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Sample records for ultrasonic lamb wave

  1. Selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming-Liang; Deng Ming-Xi; Gao Guang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a modal expansion approach for the analysis of the selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). With the modal expansion approach for waveguide excitation, an analytical expression of the Lamb wave’s mode expansion coefficient is deduced, which is related to the driving frequency and the geometrical parameters of the EMAT’s meander coil, and lays a theoretical foundation for exactly analyzing the selective generation of Lamb waves with EMATs. The influences of the driving frequency on the mode expansion coefficient of ultrasonic Lamb waves are analyzed when the EMAT’s geometrical parameters are given. The numerical simulations and experimental examinations show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave modes can be effectively regulated (strengthened or restrained) by choosing an appropriate driving frequency of EMAT, with the geometrical parameters given. This result provides a theoretical and experimental basis for selectively generating a single and pure Lamb wave mode with EMATs. (special topic)

  2. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  3. Lamb Wave Technique for Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characterization in Elastic Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2010-01-01

    Since the acoustic nonlinearity is sensitive to the minute variation of material properties, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique(NUT) has been considered as a promising method to evaluate the material degradation or fatigue. However, there are certain limitations to apply the conventional NUT using the bulk wave to thin plates. In case of plates, the use of Lamb wave can be considered, however, the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave are completely different with the bulk wave, and thus the separate study for the nonlinearity of Lamb wave is required. For this work, this paper analyzed first the conditions of mode pair suitable for the practical application as well as for the cumulative propagation of quadratic harmonic frequency and summarized the result in for conditions: phase matching, non-zero power flux, group velocity matching, and non-zero out-of-plane displacement. Experimental results in aluminum plates showed that the amplitude of the secondary Lamb wave and nonlinear parameter grew up with increasing propagation distance at the mode pair satisfying the above all conditions and that the ration of nonlinear parameters measured in Al6061-T6 and Al1100-H15 was closed to the ratio of the absolute nonlinear parameters

  4. Antisymmetric-Symmetric Mode Conversion of Ultrasonic Lamb Waves and Negative Refraction on Thin Steel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Sung, Jin Woo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, focusing of ultrasonic Lamb wave by negative refraction with mode conversion from antisymmetric to symmetric mode was investigated. When a wave propagates backward by negative refraction, the energy flux is antiparallel to the phase velocity. Backward propagation of Lamb wave is quite well known, but the behavior of backward Lamb wave at an interface has rarely been investigated. A pin-type transducer is used to detect Lamb wave propagating on a steel plate with a step change in thickness. Conversion from forward to backward propagating mode leads to negative refraction and thus wave focusing. By comparing the amplitudes of received Lamb waves at a specific frequency measured at different distance between transmitter and interface, the focusing of Lamb wave due to negative refraction was confirmed.

  5. Detecting Lamb waves with broad-band acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave dispersion curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMC, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  6. Detecting Lamb waves with broadband acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and lowest antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave disperison curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMCs, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  7. A study on ultrasonic inspection of long steel pipes using lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Ho

    1996-02-01

    An ultrasonic inspection technique with use of Lamb waves was evaluated to detect and determine the exact location of flaws present in long steel pipes. Since multiple modes of Lamb waves are generated in the inspected pipes due to their dispersive characteristics, selection of a specific Lamb wave mode is very important for inspection of flaws. Experimental studies of flaw detectability with use of each Lamb wave mode, namely, A 0 , S 0 , A 1 , and S 1 mode and their ultrasonic attenuation characteristics were conducted. Experimental results showed that A 0 mode is the most effective for detection and exact determination of the location of flaws. A lucite wedge containing water column that generates the A 0 Lamb wave mode was developed and used in the present inspection study. It was found that the ultrasonic beam divergence after its wrapping around once the inspected pipe interferes with exact determination of the location of flaws and that maximum reflection signals are obtained when the transducer is located axially offset from the straight line with the position of the flaw. The present study showed feasibility of ultrasonic inspection with use of Lamb waves for detection of flaws in several meters long insulated or inaccessible steel pipes

  8. Adhesive joint evaluation by ultrasonic interface and lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlin, S. I.

    1986-01-01

    Some results on the application of interface and Lamb waves for the study of curing of thin adhesive layers were summarized. In the case of thick substrates (thickness much more than the wave length) the interface waves can be used. In this case the experimental data can be inverted and the shear modulus of the adhesive film may be explicitly found based on the measured interface wave velocity. It is shown that interface waves can be used for the study of curing of structural adhesives as a function of different temperatures and other experimental conditions. The kinetics of curing was studied. In the case of thin substrates the wave phenomena are much more complicated. It is shown that for successful measurements proper selection of experimental conditions is very important. This can be done based on theoretical estimations. For correctly selected experimental conditions the Lamb waves may be a sensitive probe of adhesive bond quality and may be used or cure monitoring.

  9. Detection of leak-defective fuel rods using the circumferential Lamb waves excited by the resonance backscattering of ultrasonic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, M.S.; Yang, M.S.; Kim, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A new ultrasonic technique for detecting the infiltrated water in leaked fuel rods is developed. Propagation characteristics of the circumferential Lamb waves in the cladding tubes are estimated by the resonance scattering theory. The Lamb waves are excited by the resonance backscattering of ultrasonic pulses. In sound fuel rods, the existence of the Lamb waves is revealed by a series of periodic echoes. In leaked fuel rods, however, the Lamb waves are perturbed strongly by the scattered waves from the surface of fuel pellets, thus the periodic echoes are not observed. (author)

  10. Non-contact feature detection using ultrasonic Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-28

    Apparatus and method for non-contact ultrasonic detection of features on or within the walls of hollow pipes are described. An air-coupled, high-power ultrasonic transducer for generating guided waves in the pipe wall, and a high-sensitivity, air-coupled transducer for detecting these waves, are disposed at a distance apart and at chosen angle with respect to the surface of the pipe, either inside of or outside of the pipe. Measurements may be made in reflection or transmission modes depending on the relative position of the transducers and the pipe. Data are taken by sweeping the frequency of the incident ultrasonic waves, using a tracking narrow-band filter to reduce detected noise, and transforming the frequency domain data into the time domain using fast Fourier transformation, if required.

  11. Creep Damage Evaluation of Titanium Alloy Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Lamb Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yan-Xun; Xuan Fu-Zhen; Deng Ming-Xi; Chen Hu; Chen Ding-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The creep damage in high temperature resistant titanium alloys Ti60 is measured using the nonlinear effect of an ultrasonic Lamb wave. The results show that the normalised acoustic nonlinearity of a Lamb wave exhibits a variation of the 'increase-decrease' tendency as a function of the creep damage. The influence of microstructure evolution on the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation has been analyzed based on metallographic studies, which reveal that the normalised acoustic nonlinearity increases due to a rising of the precipitation volume fraction and the dislocation density in the early stage, and it decreases as a combined result of dislocation change and micro-void initiation in the material. The nonlinear Lamb wave exhibits the potential for the assessment of the remaining creep life in metals

  12. Fast Lamb wave energy shift approach using fully contactless ultrasonic system to characterize concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Suyun; Popovics, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic techniques provide an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor concrete structures, but the need to perform rapid and accurate structural assessment requires evaluation of hundreds, or even thousands, of measurement datasets. Use of a fully contactless ultrasonic system can save time and labor through rapid implementation, and can enable automated and controlled data acquisition, for example through robotic scanning. Here we present results using a fully contactless ultrasonic system. This paper describes our efforts to develop a contactless ultrasonic guided wave NDE approach to detect and characterize delamination defects in concrete structures. The developed contactless sensors, controlled scanning system, and employed Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) signal processing scheme are reviewed. Then a guided wave interpretation approach for MASW data is described. The presence of delamination is interpreted by guided plate wave (Lamb wave) behavior, where a shift in excited Lamb mode phase velocity, is monitored. Numerically simulated and experimental ultrasonic data collected from a concrete sample with simulated delamination defects are presented, where the occurrence of delamination is shown to be associated with a mode shift in Lamb wave energy.

  13. Determination of crack size around rivet hole through neural network using ultrasonic Lamb wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Rivets are typical structural features that are potential initiation sites for fatigue crack due to combination of local stress concentration around rivet hole and moisture trapping. For the viewpoint of structural assurance, it is crucial to evaluate the size of crack around rivets by appropriate nondestructive techniques. Guided waves, which direct wave energy along the plate, carry information about the material in their path and offer a potentially more efficient tool for nondestructive inspection of structural material. Neural network that is considered to be the most suitable for pattern recognition and has been used by researchers in NDE field to classify different types of flaws and flaw size. In this study, crack size determination around rivet through a neural network based on the back-propagation algorithm has been done by extracting some feature from time-domain waveforms of ultrasonic Lamb wave for Al 2024-T3 skin panel of aircraft. Special attention was paid to reduce the coupling effect between transducer and specimen by extracting some features related to only time component data in ultrasonic waveform. It was demonstrated clearly that features extraction based on time component data of the time-domain waveform of Lamb wave was very useful to determine crack size initiated from rivet hole through neural network.

  14. Experimental assessment of the influence of welding process parameters on Lamb wave transmission across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochôa, Pedro; Fernandez Villegas, Irene; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2018-01-01

    One of the advantages of thermoplastic composites relative to their thermoset counterparts is the possibility of assembling components through welding. Ultrasonic welding in particular is very promising for industrialization. However, uncertainty in the fatigue and fracture behaviour of composites is still an obstacle to the full utilisation of these materials. Health monitoring is then of vital importance, and Lamb wave techniques have been widely recognised as some of the most promising approaches for that end. This paper presents the first experimental study about the influence of welding travel on the transmission of Lamb waves across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints in single-lap configuration. The main aim of this research is to start to understand how guided waves interact with the internal structure of ultrasonic welds, so that benign, manufacturing-related structural features can be distinguished from damaging ones in signal interpretation. The power transmission coefficient and the correlation coefficient proved to be suitable for analysing the wave propagation phenomena, allowing quantitative identification of small variations of weld-line thickness and intermolecular diffusion at the weld interface. The conclusions are used to develop a tentative damage detection criterion which can later on assist the design of a Lamb wave based structural health monitoring system for thermoplastic composite structures. The Lamb wave test results are backed up by phased-array inspections, which also provide some extra insight on the internal structure of ultrasonic welds.

  15. Design and characterization of an ultrasonic lamb-wave power delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural, Aleksander; Pullin, Rhys; Holford, Karen; Lees, Jonathan; Naylon, Jack; Paget, Christophe; Featherston, Carol

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a novel design for an ultrasonic power transmission system designed for use in aircraft structural monitoring systems is described. The prototype system uses ultrasonic Lamb waves to carry energy along plates, such as those used in aircraft structures, and commercially available piezoelectric patch transducers as the transmitter and receiver. This sets it apart from other acoustic power transmission systems reported to date. The optimum configuration transmitted 12.7 mW of power across a distance of 54 cm in a 1.5-mm-thick aluminum plate, while being driven by a 20-Vpp, 35-kHz sinusoidal electric signal. This is in the same order of magnitude as the power required by the wireless sensors nodes of a structural health monitoring system currently being developed by Cardiff University and its partners. Thus, the power transmission system can be considered a viable component of the power source combination considered for the sensor nodes, which will also include vibration and thermal energy harvesting. The paper describes the design and optimization of the transmission and reception circuits with the use of inductive compensation. The use of laser vibrometry to characterize the transducers and to understand the signal propagation between them is also reported.

  16. Effects of Rubber Loading on the Ultrasonic Backward Radiation Profile of Leaky Lamb Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Jung, Min Ho; Kim, Young H.; Kwon, Sung Duk

    2002-01-01

    The characterization of adhesive property in multi-layer materials has been hot issue for a long time. In order to evaluate adhesive properties, we constructed fully automated system for the backward radiation of leaky Lamb wave. The backward radiation profiles were obtained for the bare steel plate and plates with rubber-loading. The rf waveforms and frequency spectra of backward radiation show the characteristics of involved leaky Lamb wave modes. As the thickness of rubber-loading increased, the amplitude of profile at the incident angle of 13.4' exponentially decreased. Scanning the incident position over the partially rubber-loaded specimen shows good agreement with the actual rubber-loading. The backward radiation of leaky Lamb wave has great potential to evaluate the adhesive condition as well as material properties of plates

  17. Ultrasonic inspection of steam-generator tube axial cracking using Lamb wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Seok

    2007-02-01

    In this study, the interaction of Lamb wave propagating thin tube structure with finite vertical discontinuity was studied using both modal decomposition method (MDM) and experimental method. For MDM, a global matrix formulation and orthogonality of Lamb mode was employed to describe the boundary condition of finite vertical discontinuity of the tube and the mode conversion phenomenon respectively. The final form of governing equation by MDM was a linear matrix equation which could be solved using a simple matrix identity. The calculation result showed that, below the cut-off frequency, reflection amplitudes of both A0 and S0 Lamb mode increase as the depth of discontinuity increased beyond the threshold value. An experimental investigation was performed using a Hertzian-contact transducer and steam-generator tubes to verify the calculation results by MDM. A0 Lamb mode was selected as a test signal considering the characteristics of the transducer and previous studies. The experiment for mode identification using half-sectioned tube verified that the Hertzian-contact transducer effectively generated A0 Lamb mode. Tests performed using steam-generator tubes with EDM (electric discharge machined) axial notches showed that the deeper notches produced the higher reflection echo. A0 Lamb mode interacted with the notch having a depth larger than 1/40 of wave length, or corresponding to 30% of the wall thickness. This finding was in good agreement with previous studies and the prediction by MDM. The experiment using real crack specimens to estimate the deviation of reflection amplitude showed that the reflection cross-section of real crack was very similar with that of EDM notch. Therefore, specimens with EDM notches can be used as reference blocks for Lamb wave UT calibration

  18. A New Omni-Directional EMAT for Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Tomography Imaging of Metallic Plate Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songling Huang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new omni-directional electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT for the ultrasonic Lamb wave (ULW tomography imaging (TI of defects in metallic plates. The proposed EMAT is composed of a permanent magnet and a coil with a contra-flexure structure. This new EMAT coil structure is used for omni-directional ULW transmission and reception and ULW TI for the first time. The theoretical background and the working principles of this EMAT are presented and analyzed. The experimental results of its use on a 3 mm thick aluminum plate indicate that the EMAT with a contra-flexure coil (CFC can transmit and receive a pure single A0 mode ULW with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Thus, the extraction of the projection data used for ULW TI may be performed accurately. The circumferential consistency of the projection data is only slightly influenced by the distortion of the eddy current field that is induced by the new CFC with an irregular shape. When the new EMAT array is used for ULW TI using the cross-hole method and SIRT arithmetic, a desirable imaging quality can be achieved, and the estimated size of an artificial corrosion defect agreed well with its actual value. The relation between the reconstruction resolution and the number of the new EMATs used is analyzed. More TI experiments are carried out when the aluminum plate defect is in two different locations relative to the EMAT array, for the further investigation of the performances of the new EMATs.

  19. 2-D FEM Simulation of Propagation and Radiation of Leaky Lamb Wave in a Plate-Type Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Joo, Young-Sang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Bum [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper introduces the 2-D FEM simulation of the propagation and radiation of the leaky Lamb wave in and from a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor conducted for the radiation beam profile analysis. The FEM simulations are performed with three different excitation frequencies and the radiation beam profiles obtained from FEM simulations are compared with those obtained from corresponding experiments. This paper deals with the 2-D FEM simulation of the propagation and radiation of the leaky Lamb wave in and from a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor conducted to analyze the radiation beam profiles. The radiation beam profile results obtained from the FEM simulation show good agreement with the ones obtained from the experiment. This result will be utilized to improve the performance of the developed waveguide sensor. The quality of the visualized image is mainly affected by beam profile characteristics of the leaky wave radiated from the waveguide sensor. However, the relationships between the radiation beam profile and many parameters of the waveguide sensor are not fully revealed yet. Therefore, further parametric studies are necessary to improve the performance of the sensor and the finite element method (FEM) is one of the most effective tools for the parametric study.

  20. Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers

    OpenAIRE

    Fromme, P.; Pizzolato, M.; Robyr, J-L; Masserey, B.

    2018-01-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness a...

  1. Lamb Wave Tomography for Corrosion Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinders, Mark K.; McKeon, James C. P.

    1999-01-01

    As the world-wide civil aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-such as hidden corrosion-that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical-waveguide physics. Our work focuses on using a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in images that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, we can convert the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes into a thickness map of the inspection region. In this paper we show results for the identification of single or multiple back-surface corrosion areas in typical aluminum aircraft skin structures.

  2. Experimental characterisation of Lamb wave propagation through thermoplastic composite ultrasonic welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas Ochoa de Carvalho, Pedro; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding is a very promising technique for joining thermoplastic composite (TpC) components in aircraft primary structures [1, 2]. The potential introduction of new lightweight structures in civil aviation has been driving the change towards condition-based maintenance (CBM) as an

  3. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  4. Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul; Pizzolato, Marco; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Masserey, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness and beam skewing of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes A 0 and S 0 were investigated. Experimental measurements using contact wedge transducer excitation and laser measurement were conducted. Good agreement was found between the theoretically calculated angular dependency of the phase slowness and measurements for different propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation. Significant wave skew and beam widening was observed experimentally due to the anisotropy, especially for the S 0 mode. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted to visualize and quantify the guided wave beam skew. Good agreement was found for the A 0 mode, but a systematic discrepancy was observed for the S 0 mode. These effects need to be considered for the non-destructive testing of wafers using guided waves.

  5. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  6. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fatigue and Thermal Damage in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of evaluating composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a structure, an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb wave measurements can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper describes two studies which monitor fatigue damage and two studies which monitor thermal damage in composites using Lamb waves. In the fatigue studies, the Lamb wave velocity is compared to modulus measurements obtained using strain gage measurements in the first experiment and the velocity is monitored along with the crack density in the second. In the thermal damage studies, one examines samples which were exposed to varying temperatures for a three minute duration and the second includes rapid thermal damage in composites by intense laser beams. In all studies, the Lamb wave velocity is demonstrated to be an excellent method to monitor damage in composites.

  7. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  8. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  9. Lamb waves increase sensitivity in nondestructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Novi, R.

    1967-01-01

    Lamb waves improve sensitivity and resolution in the detection of small defects in thin plates and small diameter, thin-walled tubing. This improvement over shear waves applies to both longitudinal and transverse flaws in the specimens.

  10. Quantitative Evaluation of Delamination in Composites Using Lamb Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcová, L.; Hron, R.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring has become very popular in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures. Any possible type of damage must be reliably assessed. The paper deals with delamination length determination in DCB specimens using Lamb waves. An analytical equation based on the velocity dependence on variable thickness is utilized. The group velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric A0 mode rapidly changes in a particular range of the frequency-thickness product. Using the same actuation frequency the propagation velocity is different for delaminated structure. Lamb wave based delamination lengths were compared to the visually determined lengths. The method of the wave velocity determination proved to be essential. More accurate results were achieved by tracking the maximum amplitude of A0 mode than the first signal arrival. These findings are considered as the basis for the damage evaluation of complex structures.

  11. Application of Lamb waves for the characterization of composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier P.; Olivero, Dimitri; Baboux, Jean-C.; Monnier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In order to detect and evaluate flaws in thin composite structures, such as skins on aircraft wings or sail boat bodies, Lamb waves are the preferred tool of ultrasonic excitation. In the framework of a European Brite EuRam project, we have been involved in the problem of damage assessment in smart composite plates. Our goal is to predict the system signature and to identify optimal signal extraction routines. Given the wave frequency, thickness and physical properties of the materials, we simulate, using the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA), the propagation of Lamb waves in carbon fiber reinforced plates and their interaction with defects and compare the numerical results with the experimental data

  12. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K; Paget, C

    2011-01-01

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  13. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 2AA (United Kingdom); Paget, C, E-mail: kurala@cardiff.ac.uk [Airbus Operations Ltd, New Filton Road, BS99 7AR Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  14. Attenuation Analysis of Lamb Waves Using the Chirplet Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Sprenger, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided Lamb waves are commonly used in nondestructive evaluation to monitor plate-like structures or to characterize properties of composite or layered materials. However, the dispersive propagation and multimode excitability of Lamb waves complicate their analysis. Advanced signal processing

  15. Study of Lamb Waves for Non-Destructive Testing Behind Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, P.; Ploix, M.-A.; Chaix, J.-F.; Gueudré, C.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F. AF(; )

    2018-01-01

    The inspection and control of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) is a major issue for the nuclear industry. Ultrasonic solutions are under study because of the opacity of liquid sodium. In this paper, the use of leaky Lamb waves is considered for non-destructive testing (NDT) on parallel and immersed structures assimilated as plates. The first phase of our approach involved studying the propagation properties of leaky Lamb waves. Equations that model the propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed plate were solved numerically. The phase velocity can be experimentally measured using a two dimensional Fourier transform. The group velocity can be experimentally measured using a short-time Fourier transform technique. Attenuation of leaky Lamb waves is mostly due to the re-emission of energy into the surrounding fluid, and it can be measured by these two techniques.

  16. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are being more widely used today by aerospace, automotive, sports equipment, and a number of other commercial industries because of their advantages over conventional metals. Composites have a high strength-to-weight ratio and can be constructed to meet specific design needs. Composite structures are already in use in secondary parts of the Douglas MD-11 and are planned to be used in the new MD-12X. Plans also exist for their use in primary and secondary structures on the Boeing 777. Douglas proposed MD-XX may also incorporate composite materials into primary structures such as the wings and tail. Use of composites in these structures offers weight savings, corrosion resistance, and improved aerodynamics. Additionally, composites have been used to repair cracks in many B-1Bs where traditional repair techniques were not very effective. Plans have also been made to reinforce all of the remaining B-1s with composite materials. Verification of the structural integrity of composite components is needed to insure safe operation of these aerospace vehicles. One aspect of the use of these composites is their response to fatigue. To track this progression of fatigue in aerospace structures, a convenient method to nondestructively monitor this damage needs to be developed. Traditional NDE techniques used on metals are not easily adaptable to composites due to the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of these materials. Finding an effective means of nondestructively monitoring fatigue damage is extremely important to the safety and reliability of such structures. Lamb waves offer one method of evaluating these composite materials. As a material is fatigued, the modulus degrades. Since the Lamb wave velocity can be related to the modulus of the material, an effective tool can be developed to monitor fatigue damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. In this work, preliminary studies have been conducted which monitor fatigue damage in

  17. Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling

  18. Cumulative Second Harmonic Generation in Lamb Waves for the Detection of Material Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermes, Christian; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of the generation of higher harmonics in Lamb waves is of critical importance for applications such as remaining life prediction of plate-like structural components. The objective of this work is to use nonlinear Lamb waves to experimentally investigate inherent material nonlinearities in aluminum plates. These nonlinearities, e.g. lattice anharmonicities, precipitates or vacancies, cause higher harmonics to form in propagating Lamb waves. The amplitudes of the higher harmonics increase with increasing propagation distance due to the accumulation of nonlinearity while the Lamb wave travels along its path. Special focus is laid on the second harmonic, and a relative nonlinearity parameter is defined as a function of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude. The experimental setup uses an ultrasonic transducer and a wedge for the Lamb wave generation, and laser interferometry for detection. The experimentally measured Lamb wave signals are processed with a short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), which yields the amplitudes at different frequencies as functions of time, allowing the observation of the nonlinear behavior of the material. The increase of the relative nonlinearity parameter with propagation distance as an indicator of cumulative second harmonic generation is shown in the results for the alloy aluminum 1100-H14

  19. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  20. Phase and group velocities for Lamb waves in DOP-26 iridium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A.; McGuire, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    The relatively coarse grain structure of iridium weldments limits the ultrasonic inspection of these structures to frequencies in the low megahertz range. As the material thickness is nominally 0.635 mm for clad vent set capsules, the low frequencies involved necessarily entail the generation of Lamb waves m the specimen. These waves are, of course, dispersive and detailed knowledge of both the phase and group velocities is required in order to determine accurately the location of flaws detected using Lamb waves. Purpose of this study is to elucidate the behavior of Lamb waves propagating in the capsule alloy and to quantify the velocities so that accurate flaw location is ensured. We describe a numerical technique for computing the phase velocities of Lamb waves (or of any other type of guided wave) and derive the group velocities from this information. A frequency-domain method is described for measuring group velocity when multiple Lamb modes are present and mutually interfering in the time domain, and experimental confirmation of the group velocity is presented for the capsule material

  1. Detection and sizing of large-scale cracks in centrifugally cast stainless steel pipes using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc, T.D.K.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Application of conventional ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been limited, mainly due to the anisotropy of the CCSS materials. Phenomena such as beam skewing and distortion are directly attributable to this anisotropy and cause severe difficulties in crack detection and sizing. To improve CCSS inspectability, the feasibility of using Lamb waves as the probing mechanism for detecting and characterizing a surface-breaking crack originating from the pipe interior surface is discussed. A similar research effort has been reported by Rokhlin who investigated the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations in thin sheets. Rokhlin and Adler also reported recently on the use of Lamb waves for evaluating spot welds. The motivation for using this probing mechanism derives from the recognition that the difficulties introduced by beam skewing, beam distortion, and high attenuation are circumvented, since Lamb waves are not bulk waves, but are resonant vibrational modes of a solid plate

  2. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  3. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Choi, Bok Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  4. Guided ultrasonic wave beam skew in silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Marco; Masserey, Bernard; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Fromme, Paul

    2018-04-01

    In the photovoltaic industry, monocrystalline silicon wafers are employed for solar cells with high conversion efficiency. Micro-cracks induced by the cutting process in the thin wafers can lead to brittle wafer fracture. Guided ultrasonic waves would offer an efficient methodology for the in-process non-destructive testing of wafers to assess micro-crack density. The material anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the guided wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Selective guided ultrasonic wave excitation was achieved using a contact piezoelectric transducer with custom-made wedges for the A0 and S0 Lamb wave modes and a transducer holder to achieve controlled contact pressure and orientation. The out-of-plane component of the guided wave propagation was measured using a non-contact laser interferometer. The phase slowness (velocity) of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes was measured experimentally for varying propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation and found to match theoretical predictions. Significant wave beam skew was observed experimentally, especially for the S0 mode, and investigated from 3D finite element simulations. Good agreement was found with the theoretical predictions based on nominal material properties of the silicon wafer. The important contribution of guided wave beam skewing effects for the non-destructive testing of silicon wafers was demonstrated.

  5. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Damage Detection Using Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crider II, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates Lamb wave approaches used to detect simulated cracks in laboratory experiments on thin plates to detect more realistic damage in a test article representing the complex geometry...

  7. Fatigue disbonding analysis of wide composite panels by means of Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcová, Lenka; Rechcígel, Lukáš; Bělský, Petr; Kucharský, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Guided wave-based monitoring of composite structures plays an important role in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures. Adhesively bonded joints have not yet fulfilled current airworthiness requirements; hence, assemblies of carbon fibre-reinforced parts still require mechanical fasteners, and a verified SHM method with reliable disbonding/delamination detection and propagation assessment is needed. This study investigated the disbonding/delamination propagation in adhesively bonded panels using Lamb waves during fatigue tests. Analyses focused on the proper frequency and mode selection, sensor placement and selection of parameter sensitive to the growth of disbonding areas. Piezoelectric transducers placed across the bonded area were used as actuators and sensors. Lamb wave propagation was investigated considering the actual shape of the crack front and the mode of the crack propagation. The actual cracked area was determined by ultrasonic A-scans. A correlation between the crack propagation rate and the A0 mode velocity was found.

  8. The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,

  9. Crack Detection in Single-Crystalline Silicon Wafer Using Laser Generated Lamb Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyoo Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the semiconductor industry, with increasing requirements for high performance, high capacity, high reliability, and compact components, the crack has been one of the most critical issues in accordance with the growing requirement of the wafer-thinning in recent years. Previous researchers presented the crack detection on the silicon wafers with the air-coupled ultrasonic method successfully. However, the high impedance mismatching will be the problem in the industrial field. In this paper, in order to detect the crack, we propose a laser generated Lamb wave method which is not only noncontact, but also reliable for the measurement. The laser-ultrasonic generator and the laser-interferometer are used as a transmitter and a receiver, respectively. We firstly verified the identification of S0 and A0 lamb wave modes and then conducted the crack detection under the thermoelastic regime. The experimental results showed that S0 and A0 modes of lamb wave were clearly generated and detected, and in the case of the crack detection, the estimated crack size by 6 dB drop method was almost equal to the actual crack size. So, the proposed method is expected to make it possible to detect the crack in the silicon wafer in the industrial fields.

  10. Characterization of imperfect bonding qualities of layered substrate using generalized leaky lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Suk; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Lamb waves that exist on layered substrates have been adopted as a tool for the bonding quality evaluation. A dispersion simulation by introducing an effective interface layer shows that all the dispersion curves for imperfect interfaces are in a form of concave curves and vary with the stiffness constants that can quantitatively represent the bonding quality. The characteristics of dispersion curves of TiN coating specimens with different wear conditions was experimentally determined by use of an ultrasonic backward radiation measurement technique. Results showed that the lowest velocity mode (Rayleigh-like) of the generalized Lamb waves are sensitively affected by the bonding quality and could be applied in the quantitative evaluation of imperfect bonding quality.

  11. 250 DPI at 1000 Hz acquisition rate S0 lamb wave digitizing pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Danièle

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an active stylus (X, Y) flat digitizing tablet (AST). The tablet features an acquisition rate of 1000 pts/s with 0.1 mm resolution. The cordless stylus incorporates a 1-mA low-power pulse generator. Precision is limited by diffraction to about ±0.3 mm on a 57 x 57 mm region of a 71 x 71 x 1 mm digitizing plate. Selective generation and detection of the S(0) Lamb mode with a precessing tip is the key feature of this tablet. We first highlight the ultrasonic propagation inside the stylus tip and stability of Lamb wave generation when the stylus is inclined, rotated, and slid. Then, modeling of the limitations imposed by diffraction of a 1-MHz burst S(0) plane Lamb wave packet is carried out. The model takes into account high-order zero crossing detection as well as reflections and shear horizontal (SH) conversions of the S(0) Lamb mode at free edges of a glass plate. Reflection and transmission through an isotropic PZT bar are also calculated. Finally, localization precision by time difference of arrival (TDOA) is calculated and experimentally verified near the borders of the plate, taking into account the angular sensitivity of the precessing tip.

