the flux emitted by the plasma, the flux emitted directly by the standard source, and the flux emitted by the standard source after passage through the plasma. The results of measurement are computer processed. Electric conductivity is measured using a coil placed in a probe which is automatically extended for a time of maximally 0.3 seconds into the plasma stream. The equipment for measuring plasma density consists of a special single-channel monochromator, a temperature gauge, a plasma pressure gauge, and of a computer for processing the results of measurement. (Ha)

  12. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...

  13. Ultrasonic measurement of through-thickness stress gradients in textured sheet metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Chising; Li Jianbo; Fan Xingyan; Lu Weiyang

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to explore the possibility of using the dispersion of high-frequency Rayleigh waves for the evaluation of through-thickness stress gradients at the surface of metal sheets. We consider an orthorhombic sheet of cubic metal with through-thickness inhomogeneities in stress and texture, and adopt a coordinate system under which the rolling (RD), transverse (TD), and normal direction (ND) of the sheet are taken as the 1-, 2-, and 3-direction, respectively. We restrict our attention to the special case where only the stress components T 11 (x 3 ) and T 22 (x 3 ) in the sheet are nonzero, and consider only Rayleigh waves of sufficiently high frequency for which the sheet can be taken as the half-space x 3 ≥0. For Rayleigh waves of two different frequencies (with wave numbers k 1 and k k 2 respectively) propagating on the same wave path along either RD or TD, we appeal to an analysis of J. Li and Man to obtain a high-frequency asymptotic formula which gives the relative change in time-of-flight Δt/t 0 as (1/k 1 -1/k 2 ) times a linear combination of the derivatives T 11 ' (0), T 22 ' (0), W 4m0 ' (0)(m=0,2,4) and W 6m0 (0)(m=0,2,4,6) at the surface are ascertained and the material constants in the acoustoelastic consitutive equation of this polycrystal are known. An experiment was performed on an AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy beam, in which Δt/t 0 was measured for various values of T 11 (0) and T 11 ' (0) produced by beam bending (with (T 22 ≡0). The relevant texture coefficients of the beam were measured by X-ray diffraction. To obtain specific predictions from the aforementioned symptotic formula, we replace the material constants of the sample by their counterparts predicted for polycrystalline (pure) aluminum by the Man-Paroni model. The predictions and Δt/t 0 are then compared with the experimental results

  14. Contact-free ultrasonic testing: applications to metrology and NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, A.

    1988-01-01

    In some cases classical ultrasonic testing is impossible because of adverse environment (high temperature, ionizing radiations, etc). Ultrasonic waves are created by laser impact and detected by electromagneto-acoustic transducers or laser interferometry. Association of ultrasonics generation by photoacoustic effect and reception by heterodyne interferometer is promising for the future [fr

  15. Pirani pressure sensor with distributed temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.; Bula, W.P.; Zalewski, D.R.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2003-01-01

    Surface micro-machined distributed Pirani pressure gauges, with designed heater-to-heat sink distances (gap-heights) of 0.35 μm and 1.10 μm, are successfully fabricated, modeled and characterized. Measurements and model response correspond within 5% of the measured value in a pressure range of 10 to

  16. Air Temperature Measurements Using Dantec Draught Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015).......This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015)....

  17. Fluid temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jeong Soo; Yang, Sun Kyu; Min, Kyung Ho; Chung, Moon Ki; Choi, Young Don

    1999-06-01

    Temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering was developed for the liquid water at temperature of 20 - 90 degree C and atmospheric pressure. Strong relationship between Raman scattering characteristics and liquid temperature change was observed. Various kinds of measurement techniques, such as Peak Intensity, Peak Wavelength, FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum), PMCR ( Polymer Monomer Concentration RAte), TSIR (Temperature Sensitive Intensity Ratio), IDIA (Integral Difference Intensity Area) were tested. TSIR has the highest accuracy in mean error or 0.1 deg C and standard deviation of 0.1248 deg C. This report is one of the results in developing process of Raman temperature measurement technique. Next research step is to develop Raman temperature measurement technique at the high temperature and high pressure conditions in single or two phase flows. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 38 figs

  18. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  19. Measurement and analysis of reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiyu; Hu Yun; Yang Xiaoyan; Fan Zhendong; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Jinkun; Li Zehua

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR was calculated by CITATION program and compared with the results calculated by correlative programs and measured from experiments for temperature effects. It is indicated that the calculation results from CITATION agree well with measured values. The reactivity temperature coefficient of CEFR is about -4 pcm/℃. The deviation of the measured values between the temperature increasing and decreasing processes is about 11%, which satisfies the experiment acceptance criteria. The measured results can validate the calculation ones by program and can provide important reference data for the safety operation of CEFR and the analysis of the reactivity balance in the reactor refueling situation. (authors)

  20. Ultrasonic monitoring of pitting corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, A. J. C.; Cegla, F. B.; Bazaz, H.; Lozev, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to corrosive substances in high temperature environments can cause damage accumulation in structural steels, particularly in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The interaction mechanisms are complex and varied; however initial damage propagation often manifests itself in the form of localized areas of increased material loss. Recent development of an ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring sensor capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 500°C has allowed permanent monitoring within such hostile environments, providing information on how the shape of a pulse which has reflected from a corroding surface can change over time. Reconstructing localized corrosion depth and position may be possible by tracking such changes in reflected pulse shape, providing extra information on the state of the backwall and whether process conditions should be altered to increase plant life. This paper aims to experimentally investigate the effect certain localized features have on reflected pulse shape by `growing' artificial defects into the backwall while wall thickness is monitored using the sensor. The size and complexity of the three dimensional scattering problem lead to the development of a semi-analytical simulation based on the distributed point source method (DPSM) which is capable of simulating pulse reflection from complex surfaces measuring approximately 17×10λ Comparison to experimental results show that amplitude changes are predicted to within approximately 1dB and that pulse shape changes are accurately modelled. All experiments were carried out at room temperature, measurements at high temperature will be studied in the future.