  12. Computer simulation of ultrasonic waves in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.A.; Chaplin, K.

    1992-01-01

    A computer model that simulates the propagation of ultrasonic waves has been developed at AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories. This program is called EWE, short for Elastic Wave Equations, the mathematics governing the propagation of ultrasonic waves. This report contains a brief summary of the use of ultrasonic waves in non-destructive testing techniques, a discussion of the EWE simulation code explaining the implementation of the equations and the types of output received from the model, and an example simulation showing the abilities of the model. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  13. Detection of thermal fatigue in composites by second harmonic Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weibin; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials which are widely used in the aerospace industry, are usually subjected to frequent variation of temperature. Thermal cyclic loading may induce material degradation. Considering the long-term service of aircraft composites and the importance of safety in the aircraft industry, even a little damage that may be accumulative via thermal fatigue is often of great concern. Therefore, there is a demand to develop non-destructive approaches to evaluate thermal fatigue damage in an early stage. Due to the sensitivity of acoustic nonlinearity to micro-damage, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been explored as a promising tool for early detection of micro-damage. This paper investigates an experimental scheme for characterizing thermal fatigue damage in composite laminates using second harmonic Lamb waves. The present results show a monotonic increase of acoustic nonlinearity with respect to thermal fatigue cycles. The experimental observation of the correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity and thermal fatigue cycles in carbon/epoxy laminates verifies that nonlinear Lamb waves can be used to assess thermal fatigue damage rendering improved sensitivity over conventional linear feature based non-destructive evaluation techniques. Velocity and attenuation based ultrasonic studies are carried out for comparison with the nonlinear ultrasonic approach and it is found that nonlinear acoustic parameters are more promising indicators of thermal fatigue damage than linear ones. (paper)

  14. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  15. Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wujun; Xiang, Yanxun; Liu, Chang-Jun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Symmetry properties of second harmonics generated by antisymmetric primary Lamb waves are systematically studied in this work. In theory, the acoustic field of second harmonic Lamb waves is obtained by using the perturbation approximation and normal modal method, and the energy flux transfer from the primary Lamb waves to second harmonics is mainly explored. Symmetry analyses indicate that either the symmetric or antisymmetric Lamb waves can merely generate the symmetric second harmonics. Finite element simulations are performed on the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation of the antisymmetric A0 mode in the low frequency region. The signals of the second harmonics and the symmetric second harmonic s0 mode are found to be exactly equivalent in the time domain. The relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter A2/A12 oscillates with the propagation distance, and the oscillation amplitude and spatial period are well consistent with the theoretical prediction of the A0-s0 mode pair, which means that only the second harmonic s0 mode is generated by the antisymmetric primary A0 mode. Experiments are further conducted to examine the cumulative generation of symmetric second harmonics for the antisymmetric-symmetric mode pair A3-s6. Results show that A2/A12 increases linearly with the propagation distance, which means that the symmetric second harmonic s6 mode is generated cumulatively by the antisymmetric primary A3 mode. The present investigation systematically corroborates the proposed theory that only symmetric second harmonics can be generated accompanying the propagation of antisymmetric primary Lamb waves in a plate.

  16. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  17. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Subir; Ahmed, Hossain; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-01-18

    Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D) in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  18. Numerical study on static component generation from the primary Lamb waves propagating in a plate with nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Tse, Peter W.; Zhang, Xuhui; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Fan, Hongwei; Mao, Qinghua; Dong, Ming; Wang, Chuanwei; Ma, Hongwei

    2018-04-01

    Under the discipline of nonlinear ultrasonics, in addition to second harmonic generation, static component generation is another frequently used nonlinear ultrasonic behavior in non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) communities. However, most previous studies on static component generation are mainly based on using longitudinal waves. It is desirable to extend static component generation from primary longitudinal waves to primary Lamb waves. In this paper, static component generation from the primary Lamb waves is studied. Two major issues are numerically investigated. First, the mode of static displacement component generated from different primary Lamb wave modes is identified. Second, cumulative effect of static displacement component from different primary Lamb wave modes is also discussed. Our study results show that the static component wave packets generated from the primary S0, A0 and S1 modes share the almost same group velocity equal to the phase velocity of S0 mode tending to zero frequency c plate . The finding indicates that whether the primary mode is S0, A0 or S1, the static components generated from these primary modes always share the nature of S0 mode. This conclusion is also verified by the displacement filed of these static components that the horizontal displacement field is almost uniform and the vertical displacement filed is antisymmetric across the thickness of the plate. The uniform distribution of horizontal displacement filed enables the static component, regardless of the primary Lamb modes, to be a promising technique for evaluating microstructural damages buried in the interior of a structure. Our study also illustrates that the static components are cumulative regardless of whether the phase velocity of the primary and secondary waves is matched or not. This observation indicates that the static component overcomes the limitations of the traditional nonlinear Lamb waves satisfying phase velocity

  19. Guided-wave tomographic imaging of plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junpil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  20. Guided-wave tomography imaging plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Pil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  1. Damage detection in composite materials using Lamb wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Soutis, Constantinos

    2002-04-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Linear wave scans were performed on narrow laminated specimens and sandwich beams with various cores by monitoring the transmitted waves with piezoceramic sensors. Optimal actuator and sensor configurations were devised through experimentation, and various types of driving signal were explored. These experiments provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the time of flight of a Lamb wave pulse between an actuator and sensor. Lamb wave techniques provide more information about damage presence and severity than previously tested methods (frequency response techniques), and provide the possibility of determining damage location due to their local response nature. These methods may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

  2. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  3. Fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonics. A subject with applications across all the basic sciences, engineering, medicine, and oceanography, yet even the broader topic of acoustics is now rarely offered at undergraduate levels. Ultrasonics is addressed primarily at the doctoral level, and texts appropriate for beginning graduate students or newcomers to the field are virtually nonexistent.Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves fills that void. Designed specifically for senior undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and those just entering the field, it begins with the fundamentals, but goes well beyond th

  4. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  5. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  6. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  7. Scattering of Lamb waves by cracks in a composite graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu K.; Shah, Arvind

    1990-01-01

    Recent investigations of space construction techniques have explored the used of composite materials in the construction of space stations and platforms. These composites offer superior strength to weight ratio and are thermally stable. For example, a composite material being considered is laminates of graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix. The overall effective elastic constants of such a medium can be calculated from fiber and matrix properties by using an effective modulus theory as shown in Datta, el. al. The investigation of propagation and scattering of elastic waves in composite materials is necessary in order to develop an ability to characterize cracks and predict the reliability of composite structures. The objective of this investigation is the characterization of a surface breaking crack by ultrasonic techniques. In particular, the use of Lamb waves for this purpose is studied here. The Lamb waves travel through the plate, encountering a crack, and scatter. Of interest is the modeling of the scattered wave in terms of the Lamb wave modes. The direct problem of propagation and scattering of Lamb waves by a surface breaking crack has been analyzed. This would permit an experimentalist to characterize the crack by comparing the measured response to the analytical model. The plate is assumed to be infinite in the x and y directions with a constant thickness in the z direction. The top and bottom surfaces are traction free. Solving the governing wave equations and using the stress-free boundary conditions results in the dispersion equation. This equation yields the guided modes in the homogeneous plate. The theoretical model is a hybrid method that combines analytical and finite elements techniques to describe the scattered displacements. A finite region containing the defects is discretized by finite elements. Outside the local region, the far field solution is expressed as a Fourier summation of the guided modes obtained from the dispersion equation

  8. Damage detection in composite panels based on mode-converted Lamb waves sensed using 3D laser scanning vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczonka, Łukasz; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Staszewski, Wiesław J.; Barnoncel, David; Pérès, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces damage identification approach based on guided ultrasonic waves and 3D laser Doppler vibrometry. The method is based on the fact that the symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes differ in amplitude of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. Moreover, the modes differ also in group velocities and normally they are well separated in time. For a given time window both modes can occur simultaneously only close to the wave source or to a defect that leads to mode conversion. By making the comparison between the in-plane and out-of-plane wave vector components the detection of mode conversion is possible, allowing for superior and reliable damage detection. Experimental verification of the proposed damage identification procedure is performed on fuel tank elements of Reusable Launch Vehicles designed for space exploration. Lamb waves are excited using low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers and 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer is used to characterize the Lamb wave propagation field. The paper presents theoretical background of the proposed damage identification technique as well as experimental arrangements and results.

  9. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  10. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  11. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Gesturing is a natural way of communication between people and is used in our everyday conversations. Hand gesture recognition systems are used in many applications in a wide variety of fields, such as mobile phone applications, smart TVs, video gaming, etc. With the advances in human-computer interaction technology, gesture recognition is becoming an active research area. There are two types of devices to detect gestures; contact based devices and contactless devices. Using ultrasonic waves for determining gestures is one of the ways that is employed in contactless devices. Hand gesture recognition utilizing ultrasonic waves will be the focus of this thesis work. This thesis presents a new method for detecting and classifying a predefined set of hand gestures using a single ultrasonic transmitter and a single ultrasonic receiver. This method uses a linear frequency modulated ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic signal is designed to meet the project requirements such as the update rate, the range of detection, etc. Also, it needs to overcome hardware limitations such as the limited output power, transmitter, and receiver bandwidth, etc. The method can be adapted to other hardware setups. Gestures are identified based on two main features; range estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized simple hardware setup was used to classify a set of hand gestures with high accuracy. The detection and classification were done using methods of low computational cost. This makes the proposed method to have a great potential for the implementation in many devices including laptops and mobile phones. The predefined set of gestures can be used for many control applications.

  12. A Study on non-contact measurements of laser-generated lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tae Seong; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Seung Seok

    2002-01-01

    Generation and detection of Lamb waves offer an effective non-destructive testing technique that will detect defects quickly and reliably. Lamb waves are generated in a thin plate by Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb modes in low-frequency-thickness regime are excited by illuminating a thin plate with an array of laser-generated line sources. The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves is detected by measuring the out-of-plane displacements in a non-contact manner using the fiber optic Sagnac interferometer and all commercial adaptive reference-beam interferometer. The characteristics of laser-generated Lamb wave due to its frequency are investigated. Fundamental understanding of laser-generated Lamb modes is presented.

  13. Experimental Study on Corrosion Detection of Aluminum Alloy Using Lamb Wave Mixing Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heeung; Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the Lamb wave mixing technique, which is basised on advanced research on the nonlinear bulk wave mixing technique, is applied for corrosion detection. To demonstrate the validity of the Lamb wave mixing technique, an experiment was performed with normal and corroded specimens. Comparison group in an experimentation are selected to mode and frequency with dominant in-plane displacement and out-of-plane displacement of Lamb waves. The results showed that the Lamb wave mixing technique can monitor corrosion defects, and it has a trend similar to that of the conventional Lamb wave technique. It was confirmed that the dominant displacement and mode matching the theory were generated. Flaw detectability is determined depending on displacement ratio instead of using the measurement method and mode selection.

  14. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method. (paper)

  15. PZT-on-silicon RF-MEMS Lamb wave resonators and filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagubizade, H.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb-wave piezoelectric RF-MEMS resonators have demonstrated promising performance, such as low motional impedance and high Q-factor. Lamb-wave resonators are still in the perfectioning state and therefore there is a great demand for further understanding of various issues such as reducing the

  16. Design and fabrication of an AT-cut quartz phononic Lamb wave resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chia-Hao; Liu, Ting-Wei; Wu, Tsung-Tsong; Wang, Wei-Shan; Esashi, Masayoshi; Lin, Yu-Ching; Sun, Jia-Hong; Chen, Yung-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results on the design and fabrication of an AT-cut quartz Lamb wave resonator with phononic crystal (PC) reflective gratings. The deep reactive ion etching process with a laboratory-made etcher was utilized to fabricate PC structures of the AT-cut quartz Lamb wave resonator. The finite element method was adopted to calculate the PC band structure, effective reflective distance from the PC boundary and further the resonant modes and admittance of the phononic Lamb wave resonant cavity. Through the comparison studies between the experimental and simulated results, a design process for the AT-cut quartz phononic Lamb wave resonator was proposed. It is noted that by using the phononic reflectors, the size of the Lamb wave resonator can be reduced significantly. (paper)

  17. Cointegration approach for temperature effect compensation in Lamb-wave-based damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Phong B; Staszewski, Wieslaw J

    2013-01-01

    Lamb waves are often used in smart structures with integrated, low-profile piezoceramic transducers for damage detection. However, it is well known that the method is prone to contamination from a variety of interference sources including environmental and operational conditions. The paper demonstrates how to remove the undesired temperature effect from Lamb wave data. The method is based on the concept of cointegration that is partially built on the analysis of the non-stationary behaviour of time series. Instead of directly using Lamb wave responses for damage detection, two approaches are proposed: (i) analysis of cointegrating residuals obtained from the cointegration process of Lamb wave responses, (ii) analysis of stationary characteristics of Lamb wave responses before and after cointegration. The method is tested on undamaged and damaged aluminium plates exposed to temperature variations. The experimental results show that the method can: isolate damage-sensitive features from temperature variations, detect the existence of damage and classify its severity. (paper)

  18. Process monitoring using optical ultrasonic wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telschow, K.L.; Walter, J.B.; Garcia, G.V.; Kunerth, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Optical ultrasonic wave detection techniques are being developed for process monitoring. An important limitation on optical techniques is that the material surface, in materials processing applications, is usually not a specular reflector and in many cases is totally diffusely reflecting. This severely degrades the light collected by the detection optics, greatly reducing the intensity and randomly scattering the phase of the reflected light. A confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift resulting from the surface motion and not to the phase of the collected light, is well suited to detecting ultrasonic waves in diffusely reflecting materials. This paper describes the application of this detector to the real-time monitoring of the sintering of ceramic materials. 8 refs., 5 figs

  19. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  20. Ultrasonic guided waves in eccentric annular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly inspect tubes and pipes for possible eccentricity. While guided waves are well established in the long range inspection of structures such as pipes and plates, studies for more complex cross sections are limited and analytical solutions are often difficult to obtain. Recent developments have made the Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method widely accessible for researchers to study guided wave properties in complex structures. Here the SAFE method is used to study the effect of eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of lower order guided wave modes in thin pipes of diameters typically of interest to the industry. Results are validated using experiments. The paper demonstrates that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can strongly affect guided wave mode structures and velocities and hence shows potential for pipe eccentricity inspection

  1. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yanxun; Deng Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface. In general, the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur. However, the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied. Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation, the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined. Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. Ultrasonic guided wave for monitoring corrosion of steel bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Qin, Lei; Huang, Bosheng

    2018-01-01

    Steel corrosion of reinforced concrete structures has become a serious problem all over the word. In this paper, the work aims at monitoring steel corrosion using ultrasonic guided wave (UGW). Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring is a dynamic and non-destructive testing technology. The advantages of ultrasonic guided wave monitoring for reinforcement corrosion are real-time, online and continuous. In addition, it can judge the different stages of steel bar corrosion, which achieved non-destructive detection.

  3. Quantitative damage imaging using Lamb wave diffraction tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Ruan Min; Zhu Wen-Fa; Chai Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diffraction tomography for quantitative imaging damages of partly through-thickness holes with various shapes in isotropic plates by using converted and non-converted scattered Lamb waves generated numerically. Finite element simulations are carried out to provide the scattered wave data. The validity of the finite element model is confirmed by the comparison of scattering directivity pattern (SDP) of circle blind hole damage between the finite element simulations and the analytical results. The imaging method is based on a theoretical relation between the one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform of the scattered projection and two-dimensional (2D) spatial Fourier transform of the scattering object. A quantitative image of the damage is obtained by carrying out the 2D inverse Fourier transform of the scattering object. The proposed approach employs a circle transducer network containing forward and backward projections, which lead to so-called transmission mode (TMDT) and reflection mode diffraction tomography (RMDT), respectively. The reconstructed results of the two projections for a non-converted S0 scattered mode are investigated to illuminate the influence of the scattering field data. The results show that Lamb wave diffraction tomography using the combination of TMDT and RMDT improves the imaging effect compared with by using only the TMDT or RMDT. The scattered data of the converted A0 mode are also used to assess the performance of the diffraction tomography method. It is found that the circle and elliptical shaped damages can still be reasonably identified from the reconstructed images while the reconstructed results of other complex shaped damages like crisscross rectangles and racecourse are relatively poor. (special topics)

  4. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere

  5. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  6. Modeling and experimental investigations of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, Bastien; Terrien, Nicolas; Royer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates is theoretically and experimentally investigated. An analysis based on a far field approximation of the Green's function shows that Lamb waves focusing is analog to the phonon focusing effect. In highly anisotropic structures like composite plates the focusing of A 0 and S 0 mode is strong; the energy propagates preferentially in the fibre directions, which are minima of the slowness. This has to be taken into account when developing, for example, a transducer array for structural health monitoring systems based on Lamb waves in order to avoid dead zones.

  7. Interface-guided mode of Lamb waves in a two-dimensional phononic crystal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping-Ping; Yao Yuan-Wei; Zhang Xin; Li Jing; Hu Ai-Zhen; Wu Fu-Gen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interface-guided mode of Lamb waves in a phononic crystal heterostructures plate, which is composed of two different semi-infinite phononic crystal (PC) plates. The interface-guided modes of the Lamb wave can be obtained by the lateral lattice slipping or by the interface longitudinal gliding. Significantly, it is observed that the condition to generate the interface-guided modes of the Lamb wave is more demanding than that of the studied fluid–fluid system. The interface-guided modes are strongly affected not only by the relative movement of the two semi-infinite PCs but also by the thickness of the PC plate. (paper)

  8. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging with X wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwei; Lu, Wei; Feng, Huanqing

    2009-10-01

    X wave has a large depth of field and may have important application in ultrasonic imaging to provide high frame rate (HFR). However, the HFR system suffers from lower spatial resolution. In this paper, a study of nonlinear imaging with X wave is presented to improve the resolution. A theoretical description of realizable nonlinear X wave is reported. The nonlinear field is simulated by solving the KZK nonlinear wave equation with a time-domain difference method. The results show that the second harmonic field of X wave has narrower mainlobe and lower sidelobes than the fundamental field. In order to evaluate the imaging effect with X wave, an imaging model involving numerical calculation of the KZK equation, Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral, band-pass filtering and envelope detection is constructed to obtain 2D fundamental and second harmonic images of scatters in tissue-like medium. The results indicate that if X wave is used, the harmonic image has higher spatial resolution throughout the entire imaging region than the fundamental image, but higher sidelobes occur as compared to conventional focus imaging. A HFR imaging method with higher spatial resolution is thus feasible provided an apodization method is used to suppress sidelobes.

  9. Lamb Wave Stiffness Characterization of Composites Undergoing Thermal-Mechanical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of new, advanced composite materials into aviation systems requires a thorough understanding of the long term effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading upon those materials. Analytical methods investigating the effects of intense thermal heating combined with mechanical loading have been investigated. The damage mechanisms and fatigue lives were dependent on test parameters as well as stress levels. Castelli, et al. identified matrix dominated failure modes for out-of-phase cycling and fiber dominated damage modes for in-phase cycling. In recent years, ultrasonic methods have been developed that can measure the mechanical stiffness of composites. To help evaluate the effect of aging, a suitably designed Lamb wave measurement system is being used to obtain bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. The system works by exciting an antisymmetric Lamb wave and calculating the velocity at each frequency from the known transducer separation and the measured time-of-flight. The same peak in the waveforms received at various distances is used to measure the time difference between the signals. The velocity measurements are accurate and repeatable to within 1% resulting in reconstructed stiffness values repeatable to within 4%. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. A mechanical scanner is used to move the sensors over the surface to map the time-of-flight, velocity, or stiffnesses of the entire specimen. Access to only one side of the material is required and no immersion or couplants are required because the sensors are dry coupled to the surface of the plate. In this study, the elastic stiffnesses D(sub 11), D(sub 22), A(sub 44), and A(sub 55) as well as time-of-flight measurements for composite samples that have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging for

  10. Longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection of austenitic weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.S.; Hudgell, R.J.; Seed, H.

    1980-01-01

    Successful volumetric inspection of LMFBR primary circuits, and also much of the secondary circuit, is dependent on the availability of satisfactory examination procedures for austenitic welds. Application of conventional ultrasonic techniques is hampered by the anisotropic, textured structure of the weld metal and this paper describes development work on the use of longitudinal wave techniques. In addition to confirming the dominant effects of the weld structure on ultrasound propagation some results are given of studies utilising deliberately induced defects in Manual Metal Arc Welds in 50 mm plate together with preliminary work on the inspection of narrow austenitic welds fabricated by automatic processes. (author)

  11. Lamb wave tuning curve calibration for surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Surface-bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been widely used for guided wave generation and measurement. For selective actuation and sensing of Lamb wave modes, the sizes of the transducers and the driving frequency of the input waveform should be tuned. For this purpose, a theoretical Lamb wave tuning curve (LWTC) of a specific transducer size is generally obtained. Here, the LWTC plots each Lamb wave mode' amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. However, a discrepancy between experimental and existing theoretical LWTCs has been observed due to little consideration of the bonding layer and the energy distribution between Lamb wave modes. In this study, calibration techniques for theoretical LWTCs are proposed. First, a theoretical LWTC is developed when circular PZT transducers are used for both Lamb wave excitation and sensing. Then, the LWTC is calibrated by estimating the effective PZT size with PZT admittance measurement. Finally, the energy distributions among symmetric and antisymmetric modes are taken into account for better prediction of the relative amplitudes between Lamb wave modes. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration techniques is examined through numerical simulations and experimental estimation of the LWTC using the circular PZT transducers instrumented on an aluminum plate

  12. The effect of actuator bending on Lamb wave displacement fields generated by a piezoelectric patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H; Pamphile, T; Derriso, M

    2008-01-01

    A Lamb wave is a special type of elastic wave that is widely employed in structural health monitoring systems for damage detection. Recently, piezoelectric (piezo) patches have become popular for Lamb wave excitation and sensing because one piezo patch can serve as both the actuator and the sensor. All published work has assumed that the Lamb wave displacement field generated by a piezo patch actuator is axi-symmetric. However, we observed that piezo sensors placed at equal distances from the piezo patch actuator displayed different responses. In order to understand this phenomenon, we used a laser vibrometer to measure the full-field displacements around a circular piezo actuator noncontactly. The displacement fields excited by the piezo patch actuator are found to be directional, and this directionality is also frequency dependent, indicating that the out-of-plane bending dynamics of the piezo actuator may play an important role in the Lamb wave displacement fields. A simulation model that incorporates the bending deformation of the piezo patch into the calculations of the Lamb wave generation is then developed. The agreement between the simulated and measured displacement fields confirmed that the directionality of the Lamb wave displacement fields is governed by the bending deformation of the piezo patch actuator

  13. Lamb wave scattering by a surface-breaking crack in a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S. K.; Al-Nassar, Y.; Shah, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    An NDE method based on finite-element representation and modal expansion has been developed for solving the scattering of Lamb waves in an elastic plate waveguide. This method is very powerful for handling discontinuities of arbitrary shape, weldments of different orientations, canted cracks, etc. The advantage of the method is that it can be used to study the scattering of Lamb waves in anisotropic elastic plates and in multilayered plates as well.

  14. Topological valley-chiral edge states of Lamb waves in elastic thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Mei, Jun

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the nontrivial topology of the band structure of Lamb waves in a thin phononic crystal plate. When inversion symmetry is broken, a valley pseudospin degree of freedom is formed around K and K‧ valleys for the A0 Lamb mode, which is decoupled from the S0 and SH0 modes in the low-frequency regime. Chiral edge states are explicitly demonstrated, which are immune to defects and exhibit unidirectional transport behaviors when intervalley scattering is weak. The quantum valley Hall effect is thus simulated in a simple way in the context of Lamb waves.

  15. Transducer Placement Option of Lamb Wave SHM System for Hotspot Damage Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentius Ewald

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated transducer placement strategies for detecting cracks in primary aircraft structures using ultrasonic Structural Health Monitoring (SHM. The approach developed is for an expected damage location based on fracture mechanics, for example fatigue crack growth in a high stress location. To assess the performance of the developed approach, finite-element (FE modelling of a damage-tolerant aluminum fuselage has been performed by introducing an artificial crack at a rivet hole into the structural FE model and assessing its influence on the Lamb wave propagation, compared to a baseline measurement simulation. The efficient practical sensor position was determined from the largest change in area that is covered by reflected and missing wave scatter using an additive color model. Blob detection algorithms were employed to determine the boundaries of this area and to calculate the blob centroid. To demonstrate that the technique can be generalized, the results from different crack lengths and from tilted crack are also presented.

  16. Guided ultrasonic waves for determining effective orthotropic material parameters of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webersen, Manuel; Johannesmann, Sarah; Düchting, Julia; Claes, Leander; Henning, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic methods are widely established in the NDE/NDT community, where they are mostly used for the detection of flaws and structural damage in various components. A different goal, despite the similar technological approach, is non-destructive material characterization, i.e. the determination of parameters like Young's modulus. Only few works on this topic have considered materials with high damping and strong anisotropy, such as continuous-fiber reinforced plastics, but due to the increasing demand in the industry, appropriate methods are needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced ultrasonic Lamb waves for the characterization of fiber-reinforced plastic plates, providing effective parameters for a homogeneous, orthotropic material model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Refractive index modulation in LiNbO3: MgO slab through Lamb wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Suraj; Sharma, Gaurav; Yadav, Gulab Chand; Singh, Vivek

    2018-05-01

    Present theoretical analysis deals with inducing refractive index contrast in Y-Z LiNbO3:MgO plate via GHz Lamb wave perturbation for photonic applications. Dispersion curves for Lamb wave in plate are plotted by employing displacement potential technique. Selecting wave parameters from dispersion curve, fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (S0) is excited in slab for 6GHz frequency. Produced displacement field by propagating S0 mode and thus developed strain is estimated to calculate refractive index modulation by applying photo-elastic relations. Modulated refractive index is of sinusoidal nature with period of modulation dependence on Lamb's wavelength. This plate having periodically modulated refractive index can be used as photonic crystal for different applications with acoustically tunable photonic band gap.

  18. Real-Time Characterization of Materials Degradation Using Leaky Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiuh, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Leaky Lamb wave (LLW) propagation in composite materials has been studied extensively since it was first observed in 1982. The wave is induced using a pitch-catch arrangement and the plate wave modes are detected by searching minima in the reflected spectra.

  19. Coupling effect of piezoelectric wafer transducers in distortions of primary Lamb wave modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijudas, C R; Mitra, M; Mujumdar, P M

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric wafer transducers (PWT) are widely used for Lamb wave based damage detection schemes. The size of the damage that can be detected is dependent on the wavelength of the Lamb wave employed. Thus it is essential to explore the higher frequency range within the (fundamental) bandwidth of S 0 and A 0 modes, however below the cut-off frequencies of A 1 and S 1 . It is observed that the Lamb wave modes S 0 and A 0 generated using PWT undergo distortion within this fundamental bandwidth. This behavior is experimentally observed for different PWT sizes and types. The nature of this observed distortion is very different from the distortion of wave modes due to dispersion. In addition, the distortion, in many cases, tends towards the appearance of new wave modes close to the S 0 and A 0 modes. To understand this experimental observation, a theoretical study is performed. First, finite element (FE) simulations of Lamb waves considering pin-force, thermal analogy, and couple field models of surface mounted PWT are carried out. These simulation studies reveal that the wavepacket distortion can be attributed mostly to electro-mechanical coupling effect of the PWT. Next, the dispersion plot of piezoelectric layer considering electro-mechanical coupling is obtained using spectral finite element (SFE) method. These dispersion characteristics of the PWT are found to be significantly different from the conventional Lamb wave dispersion characteristics and may explain the experimental observation. (paper)

  20. Detection of Fatigue Damage by Using Frequency Attenuation of a Laser Ultrasonic Longitudinal Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Hyun-Kyu; Joo, Young-Sang; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kang, Young-June

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fatigue damage in nuclear power plant components is very important to prevent a catastrophic accident and the subsequent severe losses. Specifically, it is preferred to detect at an early stage of the fatigue damage. If the fatigue damage that is in danger of growing into a fracture is accurately detected, an appropriate treatment could be carried out to improve the condition. Although most engineers and designers take precautions against fatigue, some breakdowns of nuclear power plant components still occur due to fatigue damage. It is considered that ultrasound testing technique is the most promising method to detect the fatigue damage in many nondestructive testing methods. Ultrasound testing method has a variety of elastic waves, such as a longitudinal wave, a shear wave, a surface wave and a lamb wave. Also we can use various analysis methods, such as a velocity variation and a signal attenuation. Laser ultrasonic testing has attracted attention as a non-contact testing technique. This system consists of a pulse laser to remotely generate ultrasound and a laser interferometer to remotely measure the surface displacement due to the generated ultrasound. This noncontact testing technique has the following advantages over the conventional piezoelectric transducers. Firstly, the inspection system can be remotely operated for a structure in hostile environments, such as in high radioactivity, high temperatures and narrow spaces. Secondly, we can obtain lots of information from the received ultrasonic waveforms because the laser ultrasonic technique does not require fluid couplant which disturbs the ultrasonic waveforms. Thirdly, laser ultrasound has a wideband spectrum and a high spatial resolution. Therefore, the laser ultrasound provides more accurate information for a testing material and has potential for the detection of fatigue damage in various metals composing a nuclear power plant

  1. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM and a genetic algorithm (GA. Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  2. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-06-12

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  3. Study on crack scattering in aluminum plates with Lamb wave frequency–wavenumber analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara A C

    2013-01-01

    The multimodal characteristic of Lamb waves makes the interpretation of Lamb wave signals difficult in either the time or frequency domain. In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave propagation characterization and crack scattering using frequency–wavenumber analysis. The aim is to investigate three dimensional (3D) Lamb wave behavior in the presence of crack damage via the application of frequency–wavenumber analysis. The analysis techniques are demonstrated using simulation examples of an aluminum plate with a through-thickness crack. Both in-plane and out-of-plane components are acquired through a 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT), while the out-of-plane component is also experimentally obtained using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer for verification purposes. The time–space wavefield is then transformed to the frequency–wavenumber domain by a two dimensional (2D) Fourier transform and the out-of-plane EFIT results are compared to experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The frequency–wavenumber representation of in-plane and out-of-plane components shows clear distinction among various Lamb wave modes that are present. However, spatial information is lost during this 2D transformation. A short space 2D Fourier transform is therefore adopted to obtain the frequency–wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space–frequency–wavenumber representation of the signal. The space–frequency–wavenumber analysis has shown its potential for indicating crack presence. (paper)

  4. Lamb Wave Line Sensing for Crack Detection in a Welded Stiffener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Kyu An

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Lamb wave line sensing technique for crack detection in a welded stiffener. The proposed technique overcomes one of the biggest technical challenges of Lamb wave crack detection for real structure applications: crack-induced Lamb waves are often mixed with multiple reflections from complex waveguides. In particular, crack detection in a welded joint, one of the structural hot spots due to stress concentration, is accompanied by reflections from the welded joint as well as a crack. Extracting and highlighting crack-induced Lamb wave modes from Lamb wave responses measured at multi-spatial points along a single line can be accomplished through a frequency-wavenumber domain analysis. The advantages of the proposed technique enable us not only to enhance the crack detectability in the welded joint but also to minimize false alarms caused by environmental and operational variations by avoiding the direct comparison with the baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is experimentally and numerically validated in vertically stiffened metallic structures, revealing that it successfully identifies and localizes subsurface cracks, regardless of the coexistence with the vertical stiffener.

  5. Mode repulsion of ultrasonic guided waves in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available . The modes can therefore be numbered in the same way that Lamb waves in plates are numbered, making it easier to communicate results. The derivative of the eigenvectors with respect to wavenumber contains the same repulsion term and shows how the mode shapes...

  6. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eddy currents. Most of the ... istics, Lamb waves were used for damage detection and inspection on a variety of applications like strips and ...... wide and 0.5 mm deep (12.5% of the plate thickness) was machined on the plate (figure 17) and.

  7. Piezoelectric transducer parameter selection for exciting a single mode from multiple modes of Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Yu Jian-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of Lamb waves by using rectangular and circular piezoelectric transducers surface-bonded to an isotropic plate are investigated in this work. Analytical stain wave solutions are derived for the two transducer shapes, giving the responses of these transducers in Lamb wave fields. The analytical study is supported by a numerical simulation using the finite element method. Symmetric and antisymmetric components in the wave propagation responses are inspected in detail with respect to test parameters such as the transducer geometry, the length and the excitation frequency. By placing only one piezoelectric transducer on the top or the bottom surface of the plate and weakening the strength of one mode while enhancing the strength of the other modes to find the centre frequency, with which the peak wave amplitude ratio between the S0 and A0 modes is maximum, a single mode excitation from the multiple modes of the Lamb waves can be achieved approximately. Experimental data are presented to show the validity of the analyses. The results are used to optimize the Lamb wave detection system. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Second harmonic generation at fatigue cracks by low-frequency Lamb waves: Experimental and numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ng, Ching-Tai; Kotousov, Andrei; Sohn, Hoon; Lim, Hyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical analyses of the second harmonic generation due to non-linear interaction of Lamb waves with a fatigue crack. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulations and experimental studies are carried out to provide physical insight into the mechanism of second harmonic generation. The results demonstrate that the 3D FE simulations can provide a reasonable prediction on the second harmonic generated due to the contact nonlinearity at the fatigue crack. The effect of the wave modes on the second harmonic generation is also investigated in detail. It is found that the magnitude of the second harmonic induced by the interaction of the fundamental symmetric mode (S0) of Lamb wave with the fatigue crack is much higher than that by the fundamental anti-symmetric mode (A0) of Lamb wave. In addition, a series of parametric studies using 3D FE simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the fatigue crack length to incident wave wavelength ratio, and the influence of the excitation frequency on the second harmonic generation. The outcomes show that the magnitude and directivity pattern of the generated second harmonic depend on the fatigue crack length to incident wave wavelength ratio as well as the ratio of S0 to A0 incident Lamb wave amplitude. In summary, the findings of this study can further advance the use of second harmonic generation in damage detection.

  9. Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately.

  10. Three-dimensional temperature effect modelling of piezoceramic transducers used for Lamb wave based damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijanka, Piotr; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J; Zhu, Xuan; Di Scalea, Francesco Lanza

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional temperature-dependent model of surface-bonded, low-profile piezoceramic transducers (PZT) used for Lamb wave propagation. The effect of temperature on Lamb wave actuation, propagation and sensing is investigated. The major focus is on the study of actuation and sensing properties of PZT for various temperature levels. These properties are investigated through the electric field analysis of transducers. The temperature effect on transducer bond layers is also investigated. Numerically simulated amplitude responses are analysed for various temperatures and excitation frequencies. Numerical simulations are validated experimentally. The results demonstrate that temperature-dependent physical properties of PZT, bond layers and particularly host structures significantly affect the amplitude and phase of Lamb wave responses. (paper)

  11. Application of Ultrasonic Waves on Maintaining Freshness of Tilapia Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruddy Suwandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.

  12. Intelligent feature selection techniques for pattern classification of Lamb wave signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinders, Mark K.; Miller, Corey A.

    2014-01-01

    Lamb wave interaction with flaws is a complex, three-dimensional phenomenon, which often frustrates signal interpretation schemes based on mode arrival time shifts predicted by dispersion curves. As the flaw severity increases, scattering and mode conversion effects will often dominate the time-domain signals, obscuring available information about flaws because multiple modes may arrive on top of each other. Even for idealized flaw geometries the scattering and mode conversion behavior of Lamb waves is very complex. Here, multi-mode Lamb waves in a metal plate are propagated across a rectangular flat-bottom hole in a sequence of pitch-catch measurements corresponding to the double crosshole tomography geometry. The flaw is sequentially deepened, with the Lamb wave measurements repeated at each flaw depth. Lamb wave tomography reconstructions are used to identify which waveforms have interacted with the flaw and thereby carry information about its depth. Multiple features are extracted from each of the Lamb wave signals using wavelets, which are then fed to statistical pattern classification algorithms that identify flaw severity. In order to achieve the highest classification accuracy, an optimal feature space is required but it’s never known a priori which features are going to be best. For structural health monitoring we make use of the fact that physical flaws, such as corrosion, will only increase over time. This allows us to identify feature vectors which are topologically well-behaved by requiring that sequential classes “line up” in feature vector space. An intelligent feature selection routine is illustrated that identifies favorable class distributions in multi-dimensional feature spaces using computational homology theory. Betti numbers and formal classification accuracies are calculated for each feature space subset to establish a correlation between the topology of the class distribution and the corresponding classification accuracy

  13. Mode Identification of Guided Ultrasonic Wave using Time- Frequency Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Hee Jong

    2007-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are waves whose propagation characteristics depend on structural thickness and shape such as those in plates, tubes, rods, and embedded layers. If the angle of incidence or the frequency of sound is adjusted properly, the reflected and refracted energy within the structure will constructively interfere, thereby launching the guided wave. Because these waves penetrate the entire thickness of the tube and propagate parallel to the surface, a large portion of the material can be examined from a single transducer location. The guided ultrasonic wave has various merits like above. But various kind of modes are propagating through the entire thickness, so we don't know the which mode is received. Most of applications are limited from mode selection and mode identification. So the mode identification is very important process for guided ultrasonic inspection application. In this study, various time-frequency analysis methodologies are developed and compared for mode identification tool of guided ultrasonic signal. For this study, a high power tone-burst ultrasonic system set up for the generation and receive of guided waves. And artificial notches were fabricated on the Aluminum plate for the experiment on the mode identification

  14. Noncontact measurement of guided ultrasonic wave scattering for fatigue crack characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.

    2013-04-01

    Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and the defect depth. These results provide the basis for the defect characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.

  15. A time reversal damage imaging method for structure health monitoring using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Cao Ya-Ping; Sun Xiu-Li; Chen Xian-Hua; Yu Jian-Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the Lamb wave imaging method combining time reversal for health monitoring of a metallic plate structure. The temporal focusing effect of the time reversal Lamb waves is investigated theoretically. It demonstrates that the focusing effect is related to the frequency dependency of the time reversal operation. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the time reversal behaviour of Lamb wave modes under broadband and narrowband excitations. The results show that the reconstructed time reversed wave exhibits close similarity to the reversed narrowband tone burst signal validating the theoretical model. To enhance the similarity, the cycle number of the excited signal should be increased. Experiments combining finite element model are then conducted to study the imaging method in the presence of damage like hole in the plate structure. In this work, the time reversal technique is used for the recompression of Lamb wave signals. Damage imaging results with time reversal using broadband and narrowband excitations are compared to those without time reversal. It suggests that the narrowband excitation combined time reversal can locate and determine the size of structural damage more precisely, but the cycle number of the excited signal should be chosen reasonably

  16. Structural damage detection using deep learning of ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Joseph; Alguri, K. Supreet; Deemer, Chris; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural health monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves relies on accurate interpretation of guided wave propagation to distinguish damage state indicators. However, traditional physics based models do not provide an accurate representation, and classic data driven techniques, such as a support vector machine, are too simplistic to capture the complex nature of ultrasonic guide waves. To address this challenge, this paper uses a deep learning interpretation of ultrasonic guided waves to achieve fast, accurate, and automated structural damaged detection. To achieve this, full wavefield scans of thin metal plates are used, half from the undamaged state and half from the damaged state. This data is used to train our deep network to predict the damage state of a plate with 99.98% accuracy given signals from just 10 spatial locations on the plate, as compared to that of a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved a 62% accuracy.

  17. Failed fuel rod detection method by ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Muraoka, Shoichi; Ono, Yukio; Yasojima, Yujiro.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave signals sent from an ultrasonic receiving element are supplied to an evaluation circuit by way of a gate. A table for gate opening and closing timings at the detecting position in each of the fuel rods in a fuel assembly is stored in a memory. A fuel rod is placed between an ultrasonic transmitting element and the receiving element to determine the positions of the transmitting element and the receiving element by positional sensors. The opening and closing timings at the positions corresponding to the result of the detection are read out from the table, and the gates are opened and closed by the timing. This can introduce the ultrasonic wave signals transmitted through a control rod always to the evaluation circuit passing through the gate. Accordingly, the state of failure of the fuel rod can be detected accurately. (I.N.)

  18. Excitation of plane Lamb wave in plate-like structures under applied surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Xinsheng; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wu, Zhanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lamb waves play an important role in structure health monitoring (SHM) systems. The excitation of Lamb waves has been discussed for a long time with absorbing results. However, little effort has been made towards the precise characterization of Lamb wave excitation by various transducer models with mathematical foundation. In this paper, the excitation of plane Lamb waves with plane strain assumption in isotropic plate structures under applied surface loading is solved with the Hamiltonian system. The response of the Lamb modes excited by applied loading is expressed analytically. The effect of applied loading is divided into the product of two parts as the effect of direction and the effect of distribution, which can be changed by selecting different types of transducer and the corresponding transducer configurations. The direction of loading determines the corresponding displacement of each mode. The effect of applied loading on the in-plane and normal directions depends on the in-plane and normal displacements at the surface respectively. The effect of the surface loading distribution on the Lamb mode amplitudes is mainly reflected by amplitude versus frequency or wavenumber. The frequencies at which the maxima and minima of the S0 or A0 mode response occur depend on the distribution of surface loading. The numerical results of simulations conducted on an infinite aluminum plate verify the theoretical prediction of not only the direction but also the distribution of applied loading. A pure S0 or A0 mode can be excited by selecting the appropriate direction and distribution at the corresponding frequency.

  19. Monitoring and modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in crystallizing mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T.; Challis, R. E.; Tebbutt, J. S.

    2002-05-01

    The utility of ultrasonic compression wave techniques for monitoring crystallization processes is investigated in a study of the seeded crystallization of copper II sulfate pentahydrate from aqueous solution. Simple models are applied to predict crystal yield, crystal size distribution and the changing nature of the continuous phase. A scattering model is used to predict the ultrasonic attenuation as crystallization proceeds. Experiments confirm that modeled attenuation is in agreement with measured results.

  20. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  1. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-01-01

    estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized

  2. An innovative method for automatic determination of time of arrival for Lamb waves excited by impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Patil, Devendra; Ge, Maochen; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Lamb waves have great potential as a diagnostic tool in the application of structural health monitoring. Propagation properties of Lamb waves are affected by the state of the structure that the waves are traveling upon. Thus Lamb waves can carry information about the structure as they travel across a structure. However, the dispersive, multimodal and attenuation characteristics of Lamb waves make it difficult to determine the time of arrival of Lamb waves. To deal with these characteristics, an innovative method to automatically determine the time of arrival for impact-induced Lamb waves without human intervention is proposed in this paper. Lead zirconate titanate sensors mounted on the surface of an aluminum plate were used to measure the Lamb waves excited by an impact. The time of arrival was determined based on wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and statistics (Grubbs’ test and maximum likelihood estimation). Both of numerical analysis and physical measurements have verified the accuracy of this method for impacts on an aluminum plate.

  3. Simulation of Asymmetric Lamb Waves for Sensing and Actuation in Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghoshal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches used for monitoring the health of thin aerospace structures are active interrogation and passive monitoring. The active interrogation approach generates and receives diagnostic Lamb waves to detect damage, while the passive monitoring technique listens for acoustic waves caused by damage growth. For the application of both methods, it is necessary to understand how Lamb waves propagate through a structure. In this paper, a Physics-Based Model (PBM using classical plate theory is developed to provide a basic understanding of the actual physical process of asymmetric Lamb mode wave generation and propagation in a plate. The closed-form model uses modal superposition to simulate waves generated by piezoceramic patches and by simulated acoustic emissions. The generation, propagation, reflection, interference, and the sensing of the waves are represented in the model, but damage is not explicitly modeled. The developed model is expected to be a useful tool for the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM community, particularly for studying high frequency acoustic wave generation and propagation in lieu of Finite Element models and other numerical models that require significant computational resources. The PBM is capable of simulating many possible scenarios including a variety of test cases, whereas experimental measurements of all of the cases can be costly and time consuming. The model also incorporates the sensor measurement effect, which is an important aspect in damage detection. Continuous and array sensors are modeled, which are efficient for measuring waves because of their distributed nature.

  4. Time reversed Lamb wave for damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijudas, C R; Mitra, M; Mujumdar, P M

    2013-01-01

    According to the concept of time reversibility of the Lamb wave, in the absence of damage, a Lamb wave signal can be reconstructed at the transmitter location if a time reversed signal is sent back from the receiver location. This property is used for baseline-free damage detection, where the presence of damage breaks down the time reversibility and the mismatch between the reconstructed and the input signal is inferred as the presence of damage. This paper presents an experimental and a simulation study of baseline-free damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate by time reversed Lamb wave (TRLW). In this study, single Lamb wave mode (A 0 ) is generated and sensed using piezoelectric (PZT) transducers through specific transducer placement and amplitude tuning. Different stiffening configurations such as plane and T-stiffeners are considered. Damage cases of disbonding of stiffeners from the base plate, and vertical and embedded cracks in the stiffened plate, are studied. The results show that TRLW based schemes can efficiently identify the presence of damage in a stiffened plate. (paper)

  5. Identification of damage in composite structures using Gaussian mixture model-processed Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Ma, Shuxian; Yue, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Composite materials have comprehensively better properties than traditional materials, and therefore have been more and more widely used, especially because of its higher strength-weight ratio. However, the damage of composite structures is usually varied and complicated. In order to ensure the security of these structures, it is necessary to monitor and distinguish the structural damage in a timely manner. Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM) has been proved to be effective in online structural damage detection and evaluation; furthermore, the characteristic parameters of the multi-mode Lamb wave varies in response to different types of damage in the composite material. This paper studies the damage identification approach for composite structures using the Lamb wave and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The algorithm and principle of the GMM, and the parameter estimation, is introduced. Multi-statistical characteristic parameters of the excited Lamb waves are extracted, and the parameter space with reduced dimensions is adopted by principal component analysis (PCA). The damage identification system using the GMM is then established through training. Experiments on a glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite laminate plate are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach in terms of damage classification. The experimental results show that different types of damage can be identified according to the value of the likelihood function of the GMM.

  6. 3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.

  7. Time-domain analysis of second-harmonic generation of primary Lamb wave propagation in an elastic plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Ming-Xi; Xiang Yan-Xun

    2010-01-01

    Within the second-order perturbation approximation, this paper investigates the physical process of generation of the time-domain second harmonic by a primary Lamb wave waveform in an elastic plate. The present work is performed based on the preconditions that the phase velocity matching is satisfied and that the transfer of energy from the primary Lamb wave to the double frequency Lamb wave is not zero. It investigates the influences of the difference between the group velocities of the primary Lamb wave and the double frequency Lamb wave, the propagation distance and the duration of the primary Lamb wave waveform on the envelope shape of the time-domain second harmonic. It finds that the maximum magnitude of the envelope of the second-harmonic waveform can grow within some propagation distance even if the condition of group velocity matching is not satisfied. Our analyses also indicate that the maximum magnitude of the envelope of the second-harmonic waveform is kept constant beyond a specific propagation distance. Furthermore, it concludes that the integration amplitude of the time-domain second-harmonic waveform always grows with propagation distance within the second-order perturbation. The present research yields new physical insight not previously available into the effect of generation of the time-domain second harmonic by propagation of a primary Lamb wave waveform

  8. Multi reflection of Lamb wave emission in an acoustic waveguide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Martin; Olfert, Sergei; Rautenberg, Jens; Lindner, Gerhard; Henning, Bernd; Reindl, Leonhard Michael

    2013-02-27

    Recently, an acoustic waveguide sensor based on multiple mode conversion of surface acoustic waves at the solid-liquid interfaces has been introduced for the concentration measurement of binary and ternary mixtures, liquid level sensing, investigation of spatial inhomogenities or bubble detection. In this contribution the sound wave propagation within this acoustic waveguide sensor is visualized by Schlieren imaging for continuous and burst operation the first time. In the acoustic waveguide the antisymmetrical zero order Lamb wave mode is excited by a single phase transducer of 1 MHz on thin glass plates of 1 mm thickness. By contact to the investigated liquid Lamb waves propagating on the first plate emit pressure waves into the adjacent liquid, which excites Lamb waves on the second plate, what again causes pressure waves traveling inside the liquid back to the first plate and so on. The Schlieren images prove this multi reflection within the acoustic waveguide, which confirms former considerations and calculations based on the receiver signal. With this knowledge the sensor concepts with the acoustic waveguide sensor can be interpreted in a better manner.

  9. Ultrasonic creeping wave test technique for dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianzhong; Shang Junmin; Yan Zhi; Yuan Guanghua; Zhang Guofeng

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problem encountered in the defect inspection of the surface and near-surface of dissimilar metal weld effectively, a new ultrasonic creeping wave test technique is developed. In this paper, the test technique and its experimental verification are mainly described. The verification results show that linear defect, which is similar to the defect found in liquid penetrant test, on the surface and near-surface of dissimilar metal weld can be detected effectively, by using ultrasonic creeping wave test technique. And the depth, length and height of the defect can be determined easily. The effective covering depth of ultrasonic creeping wave test technique will reach 0-9 mm. Meanwhile, the planar defect, with equivalent area more than 3 mm 2 , existed in welds can be detected efficiently. So, accurate measurement, which self height dimension of planar defect is above 2 mm, will be realized. (authors)

  10. Lamb wave propagation modelling and simulation using parallel processing architecture and graphical cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paćko, P; Bielak, T; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T; Spencer, A B; Worden, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates new parallel computation technology and an implementation for Lamb wave propagation modelling in complex structures. A graphical processing unit (GPU) and computer unified device architecture (CUDA), available in low-cost graphical cards in standard PCs, are used for Lamb wave propagation numerical simulations. The local interaction simulation approach (LISA) wave propagation algorithm has been implemented as an example. Other algorithms suitable for parallel discretization can also be used in practice. The method is illustrated using examples related to damage detection. The results demonstrate good accuracy and effective computational performance of very large models. The wave propagation modelling presented in the paper can be used in many practical applications of science and engineering. (paper)

  11. Improving the resolution for Lamb wave testing via a smoothed Capon algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuwei; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Hua, Jiadong

    2018-04-01

    Lamb wave testing is promising for damage detection and evaluation in large-area structures. The dispersion of Lamb waves is often unavoidable, restricting testing resolution and making the signal hard to interpret. A smoothed Capon algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate the accurate path length of each wave packet. In the algorithm, frequency domain whitening is firstly used to obtain the transfer function in the bandwidth of the excitation pulse. Subsequently, wavenumber domain smoothing is employed to reduce the correlation between wave packets. Finally, the path lengths are determined by distance domain searching based on the Capon algorithm. Simulations are applied to optimize the number of smoothing times. Experiments are performed on an aluminum plate consisting of two simulated defects. The results demonstrate that spatial resolution is improved significantly by the proposed algorithm.

  12. Reflection of Lamb waves obliquely incident on the free edge of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Sridhar; Demirli, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    The reflection of obliquely incident symmetric and anti-symmetric Lamb wave modes at the edge of a plate is studied. Both in-plane and Shear-Horizontal (SH) reflected wave modes are spawned by an obliquely incident in-plane Lamb wave mode. Energy reflection coefficients are calculated for the reflected wave modes as a function of frequency and angle of incidence. This is done by using the method of orthogonal mode decomposition and by enforcing traction free conditions at the plate edge using the method of collocation. A PZT sensor network, affixed to an Aluminum plate, is used to experimentally verify the predictions of the analysis. Experimental results provide support for the analytically determined results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective Excitation of Lamb-Waves for Damage Detection in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, G.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    2006-03-01

    Sensors based on periodic arrays of coherent piezoelectric sources (comb design) are used to selectively excite and detect Lamb waves in aluminum and AS4/3601 unidirectional carbon-epoxy plates. 110 μm PVDF film poled in the thickness direction is used as piezoelectric material. An algorithm to eliminate the effect of coupling in amplitude measurements, using individual Lamb modes excited/detected by the same transducer pair, is described. A multiple-impact test showing a decrease in amplitude and group velocity as damage progresses is used as an example.

  14. Smart Sound Processing for Defect Sizing in Pipelines Using EMAT Actuator Based Multi-Frequency Lamb Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Gómez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection is a topic of particular interest to the companies. Especially important is the defect sizing, which allows them to avoid subsequent costly repairs in their equipment. A solution for this issue is using ultrasonic waves sensed through Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT actuators. The main advantage of this technology is the absence of the need to have direct contact with the surface of the material under investigation, which must be a conductive one. Specifically interesting is the meander-line-coil based Lamb wave generation, since the directivity of the waves allows a study based in the circumferential wrap-around received signal. However, the variety of defect sizes changes the behavior of the signal when it passes through the pipeline. Because of that, it is necessary to apply advanced techniques based on Smart Sound Processing (SSP. These methods involve extracting useful information from the signals sensed with EMAT at different frequencies to obtain nonlinear estimations of the depth of the defect, and to select the features that better estimate the profile of the pipeline. The proposed technique has been tested using both simulated and real signals in steel pipelines, obtaining good results in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE.

  15. Smart Sound Processing for Defect Sizing in Pipelines Using EMAT Actuator Based Multi-Frequency Lamb Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Joaquín; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Romero-Camacho, Antonio; Jiménez-Garrido, Jesús Antonio; García-Benavides, Víctor

    2018-03-07

    Pipeline inspection is a topic of particular interest to the companies. Especially important is the defect sizing, which allows them to avoid subsequent costly repairs in their equipment. A solution for this issue is using ultrasonic waves sensed through Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) actuators. The main advantage of this technology is the absence of the need to have direct contact with the surface of the material under investigation, which must be a conductive one. Specifically interesting is the meander-line-coil based Lamb wave generation, since the directivity of the waves allows a study based in the circumferential wrap-around received signal. However, the variety of defect sizes changes the behavior of the signal when it passes through the pipeline. Because of that, it is necessary to apply advanced techniques based on Smart Sound Processing (SSP). These methods involve extracting useful information from the signals sensed with EMAT at different frequencies to obtain nonlinear estimations of the depth of the defect, and to select the features that better estimate the profile of the pipeline. The proposed technique has been tested using both simulated and real signals in steel pipelines, obtaining good results in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  16. Lamb wave extraction of dispersion curves in micro/nano-plates using couple stress theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Behnam; Yaghootian, Amin; Ghanbar Zadeh, Afshin; Mohammad-Sedighi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Lamb wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic non-classical micro/nano-plates is investigated. To consider the effect of material microstructure on the wave propagation, three size-dependent models namely indeterminate-, modified- and consistent couple stress theories are used to extract the dispersion equations. In the mentioned theories, a parameter called 'characteristic length' is used to consider the size of material microstructure in the governing equations. To generalize the parametric studies and examine the effect of thickness, propagation wavelength, and characteristic length on the behavior of miniature plate structures, the governing equations are nondimensionalized by defining appropriate dimensionless parameters. Then the dispersion curves for phase and group velocities are plotted in terms of a wide frequency-thickness range to study the lamb waves propagation considering microstructure effects in very high frequencies. According to the illustrated results, it was observed that the couple stress theories in the Cosserat type material predict more rigidity than the classical theory; so that in a plate with constant thickness, by increasing the thickness to characteristic length ratio, the results approach to the classical theory, and by reducing this ratio, wave propagation speed in the plate is significantly increased. In addition, it is demonstrated that for high-frequency Lamb waves, it converges to dispersive Rayleigh wave velocity.

  17. Unusual energy properties of leaky backward Lamb waves in a submerged plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedospasov, I A; Mozhaev, V G; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-05-01

    It is found that leaky backward Lamb waves, i.e. waves with negative energy-flux velocity, propagating in a plate submerged in a liquid possess extraordinary energy properties distinguishing them from any other type of waves in isotropic media. Namely, the total time-averaged energy flux along the waveguide axis is equal to zero for these waves due to opposite directions of the longitudinal energy fluxes in the adjacent media. This property gives rise to the fundamental question of how to define and calculate correctly the energy velocity in such an unusual case. The procedure of calculation based on incomplete integration of the energy flux density over the plate thickness alone is applied. The derivative of the angular frequency with respect to the wave vector, usually referred to as the group velocity, happens to be close to the energy velocity defined by this mean in that part of the frequency range where the backward mode exists in the free plate. The existence region of the backward mode is formally increased for the submerged plate in comparison to the free plate as a result of the liquid-induced hybridization of propagating and nonpropagating (evanescent) Lamb modes. It is shown that the Rayleigh's principle (i.e. equipartition of total time-averaged kinetic and potential energies for time-harmonic acoustic fields) is violated due to the leakage of Lamb waves, in spite of considering nondissipative media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Standard practice for measuring the ultrasonic velocity in polyethylene tank walls using lateral longitudinal (LCR) waves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for measuring the ultrasonic velocities in the outer wall of polyethylene storage tanks. An angle beam lateral longitudinal (LCR) wave is excited with wedges along a circumferential chord of the tank wall. A digital ultrasonic flaw detector is used with sending-receiving search units in through transmission mode. The observed velocity is temperature corrected and compared to the expected velocity for a new, unexposed sample of material which is the same as the material being evaluated. The difference between the observed and temperature corrected velocities determines the degree of UV exposure of the tank. 1.2 The practice is intended for application to the outer surfaces of the wall of polyethylene tanks. Degradation typically occurs in an outer layer approximately 3.2-mm (0.125-in.) thick. Since the technique does not interrogate the inside wall of the tank, wall thickness is not a consideration other than to be aware of possible guided (Lamb) wave effects or reflection...

  19. Influence of crack opening and incident wave angle on second harmonic generation of Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ng, Ching-Tai; Kotousov, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    Techniques utilising second harmonic generation (SHG) have proven their great potential in detecting contact-type damage. However, the gap between the practical applications and laboratory studies is still quite large. The current work is aimed to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of the applied load and incident wave angle on the detectability of fatigue cracks at various lengths. Both effects are critical for practical implementations of these techniques. The present experimental study supported by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modelling has demonstrated that the applied load, which changes the crack opening and, subsequently, the contact nonlinearity, significantly affects the amplitude of the second harmonic generated by the fundamental symmetric mode (S0) of Lamb wave. This amplitude is also dependent on the length of the fatigue crack as well as the incident wave angle. The experimental and FE results correlate well, so the modelling approach can be implemented for practical design of damage monitoring systems as well as for the evaluation of the severity of the fatigue cracks.

  20. Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shiling; Shen, Zhonghua, E-mail: shenzh@njust.edu.cn [Faculty of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lomonosov, Alexey M. [Faculty of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-07

    The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.

  1. Long-Range Piping Inspection by Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lim, Sa Hoe; Eom, Heung Seop; Kim, Jae Hee

    2005-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are very promising for the long-range inspection of large structures because they can propagate a long distance along the structures such as plates, shells and pipes. The guided wave inspection could be utilized for an on-line monitoring technique when the transmitting and receiving transducers are positioned at a remote point on the structure. The received signal has the information about the integrity of the monitoring area between the transmitting and receiving transducers. On-line monitoring of a pipe line using an ultrasonic guided wave can detect flaws such as corrosion, erosion and fatigue cracking at an early stage and collect useful information on the flaws. However the guided wave inspection is complicated by the dispersive characteristics for guided waves. The phase and group velocities are a function of the frequency-thickness product. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. In this study, we analyze the propagation characteristics of guided wave modes in a small diameter pipe of nuclear power plant and select the suitable mode for a long-range inspection. And experiments will be carried out for the practical application of a long-range inspection in a 26m long pipe by using a high-power ultrasonic inspection system

  2. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in elastically anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Victoria Cristina Cheade; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components may encounter considerable difficulties to interpret some inspections results mainly in anisotropic crystalline structures. A numerical method for the simulation of elastic wave propagation in homogeneous elastically anisotropic media, based on the general finite element approach, is used to help this interpretation. The successful modeling of elastic field associated with NDE is based on the generation of a realistic pulsed ultrasonic wave, which is launched from a piezoelectric transducer into the material under inspection. The values of elastic constants are great interest information that provide the application of equations analytical models, until small and medium complexity problems through programs of numerical analysis as finite elements and/or boundary elements. The aim of this work is the comparison between the results of numerical solution of an ultrasonic wave, which is obtained from transient excitation pulse that can be specified by either force or displacement variation across the aperture of the transducer, and the results obtained from a experiment that was realized in an aluminum block in the IEN Ultrasonic Laboratory. The wave propagation can be simulated using all the characteristics of the material used in the experiment valuation associated to boundary conditions and from these results, the comparison can be made. (author)

  3. Influences of interfacial properties on second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in layered planar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Mingxi; Wang Ping; Lv Xiafu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes influences of interfacial properties on second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in layered planar structures. The nonlinearity in the elastic wave propagation is treated as a second-order perturbation of the linear elastic response. Due to the kinematic nonlinearity and the elastic nonlinearity of materials, there are second-order bulk and surface/interface driving sources in layered planar structures through which Lamb waves propagate. These driving sources can be thought of as forcing functions of a series of double frequency lamb waves (DFLWs) in terms of the approach of modal expansion analysis for waveguide excitation. The total second-harmonic fields consist of a summation of DFLWs in the corresponding stress-free layered planar structures. The interfacial properties of layered planar structures can be described by the well-known finite interfacial stiffness technique. The normal and tangential interfacial stiffness constants can be coupled with the equation governing the expansion coefficient of each DFLW component. On the other hand, the normal and tangential interfacial stiffness constants are associated with the degree of dispersion between Lamb waves and DFLWs. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by Lamb wave propagation is closely dependent on the interfacial properties of layered structures. The potential of using the effect of second-harmonic generation by Lamb wave propagation to characterize the interfacial properties of layered structures are considered. Some experimental results are presented

  4. Lamb wave characterization of the effects of long-term thermal-mechanical aging on composite stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, M. D.; Madaras, E. I.

    1999-01-01

    Lamb waves offer a promising method of evaluating damage in composite materials. The Lamb wave velocity is directly related to the material parameters, so an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. The Lamb Wave Imager (LWI) uses a pulse/receive technique that excites an antisymmetric Lamb mode and measures the time-of-flight over a wide frequency range. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. In this study, the time-of-flight as well as the elastic stiffnesses D11, D22, A44, and A55 for composite samples which have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging are obtained. The samples examined include a baseline specimen with 0 cycles, specimens which have been aged 2350 and 3530 cycles at high strain levels, and one specimen aged 3530 cycles at low strain levels.

  5. Temperature effects on the band gaps of Lamb waves in a one-dimensional phononic-crystal plate (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Liu, X J; Wu, D J

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates the temperature-tuned band gaps of Lamb waves in a one-dimensional phononic-crystal plate, which is formed by alternating strips of ferroelectric ceramic Ba(0.7)Sr(0.3)TiO(3) and epoxy. The sensitive and continuous temperature-tunability of Lamb wave band gaps is demonstrated using the analyses of the band structures and the transmission spectra. The width and position of Lamb wave band gaps shift prominently with variation of temperature in the range of 26 °C-50 °C. For example, the width of the second band gap increases from 0.066 to 0.111 MHz as the temperature is increased from 26 °C to 50 °C. The strong shift promises that the structure could be suitable for temperature-tuned multi-frequency Lamb wave filters. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  6. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: thuzhangyu@foxmail.com; Huang, S. L., E-mail: huangsling@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, S.; Zhao, W. [State Key Laboratory of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert–Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  7. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, S. L.; Wang, S.; Zhao, W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert–Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  8. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  9. Impact induced damage assessment by means of Lamb wave image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is an analysis of full wavefield Lamb wave interaction with impact-induced damage at various impact energies in order to find out the limitation of the wavenumber adaptive image filtering method. In other words, the relation between impact energy and damage detectability will be shown. A numerical model based on the time domain spectral element method is used for modeling of Lamb wave propagation and interaction with barely visible impact damage in a carbon-epoxy laminate. Numerical studies are followed by experimental research on the same material with an impact damage induced by various energy and also a Teflon insert simulating delamination. Wavenumber adaptive image filtering and signal processing are used for damage visualization and assessment for both numerical and experimental full wavefield data. It is shown that it is possible to visualize and assess the impact damage location, size and to some extent severity by using the proposed technique.

  10. Spiral-shaped piezoelectric sensors for Lamb waves direction of arrival (DoA) estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, L.; Testoni, N.; Marzani, A.

    2018-04-01

    A novel strategy to design piezoelectric sensors suited for direction of arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming Lamb waves is presented in this work. The designed sensor is composed by two piezoelectric patches (P1, P2) bonded on the structure to be inspected. In particular, by exploiting the Radon transform, the proposed procedure computes the shape of P2 given the shape of P1 so that the difference in time of arrival (DToA) of the Lamb waves at the two patches is linearly related to the DoA while being agnostic of the waveguide dispersion curves. With a dedicated processing procedure, the waveforms acquired from the two electrodes and digitized can be used to retrieve the DoA information. Numerical and experimental results show that DoA estimation performed by means of the proposed shaped transducers is extremely robust.

  11. Bilinear Time-frequency Analysis for Lamb Wave Signal Detected by Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Liu, Guoqiang; Xia, Hui; Xia, Zhengwu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate acquisition of the detection signal travel time plays a very important role in cross-hole tomography. The experimental platform of aluminum plate under the perpendicular magnetic field is established and the bilinear time-frequency analysis methods, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) and the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), are applied to analyse the Lamb wave signals detected by electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). By extracting the same frequency component of the time-frequency spectrum as the excitation frequency, the travel time information can be obtained. In comparison with traditional linear time-frequency analysis method such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the bilinear time-frequency analysis method PWVD is more appropriate in extracting travel time and recognizing patterns of Lamb wave.

  12. Recent Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection Development Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Joseph L.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2001-01-01

    The recognition of such natural wave guides as plates, rods, hollow cylinders, multi-layer structures or simply an interface between two materials combined with an increased understanding of the physics and wave mechanics of guided wave propagation has led to a significant increase in the number of guided wave inspection applications being developed each year. Of primary attention Is the ability to inspect partially hidden structures, hard to access areas, and treated or insulated structures. An introduction to some physical consideration of guided waves followed by some sample problem descriptions in pipe, ice detection, fouling detection in the foods industry, aircraft, tar coated structures and acoustic microscopy is presented in this paper. A sample problem in Boundary Element Modeling is also presented to illustrate the move in guided wave analysis beyond detection and location analysis to quantification

  13. Signal Processing Effects for Ultrasonic Guided Wave Scanning of Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.J.; Cosgriff, L.M.; Martin, R.E.; Burns, E.A.; Teemer, L.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this ongoing work is to optimize experimental variables for a guided wave scanning method to obtain the most revealing and accurate images of defect conditions in composite materials. This study focuses on signal processing effects involved in forming guided wave scan images. Signal processing is involved at two basic levels for deriving ultrasonic guided wave scan images. At the primary level, NASA GRC has developed algorithms to extract over 30 parameters from the multimode signal and its power spectral density. At the secondary level, there are many variables for which values must be chosen that affect actual computation of these parameters. In this study, a ceramic matrix composite sample having a delamination is characterized using the ultrasonic guided wave scan method. Energy balance and decay rate parameters of the guided wave at each scan location are calculated to form images. These images are compared with ultrasonic c-scan and thermography images. The effect of the time portion of the waveform processed on image quality is assessed by comparing with images formed using the total waveform acquired

  14. Damage detection using piezoelectric transducers and the Lamb wave approach: II. Robust and quantitative decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Wang, X; Tang, J; Ding, Y

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of Lamb waves generated by piezoelectric transducers in a one-dimensional structure has been studied comprehensively in part I of this two-paper series. Using the information embedded in the propagating waveforms, we expect to make a decision on whether damage has occurred; however, environmental and operational variances inevitably complicate the problem. To better detect the damage under these variances, we present in this paper a robust and quantitative decision-making methodology involving advanced signal processing and statistical analysis. In order to statistically evaluate the features in Lamb wave propagation in the presence of noise, we collect multiple time series (baseline signals) from the undamaged beam. A combination of the improved adaptive harmonic wavelet transform (AHWT) and the principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the baseline signals to highlight the critical features of Lamb wave propagation in the undamaged structure. The detection of damage is facilitated by comparing the features of the test signal collected from the test structure (damaged or undamaged) with the features of the baseline signals. In this process, we employ Hotelling's T 2 statistical analysis to first purify the baseline dataset and then to quantify the deviation of the test data vector from the baseline dataset. Through experimental and numerical studies, we systematically investigate the proposed methodology in terms of the detectability (capability of detecting damage), the sensitivity (with respect to damage severity and excitation frequency) and the robustness against noises. The parametric studies also validate, from the signal processing standpoint, the guidelines of Lamb-wave-based damage detection developed in part I

  15. Chaotic operation and chaos control of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingzhuo; Zhao, Fujie; Shen, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-08-01

    The travelling wave ultrasonic motor, which is a nonlinear dynamic system, has complex chaotic phenomenon with some certain choices of system parameters and external inputs, and its chaotic characteristics have not been studied until now. In this paper, the preliminary study of the chaos phenomenon in ultrasonic motor driving system has been done. The experiment of speed closed-loop control is designed to obtain several groups of time sampling data sequence of the amplitude of driving voltage, and phase-space reconstruction is used to analyze the chaos characteristics of these time sequences. The largest Lyapunov index is calculated and the result is positive, which shows that the travelling wave ultrasonic motor has chaotic characteristics in a certain working condition Then, the nonlinear characteristics of travelling wave ultrasonic motor are analyzed which includes Lyapunov exponent map, the bifurcation diagram and the locus of voltage relative to speed based on the nonlinear chaos model of a travelling wave ultrasonic motor. After that, two kinds of adaptive delay feedback controllers are designed in this paper to control and suppress chaos in USM speed control system. Simulation results show that the method can control unstable periodic orbits, suppress chaos in USM control system. Proportion-delayed feedback controller was designed following and arithmetic of fuzzy logic was used to adaptively adjust the delay time online. Simulation results show that this method could fast and effectively change the chaos movement into periodic or fixed-point movement and make the system enter into stable state from chaos state. Finally the chaos behavior was controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen attack evaluation of boiler tube using ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Soon Ho; Hyun, Yang Ki; Lee, Jong O; Cho, Kyung Shik; Lee, Jae Do

    2001-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen in industrial plants is a source of damage. Hydrogen attack is one such form of degradation and often causing large tube ruptures that necessitate an immediate shutdown. Hydrogen attack may reduce the fracture toughness as well as the strength of steels. This reduction is caused partially by the presence of cavities and microcracks at the grain boundaries. In the past several techniques have been used with limited results. This paper describes the application of an ultrasonic velocity, attenuation and backscatter techniques for detecting the presence of hydrogen damage in utility boiler tubes. Ultrasonic tests showed a decrease in wave velocity and an increase in attenuation. Such results demonstrate the potential for ultrasonic nondestructive testing to quantify damage. Based on this study, recommendations are that both velocity and attenuation be used to detect hydrogen attack in steels.

  17. Interactive Simulation and Visualization of Lamb Wave Propagation in Isotropic and Anisotropic Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, J; Schulte, R T; Fritzen, C-P; Rezk-Salama, C; Klinkert, T; Kolb, A

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring systems allow a continuous surveillance of the structural integrity of operational systems. As a result, it is possible to reduce time and costs for maintenance without decreasing the level of safety. In this paper, an integrated simulation and visualization environment is presented that enables a detailed study of Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic materials. Thus, valuable information about the nature of Lamb wave propagation and its interaction with structural defects become available. The well-known spectral finite element method is implemented to enable a time-efficient calculation of the wave propagation problem. The results are displayed in an interactive visualization framework accounting for the human perception that is much more sensitive to motion than to changes in color. In addition, measurements have been conducted experimentally to record the full out-of-plane wave-field using a Laser-Doppler vibrometry setup. An aluminum structure with two synthetic cuts has been investigated, where the elongated defects have a different orientation with respect to the piezoelectric actuator. The resulting wave-field is also displayed interactively showing that the scattered wave-field at the defect is highly directional.

  18. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Huang, S L; Wang, S; Zhao, W

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of wave detection signals.

  19. Effect of material acoustic anisotropy on the shape of ultrasonic wave beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iotchev, B.; Pawlowski, Z.

    1976-01-01

    When ultrasonic waves propagate in some types of materials having a structural anisotropy, a distortion of the ultrasonic beam takes place. This phenomenon is the cause of errors in the determination of flaw location and size

  20. Perfecting ultrasonic detection of defects by the mastering and use of focused acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

    1976-01-01

    It is possible to define and to focus an ultrasonic beam, taking into account the shape of test pieces and the kind of ultrasonic waves, when conforming to simple rules of physical and optical geometry [fr

  1. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadesse, Semere A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo, E-mail: moli@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  2. Damage detection using piezoelectric transducers and the Lamb wave approach: I. System analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Lu, Y; Tang, J

    2008-01-01

    Structural damage detection using piezoelectric transducers and the Lamb wave approach has been under intensive investigations. A commonly pursued topic is the selection of system parameters such that the detection performance can be optimized. Previous studies have indicated that the excitation center frequency plays a critical role, and suggested use of the 'sweet spot' frequency to maximize the peak wave amplitude ratio between the S 0 and the A 0 modes. In this paper, the analytical formulation of Lamb wave propagation on a narrow-strip beam excited and sensed by piezoelectric transducers is outlined first. Then, the antisymmetric and symmetric contents of the wave propagation response are analyzed in detail with respect to system parameters. In particular, the parametric influence on the 'sweet spot' frequency is investigated systematically. The complicated interaction of the wave components with respect to damage is illustrated through case studies. The analytical study is supported by numerical analysis using the finite element method and by experimental investigation. This research provides the mechanistic basis for robust damage detection using data processing and statistical analysis tools which is the focus of the second paper of this two-paper series

  3. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection of Inconel 625 brazed lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comot, Pierre; Bocher, Philippe; Belanger, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The aerospace industry has been investigating the use of brazing for structural joints, as a mean of reducing cost and weight. There therefore is a need for a rapid, robust, and cost-effective non-destructive testing method for evaluating the structural integrity of the joints. The mechanical strength of brazed joints depends mainly on the amount of brittle phases in their microstructure. Ultrasonic guided waves offer the possibility of detecting brittle phases in joints using spatio-temporal measurements. Moreover, they offer the opportunity to inspect complex shape joints. This study focused on the development of a technique based on ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of Inconel 625 lap joints brazed with BNi-2 filler metal. A finite element model of a lap joint was used to optimize the inspection parameters and assess the feasibility of detecting the amount of brittle phases in the joint. A finite element parametric study simulating the input signal shape, the center frequency, and the excitation direction was performed. The simulations showed that the ultrasonic guided wave energy transmitted through, and reflected from, the joints was proportional to the amount of brittle phases in the joint.

  4. audio-ultrasonic waves by argon gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    in the present work, wave emission formed by audio-ultrasonic plasma is investigated. the evidence of the magnetic and electric fields presence is performed by experimental technique. comparison between experimental field measurements and several plasma wave methods reveals the plasma audio-ultrasonic radiations mode. this plasma is a symmetrically driven capacitive discharge, consisting of three interactive regions: the electrodes, the sheaths, and the positive column regions . the discharge voltage is up to 900 volts, the discharge current flowing through the plasma attains a value of 360 mA .the frequency of the discharge voltage covers the audio and the ultrasonic range up to 100 khz. the effective plasma working distance has increased to attain the total length of the tube of 40 cm. a non-disturbing method using an external coil is used to measure the electric discharge field in a plane perpendicular to that of the plasma axe tube. this method proves the existence of a current flowing in a direction perpendicular to the plasma axe tube. a system of minute coils sensors proved the existence of two fields in two perpendicular directions . comparison between different observed fields reveals the existence of propagating electromagnetic waves due to the alternating current flowing through the skin plasma tube. the field intensity distribution along the tube draws the discharge current behavior between the two plasma electrodes that can be used to predict the range of the plasma discharge current.

  5. Nonlinear ultrasonic wave modulation for online fatigue crack detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon; Lim, Hyung Jin; DeSimio, Martin P.; Brown, Kevin; Derriso, Mark

    2014-02-01

    This study presents a fatigue crack detection technique using nonlinear ultrasonic wave modulation. Ultrasonic waves at two distinctive driving frequencies are generated and corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured using permanently installed lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers with a potential for continuous monitoring. Here, the input signal at the lower driving frequency is often referred to as a 'pumping' signal, and the higher frequency input is referred to as a 'probing' signal. The presence of a system nonlinearity, such as a crack formation, can provide a mechanism for nonlinear wave modulation, and create spectral sidebands around the frequency of the probing signal. A signal processing technique combining linear response subtraction (LRS) and synchronous demodulation (SD) is developed specifically to extract the crack-induced spectral sidebands. The proposed crack detection method is successfully applied to identify actual fatigue cracks grown in metallic plate and complex fitting-lug specimens. Finally, the effect of pumping and probing frequencies on the amplitude of the first spectral sideband is investigated using the first sideband spectrogram (FSS) obtained by sweeping both pumping and probing signals over specified frequency ranges.

  6. Source Illusion Devices for Flexural Lamb Waves Using Elastic Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongquan; Liang, Zixian; Liu, Fu; Diba, Owen; Lamb, Alistair; Li, Jensen

    2017-07-21

    Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form invariance in usual transformation methods. We demonstrate compact and simple-to-implement metasurfaces for shifting, transforming, and splitting a point source. The effects are measured to be broadband and robust against a change of source positions, with agreement from numerical simulations and the Huygens-Fresnel theory. The proposed method is potentially useful for applications such as nondestructive testing, high-resolution ultrasonography, and advanced signal modulation.

  7. Use of ultrasonic waves in sub-cooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Carlo; Baffigi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the use of ultrasounds in heat transfer fields. Under particular conditions, ultrasonic waves induce a convection coefficient increase. This initial research work, indicates that there are some practical applications in the cooling of the latest generation electronic components. In the first part of this paper, some background on this subject is reported. The ultrasound's influence on heat transfer rate has been observed since the 60's: different authors studied the cooling effect due to ultrasonic waves from different heat transfer regimes. The most investigated configuration was a thin platinum wire immersed in water. Later, a bibliographic research on possible practical applications of ultrasounds was carried out. This research focused in particular on the issue for 3D highly integrated electronic components. For these systems the thermal problem is a major challenge, because they cannot exceed critical temperatures, after which they could be damaged irreversibly. On the basis of our experimental results, ultrasounds could represent a valid means to overcome these thermal problems. Finally, the paper presents a series of experiments performed in the Thermal-Fluid- Dynamic Lab at the Energy and Engineering Systems Department of University of Pisa. The experiments provide systematic evidence of ultrasonic waves effects, on free convection heat transfer, from a heated circular cylinder to sub-cooled water, at atmospheric pressure. Many variables involved in the heat transfer rise were tested, for example: the ultrasonic generator's power, the position of the heater inside the ultrasonic tank, the variation of the water sub-cooling degree, as function of the heat flux needed dissipating. The aim of the experiment was to find out the set of optimal conditions, in order to successively apply all the results to real packaging systems, as mentioned before. The maximum increase in the heat transfer coefficient, due to ultrasonic waves, was 57

  8. Detection and assessment of flaws in friction stir welded joints using ultrasonic guided waves: experimental and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Mohammad Ali; Mustapha, Samir; Tarraf, Jaafar; Ayoub, Georges; Hamade, Ramsey

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves (GWs), e.g. Lamb waves, have been proven effective in the detection of defects such as corrosion, cracking, delamination, and debonding in both composite and metallic structures. They are a significant tool employed in structural health monitoring. In this study, the ability of ultrasonic GWs to assess the quality of friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated. Four friction stir welded AZ31B magnesium plates processed with different welding parameters and a non-welded plate were used. The fundamental symmetric (S0) Lamb wave mode was excited using piezoelectric wafers (PZTs). Further, the S0 mode was separated using the "Improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (Improved CEEMDAN)" technique. A damage index (DI) was defined based on the variation in the amplitude of the captured wave signals in order to detect the presence and asses the severity of damage resulting from the welding process. As well, computed tomography (CT) scanning was used as a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique to assess the actual weld quality and validate predictions based on the GW approach. The findings were further confirmed using finite element analysis (FEA). To model the actual damage profile in the welds, "Mimics" software was used for the 3D reconstruction of the CT scans. The built 3D models were later used for evaluation of damage volume and for FEA. The damage volumes were correlated to the damage indices computed from both experimental and numerical data. The proposed approach showed high sensitivity of the S0 mode to internal flaws within the friction stir welded joints. This methodology has great potential as a future classification method of FSW quality.

  9. Fracture detection in crystalline rock using ultrasonic shear waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, K.H.; Palmer, S.P.; Farrell, W.E.

    1978-12-01

    An ultrasonic shear wave reflection profiling system for use in the detection of water-filled cracks occurring within a crystalline rock mass is being tested in a laboratory environment. Experiments were performed on an irregular tensile crack induced approximately 0.5 m below one circular face of a 1.0-m-dia, 1.8-m-long granite cylinder. Good reflection data were obtained from this irregular crack with the crack either air filled or water filled. Data were collected that suggest a frequency-dependent S/sub H/ wave reflection coefficient for a granite-water interface. Waves that propagate along the free surface of a rock mass (surface waves) can severely hinder the detection of reflected events. Two methods of reducing this surface wave noise were investigated. The first technique uses physical obstructions (such as a slit trench) to scatter the surface waves. The second technique uses a linear array of receivers located on the free surface to cancel waves that are propagating parallel to the array (e.g., surface waves), thus enhancing waves with propagation vectors orthogonal to the linear array (e.g., reflected events). Deconvolution processing was found to be another method useful in surface wave cancellation

  10. Decrease of Salmonella typhimurium in skim milk and egg by heat and ultrasonic wave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigley, D.M.; Llorca, N.G.

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves induce cavitation which is lethal for many bacteria. When Salmonella typhimurium was suspended in skim milk or brain heart infusion broth and placed in an ultrasonicating water bath, the number of bacteria decreased by 2 to 3 log CFU in a time dependent manner. The killing by ultrasonic waves was enhanced if the menstruum was simultaneously maintained at 50 degrees C. Ultrasonic reduction in S. typhimurium numbers in liquid whole egg ranged from 1-3 log CFU at 50 degrees C. The results indicate that indirect ultrasonic wave treatment is effective in killing Salmonella in some foods

  11. Guided waves and ultrasonic characterization of three-dimensional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, Nicolas; Baste, Stéphane

    2000-05-01

    Ultrasonic NDE of anisotropic media appears nowadays as one of the best experimental approaches in studying mechanical properties. A complete identification of stiffness tensor can be performed with phase velocity measurements of obliquely incidence ultrasonic bulk waves from water onto a plate. The medium considered, however, has to be homogeneous with respect to wavelength used. In the case of 3D-composites, textures scales may reach one millimeter and their cut-off frequency is less than MHz. The dispersion curves observed in the considered range of frequencies are often very close and sometimes may be overlapped. Experimental studies show complex signals, which are due to a combination of both bulk and guided waves. Wave-speed measurements of the bulk wave and its detection become unreliable with classical techniques of signal processing (simple time or spectral analysis). Moreover, even if the coupled time-frequency analysis with wavelet transforms allows a better interpretation of the signal, the time delay estimation for the bulk wave and so the characterization of the material remains uncertain. To understand blended signals more accurately, different analytical and numerical models are proposed to show the advantages and disadvantages of methods used in NDE.

  12. Tunable modulation of refracted lamb wave front facilitated by adaptive elastic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilong; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.

    2018-01-01

    This letter reports designs of adaptive metasurfaces capable of modulating incoming wave fronts of elastic waves through electromechanical-tuning of their cells. The proposed elastic metasurfaces are composed of arrayed piezoelectric units with individually connected negative capacitance elements that are online tunable. By adjusting the negative capacitances properly, accurately formed, discontinuous phase profiles along the elastic metasurfaces can be achieved. Subsequently, anomalous refraction with various angles can be realized on the transmitted lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave. Moreover, designs to facilitate planar focal lenses and source illusion devices can also be accomplished. The proposed flexible and versatile strategy to manipulate elastic waves has potential applications ranging from structural fault detection to vibration/noise control.

  13. Scattering of Lamb waves in a composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu; Shah, Arvind

    1991-01-01

    A combined analytical and finite element technique is developed to gain a better understanding of the scattering of elastic waves by defects. This hybrid method is capable of predicting scattered displacements from arbitrary shaped defects as well as inclusions of different material. The continuity of traction and displacements at the boundaries of the two areas provided the necessary equations to find the nodal displacements and expansion coefficients. Results clearly illustrate the influence of increasing crack depth on the scattered signal.

  14. Statistical lamb wave localization based on extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Guided wave localization methods based on delay-and-sum imaging, matched field processing, and other techniques have been designed and researched to create images that locate and describe structural damage. The maximum value of these images typically represent an estimated damage location. Yet, it is often unclear if this maximum value, or any other value in the image, is a statistically significant indicator of damage. Furthermore, there are currently few, if any, approaches to assess the statistical significance of guided wave localization images. As a result, we present statistical delay-and-sum and statistical matched field processing localization methods to create statistically significant images of damage. Our framework uses constant rate of false alarm statistics and extreme value theory to detect damage with little prior information. We demonstrate our methods with in situ guided wave data from an aluminum plate to detect two 0.75 cm diameter holes. Our results show an expected improvement in statistical significance as the number of sensors increase. With seventeen sensors, both methods successfully detect damage with statistical significance.

  15. Determination of group velocity of propagation of Lamb waves in aluminium plate using piezoelectric transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lašová Z.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A prior knowledge of group velocities of Lamb wave modes is a key for analysis of time signals in guidedwave based structural health monitoring. The identification of multiple wave modes may be complicated due to dependency of group velocity on frequency (dispersion. These dependencies for infinite plate of constant thickness can be calculated by a numerical solution of analytic equation. Two alternative approaches to determine group velocities of zero-order Lamb wave modes in aluminum plate were used in this work: Two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT and methods of time-frequency processing. 2D-FFT requires a high number of time signals in equidistant points, therefore it was applied on data from finite element analysis of wave propagation in the plate. Group velocities for chosen frequencies were also determined using wavelet transform (WT of signals as differencies of times of arrival measured by a pair of piezoelectric transducers. The results from 2D-FFT and wavelet transform were compared to the analytic solution.

  16. Lamb Wave Propagation in a Restricted Geometry Composite PI-Joint Specimen (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    adhesive, and were located along the length and height of the specimen as depicted in Figure 3. The sensors were 6.35 mm round disks of PZT , with a...in both cases for R1, R2, and R3. 3D Finite Element Model Geometry 200mm length 50mm width 140mm height x z y PZT Actuation Sensor...health monitoring using scanning laser vibrometry: III. Lamb waves for fatigue crack detection”, Smart Mater. Struct., Vol. 14, No. 6, 2005. 16

  17. Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments

  18. Medicago Scutellata Seed Dormancy Breaking by Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Meisam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study dormancy breaking of a hard-coated plant seed, Medicago scutellata, was investigated. The ultrasonic waves effect on the seed germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length and stalk length growth was assessed. Six treatments of waves exposure periods including 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 minutes were tested under laboratorial conditions. Statistical analyses were done at probability level of 0.01. Results revealed that the ultrasonic waves have a significantly positive effect on the seed dormancy breaking, but there was no linear correlation between the increasing times of exposure with any of the growth features. The best treatment for germination percentage and germination rate was the 7-minute one and the 3-minute one was the best for radicle length growth. Treatments of 3, 5 and 7 minutes had the same effect on stalk length growth and were better than all other treatments. The 9-minute treatment had a negative effect, even lessening the growth of all of the assessed features in comparison with the control treatment.

  19. GPU-based local interaction simulation approach for simplified temperature effect modelling in Lamb wave propagation used for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijanka, P; Radecki, R; Packo, P; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T

    2013-01-01

    Temperature has a significant effect on Lamb wave propagation. It is important to compensate for this effect when the method is considered for structural damage detection. The paper explores a newly proposed, very efficient numerical simulation tool for Lamb wave propagation modelling in aluminum plates exposed to temperature changes. A local interaction approach implemented with a parallel computing architecture and graphics cards is used for these numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach could be used efficiently to produce a large database required for the development of various temperature compensation procedures in structural health monitoring applications. (paper)

  20. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion develops due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the structural integrity. The nondestructive detection and monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted and the wall thickness reduced by consecutive milling of the steel structure. Further measurements were conducted using accelerated corrosion in a salt water bath and the damage severity monitored. From the measured signal change due to the wave mode interference the wall thickness reduction was monitored. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  1. Lamb wave based automatic damage detection using matching pursuit and machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sushant; Mitra, Mira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, matching pursuit (MP) has been tested with machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) to automate the process of damage detection in metallic plates. Here, damage detection is done using the Lamb wave response in a thin aluminium plate simulated using a finite element (FE) method. To reduce the complexity of the Lamb wave response, only the A 0 mode is excited and sensed. The procedure adopted for damage detection consists of three major steps, involving signal processing and machine learning (ML). In the first step, MP is used for de-noising and enhancing the sparsity of the database. In the existing literature, MP is used to decompose any signal into a linear combination of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary. In this work, MP is deployed in two stages to make the database sparse as well as to de-noise it. After using MP on the database, it is then passed as input data for ML classifiers. ANN and SVM are used to detect the location of the potential damage from the reduced data. The study demonstrates that the SVM is a robust classifier in the presence of noise and is more efficient than the ANN. Out-of-sample data are used for the validation of the trained and tested classifier. Trained classifiers are found to be successful in the detection of damage with a detection rate of more than 95%. (paper)

  2. A Novel Complementary Method for the Point-Scan Nondestructive Tests Based on Lamb Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Gorgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel area-scan damage identification method based on Lamb waves which can be used as a complementary method for point-scan nondestructive techniques. The proposed technique is able to identify the most probable locations of damages prior to point-scan test which lead to decreasing the time and cost of inspection. The test-piece surface was partitioned with some smaller areas and the damage probability presence of each area was evaluated. A0 mode of Lamb wave was generated and collected using a mobile handmade transducer set at each area. Subsequently, a damage presence probability index (DPPI based on the energy of captured responses was defined for each area. The area with the highest DPPI value highlights the most probable locations of damages in test-piece. Point-scan nondestructive methods can then be used once these areas are found to identify the damage in detail. The approach was validated by predicting the most probable locations of representative damages including through-thickness hole and crack in aluminum plates. The obtained experimental results demonstrated the high potential of developed method in defining the most probable locations of damages in structures.

  3. Real-Time Leaky Lamb Wave Spectrum Measurement and Its Application to NDE of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1999-01-01

    Numerous analytical and theoretical studies of the behavior of leaky Lamb waves (LLW) in composite materials were documented in the literature. One of the key issues that are constraining the application of this method as a practical tool is the amount of data that needs to be acquired and the slow process that is involved with such experiments. Recently, a methodology that allows quasi real-time acquisition of LLW dispersion data was developed. At each angle of incidence the reflection spectrum is available in real time from the experimental setup and it can be used for rapid detection of the defects. This technique can be used to rapidly acquire the various plate wave modes along various angles of incidence for the characterization of the material elastic properties. The experimental method and data acquisition technique will be described in this paper. Experimental data was used to examine a series of flaws including porosity and delaminations and demonstrated the efficiency of the developed technique.

  4. Direct-current nanogenerator driven by ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Song, Jinhui; Liu, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2007-04-06

    We have developed a nanowire nanogenerator that is driven by an ultrasonic wave to produce continuous direct-current output. The nanogenerator was fabricated with vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays that were placed beneath a zigzag metal electrode with a small gap. The wave drives the electrode up and down to bend and/or vibrate the nanowires. A piezoelectric-semiconducting coupling process converts mechanical energy into electricity. The zigzag electrode acts as an array of parallel integrated metal tips that simultaneously and continuously create, collect, and output electricity from all of the nanowires. The approach presents an adaptable, mobile, and cost-effective technology for harvesting energy from the environment, and it offers a potential solution for powering nanodevices and nanosystems.

  5. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourzeix, S.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  6. A Baseline-Free Defect Imaging Technique in Plates Using Time Reversal of Lamb Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong; Wei, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves. We first consider the flexural wave (A 0 mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver. The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect. The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional sidebands that contain the time-of-flight information on the defect location. One of the side-band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal. A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free imaging of a defect. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  7. Ultrasonic guided wave interpretation for structural health inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Jill Paisley

    Structural Health Management (SHM) combines the use of onboard sensors with artificial intelligence algorithms to automatically identify and monitor structural health issues. A fully integrated approach to SHM systems demands an understanding of the sensor output relative to the structure, along with sophisticated prognostic systems that automatically draw conclusions about structural integrity issues. Ultrasonic guided wave methods allow us to examine the interaction of multimode signals within key structural components. Since they propagate relatively long distances within plate- and shell-like structures, guided waves allow inspection of greater areas with fewer sensors, making this technique attractive for a variety of applications. This dissertation describes the experimental development of automatic guided wave interpretation for three real world applications. Using the guided wave theories for idealized plates we have systematically developed techniques for identifying the mass loading of underwater limpet mines on US Navy ship hulls, characterizing type and bonding of protective coatings on large diameter pipelines, and detecting the thinning effects of corrosion on aluminum aircraft structural stringers. In each of these circumstances the signals received are too complex for interpretation without knowledge of the guided wave physics. We employ a signal processing technique called the Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint Technique (DFWT) in order to render the guided wave mode information in two-dimensional binary images. The use of wavelets allows us to keep track of both time and scale features from the original signals. With simple image processing we have developed automatic extraction algorithms for features that correspond to the arrival times of the guided wave modes of interest for each of the applications. Due to the dispersive nature of the guided wave modes, the mode arrival times give details of the structure in the propagation path. For further

  8. A pulse coding and decoding strategy to perform Lamb wave inspections using simultaneously multiple actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Luca; Marzani, Alessandro; Moll, Jochen; Kudela, Paweł; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2017-07-01

    The performance of Lamb wave based monitoring systems, both in terms of diagnosis time and data complexity, can be enhanced by increasing the number of transducers used to actuate simultaneously the guided waves in the inspected medium. However, in case of multiple simultaneously-operated actuators the interference among the excited wave modes within the acquired signals has to be considered for the further processing. To this aim, in this work a code division strategy based on the Warped Frequency Transform is presented. At first, the proposed procedure encodes actuation pulses using Gold sequences. Next, for each considered actuator the acquired signals are compensated from dispersion by cross correlating the warped version of the actuated and received signals. Compensated signals form the base for a final wavenumber imaging meant at emphasizing defects and or anomalies by removing incident wavefield and edge reflections. The proposed strategy is tested numerically, and validated through an experiment in which guided waves are actuated in a plate by four piezoelectric transducers operating simultaneously.

  9. Standing wave brass-PZT square tubular ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonho; He, Siyuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a standing wave brass-PZT tubular ultrasonic motor. The motor is composed of a brass square tube with two teeth on each tube end. Four PZT plates are attached to the outside walls of the brass tube. The motor requires only one driving signal to excite vibration in a single bending mode to generate reciprocating diagonal trajectories of teeth on the brass tube ends, which drive the motor to rotate. Bi-directional rotation is achieved by exciting different pairs of PZT plates to switch the bending vibration direction. Through using the brass-PZT tube structure, the motor can take high magnitude vibration to achieve a high output power in comparison to PZT tube based ultrasonic motors. Prototypes are fabricated and tested. The dimension of the brass-PZT tube is 3.975mm×3.975mm×16mm. Measured performance is a no-load speed of >1000RPM, a stall torque of 370μNm and a maximum output power of 16 mW when a sinusoidal driving voltage of 50V is applied. The working frequencies of the motor are 46,050Hz (clockwise) and 46,200Hz (counter-clockwise). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Ultrasonic phased array with surface acoustic wave for imaging cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To accurately measure crack lengths, we developed a real-time surface imaging method (SAW PA combining an ultrasonic phased array (PA with a surface acoustic wave (SAW. SAW PA using a Rayleigh wave with a high sensitivity to surface defects was implemented for contact testing using a wedge with the third critical angle that allows the Rayleigh wave to be generated. Here, to realize high sensitivity imaging, SAW PA was optimized in terms of the wedge and the imaging area. The improved SAW PA was experimentally demonstrated using a fatigue crack specimen made of an aluminum alloy. For further verification in more realistic specimens, SAW PA was applied to stainless-steel specimens with a fatigue crack and stress corrosion cracks (SCCs. The fatigue crack was visualized with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and its length was measured with a high accuracy of better than 1 mm. The SCCs generated in the heat-affected zones (HAZs of a weld were successfully visualized with a satisfactory SNR, although responses at coarse grains appeared throughout the imaging area. The SCC lengths were accurately measured. The imaging results also precisely showed complicated distributions of SCCs, which were in excellent agreement with the optically observed distributions.

  11. Pipe Wall Thinning Evaluation through the Arrival Time Delay of A0 Lamb Wave Using Magnetostrictive Patch Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified

  12. Pipe Wall Thinning Evaluation through the Arrival Time Delay of A0 Lamb Wave Using Magnetostrictive Patch Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok

    2008-01-01

    Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified

  13. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  14. The influence of ultrasonic waves on molecular structure of high impact polystyrene solutions in different solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Asaly, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the this research is to study some physical properties of polymer solutions of high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) solutions in two different solvents (carbon tetrachloride, xylene) by using ultrasonic technique. Absorption coefficient and velocity of ultrasonic waves through different concentrations of these solutions were measured using ultrasonic pulsed generator at constant frequency (800) KHz. The result implies that there is no chemical interaction between (HIPS) molecules and the solvents. 5 tabs.; 18 figs.; 59 refs

  15. Application of Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique for inspection of plate-like structures using EMAT generated Lamb waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchev Yordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge for guided wave inspection is exact defect characterization and sizing. EMAT generated Lamb waves usually have low signal-to-noise ratio which reduces the defect detection, characterization and sizing capabilities. That's why in most cases the method is used only as a screening tool. The Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique is a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio by numerically focusing the acoustic fields. In this paper the application of SAFT is tested over EMAT generated Lamb waves. The improvement of lateral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio is evaluated. Results are presented as a comparison between standard B-scan and SAFT processed data.

  16. The effect of austenitizing conditions in the ductile iron hardening process on longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Orłowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a research on the effect of austenitizing temperature and time adopted in the hardening operation on the ultrasonic wave velocity in ductile iron. It has been found that with increasing austenitizing temperature and with the passage of the austenitizing time, a monotonic decrease of the ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocity value occurred. Implementation of ultrasonic testing of results obtained in the course of the cast iron hardening process both in production and as-cast conditions, requires development of a test methodology that must take into account the influence of base material structure (degree of nodularization, graphite precipitation count on the ultrasound wave velocity.

  17. Ultrasonic guided wave tomography for wall thickness mapping in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Carson L.

    Corrosion and erosion damage pose fundamental challenges to operation of oil and gas infrastructure. In order to manage the life of critical assets, plant operators must implement inspection programs aimed at assessing the severity of wall thickness loss (WTL) in pipelines, vessels, and other structures. Maximum defect depth determines the residual life of these structures and therefore represents one of the key parameters for robust damage mitigation strategies. In this context, continuous monitoring with permanently installed sensors has attracted significant interest and currently is the subject of extensive research worldwide. Among the different monitoring approaches being considered, significant promise is offered by the combination of guided ultrasonic wave technology with the principles of model based inversion under the paradigm of what is now referred to as guided wave tomography (GWT). Guided waves are attractive because they propagate inside the wall of a structure over a large distance. This can yield significant advantages over conventional pulse-echo thickness gage sensors that provide insufficient area coverage -- typically limited to the sensor footprint. While significant progress has been made in the application of GWT to plate-like structures, extension of these methods to pipes poses a number of fundamental challenges that have prevented the development of sensitive GWT methods. This thesis focuses on these challenges to address the complex guided wave propagation in pipes and to account for parametric uncertainties that are known to affect model based inversion and which are unavoidable in real field applications. The main contribution of this work is the first demonstration of a sensitive GWT method for accurately mapping the depth of defects in pipes. This is achieved by introducing a novel forward model that can extract information related to damage from the complex waveforms measured by pairs of guided wave transducers mounted on the pipe

  18. Multipath ultrasonic gas flow-meter based on multiple reference waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongliang; Ji, Tao; Wang, Ruichen; Ge, Xiaocheng; Tang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Shizhen

    2018-01-01

    Several technologies can be used in ultrasonic gas flow-meters, such as transit-time, Doppler, cross-correlation and etc. In applications, the approach based on measuring transit-time has demonstrated its advantages and become more popular. Among those techniques which can be applied to determine time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasonic waves, including threshold detection, cross correlation algorithm and other digital signal processing algorithms, cross correlation algorithm has more advantages when the received ultrasonic signal is severely disturbed by the noise. However, the reference wave for cross correlation computation has great influence on the precise measurement of TOF. In the applications of the multipath flow-meters, selection of the reference wave becomes even more complicated. Based on the analysis of the impact factors that will introduce noise and waveform distortion of ultrasonic waves, an averaging method is proposed to determine the reference wave in this paper. In the multipath ultrasonic gas flow-meter, the analysis of each path of ultrasound needs its own reference wave. In case study, a six-path ultrasonic gas flow-meter has been designed and tested with air flow through the pipeline. The results demonstrate that the flow rate accuracy and the repeatability of the TOF are significantly improved by using averaging reference wave, compared with that using random reference wave. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lamb wave band gaps in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal plates with periodic double-sided corrugations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinggang [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); School of Transportation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Tianning [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Wang, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Li, Suobin [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical investigation of Lamb wave propagation in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal (RPC) plates with periodic double-sided corrugations. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied by using the finite element method based on two-dimensional axial symmetry models in cylindrical coordinates. Numerical results show that the proposed RPC plates with periodic double-sided corrugations can yield several band gaps with a variable bandwidth for Lamb waves. The formation mechanism of band gaps in the double-sided RPC plates is attributed to the coupling between the Lamb modes and the in-phase and out-phases resonant eigenmodes of the double-sided corrugations. We investigate the evolution of band gaps in the double-sided RPC plates with the corrugation heights on both sides arranged from an asymmetrical distribution to a symmetrical distribution gradually. Significantly, with the introduction of symmetric double-sided corrugations, the antisymmetric Lamb mode is suppressed by the in-phase resonant eigenmodes of the double-sided corrugations, resulting in the disappearance of the lowest band gap. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically.

  20. Study on a particle separator using ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seop; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Seo, Dae Chul; Yun, Dong Jin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the theory, design and evaluation of a smart device for the enhanced separation of particles mixed in fluid. The smart device takes advantage of the ultrasonic standing wave, which was generated by the operation of a piezoceramic PZT patch installed in the smart device. The details of the device design including the electro-acoustical modelling for separation and PZT transducer are described at the first. Based on this design, the separation device was fabricated and evaluated. In the experiments, an optical camera with a zoom lense was used to monitor the position of interested particles within the separation channel layer in the device. The electric impedance of the PZT patch bonded on the separation device was measured. The device shows a strong levitation and separation force against 50m diameter particles mixed with water at the separation channel in the device. Experimental results also showed that the device can work at both heavy and light sand particles mixed with water due to the generated standing wave field in the separation channel.

  1. Process Stability of Ultrasonic-Wave-Assisted Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chenglei; Xie, Weifeng; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao; Fan, Yangyang

    2017-10-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, ultrasonic-wave-assisted arc welding successfully introduced power ultrasound into the arc and weld pool, during which the ultrasonic acts on the top of the arc in the coaxial alignment direction. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by using an additional ultrasonic field. Compared with the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW), the welding arc is compressed, the droplet size is decreased, and the droplet transfer frequency is increased significantly in ultrasonic-wave-assisted GMAW (U-GMAW). However, the stability of the metal transfer has deep influence on the welding quality equally, and the ultrasonic wave effect on the stability of the metal transfer is a phenomenon that is not completely understood. In this article, the stabilities of the short-circuiting transfer process and globular transfer process are studied systematically, and the effect of ultrasonic wave on the metal transfer is analyzed further. The transfer frequency and process stability of the U-GMAW process are much higher than those of the conventional GMAW. Analytical results show that the additional ultrasonic wave is helpful for improving welding stability.

  2. CMOS-compatible ruggedized high-temperature Lamb wave pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropelnicki, P; Mu, X J; Randles, A B; Cai, H; Ang, W C; Tsai, J M; Muckensturm, K-M; Vogt, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel ruggedized high-temperature pressure sensor operating in lateral field exited (LFE) Lamb wave mode. The comb-like structure electrodes on top of aluminum nitride (AlN) were used to generate the wave. A membrane was fabricated on SOI wafer with a 10 µm thick device layer. The sensor chip was mounted on a pressure test package and pressure was applied to the backside of the membrane, with a range of 20–100 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was experimentally measured in the temperature range of −50 °C to 300 °C. By using the modified Butterworth–van Dyke model, coupling coefficients and quality factor were extracted. Temperature-dependent Young's modulus of composite structure was determined using resonance frequency and sensor interdigital transducer (IDT) wavelength which is mainly dominated by an AlN layer. Absolute sensor phase noise was measured at resonance to estimate the sensor pressure and temperature sensitivity. This paper demonstrates an AlN-based pressure sensor which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications. (paper)

  3. Finite nuclear size and Lamb shift of p-wave atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, A.I.; Sushkov, O.P.; Terekhov, I.S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider corrections to the Lamb shift of the p-wave atomic states due to the finite nuclear size (FNS). In other words, these are radiative corrections to the atomic isotope shift related to the FNS. It is shown that the structure of the corrections is qualitatively different to that for the s-wave states. The perturbation theory expansion for the relative correction for a p 1/2 state starts with a α ln(1/Zα) term, while for the s 1/2 states it starts with a Zα 2 term. Here, α is the fine-structure constant and Z is the nuclear charge. In the present work, we calculate the α terms for that 2p states, the result for the 2p 1/2 state reads (8α/9π){ln[1/(Zα) 2 ]+0.710}. Even more interesting are the p 3/2 states. In this case the 'correction' is several orders of magnitude larger than the 'leading' FNS shift. However, absolute values of energy shifts related to these corrections are very small

  4. Lamb wave band gaps in a double-sided phononic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Tian-Ning; Yu, Kun-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Peng

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the theoretical investigation of the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave in a phononic crystal structure constituted by a square array of cylindrical stubs deposited on both sides of a thin homogeneous plate. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied by using the finite-element method. We investigate the evolution of band gaps in the double-sided phononic plate with stub height on both sides arranged from an asymmetrical distribution to a symmetrical distribution gradually. Numerical results show that as the double stubs in a unit cell arranged more symmetrically on both sides, band width shifts, new band gaps appear, and the bands become flat due to localized resonant modes which couple with plate modes. Specially, more band gaps and flat bands can be found in the symmetrical system as a result of local resonances of the stubs which interact in a stronger way with the plate modes. Moreover, the symmetrical double-sided plate exhibits lower and smaller band gap than that of the asymmetrical plate. These propagation properties of elastic or acoustic waves in the double-sided plate can potentially be utilized to generate filters, slow the group velocity, low-frequency sound insulation, and design acoustic sensors.

  5. Simulation of Detecting Damage in Composite Stiffened Panel Using Lamb Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Ross, Richard W.; Huang, Guo L.; Yuan, Fuh G.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb wave damage detection in a composite stiffened panel is simulated by performing explicit transient dynamic finite element analyses and using signal imaging techniques. This virtual test process does not need to use real structures, actuators/sensors, or laboratory equipment. Quasi-isotropic laminates are used for the stiffened panels. Two types of damage are studied. One type is a damage in the skin bay and the other type is a debond between the stiffener flange and the skin. Innovative approaches for identifying the damage location and imaging the damage were developed. The damage location is identified by finding the intersection of the damage locus and the path of the time reversal wave packet re-emitted from the sensor nodes. The damage locus is a circle that envelops the potential damage locations. Its center is at the actuator location and its radius is computed by multiplying the group velocity by the time of flight to damage. To create a damage image for estimating the size of damage, a group of nodes in the neighborhood of the damage location is identified for applying an image condition. The image condition, computed at a finite element node, is the zero-lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) of the time-reversed incident wave signal and the time reversal wave signal from the sensor nodes. This damage imaging process is computationally efficient since only the ZLCC values of a small amount of nodes in the neighborhood of the identified damage location are computed instead of those of the full model.

  6. Interaction of Sound with Sound by Novel Mechanisms: Ultrasonic Four-Wave Mixing Mediated by a Suspension and Ultrasonic Three-Wave Mixing at a Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Harry Jay

    Two mechanisms of sound interacting with sound are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Ultrasonic four-wave mixing in a dilute particle suspension, analogous to optical four-wave mixing in photorefractive materials, involves the interaction of three ultrasonic wavefields that produces a fourth scattered wavefield. The experimental configuration consists of two ultrasonic (800 kHz) pump waves that are used to produce a grating in a suspension of 25 μm diameter polymer particles in salt water. The pump waves are counter-propagating, which form a standing wavefield in the suspension and the less compressible particles are attracted to the pressure nodes in response to the time averaged radiation pressure. A higher frequency (2-10 MHz) ultrasonic wavefield is used to probe the resulting grating. The ultrasonic Bragg scattering is then measured. The scattering depends strongly on the response to the pump wave and is an unusual class of acoustical nonlinearity. Investigation of very small amplitude gratings are done by studying the temporal response of the Bragg scattering to a sudden turn on of a moderate amplitude pump wavefield in a previously homogeneous particle suspension. The Bragg scattering has been verified experimentally and is modeled for early-time grating formations using a sinusoidal grating. The larger amplitude gratings are studied in equilibrium and are modeled using an Epstein layer approximation. Ultrasonic three-wave mixing at a free surface involves the interaction of a high amplitude 400 kHz plane wavefield incident at 33^circ on a water-air interface with a normally incident high frequency (4.6 MHz) focused wavefield. The 400 kHz "pump" wavefield reflects from the surface and produces an oscillating surface displacement that forms a local traveling phase grating. Simultaneously the 4.6 MHz "probe" wavefield is reflected from the free surface. The grating scatters the focused probe wavefield and produces (or contributes to) spatially

  7. Dynamic Mode Tuning of Ultrasonic Guided Wave Using an Array Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung J.; Park, Joon S.; Kim, Jae H.; Eom, Heung S.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. There are numerous modes with different wave velocities, and the appropriate mode selection is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, phase tuning by an array transducer was applied to generate ultrasonic guided waves. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. Eight transducers were fabricated in order to generate guided waves by using an array transducer. The selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the interval between elements of an array transducer

  8. Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack...

  9. Classification of Low Velocity Impactors Using Spiral Sensing of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbasi, Chijioke Raphael

    The non-linear elastodynamics of a flat plate subjected to low velocity foreign body impacts is studied, resembling the space debris impacts on the space structure. The work is based on a central hypothesis that in addition to identifying the impact locations, the material properties of the foreign objects can also be classified using acousto-ultrasonic signals (AUS). Simultaneous localization of impact point and classification of impact object is quite challenging using existing state-of-the-art structural health monitoring (SHM) approaches. Available techniques seek to report the exact location of impact on the structure, however, the reported information is likely to have errors from nonlinearity and variability in the AUS signals due to materials, geometry, boundary conditions, wave dispersion, environmental conditions, sensor and hardware calibration etc. It is found that the frequency and speed of the guided wave generated in the plate can be quantized based on the impactor's relationship with the plate (i.e. the wave speed and the impactor's mechanical properties are coupled). In this work, in order to characterize the impact location and mechanical properties of imapctors, nonlinear transient phenomenon is empirically studied to decouple the understanding using the dominant frequency band (DFB) and Lag Index (LI) of the acousto-ultrasonic signals. Next the understanding was correlated with the elastic modulus of the impactor to predict transmitted force histories. The proposed method presented in this thesis is especially applicable for SHM where sensors cannot be widely or randomly distributed. Thus a strategic organization and localization of the sensors is achieved by implementing the geometric configuration of Theodorous Spiral Sensor Cluster (TSSC). The performance of TSSC in characterizing the impactor types are compared with other conventional sensor clusters (e.g. square, circular, random etc.) and it is shown that the TSSC is advantageous over

  10. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Howard M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  11. An Estimation of Wave Attenuation Factor in Ultrasonic Assisted Gravity Drainage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that ultrasonic energy can considerably increase the amount of oil recovery in an immiscible displacement process. Although many studies have been performed on investigating the roles of ultrasonic waves, based on the best of our knowledge, little attention has been paid to evaluate wave attenuation parameter, which is an important parameter in the determination of the energy delivered to the porous medium. In this study, free fall gravity drainage process is investigated in a glass bead porous medium. Kerosene and Dorud crude oil are used as the wetting phases and air is used as the non-wetting phase. A piston-like displacement model with considering constant capillary pressure and applying Corey type approximation for relative permeabilities of both wetting and nonwetting phases is applied. A pressure term is considered to describe the presence of ultrasonic waves and the attenuation factor of ultrasonic waves is calculated by evaluating the value of external pressure applied to enhance the flow using the history matching of the data in the presence and absence of ultrasonic waves. The results introduce the attenuation factor as an important parameter in the process of ultrasonic assisted gravity drainage. The results show that only a low percentage of the ultrasonic energy (5.8% for Dorud crude oil and 3.3% for kerosene is delivered to the flow of the fluid; however, a high increase in oil recovery enhancement (15% for Dorud crude oil and 12% for Kerosene is observed in the experiments. This proves that the ultrasonic waves, even when the contribution is not substantial, can be a significantly efficient method for flow enhancement.

  12. Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor with a Layer-Structured Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2010-01-01

    In-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors had developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In the previous studies, the Ultrasonic waveguide sensor module had been designed and manufactured. And the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been performed. To Improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module in the under-sodium application, the dispersion effect due to the 10 m long distance propagation of the A 0 -mode Lamb wave should be minimized and the longitudinal leaky wave in a liquid sodium should be generated within the range of the effective radiation angle. In this study, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a layered-structured plate is suggested for the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the effective generation of leaky wave in a liquid sodium

  13. Enhancement of Lamb Wave Imaging Resolution by Step Pulse Excitation and Prewarping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangchen Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the damage localization accuracy, a prewarping technology is combined with step pulse excitation and this method is used in Lamb wave imaging of plate structures with adjacent damages. Based on the step pulse excitation, various narrowband or burst response can be derived by signal processing technology and this method provides flexibility for further prewarping approach. A narrowband signal warped with a preselected distance is then designed, and the dispersion in the response of this prewarping signal will be greatly reduced. However, in order to calculate the distance for prewarping, the first arrival needs to be estimated from the burst response. From the step-pulse response, narrowband responses at different central frequencies can be obtained, and by averaging peak-value time of their first arrivals, a more accurate estimation can be calculated. By using the prewarping method to the damage scattering signals before imaging, the imaging resolution of the delay-and-sum method can be highly enhanced. The experiment carried out in an aluminum plate with adjacent damages proves the efficiency of this method.

  14. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hosseinzadeh Samani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  15. Advanced DPSM approach for modeling ultrasonic wave scattering in an arbitrary geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Susheel K.; Banerjee, Sourav; Kundu, Tribikram

    2011-04-01

    Several techniques are used to diagnose structural damages. In the ultrasonic technique structures are tested by analyzing ultrasonic signals scattered by damages. The interpretation of these signals requires a good understanding of the interaction between ultrasonic waves and structures. Therefore, researchers need analytical or numerical techniques to have a clear understanding of the interaction between ultrasonic waves and structural damage. However, modeling of wave scattering phenomenon by conventional numerical techniques such as finite element method requires very fine mesh at high frequencies necessitating heavy computational power. Distributed point source method (DPSM) is a newly developed robust mesh free technique to simulate ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields. In most of the previous studies the DPSM technique has been applied to model two dimensional surface geometries and simple three dimensional scatterer geometries. It was difficult to perform the analysis for complex three dimensional geometries. This technique has been extended to model wave scattering in an arbitrary geometry. In this paper a channel section idealized as a thin solid plate with several rivet holes is formulated. The simulation has been carried out with and without cracks near the rivet holes. Further, a comparison study has been also carried out to characterize the crack. A computer code has been developed in C for modeling the ultrasonic field in a solid plate with and without cracks near the rivet holes.

  16. Analysis of Defective Pipings in Nuclear Power Plants and Applications of Guided Ultrasonic Wave Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Park, Chi Seung; Park, Jae Suck; Choi, H. R.; Jung, S. S.

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to the pipes in nuclear power plants, the cases of defective pipes of nuclear power plants, were investigated. It was confirmed that geometric factors of pipes, such as location, shape, and allowable space were impertinent for the application of guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. The quality of pipes, supports, signals analysis of weldment/defects, acquisition of accurate defects signals also make difficult to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. Thus, a piping mock-up representing the pipes in the nuclear power plants were designed and fabricated. The artificial flaws will be fabricated on the piping mock-up. The signals of guided ultrasonic waves from the artificial flaws will be analyzed. The guided ultrasonic techniques will be applied to the inspection of pipes of nuclear power plants according to the basis of signals analysis of artificial flaws in the piping mock-up

  17. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...

  18. Development of application technology of ultrasonic wave sensor; Choonpa sensor oyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, H; Hikita, N; Sasaki, H; Kore, H [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed parking assist system, which informs a driver the closing point and distance to the objects such as other vehicle, wall and pole around the own vehicle at parking area and makes parking maneuverability easy. This system is based on the range detection technology using ultrasonic wave sensor. We have improved the detecting ability in short range of about 20cm by reducing the reverberation of transmitting wave signal and controlling sensitivities of signal intensity and threshold line. We will show mainly the improvement of short range detection of ultrasonic wave sensor, and briefly the performance of parking assist system. 1 ref., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A study on laser-based ultrasonic technique by the use of guided wave tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junpil, E-mail: jpp@pusan.ac.kr; Lim, Juyoung, E-mail: jpp@pusan.ac.kr [Graduate school, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Younho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Krishnaswamy, Sridhar [Center for Quality Engineering and Failure Prevention, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Guided wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and coarse surfaces or geometrically complicated features. A non-contact setup with a laser ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is the classic attractive for guided wave inspection. The present work was done to develop a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique by laser ultrasonic technique in a plate-like structure. A method for Lam wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulse laser ultrasonic transmitter and a Michelson interferometer receiver has been developed. In the images obtained by laser scanning, the defect shape and area showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact-based online inspection and monitoring technique.

  20. Using the analysis of stress waves to build research for experimentation on ultrasonic film measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Shing; Wu, John H.

    1993-09-01

    After the 2th world war, although the application of ultrasonic wave in industries is becoming more and more popular. But due to the restriction of the precise equivelent , experimental method and the support of the basic theoremsetc. Ultrasonic wave is not applied in precise measurement. Nowadays due to many conditions - the improvement in the production technic, the precise of the equivelent, causes to increase the application of ultrasonic wave. But it's still limited due to the lack of measurement and analysis theorem. In this paper, first we caculate translation of the stress wave (elastic wave) in material for the free surface of material by a normal impulse load. as the theorem analysis base in real application. It is applied to an experiment of film measurement. We can find the partical motion in material and the arriving time of wave front. Then we can estimate the thickness of layers and can prove the actual condition with the result of experiment. This resarch is not only in the theoretical investigation but also in setting overall the measurement system, and excutes the following three experiments: the thickness measurement of two layers, the thickness measurement of film material. the thickness measurement of air propagation. About the data processing, we relied on the frequency analysis to evalute the time difference of two overlapped ultrasonic wave signal. in the meanwhile. we also designed several computer programs to assist the sonic wave identification and signal analysis.

  1. Dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders at ultrasonic frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders is studied by analyzing generalized Pochhammer equations derived using Biot's theory. Cases with open-pore surface and closed-pore surface boundary conditions are considered. For both cases, the dispersion of the fast extensional wave does not differ much qualitatively from the dispersion expected for extensional waves in isotropic elastic cylinders. A slow extensional wave propagates in the case with a closed-pore surface but not in the case with an open-pore surface. The propagating slow wave has very weak dispersion and its speed is always lower than, but close to, the bulk slow wave speed

  2. Recent Development in Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aircraft and Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Emphasis in the paper is placed on describing guided wave successes and challenges for applications in aircraft and composite materials inspection. Guided wave imaging methods discussed includes line of sight, tomography, guided wave C-scan, phased array, and ultrasonic vibration methods. Applications outlined encircles lap splice, bonded repair patch, fuselage corrosion, water loaded structures, delamination, and ice detection and de-icing of various structures.

  3. Experiments of Long-range Inspection Method in Straight Pipes using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Lim, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Joo, Y.S.

    2006-02-01

    This report describes experimental results of a long-range inspection method of pipes using ultrasonic guided waves. In chapter 2, theory of guided wave was reviewed. In chapter 3, equipment and procedures which were used in the experiments were described. Detailed specifications of the specimens described in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we analyzed characteristics of guided wave signals according to shapes and sizes of defects and presents results of various signal processing methods

  4. Comparative study of electromechanical impedance and Lamb wave techniques for fatigue crack detection and monitoring in metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Say Ian; Liu, Yu; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue cracks often initiate at the weld toes of welded steel connections. Usually, these cracks cannot be identified by the naked eyes. Existing identification methods like dye-penetration test and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) may be useful for detecting fatigue cracks at the weld toes. To apply these non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, the potential sites have to be accessible during inspection. Therefore, there is a need to explore other detection and monitoring techniques for fatigue cracks especially when their locations are inaccessible or cost of access is uneconomical. Electro-mechanical Impedance (EMI) and Lamb wave techniques are two fast growing techniques in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) community. These techniques use piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) for actuation and sensing. Since the monitoring site is only needed to be accessed once for the instrumentation of the transducers, remote monitoring is made possible. The permanent locations of these transducers also translate to having consistent measurement for monitoring. The main focus of this study is to conduct a comparative investigation on the effectiveness and efficiency of the EMI technique and the Lamb wave technique for successful fatigue crack identification and monitoring of welded steel connections using piezoelectric transducers. A laboratory-sized non-load carrying fillet weld specimen is used in this study. The specimen is subjected to cyclic tensile load and data for both techniques are acquired at stipulated intervals. It can be concluded that the EMI technique is sensitive to the crack initiation phase while the Lamb wave technique correlates well with the crack propagation phase.

  5. A New Detecting Technology for External Anticorrosive Coating Defects of Pipelines Based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujun; Zuo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    The external anticorrosive coating is the shelter for preventing steel pipelines from Corrosive damage. A number of pipelines face severe corrosive problems for the performance decrease of the coating, especially during long-term services, which usually led to safety accidents. To solve the detection problem about the defect of anticorrosive layer for pipeline, a new detection method for anticorrosive layer of pipelines based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave was proposed in the paper. The results from the investigation show a possibility of using the Ultrasonic Guided Wave method for detecting the damage of pipeline’s External Anticorrosive Coating.

  6. Optical Production and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves in Metals for Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves were produced by striking the surface of a metal with the focused one-joule pulse of a Q-switched ruby laser. Rayleigh (surface) waves and longitudinal waves were detected with conventional transducers. Optical methods of detection were tested and developed. Rayleigh waves were produced with an oscillator and transducer. They were optically detected on curved polished surfaces, and on unpolished surfaces. The technique uses a knife edge to detect small angle changes of the surface as the wave pulse passes the illuminated spot. Optical flaw detection using pulse echo and attenuation is demonstrated.

  7. Weld quality inspection using laser-EMAT ultrasonic system and C-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique has attracted more and more interests in weld quality inspection because of its non-destructive and non-contact characteristics. When ultrasonic techniques are used to detect welds joining relative thin plates, the dominant ultrasonic waves present in the plates are Lamb waves, which propagate all through the thickness. Traditional Time of Flight(ToF) method loses its power. The broadband nature of laser excited ultrasound plus dispersive and multi-modal characteristic of Lamb waves make the EMAT acquired signals very complicated in this situation. Challenge rises in interpreting the received signals and establishing relationship between signal feature and weld quality. In this paper, the laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was applied in a C-scan manner to record full wave propagation field over an area close to the weld. Then the effect of weld defect on the propagation field of Lamb waves was studied visually by watching an movie resulted from the recorded signals. This method was proved to be effective to detect the presence of hidden defect in the weld. Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) was applied to characterize the acquired ultrasonic signals and ideal band-pass filter was used to isolate wave components most sensitive to the weld defect. Different interactions with the weld defect were observed for different wave components. Thus this C-Scan method, combined with DWT and ideal band-pass filter, proved to be an effective methodology to experimentally study interactions of various laser excited Lamb Wave components with weld defect. In this work, the method was demonstrated by inspecting a hidden local incomplete penetration in weld. In fact, this method can be applied to study Lamb Wave interactions with any type of structural inconsistency. This work also proposed a ideal filtered based method to effectively reduce the total experimental time.

  8. Inspection Correlation Study of Ultrasonic-Based In Situ Structural Health Monitoring Monthly Report for December 2014-January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    fatigue an induced ultrasonic elastic vibration (via piezoelectric transducers [ PZTs ]) propagates through the dogbone specimen. A receiver PZT picks up...inspection of fatigue crack growth in aluminum 7075-T6 dogbone specimens. Acellent Technologies, Inc., is supporting this project through providing...January 2015. 15. SUBJECT TERMS structural health monitoring, probabilistics, fatigue damage, guided waves, Lamb waves 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  9. Fatigue crack growth monitoring in multi-layered structures using guided ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostson, E; Fromme, P

    2009-01-01

    This contribution investigates the application of low frequency guided ultrasonic waves for monitoring fatigue crack growth at fastener holes in the 2nd layer of multi-layered plate structures, a common problem in aerospace industry. The model multi-layered structure investigated consists of two aluminum plate-strips adhesively bonded using a structural paste adhesive. Guided ultrasonic waves were excited using multiple piezoelectric discs bonded to the surface of the multi-layered structure. The wave propagation in the tensile specimen was measured using a laser interferometer and compared to numerical simulations. Thickness and width mode shapes of the excited flexural waves were identified from Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) calculations. Experiments and 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations show a change in the scattered field around fastener holes caused by a defect in the 2nd layer. The amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave was monitored during fatigue experiments at a single point. The measured changes in the amplitude of the ultrasonic signal due to fatigue crack growth agree well with FE simulations.

  10. NONLINEAR ULTRASONIC WAVE MODULATION TOMOGRAPHY FOR DAMAGED ZONE LOCATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk

    -, - (2008), s. 14-17 ISSN 1213-3825. [WCNDT /17./. Šanghaj, 24.10.2008-28.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy * defects localization * aircraft structure Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  11. Computer simulation of ultrasonic waves propagation; experimental checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.C.; Beaujard, L.; Bouchard, A.; Etienne, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the angular spectrum formalism can be applied to transducers used for non destructive testing of metals. This formalism enables for example, the ultrasonic field of any transducer to be determined. Examples are given of measurements in water [fr

  12. In-Situ Characterization of Isotropic and Transversely Isotropic Elastic Properties Using Ultrasonic Wave Velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, S; Laliberte, J; Martinez, M.J.; Rocha, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a one-sided, in situ method based on the time of flight measurement of ultrasonic waves was described. The primary application of this technique was to non-destructively measure the stiffness properties of isotropic and transversely isotropic materials. The method consists of

  13. A New Scheme for Experimental-Based Modeling of a Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojallali, Hamed; Amini, R.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for equivalent circuit modeling of a traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented. The free stator of the motor is modeled by an equivalent circuit containing complex circuit elements. A systematic approach for identifying the elements of the equivalent circuit...

  14. Focused ultrasonic wave testing, in immersion of spent fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinboeuf, P.; Furlan, J.

    1984-10-01

    To detect weak and very weak damage of the fuel can, ultrasonic testing has been used. For that, a simple mechanical device, allowing to maintain an optimal ultrasonic focussing on irradiated cans, is presented. Its aim is to correct the variation of the incidence angle due to the possible ovalization of pins. After a description of the device, the results obtained with tests carried out on non-irradiated cans, including artificial ovalized regions, standard defects, are presented. After the description of the adaptation of this mechanism on a test bench which allows an helicoidal exploration of pins, some results obtained in hot cell during examinations experimental pins and previously tested by Foucault current [fr

  15. Non-contact fluid characterization in containers using ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-15

    Apparatus and method for non-contact (stand-off) ultrasonic determination of certain characteristics of fluids in containers or pipes are described. A combination of swept frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), wide-bandwidth, air-coupled acoustic transducers, narrowband frequency data acquisition, and data conversion from the frequency domain to the time domain, if required, permits meaningful information to be extracted from such fluids.

  16. Response of fiber Bragg gratings to longitudinal ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Cusano, Andrea; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi; Giordano, Michele

    2005-02-01

    In the last years, fiber optic sensors have been widely exploited for several sensing applications, including static and dynamic strain measurements up to acoustic detection. Among these, fiber Bragg grating sensors have been indicated as the ideal candidate for practical structural health monitoring in light of their unique advantages over conventional sensing devices. Although this class of sensors has been successfully tested for static and low-frequency measurements, the identification of sensor performances for high-frequency detection, including acoustic emission and ultrasonic investigations, is required. To this aim, the analysis of feasibilty on the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors as ultrasonic detectors has been carried out. In particular, the response of fiber Bragg gratings subjected to the longitudinal ultrasonic (US) field has been theoretically and numerically investigated. Ultrasonic field interaction has been modeled, taking into account the direct deformation of the grating pitch combined with changes in local refractive index due to the elasto-optic effect. Numerical results, obtained for both uniform and Gaussian-apodized fiber Bragg gratings, show that the grating spectrum is strongly influenced by the US field in terms of shape and central wavelength. In particular, a key parameter affecting the grating response is the ratio between the US wavelength and the grating length. Normal operation characterized by changes in wavelength of undistorted Bragg peak is possible only for US wavelengths longer than the grating length. For US wavelengths approaching the grating length, the wavelength change is accompanied by subpeaks formation and main peak amplitude modulation. This effect can be attributed to the nonuniformity of the US perturbation along the grating length. At very high US frequencies, the grating is not sensitive any longer. The results of this analysis provide useful tools for the design of grating-based ultrasound sensors for

  17. Corrosion and erosion monitoring in plates and pipes using constant group velocity Lamb wave inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter B; Simonetti, Francesco; Instanes, Geir

    2014-09-01

    Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [de

  19. Quench detection of superconducting magnets using ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, A.; Sakaniwa, K.; Kado, H.; Ishigohka, T.; Higo, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A method to detect a quench of a superconducting magnet using ultrasonic technique is presented. This method is a kind of non-destructive one which monitors a change of acoustic transfer function of a superconducting magnet induced by a local temperature rise or an epoxy crack etc.. Some experiments are carried out on a small epoxy impregnated magnet. The experimental results show that a local temperature rise of about 2-3K can be detected by this method. And, some leading symptoms before quench were detected

  20. Mode Selection for Axial Flaw Detection in Steam Generator Tube Using Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Guon, Ki Il; Kim, Yong Sik

    2009-01-01

    The eddy current testing method is mainly used to inspect steam generator tube during in-service inspection period. But the general problem of assessing the structural integrity of the steam generator tube using eddy current inspection is rather complex due to the presence of noise and interference signal under various conditions. However, ultrasonic testing as a nondestructive testing tool has become quite popular and effective for the flaw detection and material characterization. Currently, ultrasonic guided wave is emerging technique in power industry because of its various merits. But most of previous studies are focused on detection of circumferential oriented flaws. In this study, the steam generator tube of nuclear power plant was selected to detect axially oriented flaws and investigate guided wave mode identification. The longitudinal wave mode is generated using piezoelectric transducer frequency from 0.5 MHz, 1.0 MHz, 2.25MHz and 5MHz. Dispersion based STFT algorithm is used as mode identification tool

  1. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1998-03-20

    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  3. Ultrasonic wave transmission through healthy and diseased tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edee, M.K.A.

    1985-12-01

    We calculated the distribution of the spectral density of the ultrasonic energy transmitted by the reference specimen which was water. Let σsub(i0) 2 be this parameter for the frequency fsub(i). In the same manner, we evaluated σsub(i) 2 for the ultrasonic energy transmitted by the biological tissue. We superposed on the curve Log σsub(i0) 2 =F(fsub(i)), each of the curves Log σsub(i) 2 =F(fsub(i)), corresponding to the different kinds of tissues studied. By doing so, we brought into light a ''zone'' between those curves. The judicious exploitation of that ''zone'' by calculating the spectral density coefficients β, made it possible to differentiate one tissue from another. We compared the results so obtained using a probe vibrating at 1.5 MHz with those we obtained by another probe and another method. Both sets of results are in agreement within an approximation of 10%. (author)

  4. Study of a new technique for measuring the travel time of ultrasonic waves using the frequency spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Allan Xavier dos

    2010-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant and other industrial plants, the operational time and the exposition to severe working conditions may cause the wear of its components, consequently, compromising the safety and the performance of the installation. The implementation of periodical inspections helps to ensure the safe operation and the best performance of the plant. In this way, the use of ultrasonic techniques for inspection and materials characterization becomes more and more attractive, since they offer quick, precise results and are technically ease to implement. The usual ultrasonic techniques, need to the measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in the material examined in order to extract information useful to characterize it. Thus, the measurement of the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave is the overriding factor in most of the applications made with ultrasound. In this work a new technique was developed for measuring the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave using a Fourier's Fast Transformer (FFT). It will be shown mathematically and experimentally that it is possible to use the ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave. Five experiments were carried out for the experimental validation of this new technique. The materials used were 20 ceramic pastilles with different porosities and 3 aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The obtained results have shown that the new technique proposed in this work was able to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave with the same precision as the conventional technique. It was shown, furthermore, that this new technique is able to measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in situations where the conventional technique cannot be applied greatly expanding the range of application of ultrasonic testing and inspections. (author)

  5. Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Piezoelectric Layered Composite with Different Interfacial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the propagation model of guided waves in a multilayered piezoelectric composite with the interfacial model of rigid, slip, and weak interfaces, the generalized dispersion characteristic equations of guided waves propagating in a piezoelectric layered composite with different interfacial properties are derived. The effects of the slip, weak, and delamination interfaces in different depths on the dispersion properties of the lowest-order mode ultrasonic guided wave are analyzed. The theory would be used to characterize the interfacial properties of piezoelectric layered composite nondestructively.

  6. An ultrasonic guided wave approach for the inspection of overhead transmission line cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, Mehmet K.; Legg, Mathew; Kappatos, Vasileios

    2017-01-01

    as a non-destructive testing technique is well established for simple geometries such as plates, pipes, and rods. However, its application for multi-wire cables is still in development. In this study, ultrasonic guided waves excited by a shear mode transducer collar are utilised as a defect detection...... technique for untensioned aluminium conductor steel reinforced cable specimens. The identification and analysis of wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies is performed using a laser scanning vibrometer, and the effect of defect size on wave propagation is studied. Signal processing algorithms...

  7. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11–54 GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420 nm down to 168 nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types

  8. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Waves System in Repellency of Red Beetle of Flour (Tribolium castaneum Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increase of world population, lack of food sources, and need for food security, protection of agricultural products against losses, drought, pests, and diseases, all seems to be necessary more than ever. During the years, grains have been the main food of humans, especially wheat, barley, rice, and corn. So production and storage of these products is important for societies. One of the main problems in this field is protecting the grains in stores until consuming or planting them again. Annually, over hundreds of millions tons of grains are lost by pests present in stores and not observing the scientific principles of storing. Control of insects and pests during storage as a destructive factor of stored products by harmless methods is necessary. There are restrictions in use of chemically control methods against pests in stores. Therefore in recent decades, physically control methods have attracted a lot of attentions. The purpose of using physically control methods is eliminating pests with minimum destructive effect on the environment. These methods directly affect on pests or change their living situations and create an unsafe environment for them. One of the tools that indirectly affect pests is ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves which can properly penetrate in air and porous areas. These waves are completely safe for the environment and cause no damage to the environment. Ultrasonic waves as new safe strategy in insect control can prepare unsafe areas for annoying insects and agricultural pests. The main characteristics of ultrasonic waves are safe for humans and environment. Materials and Methods: In this study, experiments were carried out to assess the repellent impact of ultrasonic waves on one important storage pest, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbs. The system, which produces ultrasonic waves, includes distributor of ultrasonic waves, power supply, central processor, oscillator, display

  9. Prediction and measurement of the reflection of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb wave from cracks and notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Kao, J-Y; Diligent, O.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of the fundamental antisymmetric Lamb wave (a o ) with cracks and with notches of different depth and width has been investigated both experimentally and by finite element analysis. Excellent agreement between the predictions and the measurements has been obtained. It has been shown that the reflection coefficient is a function of both the notch width to wavelength and notch depth to wavelength ratios. Both the relationship between the reflection coefficient and notch, depth, and the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient, are very different for the a o mode compared to the s o mode which was studied earlier. Physical insight into the reasons for the different behavior is given by examination of the stress fields and opening displacements at the crack or notch

  10. Comparison of slowness profiles of lamb wave with elastic moduli and crystal structure in single crystalline silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Young Jae; Yun, Gyeong Won; Kim, Kyung Min; Roh, Yuji; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Single crystalline silicon wafers having (100), (110), and (111) directions are employed as specimens for obtaining slowness profiles. Leaky Lamb waves (LLW) from immersed wafers were detected by varying the incident angles of the specimens and rotating the specimens. From an analysis of LLW signals for different propagation directions and phase velocities of each specimen, slowness profiles were obtained, which showed a unique symmetry with different symmetric axes. Slowness profiles were compared with elastic moduli of each wafer. They showed the same symmetries as crystal structures. In addition, slowness profiles showed expected patterns and values that can be inferred from elastic moduli. This implies that slowness profiles can be used to examine crystal structures of anisotropic solids.

  11. Beam paths of flexural Lamb waves at high frequency in the first band within phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.

  12. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  13. Novel intelligent PID control of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhuo, Shi; Yu, Liu; Jingtao, Huang; Meiyu, Xu; Juwei, Zhang; Lei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    A simple control strategy with acceptable control performance can be a good choice for the mass production of ultrasonic motor control system. In this paper, through the theoretic and experimental analyses of typical control process, a simpler intelligent PID speed control strategy of TWUM is proposed, involving only two expert rules to adjust the PID control parameters based on the current status. Compared with the traditional PID controller, this design requires less calculation and more cheap chips which can be easily involved in online performance. Experiments with different load torques and voltage amplitudes show that the proposed controller can deal with the nonlinearity and load disturbance to maintain good control performance of TWUM. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in composite laminates with realistic discontinuity representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyak, Andreea-Manuela; Schorer, Nora; Sause, Markus G R

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a method for embedding realistic defect geometries of a fiber reinforced material in a finite element modeling environment in order to simulate active ultrasonic inspection. When ultrasonic inspection is used experimentally to investigate the presence of defects in composite materials, the microscopic defect geometry may cause signal characteristics that are difficult to interpret. Hence, modeling of this interaction is key to improve our understanding and way of interpreting the acquired ultrasonic signals. To model the true interaction of the ultrasonic wave field with such defect structures as pores, cracks or delamination, a realistic three dimensional geometry reconstruction is required. We present a 3D-image based reconstruction process which converts computed tomography data in adequate surface representations ready to be embedded for processing with finite element methods. Subsequent modeling using these geometries uses a multi-scale and multi-physics simulation approach which results in quantitative A-Scan ultrasonic signals which can be directly compared with experimental signals. Therefore, besides the properties of the composite material, a full transducer implementation, piezoelectric conversion and simultaneous modeling of the attached circuit is applied. Comparison between simulated and experimental signals provides very good agreement in electrical voltage amplitude and the signal arrival time and thus validates the proposed modeling approach. Simulating ultrasound wave propagation in a medium with a realistic shape of the geometry clearly shows a difference in how the disturbance of the waves takes place and finally allows more realistic modeling of A-scans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Active Metamaterial Based Ultrasonic Guided Wave Transducer System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An active and tunable metamaterial phased array transducer for guided wave mode selection with high intensity per driving channel and with dramatically lower modal...

  16. Light Diffraction by Large Amplitude Ultrasonic Waves in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Laszlo; Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Light diffraction from ultrasound, which can be used to investigate nonlinear acoustic phenomena in liquids, is reported for wave amplitudes larger than that typically reported in the literature. Large amplitude waves result in waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the medium that generates harmonics and produces asymmetries in the light diffraction pattern. For standing waves with amplitudes above a threshold value, subharmonics are generated in addition to the harmonics and produce additional diffraction orders of the incident light. With increasing drive amplitude above the threshold a cascade of period-doubling subharmonics are generated, terminating in a region characterized by a random, incoherent (chaotic) diffraction pattern. To explain the experimental results a toy model is introduced, which is derived from traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear wave equation corresponding to the fundamental and second harmonic standing waves. The toy model reduces the nonlinear partial differential equation to a mathematically more tractable nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The model predicts the experimentally observed cascade of period-doubling subharmonics terminating in chaos that occurs with increasing drive amplitudes above the threshold value. The calculated threshold amplitude is consistent with the value estimated from the experimental data.

  17. A study on an object transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sang Hwa; Kim, Gwang Ho; Choi, Suk Bong; Park, Jun Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae

    2007-01-01

    The development of information and telecommunication industries leads to the development of semiconductor and optical industries. In recent years, the demand of optical components is growing due to the demand of faster network. On the other hand, conventional transport systems are not adequate for transporting precision optical components and semiconductors. Because the conveyor belt can damage precision optical components with contact force and a magnetic system would destroy the inner structure of semiconductor with magnetic field, a new system for transporting optical components and semiconductors is required. One of the alternatives to the existing systems is a transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation since it can transport precision components such as semiconductors and optical components without damage. In this paper, a transport system using 2-mode ultrasonic wave excitation was developed for transporting optical components and semiconductor, and its performance was evaluated. The relationship between transporting characteristics and flexural beam shapes were evaluated

  18. Preliminary investigation of ultrasonic shear wave holography with a view to the inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, E.E.; Clare, A.B.; Shepherd, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The manner in which holography would fit into the general scheme of pressure vessel inspection is discussed. Compared to conventional A, B and C presentations holography requires a different processing of the ultrasonic signal and a mechanical scan which may be more demanding than that normally provided for a C display. Preliminary results are presented of the examination of artificial defects in steel plate using shear wave holography. (author)

  19. HTS-SQUID NDE Technique for Pipes based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsukade, Y; Masutani, N; Teranishi, S; Masamoto, K; Kanenaga, S; Adachi, S; Tanabe, K

    2017-01-01

    This article describes research on the novel high-temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for metallic pipes based on ultrasonic guided waves. We constructed HTS-SQUID NDE system for pipes based on ultrasonic guided waves, which were generated and received by means of the magnetostrictive effects. Using the system, we measured magnetic signals due to T (0, 1) mode ultrasonic guided waves that transmitted on aluminium pipe, and investigated influences of measurement parameters to the magnetic signals, such as direction of a HTS-SQUID gradiometer, lift-off distance, and intensity and frequency of input current fed to a magnetostrictive transmitter. With the gradiometer oriented parallel to the pipe axis, more than 10 times larger signals were measured compared with that oriented perpendicular to the pipe axis. Magnetic signals measured by the gradiometer were inverse proportional to the power of the list- off distance, and proportional to the intensity of the input current up to 1 A pp . Relation between the frequency of the input current and the measured signal was shown and discussed. (paper)

  20. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of the scattering of ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Katherine M.M.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Langer, Matthias; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Many safety critical structures, such as those found in nuclear plants, oil pipelines and in the aerospace industry, rely on key components that are constructed from heterogeneous materials. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) uses high-frequency mechanical waves to inspect these parts, ensuring they operate reliably without compromising their integrity. It is possible to employ mathematical models to develop a deeper understanding of the acquired ultrasonic data and enhance defect imaging algorithms. In this paper, a model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack is derived in the time–frequency domain. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is applied to an inhomogeneous wave equation where the forcing function is prescribed as a linear chirp, modulated by a Gaussian envelope. The homogeneous solution is found via the Born approximation which encapsulates information regarding the flaw geometry. The inhomogeneous solution is obtained via the inverse Fourier transform of a Gaussian-windowed linear chirp excitation. It is observed that, although the scattering profile of the flaw does not change, it is amplified. Thus, the theory demonstrates the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio permitted by the use of coded excitation, as well as establishing a time–frequency domain framework to assist in flaw identification and classification. PMID:25792967

  1. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method For Crack Detection In Buried Plastic Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hamat Wan Sofian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic pipe are widely used in many fields for the fluid or gaseous product conveyance but basic components of a plastic material made it very sensitive to damage, which requires techniques for detecting damage reliable and efficient. Ultrasonic guided wave is a sensitive method based on propagation of low-frequency excitation in solid structures for damage detection. Ultrasonic guided wave method are performed to investigate the effect of crack to the frequency signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis. This paper researched to determine performance of ultrasonic guided wave method in order to detect crack in buried pipeline. It was found that for an uncrack pipe, FFT analysis shows one peak which is the operating frequency by the piezoelectric actuator itself while the FFT analysis for single cracked pipe shows two peak which is the operating frequency by the piezoelectric actuator itself and the resultant frequency from the crack. For multi cracked pipe, the frequency signal shows more than two peak depend the number of crack. The results presented here may facilitate improvements in the accuracy and precision of pipeline crack detection.

  2. HTS-SQUID NDE Technique for Pipes based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Masutani, N.; Teranishi, S.; Masamoto, K.; Kanenaga, S.; Adachi, S.; Tanabe, K.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes research on the novel high-temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for metallic pipes based on ultrasonic guided waves. We constructed HTS-SQUID NDE system for pipes based on ultrasonic guided waves, which were generated and received by means of the magnetostrictive effects. Using the system, we measured magnetic signals due to T (0, 1) mode ultrasonic guided waves that transmitted on aluminium pipe, and investigated influences of measurement parameters to the magnetic signals, such as direction of a HTS-SQUID gradiometer, lift-off distance, and intensity and frequency of input current fed to a magnetostrictive transmitter. With the gradiometer oriented parallel to the pipe axis, more than 10 times larger signals were measured compared with that oriented perpendicular to the pipe axis. Magnetic signals measured by the gradiometer were inverse proportional to the power of the list- off distance, and proportional to the intensity of the input current up to 1 App. Relation between the frequency of the input current and the measured signal was shown and discussed.

  3. Utilization of ultrasonic waves (Acheta domesticus) as a biocontrol of mosquito in Malang Agricultural Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Sama'Iradat

    2017-11-01

    Malang Agricultural Institute is a college located in the residential area Griyasanta Malang. The environment around the Institute of Agriculture Malang has moist soil conditions so that mosquito species insects easily reproduce. It is feared that this problem can potentially cause many diseases caused by mosquitoes such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, elephant legs and much more. Nowadays there has been considerable research on ultrasound waves against mosquitoes. Many studies have been done to determine the effect of ultrasonic waves on mosquitoes. Crickets have frequencies between 0.2 kHz-50 kHz so it has the potential to control mosquito pests. Existing studies indicate that mosquito pests can be expelled with the frequency of 18-48 kHz. But this still cannot eliminate mosquito larvae that require a wave of 85 kHz. The effects of ultrasound waves on mosquitoes are (1) erection of the antenna which shows the stress on the nervous system to physical injury and fatigue so as to increase the percentage of fall and the death of mosquitoes. (2) ultrasonic waves can make the antenna function in the mosquito as the receiver of excitatory disturbed. The ultrasonic wave can be defined as a threat so that the mosquito will be expelled. Based on this, a simple study was conducted at the campus of the Institute of Agriculture of Malang by taking 10 different locations with randomly assigned respondents with a maximum of 5 people per location. The results show that the effectiveness of the use of crickets in the morning reached 60% and in the afternoon reached 80% starting on the first day since the installation of crickets. So the use of these crickets in the campus environment of the Institute of Agriculture Malang is quite effective.

  4. Physics of ultrasonic wave propagation in bone and heart characterized using Bayesian parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian Carl

    This Dissertation explores the physics underlying the propagation of ultrasonic waves in bone and in heart tissue through the use of Bayesian probability theory. Quantitative ultrasound is a noninvasive modality used for clinical detection, characterization, and evaluation of bone quality and cardiovascular disease. Approaches that extend the state of knowledge of the physics underpinning the interaction of ultrasound with inherently inhomogeneous and isotropic tissue have the potential to enhance its clinical utility. Simulations of fast and slow compressional wave propagation in cancellous bone were carried out to demonstrate the plausibility of a proposed explanation for the widely reported anomalous negative dispersion in cancellous bone. The results showed that negative dispersion could arise from analysis that proceeded under the assumption that the data consist of only a single ultrasonic wave, when in fact two overlapping and interfering waves are present. The confounding effect of overlapping fast and slow waves was addressed by applying Bayesian parameter estimation to simulated data, to experimental data acquired on bone-mimicking phantoms, and to data acquired in vitro on cancellous bone. The Bayesian approach successfully estimated the properties of the individual fast and slow waves even when they strongly overlapped in the acquired data. The Bayesian parameter estimation technique was further applied to an investigation of the anisotropy of ultrasonic properties in cancellous bone. The degree to which fast and slow waves overlap is partially determined by the angle of insonation of ultrasound relative to the predominant direction of trabecular orientation. In the past, studies of anisotropy have been limited by interference between fast and slow waves over a portion of the range of insonation angles. Bayesian analysis estimated attenuation, velocity, and amplitude parameters over the entire range of insonation angles, allowing a more complete

  5. Coherent transmission of an ultrasonic shock wave through a multiple scattering medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Nicolas; Giammarinaro, Bruno; Derode, Arnaud; Barrière, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    We report measurements of the transmitted coherent (ensemble-averaged) wave resulting from the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a two-dimensional random medium. Despite multiple scattering, the coherent waveform clearly shows the steepening that is typical of nonlinear harmonic generation. This is taken advantage of to measure the elastic mean free path and group velocity over a broad frequency range (2-15 MHz) in only one experiment. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with a linear theoretical model taking into account spatial correlations between scatterers. These results show that nonlinearity and multiple scattering are both present, yet uncoupled.

  6. Investigation on ultrasonic guided waves propagation in elbow pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Minxin; Zhou, Shaoping; Ni, Jing; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline plays an indispensable role in process industries, whose structural integrity is of great significance for the safe production. In this paper, the axial crack-like defects in 90° elbows are inspected by using the T (0, 1) mode guided waves. The detection sensitivity for different defect locations is firstly investigated by guided waves experimentally. The propagation of guided waves in the bent pipe is then simulated by using finite element method. The results show that the rates of T (0, 1) mode passing through elbow correlate strongly with the excitation frequency. Less mode conversion is generated at the frequency of 38 kHz when passing through the elbow, while most of energy converted into F (1, 2) mode at the frequency of 75 kHz. The crack in different locations of the elbow can affect the rates of mode conversion. It can be found that the crack in the middle of the elbow inhibits mode conversion and shares the highest detection sensitivity, while the crack in the extrados of elbow causes more mode conversion.

  7. OPTIMATION OF 48 KHZ ULTRASONIC WAVE DOSE FOR THE INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA TYPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi May Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonic dose exposure which could decrease the viability of Salmonella typhi by using the variation of exposure time (15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes and volume of bacterial suspension (2, 4, 6, and 8 ml at constant power. The sample used was Salmonella typhi. Ultrasonic wave transmitter was a piezoelectric tweeter with 0,191 watts of power and 48 kHz frequency generated by the signal generator. Piezoelectric tweeter was a kind of transducer which converted electrical energy into ultrasonic energy. This research was an experimental laboratory with a completely randomized design. The decrease of bacterial percentage was calculated by using TPC (Total Plate Count. Data were analyzed by using One Way Anova. The results showed that the variation of exposure time and volume of bacterial suspension gave significant effect on the percentage of Salmonella typhi kill. The most optimal of ultrasonic dose exposure to kill Salmonella typhi was 281.87 J/ml with 100% bacterial kill.

  8. Differentiate low impedance media in closed steel tank using ultrasonic wave tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Chen, Zhaojiang; Cao, Wenwu

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave tunneling through seriously mismatched media, such as steel and water, is possible only when the frequency matches the resonance of the steel plate. But it is nearly impossible to realize continuous wave tunneling if the low acoustic impedance media is air because the transducer frequency cannot be made so accurate. The issue might be resolved using tone-burst signals. Using finite element simulations, we found that for air media when the cycle number is 20, the -6dB bandwidth of energy transmission increased from 0.001% to 5.9% compared with that of continuous waves. We show that the tunneling waves can give us enough information to distinguish low acoustic impedance media inside a steel tank. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Faraday Waves-Based Integrated Ultrasonic Micro-Droplet Generator and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen S. Tsai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth review on a new ultrasonic micro-droplet generator which utilizes megahertz (MHz Faraday waves excited by silicon-based multiple Fourier horn ultrasonic nozzles (MFHUNs and its potential applications is presented. The new droplet generator has demonstrated capability for producing micro droplets of controllable size and size distribution and desirable throughput at very low electrical drive power. For comparison, the serious deficiencies of current commercial droplet generators (nebulizers and the other ultrasonic droplet generators explored in recent years are first discussed. The architecture, working principle, simulation, and design of the multiple Fourier horns (MFH in resonance aimed at the amplified longitudinal vibration amplitude on the end face of nozzle tip, and the fabrication and characterization of the nozzles are then described in detail. Subsequently, a linear theory on the temporal instability of Faraday waves on a liquid layer resting on the planar end face of the MFHUN and the detailed experimental verifications are presented. The linear theory serves to elucidate the dynamics of droplet ejection from the free liquid surface and predict the vibration amplitude onset threshold for droplet ejection and the droplet diameters. A battery-run pocket-size clogging-free integrated micro droplet generator realized using the MFHUN is then described. The subsequent report on the successful nebulization of a variety of commercial pulmonary medicines against common diseases and on the experimental antidote solutions to cyanide poisoning using the new droplet generator serves to support its imminent application to inhalation drug delivery.

  10. Faraday Waves-Based Integrated Ultrasonic Micro-Droplet Generator and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen S; Mao, Rong W; Tsai, Shirley C; Shahverdi, Kaveh; Zhu, Yun; Lin, Shih K; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Boss, Gerry; Brenner, Matt; Mahon, Sari; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth review on a new ultrasonic micro-droplet generator which utilizes megahertz (MHz) Faraday waves excited by silicon-based multiple Fourier horn ultrasonic nozzles (MFHUNs) and its potential applications is presented. The new droplet generator has demonstrated capability for producing micro droplets of controllable size and size distribution and desirable throughput at very low electrical drive power. For comparison, the serious deficiencies of current commercial droplet generators (nebulizers) and the other ultrasonic droplet generators explored in recent years are first discussed. The architecture, working principle, simulation, and design of the multiple Fourier horns (MFH) in resonance aimed at the amplified longitudinal vibration amplitude on the end face of nozzle tip, and the fabrication and characterization of the nozzles are then described in detail. Subsequently, a linear theory on the temporal instability of Faraday waves on a liquid layer resting on the planar end face of the MFHUN and the detailed experimental verifications are presented. The linear theory serves to elucidate the dynamics of droplet ejection from the free liquid surface and predict the vibration amplitude onset threshold for droplet ejection and the droplet diameters. A battery-run pocket-size clogging-free integrated micro droplet generator realized using the MFHUN is then described. The subsequent report on the successful nebulization of a variety of commercial pulmonary medicines against common diseases and on the experimental antidote solutions to cyanide poisoning using the new droplet generator serves to support its imminent application to inhalation drug delivery.

  11. Influence of the Spatial Dimensions of Ultrasonic Transducers on the Frequency Spectrum of Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaitis, Vykintas; Mažeika, Liudas

    2017-08-08

    Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW)-based condition monitoring has shown great promise in detecting, localizing, and characterizing damage in complex systems. However, the application of guided waves for damage detection is challenging due to the existence of multiple modes and dispersion. This results in distorted wave packets with limited resolution and the interference of multiple reflected modes. To develop reliable inspection systems, either the transducers have to be optimized to generate a desired single mode of guided waves with known dispersive properties, or the frequency responses of all modes present in the structure must be known to predict wave interaction. Currently, there is a lack of methods to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes, especially in cases when multiple modes are being excited simultaneously. Such methods are of vital importance for further understanding wave propagation within the structures as well as wave-damage interaction. In this study, a novel method to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes was proposed based on Fourier analysis of the particle velocity distribution on the excitation area. The method proposed in this study estimates an excitability function based on the spatial dimensions of the transducer, type of vibration, and dispersive properties of the medium. As a result, the response amplitude as a function of frequency for each guided wave mode present in the structure can be separately obtained. The method was validated with numerical simulations on the aluminum and glass fiber composite samples. The key findings showed that it can be applied to estimate the response spectrum of a guided wave mode on any type of material (either isotropic structures, or multi layered anisotropic composites) and under any type of excitation if the phase velocity dispersion curve and the particle velocity distribution of the wave source was known initially. Thus, the proposed method may be a beneficial tool to explain

  12. Evaluation of interlayer interfacial stiffness and layer wave velocity of multilayered structures by ultrasonic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yosuke; Biwa, Shiro

    2014-07-01

    An ultrasonic evaluation procedure for the interlayer interfacial normal stiffness and the intralayer longitudinal wave velocity of multilayered plate-like structures is proposed. Based on the characteristics of the amplitude reflection spectrum of ultrasonic wave at normal incidence to a layered structure with spring-type interlayer interfaces, it is shown that the interfacial normal stiffness and the longitudinal wave velocity in the layers can be simultaneously evaluated from the frequencies of local maxima and minima of the spectrum provided that all interfaces and layers have the same properties. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is investigated from the perspective of the sensitivity of local extremal frequencies of the reflection spectrum. The feasibility of the proposed procedure is also investigated when the stiffness of each interface is subjected to small random fluctuations about a certain average value. The proposed procedure is applied to a 16-layered cross-ply carbon-fiber-reinforced composite laminate. The normal stiffness of resin-rich interfaces and the longitudinal wave velocity of plies in the thickness direction evaluated from the experimental reflection spectrum are shown to be consistent with simple theoretical estimations.

  13. Ultrasonic guided wave sensing characteristics of large area thin piezo coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, V. T.; Jeyaseelan, A. Antony; Dutta, Soma; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the characterization method and performance enhancement of thin piezo coating for ultrasonic guided wave sensing applications. We deposited the coatings by an in situ slurry coating method and studied their guided wave sensing properties on a one-dimensional metallic beam as a substrate waveguide. The developed piezo coatings show good sensitivity to the longitudinal and flexural modes of guided waves. Sensing voltage due to the guided waves at various different ultrasonic frequencies shows a linear dependence on the thickness of the coating. The coatings also exhibit linear sensor output voltage with respect to the induced dynamic strain magnitude. Diameter/size of the piezo coatings strongly influences the voltage response in relation to the wavelength. The proposed method used a characterization set-up involving coated sensors, reference transducers and an analytical model to estimate the piezoelectric coefficient of the piezo coating. The method eliminates the size dependent effect on the piezo property accurately and gives further insight to design better sensors/filters with respect to frequency/wavelength of interest. The developed coatings will have interesting applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) and internet of things (IOT).

  14. Study of the ultrasonic waves action on the preparation of calcium aluminates cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, R.R.; Exposito, C.C.D.; Rodrigues, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium aluminates cements were prepared through a route that uses the sonochemical process. In this process, calcia and alumina in an aqueous suspension are put under an ultrasonic bath during some time. After that, the water is evaporated and the material is heat treated. In this work, the action of ultrasonic waves were studied on initials molar compositions calcia:alumina of 1:1. It was also verified the influence of the water on the reactivity of initial solids. SEM and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the obtained materials. In addition, mechanical strength of the products was evaluated through splitting tensile tests. The X-ray diffractograms showed that the presence of the water was enough to form hydrated compounds. However the material subjected to the sonochemical process presented the highest mechanical strength, indicating the potential of this route of synthesis. (author)

  15. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic welds using 3D ray tracing method. Numerical and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy

    2014-01-01

    Austenitic welds and dissimilar welds are extensively used in primary circuit pipes and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants, chemical industries and fossil fuelled power plants because of their high fracture toughness, resistance to corrosion and creep at elevated temperatures. However, cracks may initiate in these weld materials during fabrication process or stress operations in service. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the structural integrity of these materials using highly reliable non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. Ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components is complicated because of anisotropic columnar grain structure leading to beam splitting and beam deflection. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques and optimizing experimental parameters for inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components. The main aim of the thesis is to develop a 3D ray tracing model for quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic weld material. Inhomogenity in the anisotropic weld material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The influence of anisotropy on ultrasonic reflection and transmission behaviour in an anisotropic austenitic weld material are quantitatively analyzed in three dimensions. The ultrasonic beam directivity in columnar grained austenitic steel material is determined three dimensionally using Lamb's reciprocity theorem. The developed ray tracing model evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase

  16. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic welds using 3D ray tracing method. Numerical and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy

    2014-07-01

    Austenitic welds and dissimilar welds are extensively used in primary circuit pipes and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants, chemical industries and fossil fuelled power plants because of their high fracture toughness, resistance to corrosion and creep at elevated temperatures. However, cracks may initiate in these weld materials during fabrication process or stress operations in service. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the structural integrity of these materials using highly reliable non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. Ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components is complicated because of anisotropic columnar grain structure leading to beam splitting and beam deflection. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques and optimizing experimental parameters for inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components. The main aim of the thesis is to develop a 3D ray tracing model for quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic weld material. Inhomogenity in the anisotropic weld material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The influence of anisotropy on ultrasonic reflection and transmission behaviour in an anisotropic austenitic weld material are quantitatively analyzed in three dimensions. The ultrasonic beam directivity in columnar grained austenitic steel material is determined three dimensionally using Lamb's reciprocity theorem. The developed ray tracing model evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase

  17. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  18. Quantification of thickness loss in a liquid-loaded plate using ultrasonic guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) provides an attractive solution to map thickness changes from remote locations. It is based on the velocity-to-thickness mapping employing the dispersive characteristics of selected guided modes. This study extends the application of GWT on a liquid-loaded plate. It is a more challenging case than the application on a free plate, due to energy of the guided waves leaking into the liquid. In order to ensure the accuracy of thickness reconstruction, advanced forward models are developed to consider attenuation effects using complex velocities. The reconstruction of the thickness map is based on the frequency-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) method, and its accuracy is discussed using different frequencies and defect dimensions. Validation experiments are carried out on a water-loaded plate with an irregularly shaped defect using S0 guided waves, showing excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithm.

  19. Quantitative ultrasonic coda wave (diffuse field) NDE of carbon-fiber reinforced polymer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livings, Richard A.

    The increasing presence and applications of composite materials in aerospace structures precipitates the need for improved Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to move from simple damage detection to damage diagnosis and structural prognosis. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) with advanced ultrasonic (UT) inspection methods can potentially address these issues. Ultrasonic coda wave NDE is one of the advanced methods currently under investigation. Coda wave NDE has been applied to concrete and metallic specimens to assess damage with some success, but currently the method is not fully mature or ready to be applied for SHM. Additionally, the damage diagnosis capabilities and limitations of coda wave NDE applied to fibrous composite materials have not been widely addressed in literature. The central objective of this work, therefore, is to develop a quantitative foundation for the use of coda wave NDE for the inspection and evaluation of fibrous composite materials. Coda waves are defined as the superposition of late arriving wave modes that have been scattered or reflected multiple times. This results in long, complex signals where individual wave modes cannot be discriminated. One method of interpreting the changes in such signals caused by the introduction or growth of damage is to isolate and quantify the difference between baseline and damage signals. Several differential signal features are used in this work to quantify changes in the coda waves which can then be correlated to damage size and growth. Experimental results show that coda wave differential features are effective in detecting drilled through-holes as small as 0.4 mm in a 50x100x6 mm plate and discriminating between increasing hole diameter and increasing number of holes. The differential features are also shown to have an underlying basis function that is dependent on the hole volume and can be scaled by a material dependent coefficient to estimate the feature amplitude and size holes. The

  20. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Schurink, F

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.). 11 refs.; 10 figs.

  1. Continuous ultrasonic waves to detect steam bubbles in water under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, H.J.M.; Schurink, F.

    1985-01-01

    Steam in the recirculation circuit of boilers may lead to unacceptable high thermal loads on the evaporator tubes. The ability to detect steam in the recirculation circuit during process transients is therefore important. A simple detector using continuous ultrasonic waves and able to detect bubbles in water contained in steel tubes is described in this paper. The variation of the transmitted wave caused by the bubbles was determined by demodulation. The results have met the objectives set for cold water with air bubbles. A clear indication of the presence of steam bubbles was found in fast-flowing hot water in a steel tube with a diameter of 60 mm. A change in the low-frequency region of the modulation was the only indication of the presence of steam bubbles in the large-diameter downcomer of the water-separator drum of a boiler in an electrical power plant. Possible causes of the differences in the results obtained are discussed on the basis of differences in bubble sizes and in focusing and reflection of the ultrasonic waves. (orig.)

  2. Parametric Study of Defect Detection in Pipes with Bend Using Guided Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Tan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation behaviour of guided ultrasonic waves in a steel pipe with welded bend is studied by finite element simulation. The effectiveness of the longitudinal L(0,2 and torsional T(0,1 guided waves in detecting circumferential cut near the weld is investigated. In order to identify the presence of the defect, the reflection strength due to the cut is studied. The geometry of the weld is constructed based on common V-bevel butt joints and the anisotropy of the 316L stainless steel weld is included to correctly predict the scattering of ultrasonic waves. The finite element model is built to allow high accuracy. Detection of small circumferential cut (up to 60° circumferential extent can be achieved with longitudinal L(0,2 mode. Detection of moderate to large circumferential cut can be achieved by torsional T(0,1 or longitudinal L(0,2 modes, with T(0,1 mode preferred due to its less mode conversion to higher order modes.

  3. Inspection Method for Contact Condition of Soil on the Surface of Underground Pipe Utilizing Resonance of Transverse Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Seno, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Koshiro

    1998-05-01

    A nondestructive inspection method to estimate the contact condition of soil on the surface of an underground pipe, utilizing the resonance of a transverse Lamb wave circulating along the pipe wall is proposed.The Q factor of the resonance is considered and measured under some contact conditions by sweeping the vibrating frequency in a 150-mm-inner diameter Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar (FRPM) pipe. It is confirmed that the Q factor shows a clear response to the change in the contact conditions. For example, the Q factor is 8.4 when the pipe is in ideal contact with the soil plane and goes up to 19.2 when a 100-mm-diameter void is located at the contact surface of the soil.The spatial resolution of the proposed inspection method is also measured by moving the sensing point along the direction of laying the length of the pipe into a 85-mm-diameter void. The resolution of the proposed method is estimated at about 50 mm.

  4. Identification of delamination interface in composite laminates using scattering characteristics of lamb wave: numerical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ramadas, C.; Balachandra Shetty, P.; Satyanarayana, K. G.

    2017-04-01

    Considering the superior strength properties of polymer based composites over metallic materials, they are being used in primary structures of aircrafts. However, these polymeric materials are much more complex in behaviour due to their structural anisotropy along with existence of different materials unlike in metallic alloys. These pose challenge in flaw detection, residual strength determination and life of a structure with their high susceptibility to impact damage in the form of delaminations/disbonds or cracks. This reduces load-bearing capability and potentially leads to structural failure. With this background, this study presents a method to identify location of delamination interface along thickness of a laminate. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out with a view to identify the defect, on propagation, mode conversion and scattering characteristics of fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb mode (Ao) when it passed through a semi-infinite delamination. Further, the reflection and transmission scattering coefficients based on power and amplitude ratios of the scattered waves have been computed. The methodology was applied on numerically simulated delaminations to illustrate the efficacy of the method. Results showed that it could successfully identify delamination interface.

  5. Modeling the high-frequency complex modulus of silicone rubber using standing Lamb waves and an inverse finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Lindahl, Olof; Andersson, Britt

    2014-12-01

    To gain an understanding of the high-frequency elastic properties of silicone rubber, a finite element model of a cylindrical piezoelectric element, in contact with a silicone rubber disk, was constructed. The frequency-dependent elastic modulus of the silicone rubber was modeled by a fourparameter fractional derivative viscoelastic model in the 100 to 250 kHz frequency range. The calculations were carried out in the range of the first radial resonance frequency of the sensor. At the resonance, the hyperelastic effect of the silicone rubber was modeled by a hyperelastic compensating function. The calculated response was matched to the measured response by using the transitional peaks in the impedance spectrum that originates from the switching of standing Lamb wave modes in the silicone rubber. To validate the results, the impedance responses of three 5-mm-thick silicone rubber disks, with different radial lengths, were measured. The calculated and measured transitional frequencies have been compared in detail. The comparison showed very good agreement, with average relative differences of 0.7%, 0.6%, and 0.7% for the silicone rubber samples with radial lengths of 38.0, 21.4, and 11.0 mm, respectively. The average complex elastic moduli of the samples were (0.97 + 0.009i) GPa at 100 kHz and (0.97 + 0.005i) GPa at 250 kHz.

  6. In Situ Estimation of Applied Biaxial Loads with Lamb Waves (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    be correct. IV. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS Fatigue tests were conducted for an array of six surface-bonded PZT transducers permanently attached to...because of their cumulative effects on the fatigue life of the structures. Waves propagating between array elements are directly affected by applied loads...their cumulative effects on the fatigue life of the structures. Waves propagating between array elements are directly affected by applied loads

  7. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen, E-mail: fzxuan@ecust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pressurized System and Safety, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-05-28

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A “mountain shape” correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The “mountain shape” correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  8. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  9. 3D simulation of an audible ultrasonic electrolarynx using difference waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick; Zara, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A total laryngectomy removes the vocal folds which are fundamental in forming voiced sounds that make speech possible. Although implanted prosthetics are commonly used in developed countries, simple handheld vibrating electrolarynxes are still common worldwide. These devices are easy to use but suffer from many drawbacks including dedication of a hand, mechanical sounding voice, and sound leakage. To address some of these drawbacks, we introduce a novel electrolarynx that uses vibro-acoustic interference of dual ultrasonic waves to generate an audible fundamental frequency. A 3D simulation of the principles of the device is presented in this paper.

  10. Actuating mechanism and design of a cylindrical traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic motors (USM are based on the concept of driving the rotor by a mechanical vibration excited on the stator via piezoelectric effect. USM exhibit merits such as simple structure, quick response, quiet operation, self-locking when power off, nonelectromagnetic radiation and higher position accuracy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cylindrical type traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer was proposed in this paper. There are two cantilevers on the outside surface of cylinder, four longitudinal PZT ceramics are set between the cantilevers, and four bending PZT ceramics are set on each outside surface of cantilevers. Two degenerate flexural vibration modes spatially and temporally orthogonal to each other in the cylinder are excited by the composite transducer. In this new design, a single transducer can excite a flexural traveling wave in the cylinder. Thus, elliptical motions are achieved on the teeth. The actuating mechanism of proposed motor was analyzed. The stator was designed with FEM. The two vibration modes of stator were degenerated. Transient analysis was developed to gain the vibration characteristic of stator, and results indicate the motion trajectories of nodes on the teeth are nearly ellipses. CONCLUSIONS: The study results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. The wave excited in the cylinder isn't an ideal traveling wave, and the vibration amplitudes are inconsistent. The distortion of traveling wave is generated by the deformation of bending vibration mode of cylinder, which is caused by the coupling effect between the cylinder and transducer. Analysis results also prove that the objective motions of nodes on the teeth are three-dimensional vibrations. But, the vibration in axial direction is minute compared with the vibrations in circumferential and radial direction. The results of this paper can guide the development of this new type of motor.

  11. Actuating mechanism and design of a cylindrical traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2010-04-02

    Ultrasonic motors (USM) are based on the concept of driving the rotor by a mechanical vibration excited on the stator via piezoelectric effect. USM exhibit merits such as simple structure, quick response, quiet operation, self-locking when power off, nonelectromagnetic radiation and higher position accuracy. A cylindrical type traveling wave ultrasonic motor using cantilever type composite transducer was proposed in this paper. There are two cantilevers on the outside surface of cylinder, four longitudinal PZT ceramics are set between the cantilevers, and four bending PZT ceramics are set on each outside surface of cantilevers. Two degenerate flexural vibration modes spatially and temporally orthogonal to each other in the cylinder are excited by the composite transducer. In this new design, a single transducer can excite a flexural traveling wave in the cylinder. Thus, elliptical motions are achieved on the teeth. The actuating mechanism of proposed motor was analyzed. The stator was designed with FEM. The two vibration modes of stator were degenerated. Transient analysis was developed to gain the vibration characteristic of stator, and results indicate the motion trajectories of nodes on the teeth are nearly ellipses. The study results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. The wave excited in the cylinder isn't an ideal traveling wave, and the vibration amplitudes are inconsistent. The distortion of traveling wave is generated by the deformation of bending vibration mode of cylinder, which is caused by the coupling effect between the cylinder and transducer. Analysis results also prove that the objective motions of nodes on the teeth are three-dimensional vibrations. But, the vibration in axial direction is minute compared with the vibrations in circumferential and radial direction. The results of this paper can guide the development of this new type of motor.

  12. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Front-End Based on Square Wave Excitation for Ultrasonic Torsional Guided Wave Viscosity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rabani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The market for process instruments generally requires low cost devices that are robust, small in size, portable, and usable in-plant. Ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensors have received much attention by researchers for measurement of viscosity and/or density of fluids in recent years. The supporting electronic systems for these sensors providing many different settings of sine-wave signals are bulky and expensive. In contrast, a system based on bursts of square waves instead of sine waves would have a considerable advantage in that respect and could be built using simple integrated circuits at a cost that is orders of magnitude lower than for a windowed sine wave device. This paper explores the possibility of using square wave bursts as the driving signal source for the ultrasonic torsional guided wave viscosity sensor. A simple design of a compact and fully automatic analogue square wave front-end for the sensor is also proposed. The successful operation of the system is demonstrated by using the sensor for measuring the viscosity in a representative fluid. This work provides the basis for design and manufacture of low cost compact standalone ultrasonic guided wave sensors and enlightens the possibility of using coded excitation techniques utilising square wave sequences in such applications.

  13. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...

  14. Effects of Driving Frequency on Propagation Characteristics of Methane - Air Premixed Flame Influenced by Ultrasonic Standing Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Jeong Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hang Seok [Hanwha Corporation, DaeJeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    An experimental study was conducted to scrutinize the influence of the frequency of an ultrasonic standing wave on the variation in the behavior of a methane-air premixed flame. The evolutionary features of the propagating flame were captured by a high-speed camera, and the macroscopic flame behavior, including the flame structure and local velocities, was investigated in detail using a post-processing analysis of the high-speed images. It was found that a structural variation and propagation-velocity augmentation of the methane-air premixed flame were caused by the intervention of the ultrasonic standing wave, which enhanced the combustion reaction. Conclusive evidence for the dependency of the flame behaviors on the driving frequency of the ultrasonic standing wave and equivalence ratio of the reactants is presented.

  15. 205 nm continuous-wave laser: application to the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen; Laser continu a 205 nm: application a la mesure du deplacement de lamb dans l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourzeix, S

    1995-01-15

    The subject of this thesis is the construction of an experimental set-up, and in particular of a tunable continuous-wave laser at 205 nm, for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen. Chapter 1 deals with the Lamb shift from a historical point of view, and with the interest of its measurement, for metrology and test of quantum electrodynamics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theory of the hydrogen atom. The principle of the experiment is based on the comparison of two frequencies which are in a ratio of 4: those of the two-photon transitions of 2S-6S or 2S-6D and 1S-3S. Chapter 3 describes the experimental set-up used to measure the 2S-6D transition which is excited by a titanium-sapphire laser at 820 nm. The 205 nm light required to excite the 1S-3S transition is generated by two frequency-doubling of the titanium-sapphire laser, made in non-linear crystals placed in enhancement cavities. Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the frequency-doubling. After a recall of non-linear optics, the enhancement cavities are described in detail, as well as the results we achieved. At last chapter 5 describes the research for a signal on the 1S-3S transition: the construction of a ground state atomic beam, and the development of the detection system. This work has led to a preliminary measurement of the ground state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen: L(1S) = 8172.850 (174) MHz whose result is in very good agreement with both the previous measurements and the most recent theoretical results. (author)

  16. Preliminary study of flow velocity measurement by means of ultrasonic waves; Estudo preliminar de medicao de vazao atraves de ondas ultra-sonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pio, Ronald Ribeiro; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio; Lamy, Carlos Alfredo; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.

    1995-10-01

    Different flow velocities of a water loop were associated with different ultrasonic wave velocities that traveled in the water. It was also observed that water temperature influenced the ultrasonic wave velocity but in an inverse manner to that of the water flow velocity. This experiment showed the possibility of using the ultrasonic system to measure a liquid flow velocity with precision. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs.

  17. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  18. Effect of the application of ultrasonic waves on the leaching of nickel ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Padilla, Osniel; Castellanos Suarez, Jose; Hernandez Martinez, A. Naida; Cortes Miranda, Maritza; Abraham Islas, Osvel; Cardenas Merella, Rodnie; Trujillo, Maria Elena; Nicot, Yarisleydis; Calzada, Lidia; Sanabria de la Torre, Antonio; Echaide Hernandez, Marcos Julio

    2016-01-01

    The use of the ultrasonic waves (OU) he/she has been successful in some fields like: the medicine, in catalysts, treatments of foods and in the chemical procedures of laboratory. The applications of OU in the mining are not very well-known and it is not reported in detail in the literature. In the CIPIMM they have been carried out some test in the laboratory with positive results, for what the studies of this technique are continued. The objective of this work was to evaluate in a preliminary phase the application of ultrasonic waves in the process of lixiviation of nickel minerals. The prepared pulps with the mineral were treated in an ultrasonic bathroom at laboratory level. In the process of atmospheric lixiviation with H 2 SO 4 , the application of OU produced an increment in the nickel breakup between a 2 and 5%. The kinetics of breakup of Co was quicker than that of the nickel. The use of OU doesn't increase in a significant way the breakup of the iron, making that the process is selective. It was observed that the treatment with OU of 60 minutes during the lixiviation of the pulp of mineral lateritic (Serpentine of Nicaro) it was enough. The reported maximum recovery of Neither and Co was: 69% neither and 33% Co. The acid consumption (which represents 70% of the costs of industrial process) was between 11 to 20 t of acid per ton of nickel leached, being lower than the average reported consumption (26 ton acid / ton nickel) in the industrial plant acid pressure leaching in Moa. (Author)

  19. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.

  20. Nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating embedded in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, N.; Picó, R. [Instituto de Investigación para la Gestión Integrada de zonas Costeras, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, València (Spain); Romero-García, V. [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, LAUM UMR CNRS 6613, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Garcia-Raffi, L. M. [Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 València (Spain); Staliunas, K. [ICREA, Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom, 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-16

    We report the nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating immersed in water. In the linear regime, the system presents high focal gain (32 dB), with a narrow beam-width and intense side lobes as it is common in focusing by Fresnel-like lenses. Activating the nonlinearity of the host medium by using high amplitude incident waves, the focusing properties of the lens dramatically change. Theoretical predictions show that the focal gain of the system extraordinary increases in the strongly nonlinear regime (Mach number of 6.1 × 10{sup −4}). Particularly, the harmonic generation is locally activated at the focal spot, and the second harmonic beam is characterized by strongly reduced side-lobes and an excellent beam profile as experiments show in agreement with theory. The results can motivate applications in medical therapy or second harmonic imaging.

  1. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in PZT ceramics for generating ultrasonic phase conjugate waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto; Kokubo; Sakai; Takagi

    2000-03-01

    We have succeeded in the generation of acoustic phase conjugate waves with nonlinear PZT piezoelectric ceramics and applied them to ultrasonic imaging systems. Our aim is to make a phase conjugator with 100% efficiency. For this purpose, it is important to clarify the mechanism of acoustic phase conjugation through nonlinear piezoelectricity. The process is explained by the parametric interaction via the third-order nonlinear piezoelectricity between the incident acoustic wave at angular frequency omega and the pump electric field at 2 omega. We solved the coupling equations including the third-ordered nonlinear piezoelectricity and theoretically derived the amplitude efficiency of the acoustic phase conjugation. We compared the efficiencies between the theoretical and experimental values for PZT ceramics with eight different compositions. Pb[(Zn1/3Nb2/3)(1 - x)Tix]O3 (X = 0.09, PZNT91/9) piezoelectric single crystals have been investigated for high-performance ultrasonic transducer application, because these have large piezoelectric constants, high electrical-mechanical coupling factors and high dielectric constants. We found that they have third-order nonlinear piezoelectric constants much larger than PZT and are hopeful that the material as a phase conjugator has over 100% efficiency.

  2. A new traveling wave ultrasonic motor using thick ring stator with nested PZT excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Pei

    2010-05-01

    To avoid the disadvantages of conventional traveling wave ultrasonic motors--lower efficiency PZT working mode of d(31), fragility of the PZT element under strong excitation, fatigue of the adhesive layer under harsh environmental conditions, and low volume of the PZT material in the stator--a new type of traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented in this paper. Here we implement the stator by nesting 64 PZT stacks in 64 slots specifically cut in a thick metal ring and 64 block springs nested within another 64 slots to produce preloading on the PZT stacks. In this new design, the d33 mode of the PZT is used to excite the flexural vibrations of the stator, and fragility of the PZT ceramics and fatigue of the adhesive layer are no longer an issue. The working principle, FEM simulation, fabrication, and performance measurements of a prototype motor were demonstrated to validate the proposed ideas. Typical output of the prototype motor is no-load speed of 15 rpm and maximum torque of 7.96 N x m. Further improvement will potentially enhance its features by increasing the accuracy in fabrication and adopting appropriate frictional material into the interface between the stator and the rotor.

  3. Warped frequency transform analysis of ultrasonic guided waves in long bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, L.; Baravelli, E.; Xu, K.; Ta, D.; Speciale, N.; Marzani, A.; Viola, E.

    2010-03-01

    Long bones can be seen as irregular hollow tubes, in which, for a given excitation frequency, many ultrasonic Guided Waves (GWs) can propagate. The analysis of GWs is potential to reflect more information on both geometry and material properties of the bone than any other method (such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or quantitative computed tomography), and can be used in the assessment of osteoporosis and in the evaluation of fracture healing. In this study, time frequency representations (TFRs) were used to gain insights into the expected behavior of GWs in bones. To this aim, we implemented a dedicated Warped Frequency Transform (WFT) which decomposes the spectrotemporal components of the different propagating modes by selecting an appropriate warping map to reshape the frequency axis. The map can be designed once the GWs group velocity dispersion curves can be predicted. To this purpose, the bone is considered as a hollow cylinder with inner and outer diameter of 16.6 and 24.7 mm, respectively, and linear poroelastic material properties in agreement with the low level of stresses induced by the waves. Timetransient events obtained experimentally, via a piezoelectric ultrasonic set-up applied to bovine tibiae, are analyzed. The results show that WFT limits interference patterns which appear with others TFRs (such as scalograms or warpograms) and produces a sparse representation suitable for characterization purposes. In particular, the mode-frequency combinations propagating with minimal losses are identified.

  4. Ultrasonic, microwave, and millimeter wave inspection techniques for adhesively bonded stacked open honeycomb core composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Clint D.; Cox, Ian; Ghasr, Mohammad Tayeb Ahmed; Ying, Kuang P.; Zoughi, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Honeycomb sandwich composites are used extensively in the aerospace industry to provide stiffness and thickness to lightweight structures. A common fabrication method for thick, curved sandwich structures is to stack and bond multiple honeycomb layers prior to machining core curvatures. Once bonded, each adhesive layer must be inspected for delaminations and the presence of unwanted foreign materials. From a manufacturing and cost standpoint, it can be advantageous to inspect the open core prior to face sheet closeout in order to reduce end-article scrap rates. However, by nature, these honeycomb sandwich composite structures are primarily manufactured from low permittivity and low loss materials making detection of delamination and some of the foreign materials (which also are low permittivity and low loss) quite challenging in the microwave and millimeter wave regime. Likewise, foreign materials such as release film in adhesive layers can be sufficiently thin as to not cause significant attenuation in through-transmission ultrasonic signals, making them difficult to detect. This paper presents a collaborative effort intended to explore the efficacy of different non-contact NDI techniques for detecting flaws in a stacked open fiberglass honeycomb core panel. These techniques primarily included air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonics, single-sided wideband synthetic aperture microwave and millimeter-wave imaging, and lens-focused technique. The goal of this investigation has been to not only evaluate the efficacy of these techniques, but also to determine their unique advantages and limitations for evaluating parameters such as flaw type, flaw size, and flaw depth.

  5. Monitoring of corrosion damage using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, D.; Fromme, P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to adverse environmental conditions corrosion can develop during the life cycle of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Structural health monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can in principle be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic transducers with single sided access to the structure, high frequency guided wave modes were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. Wall thickness reduction was induced using accelerated corrosion in a salt water bath. The corrosion damage was monitored based on the effect on the wave propagation and interference of the different modes. The change in the wave interference was quantified based on an analysis in the frequency domain (Fourier transform) and was found to match well with theoretical predictions for the wall thickness loss. High frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  6. Influence of stacking sequence on scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb wave at through holes in composite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veidt, Martin; Ng, Ching-Tai

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric (A(0)) Lamb wave at through holes in composite laminates. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulations and experimental measurements are used to study the physical phenomenon. Unidirectional, bidirectional, and quasi-isotropic composite laminates are considered in the study. The influence of different hole diameter to wavelength aspect ratios and different stacking sequences on wave scattering characteristics are investigated. The results show that amplitudes and directivity distribution of the scattered Lamb wave depend on these parameters. In the case of quasi-isotropic composite laminates, the scattering directivity patterns are dominated by the fiber orientation of the outer layers and are quite different for composite laminates with the same number of laminae but different stacking sequence. The study provides improved physical insight into the scattering phenomena at through holes in composite laminates, which is essential to develop, validate, and optimize guided wave damage detection and characterization techniques. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  7. Using field programmable gate array hardware for the performance improvement of ultrasonic wave propagation imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Jaffry Syed [Hamdard University, Karachi (Pakistan); Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung Ryul [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Hoon [Advanced Materials Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Recently, wave propagation imaging based on laser scanning-generated elastic waves has been intensively used for nondestructive inspection. However, the proficiency of the conventional software based system reduces when the scan area is large since the processing time increases significantly due to unavoidable processor multitasking, where computing resources are shared with multiple processes. Hence, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) was introduced for a wave propagation imaging method in order to obtain extreme processing time reduction. An FPGA board was used for the design, implementing post-processing ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI). The results were compared with the conventional system and considerable improvement was observed, with at least 78% (scanning of 100x100mm{sup 2} with 0.5 mm interval) to 87.5% (scanning of 200x200mm{sup 2} with 0.5 mm interval) less processing time, strengthening the claim for the research. This new concept to implement FPGA technology into the UPI system will act as a break-through technology for full-scale automatic inspection.

  8. Using field programmable gate array hardware for the performance improvement of ultrasonic wave propagation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Jaffry Syed; Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung Ryul; Kang, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wave propagation imaging based on laser scanning-generated elastic waves has been intensively used for nondestructive inspection. However, the proficiency of the conventional software based system reduces when the scan area is large since the processing time increases significantly due to unavoidable processor multitasking, where computing resources are shared with multiple processes. Hence, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) was introduced for a wave propagation imaging method in order to obtain extreme processing time reduction. An FPGA board was used for the design, implementing post-processing ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI). The results were compared with the conventional system and considerable improvement was observed, with at least 78% (scanning of 100x100mm 2 with 0.5 mm interval) to 87.5% (scanning of 200x200mm 2 with 0.5 mm interval) less processing time, strengthening the claim for the research. This new concept to implement FPGA technology into the UPI system will act as a break-through technology for full-scale automatic inspection

  9. Ultrasonic wave propagation in real-life austenitic V-butt welds: Numerical modeling and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, R.; Marklein, R.; Langenberg, K. J.; Schurig, C.; Koehler, B.; Walte, F.

    2000-01-01

    In nondestructive testing the evaluation of austenitic steel welds with ultrasound is a commonly used method. But, since the wave propagation, scattering, and diffraction effects in such complicated media are hardly understood, computer simulations are very helpful to increase the knowledge of the physical phenomena in such samples. A particularly powerful numerical time domain modeling tool is the well established Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT). Recently, EFIT has been extended to simulate elastic waves in inhomogeneous anisotropic media. In this paper, the step-by-step evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic media will be described and the results will be validated against measurements. As a simplified model, a V-butt weld with perpendicular grain structure is investigated. The coincidence between the B Scans of the simulation and the measurement of an idealized V-butt weld is remarkable and even effects predicted by theory and simulation - the appearance of two coupled quasi-SV waves - can be observed. As a next step, an improved and more realistic model of the grain orientation inside the V-butt weld is introduced. This model has been implemented in the EFIT code and has been validated against measurements. For this verification, measured and simulated B-Scans for a real-life V-butt weld have been compared and a significant coincidence has been observed. Furthermore, the main pulses in the B-Scans are interpreted by analyzing the snapshot-movies of the wavefronts

  10. High-frequency Lamb wave device composed of MEMS structure using LiNbO3 thin film and air gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kansho; Tochishita, Hikari; Negoro, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency devices operating at 3 GHz or higher are required, for instance, for future 4th generation mobile phone systems in Japan. Using a substrate with a high acoustic velocity is one method to realize a high-frequency acoustic or elastic device. A Lamb wave has a high velocity when the substrate thickness is thin. To realize a high-frequency device operating at 3 GHz or higher using a Lamb wave, a very thin (less than 0.5 μm thick) single-crystal plate must be used. It is difficult to fabricate such a very thin single crystal plate. The authors have attempted to use a c-axis orientated epitaxial LiNbO(3) thin film deposited by a chemical vapor deposition system (CVD) instead of using a thin LiNbO(3) single crystal plate. Lamb wave resonators composed of a interdigital transducer (IDT)/the LiNbO(3) film/air gap/base substrate structure like micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) transducers were fabricated. These resonators have shown a high frequency of 4.5 and 6.3 GHz, which correspond to very high acoustic velocities of 14,000 and 12,500 m/s, respectively, have excellent characteristics such as a ratio of resonant and antiresonant impedance of 52 and 38 dB and a wide band of 7.2% and 3.7%, respectively, and do not have spurious responses caused by the 0th modes of shear horizontal (SH(0)) and symmetric (S(0)) modes.

  11. Frictional response of simulated faults to normal stresses perturbations probed with ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreedharan, S.; Riviere, J.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a suite of laboratory friction experiments conducted on saw-cut Westerly Granite surfaces to probe frictional response to step changes in normal stress and loading rate. The experiments are conducted to illuminate the fundamental processes that yield friction rate and state dependence. We quantify the microphysical frictional response of the simulated fault surfaces to normal stress steps, in the range of 1% - 600% step increases and decreases from a nominal baseline normal stress. We measure directly the fault slip rate and account for changes in slip rate with changes in normal stress and complement mechanical data acquisition by continuously probing the faults with ultrasonic pulses. We conduct the experiments at room temperature and humidity conditions in a servo controlled biaxial testing apparatus in the double direct shear configuration. The samples are sheared over a range of velocities, from 0.02 - 100 μm/s. We report observations of a transient shear stress and friction evolution with step increases and decreases in normal stress. Specifically, we show that, at low shear velocities and small increases in normal stress ( 5% increases), the shear stress evolves immediately with normal stress. We show that the excursions in slip rate resulting from the changes in normal stress must be accounted for in order to predict fault strength evolution. Ultrasonic wave amplitudes which first increase immediately in response to normal stress steps, then decrease approximately linearly to a new steady state value, in part due to changes in fault slip rate. Previous descriptions of frictional state evolution during normal stress perturbations have not adequately accounted for the effect of large slip velocity excursions. Here, we attempt to do so by using the measured ultrasonic amplitudes as a proxy for frictional state during transient shear stress evolution. Our work aims to improve understanding of induced and triggered seismicity with focus on

  12. Combined application of ultrasonic waves, magnetic fields and optical flow in the rehabilitation of patients and disabled people

    OpenAIRE

    Chukhraiev, N.; Vladimirov, A.; Vilcahuaman, L.; Zukow, W.; Samosyuk, N.; Chukhraieva, E.; Butskaya, L.

    2016-01-01

    SHUPYK NATIONAL MEDICAL ACADEMY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION PONTIFICAL CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF PERU RADOM UNIVERSITY SCM «MEDICAL INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES» Chukhraiev N., Vladimirov А., Vilcahuamаn L., Zukow W., Samosyuk N., Chukhraieva E., Butskaya L. COMBINED APPLICATION OF ULTRASONIC WAVES, MAGNETIC FIELDS AND OPTICAL FLOW IN THE REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AND DISABLED PEOPLE Edited by Chukh...

  13. Flow velocity anemometer using ultrasonic waves in underground airways. Choonpa wo mochiita chika fudo fusokukei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Imai, T.; Miyakoshi, H. (Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Mining College); Onozuka, T.; Yasunaga, K. (Hanaoka Mining Co. Ltd., Akita (Japan))

    1993-10-25

    In a facility utilizing the subterranean space at the great depth of about 50m or less from the surface in particular, the airflow velocity monitor utilizing ultrasonic waves is considered as an airflow anemometer suitable for the environment of an underground airway network. In this paper, the results of the application test and the long term demonstration test both conducted at Matsumine Mine and Fukazawa Mine of Hanaoka Mining Industry are mentioned which concern the newly developed airflow velocity monitor utilizing ultrasonic waves. The features and performance of this ultrasonic wave monitor are roughly as follows; since a small ultrasonic wave transceiver can be installed on the surface of the airway wall, the transceiver does not become an obstacle for traffic in the airway and the average airflow velocity in the airflow path can be estimated with accuracy better than that of the anemometer for point measurement. The airflow direction at the underground airway can be detected. The responsiveness to airflow velocity fluctuations is relatively good. The abrupt ups and downs of output due to passing transportation machines can be detected. The measuring circuit has been simplified by the analogue treatment of time measurement. The average airflow velocity at the airflow velocity profile can be estimated through multiplication by 0.93 of the airflow velocity value measured with the monitor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Detection of Ultrasonic Stress Waves in Structures Using 3D Shaped Optic Fiber Based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chengming; Zhou, Wensong; Xie, Yawen

    2018-04-16

    This work proposes a 3D shaped optic fiber sensor for ultrasonic stress waves detection based on the principle of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This sensor can be used to receive acoustic emission signals in the passive damage detection methods and other types of ultrasonic signals propagating in the active damage detection methods, such as guided wave-based methods. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic fiber sensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer mainly depends on the length of the sensing optical fiber; therefore, the proposed sensor achieves the maximum possible sensitivity by wrapping an optical fiber on a hollow cylinder with a base. The deformation of the optical fiber is produced by the displacement field of guided waves in the hollow cylinder. The sensor was first analyzed using the finite element method, which demonstrated its basic sensing capacity, and the simulation signals have the same characteristics in the frequency domain as the excitation signal. Subsequently, the primary investigations were conducted via a series of experiments. The sensor was used to detect guided wave signals excited by a piezoelectric wafer in an aluminum plate, and subsequently it was tested on a reinforced concrete beam, which produced acoustic emission signals via impact loading and crack extension when it was loaded to failure. The signals obtained from a piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor were used for comparison, and the results indicated that the proposed 3D fiber optic sensor can detect ultrasonic signals in the specific frequency response range.

  15. Detection of Ultrasonic Stress Waves in Structures Using 3D Shaped Optic Fiber Based on a Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    This work proposes a 3D shaped optic fiber sensor for ultrasonic stress waves detection based on the principle of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This sensor can be used to receive acoustic emission signals in the passive damage detection methods and other types of ultrasonic signals propagating in the active damage detection methods, such as guided wave-based methods. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic fiber sensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer mainly depends on the length of the sensing optical fiber; therefore, the proposed sensor achieves the maximum possible sensitivity by wrapping an optical fiber on a hollow cylinder with a base. The deformation of the optical fiber is produced by the displacement field of guided waves in the hollow cylinder. The sensor was first analyzed using the finite element method, which demonstrated its basic sensing capacity, and the simulation signals have the same characteristics in the frequency domain as the excitation signal. Subsequently, the primary investigations were conducted via a series of experiments. The sensor was used to detect guided wave signals excited by a piezoelectric wafer in an aluminum plate, and subsequently it was tested on a reinforced concrete beam, which produced acoustic emission signals via impact loading and crack extension when it was loaded to failure. The signals obtained from a piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor were used for comparison, and the results indicated that the proposed 3D fiber optic sensor can detect ultrasonic signals in the specific frequency response range. PMID:29659540

  16. Analytical and numerical studies of approximate phase velocity matching based nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves for the detection of evenly distributed microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Xu, G H; Tao, T F; Zhang, Q; Tse, P W

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on nonlinear Lamb waves are conducted using mode pairs that satisfying strict phase velocity matching and non-zero power flux criteria. However, there are some limitations in existence. First, strict phase velocity matching is not existed in the whole frequency bandwidth; Second, excited center frequency is not always exactly equal to the true phase-velocity-matching frequency; Third, mode pairs are isolated and quite limited in number; Fourth, exciting a single desired primary mode is extremely difficult in practice and the received signal is quite difficult to process and interpret. And few attention has been paid to solving these shortcomings. In this paper, nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves at low-frequency range satisfying approximate phase velocity matching is proposed for the purpose of overcoming these limitations. In analytical studies, the secondary amplitudes with the propagation distance considering the fundamental frequency, the maximum cumulative propagation distance (MCPD) with the fundamental frequency and the maximum linear cumulative propagation distance (MLCPD) using linear regression analysis are investigated. Based on analytical results, approximate phase velocity matching is quantitatively characterized as the relative phase velocity deviation less than a threshold value of 1%. Numerical studies are also conducted using tone burst as the excitation signal. The influences of center frequency and frequency bandwidth on the secondary amplitudes and MCPD are investigated. S1–S2 mode with the fundamental frequency at 1.8 MHz, the primary S0 mode at the center frequencies of 100 and 200 kHz are used respectively to calculate the ratios of nonlinear parameter of Al 6061-T6 to Al 7075-T651. The close agreement of the computed ratios to the actual value verifies the effectiveness of nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves satisfying approximate phase velocity matching for characterizing the material nonlinearity. Moreover, the ratios derived

  17. Investigation on the ultrasonic propagation mechanism and its application on air-source heat pump defrosting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Haihui; Xu, Guanghua; Tao, Tangfei; Zhang, Sicong; Luo, Ailing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal defrosting mode for finned-tube evaporator is S0 mode. • Stress excited by ultrasonic vibration is larger than ice adhesion stress 0.4 MPa. • Frequency matching can enhance the defrosting efficiency effectively. • Ultrasonic vibration can effectively suppressing the frost deposition. • Thermal comfort and heat transfer efficiency enhanced with ultrasonic vibration. - Abstract: Frosting deposited on the outdoor coil of air-source heat pump (ASHP) units deteriorates the operational performance and energy efficiency. Therefore, periodic defrosting is necessary. First, the dispersion curves for the propagation mechanism of an ultrasonic guided wave in the evaporator are determined through numerical calculation. In addition, the shear stress and vibration characteristics under ultrasonic excitation are analysed using finite element method (FEM). Finally, the vibration amplitude and defrosting performance of ultrasonic vibration is analysed. The numerical calculation results indicate that three guided wave modes exist in the evaporator, including both A0 and S0 modes of the Lamb wave and SH0 mode of the SH wave, with the optimal defrosting mode being S0 of the Lamb wave. The FEM results show that the vibrational shapes of S0 mode and longitudinal mode clearly exists in the fin and tube, the torsional and flexural modes also exist in the tube, and the FEM results are consistent with the numerical calculation results. The impedance analysis and laser vibrometer results indicate that the resonance frequency shifting, electro-acoustic converting efficiency and vibration energy decrease is due to increasing external load. The ultrasonic defrosting experimental results indicate that ultrasonic vibration can suppress frost deposit on the fin surface.

  18. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    in channel waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Numerical models are developed based on the finite element method, and applied to several scenarios, such as optimization of the geometrical parameters of waveguides, use of slow light in photonic crystal waveguides and use of Lamb waves in membranized......This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... investigated. Comparisons are made with the numerical and experimental results, and they validate the obtained response of the acoustic and photonic components of the device. Finally, a new design for an optical frequency shifter is proposed, posing several advantages over existing devices in terms of size...

  19. Directional nonlinear guided wave mixing: Case study of counter-propagating shear horizontal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanian, Mostafa; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    While much nonlinear ultrasonics research has been conducted on higher harmonic generation, wave mixing provides the potential for sensitive measurements of incipient damage unencumbered by instrumentation nonlinearity. Studies of nonlinear ultrasonic wave mixing, both collinear and noncollinear, for bulk waves have shown the robust capability of wave mixing for early damage detection. One merit of bulk wave mixing lies in their non-dispersive nature, but guided waves enable inspection of otherwise inaccessible material and a variety of mixing options. Co-directional guided wave mixing was studied previously, but arbitrary direction guided wave mixing has not been addressed until recently. Wave vector analysis is applied to study variable mixing angles to find wave mode triplets (two primary waves and a secondary wave) resulting in the phase matching condition. As a case study, counter-propagating Shear Horizontal (SH) guided wave mixing is analyzed. SH wave interactions generate a secondary Lamb wave mode that is readily receivable. Reception of the secondary Lamb wave mode is compared for an angle beam transducer, an air coupled transducer, and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Results from the angle beam and air coupled transducers are quite consistent, while the LDV measurement is plagued by variability issues.

  20. Preparation and characterization of CNTs/UHMWPE nanocomposites via a novel mixer under synergy of ultrasonic wave and extensional deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaochun; Li, Sai; He, Guangjian; Feng, Yanhong; Wen, Jingsong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, design and development of a new melt mixing method and corresponding mixer for polymer materials were reported. Effects of ultrasonic power and sonication time on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) nanocomposites were experimentally studied. Transmission Electron Microscopy images showed that homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in intractable UHMWPE matrix is successfully realized due to the synergetic effect of ultrasonic wave and extensional deformation without any aid of other additives or solvents. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed an increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate due to the finer dispersion of the CNTs in the matrix which act as nucleating point. Composites' complex viscosity and storage modulus decreased sharply at first and then leveled off with the increase of sonication time or the ultrasonic power. The thermal stability and the tensile strength of the CNTs/UHMWPE nanocomposites improved by using this novel mixing method. This is the first method that combined the ultrasonic wave and the extensional deformation in which the elongation rate, sonication time and ultrasonic power can be adjusted simultaneously during mixing. The novel mixer offers several advantages such as environment-friendly, high mixing efficiency, self-cleaning and wide adaptability to materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inversion of residual stress profiles from ultrasonic Rayleigh wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P.; Spies, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate theoretically and with synthetic data the performance of several inversion methods to infer a residual stress state from ultrasonic surface wave dispersion data. We show that this particular problem may reveal in relevant materials undesired behaviors for some methods that could be reliably applied to infer other properties. We focus on two methods, one based on a Taylor-expansion, and another one based on a piecewise linear expansion regularized by a singular value decomposition. We explain the instabilities of the Taylor-based method by highlighting singularities in the series of coefficients. At the same time, we show that the other method can successfully provide performances which only weakly depend on the material.

  2. Schlieren imaging of the standing wave field in an ultrasonic acoustic levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Pablo Luis; Boullosa, Ricardo R.; Echeverria, Carlos; Porta, David

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model of a single axis acoustic levitator consisting of two cylinders immersed in air and directed along the same axis. The first cylinder has a flat termination and functions as a sound emitter, and the second cylinder, which is simply a refector, has the side facing the first cylinder cut out by a spherical surface. By making the first cylinder vibrate at ultrasonic frequencies a standing wave is produced in the air between the cylinders which makes it possible, by means of the acoustic radiation pressure, to levitate one or several small objects of different shapes, such as spheres or disks. We use schlieren imaging to observe the acoustic field resulting from the levitation of one or several objects, and compare these results to previous numerical approximations of the field obtained using a finite element method. The authors acknowledge financial support from DGAPA-UNAM through project PAPIIT IN109214.

  3. Analysis of elastic wave propagation through anisotropic stainless steel using elastodynamic FEM and ultrasonic beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seog Je; Jeong, Hyun Jo

    1999-01-01

    The wave propagation problem in anisotropic media is modeled by the Gauss-Hermite beam and tile finite element method and their results are compared. Gauss-Hermite mettled is computationally fast and simple, and explicitly incorporates beam spreading. In the 2-D model problem chosen, the ultrasonic beam leaves a transducer, propagates through a layer of ferritic steel and through a planar interface into a region of columnar cast stainless steel with two directions. After propagation to a reference plane, comparison .if made of the time-domain waveforms predicted by tile two models. The predictions of the two models are found to be in good agreement near the center of the beam, with deviations developing as one moves away from tile central ray. These are interpreted to be a consequence of the Fresnel approximation, made in the Gauss-Hermite model.

  4. Ultrasonic wave propagation in viscoelastic cortical bone plate coupled with fluids: a spectral finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the ultrasonic wave propagation in the cortical layer of long bones which is known as being a functionally graded anisotropic material coupled with fluids. The viscous effects are taken into account. The geometrical configuration mimics the one of axial transmission technique used for evaluating the bone quality. We present a numerical procedure adapted for this purpose which is based on the spectral finite element method (FEM). By using a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, the vibroacoustic problem may be transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain in which, as radiation conditions may be exactly introduced in the infinite fluid halfspaces, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analysed using FEM. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed approach. We present some results to study the influence of the frequency on the first arriving signal velocity in (visco)elastic bone plate.

  5. Parametric study of guided ultrasonic wave propagation in carbon-fiber composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. A.; Kamarudin, M. A.; Jurimi, M. H. F. M.; Murat, B. I. S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) behaviour in composite plates using 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two types of composite models are chosen: plates with and without damage. The damage is modelled as a circular-shaped delamination inside the plate, representing one kind of low-velocity impact damage. Parameters such as excitation frequency, monitoring directivity, plate thickness, delamination size and shape were used to investigate the influence of these parameters on the GUW propagation and scattering behaviour. The models were constructed and coded in Matlab platform, while the simulations were performed in ABAQUS Explicit. From the results, the received signals have shown a strong dependency on the parameters. Significant scattering from the models with delamination were also observed, which indicates the possibility of using GUW for rapid non-destructive monitoring of composite panels and structures.

  6. PSO-based PID Speed Control of Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor under Temperature Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Traveling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUSMs) have a time varying dynamics characteristics. Temperature rise in TWUSMs remains a problem particularly in sustaining optimum speed performance. In this study, a PID controller is used to control the speed of TWUSM under temperature disturbance. Prior to developing the controller, a linear approximation model which relates the speed to the temperature is developed based on the experimental data. Two tuning methods are used to determine PID parameters: conventional Ziegler-Nichols(ZN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The comparison of speed control performance between PSO-PID and ZN-PID is presented. Modelling, simulation and experimental work is carried out utilizing Fukoku-Shinsei USR60 as the chosen TWUSM. The results of the analyses and experimental work reveal that PID tuning using PSO-based optimization has the advantage over the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method.

  7. Detection of layup errors in prepreg laminates using shear ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David K.; Fischer, Brent A.

    1996-11-01

    The highly anisotropic elastic properties of the plies in a composite laminate manufactured from unidirectional prepregs interact strongly with the polarization direction of shear ultrasonic waves propagating through its thickness. The received signals in a 'crossed polarizer' transmission configuration are particularly sensitive to ply orientation and layup sequence in a laminate. Such measurements can therefore serve as an NDE tool for detecting layup errors. For example, it was shown experimentally recently that the sensitivity for detecting the presence of misoriented plies is better than one ply out of a 48-ply laminate of graphite epoxy. A physical model based on the decomposition and recombination of the shear polarization vector has been constructed and used in the interpretation and prediction of test results. Since errors should be detected early in the manufacturing process, this work also addresses the inspection of 'green' composite laminates using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Preliminary results for ply error detection obtained with EMAT probes are described.

  8. Particle scavenging in a cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field using levitated drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Tyler; Saylor, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    A cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field was generated in a tube containing a flow of particles and fog. Both the particles and fog drops were concentrated in the nodes of the standing wave field where they combined and then grew large enough to fall out of the system. In this way particles were scavenged from the system, cleaning the air. While this approach has been attempted using a standing wave field established between disc-shaped transducers, a cylindrical resonator has not been used for this purpose heretofore. The resonator was constructed by bolting three Langevin transducers to an aluminum tube. The benefit of the cylindrical geometry is that the acoustic energy is focused. Furthermore, the residence time of the particle in the field can be increased by increasing the length of the resonator. An additional benefit of this approach is that tubes located downstream of the resonator were acoustically excited, acting as passive resonators that enhanced the scavenging process. The performance of this system on scavenging particles is presented as a function of particle diameter and volumetric flow rate. It is noted that, when operated without particles, the setup can be used to remove drops and shows promise for liquid aerosol retention from systems where these losses can be financially disadvantageous and/or hazardous.

  9. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on periodically patterned layered nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletta, Michael; Gachuhi, Wanjiru; Gartenstein, Samuel A; James, Molly M; Szwed, Erik A; Daly, Brian C; Cui, Weili; Antonelli, George A

    2018-07-01

    We have used the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics to generate and detect surface acoustic waves on a structure consisting of nanoscale Al lines on SiO 2 on Si. We report results from ten samples with varying pitch (1000-140 nm) and SiO 2 film thickness (112 nm or 60 nm), and compare our results to an isotropic elastic calculation and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. In all cases we are able to detect and identify a Rayleigh-like surface acoustic wave with wavelength equal to the pitch of the lines and frequency in the range of 5-24 GHz. In some samples, we are able to detect additional, higher frequency surface acoustic waves or independent modes of the Al lines with frequencies close to 50 GHz. We also describe the effects of probe beam polarization on the measurement's sensitivity to the different surface modes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nondestructive testing of thin films using surface acoustic waves and laser ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenot, Frédéric; Fourez, Sabrina; Ouaftouh, Mohammadi; Duquennoy, Marc

    2018-04-01

    Thin films are widely used in many fields such as electronics, optics or materials science. For example, they find applications in thermal or mechanical sensors design. They are also very useful as protective or reinforcement layers for many structures. However, some coating defects such as thickness variations, microfissuring or poor adhesion are common problems. Therefore, nondestructive testing of these structures using acoustic waves generated and detected by lasers represents a major interest. Indeed, in comparison with conventional methods based on the use of piezoelectric transducers, laser ultrasonics leads to non-contact investigations with a large bandwidth. Usually, bulk acoustic waves are used and a pulse-echo technique is considered that needs high frequencies and implies local measurements. In order to avoid this limitation, we propose to use surface acoustic waves in a frequency range up to 45 MHz. The samples consist of a micrometric gold layer deposited on silicon substrates. In a first part, using dispersion analysis, theoretical and experimental results clearly reveal that the first Rayleigh mode allows the detection of film thickness variations and open cracks. In a second part, a localized adhesion defect is introduced in a similar sample. The effects of such a flaw on the Rayleigh modes dispersion curves are theoretically described. Finally, we experimentally show that the first Rayleigh mode allows the defect detection only under specific conditions.

  11. Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossmann, Yvan; Paci, Alexandre; Auclair, Francis; Lepilliez, Mathieu; Cid, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are large amplitude stable waves propagating in regions of high density gradients such as the ocean pycnocline. Their dynamics has often been investigated in two-dimensional approaches, however, their three-dimensional evolution is still poorly known. Experiments have been conducted in the large stratified water tank of CNRM-GAME to study the generation of ISWs in two academic configurations inspired by oceanic regimes. First, ultrasonic probes are used to measure the interfacial displacement in the two configurations. In the primary generation case for which the two layers are of constant density, the generation of ISWs is investigated in two series of experiments with varying amplitude and forcing frequency. In the secondary generation case for which the lower layer is stratified, the generation of ISWs from the impact of an internal wave beam on the pycnocline and their subsequent dynamics is studied. The dynamics of ISWs in these two regimes accords well with analytical approaches and numerical simulations performed in analogous configurations. Then, recent developments of a stereo correlation technique are used to describe the three-dimensional structure of propagating ISWs. In the primary generation configuration, small transverse effects are observed in the course of the ISW propagation. In the secondary generation configuration, larger transverse structures are observed in the interfacial waves dynamics. The interaction between interfacial troughs and internal waves propagating in the lower stratified layer are a possible cause for the generation of these structures. The magnitude of these transverse structures is quantified with a nondimensional parameter in the two configurations. They are twice as large in the secondary generation case as in the primary generation case

  12. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In silico simulation and in vitro evaluation of an elastomeric scaffold using ultrasonic shear wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao; Nie, Erwei; Zhu, Yanying; Hong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue repair represent a growing area of biomaterials research. Mechanical strength is one of the key factors to consider in the evaluation of candidate materials and the designs for tissue scaffolds. It is desirable to develop non-invasive evaluation methods of the mechanical property of scaffolds which would provide options for monitoring temporal mechanical property changes in situ. In this paper, we conduct in silico simulation and in vitro evaluation of an elastomeric scaffold using a novel ultrasonic shear wave imaging (USWI). The scaffold is fabricated from a biodegradable elastomer, poly(carbonate urethane) urea using salt leaching method. A numerical simulation is performed to test the robustness of the developed inversion algorithm for the elasticity map reconstruction which will be implemented in the phantom experiment. The generation and propagation of shear waves in a homogeneous tissue-mimicking medium with a circular scaffold inclusion is simulated and the elasticity map is well reconstructed. A PVA phantom experiment is performed to test the ability of USWI combined with the inversion algorithm to non-invasively characterize the mechanical property of a porous, biodegradable elastomeric scaffold. The elastic properties of the tested scaffold can be easily differentiated from the surrounding medium in the reconstructed image. The ability of the developed method to identify the edge of the scaffold and characterize the elasticity distribution is demonstrated. Preliminary results in this pilot study support the idea of applying the USWI based method for non-invasive elasticity characterization of tissue scaffolds.

  14. Scattering of ultrasonic waves from porous piezoelectric multilayered structures immersed in a fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishth, Anil K; Gupta, Vishakha

    2012-01-01

    The interest in porous piezoelectric materials is due to the demand for low-frequency hydrophone/actuator devices for use in underwater acoustic systems and other oceanographic applications. Porosity decreases the acoustic impedance, thus improving the transfer of acoustic energy to water or biological tissues. The impedance mismatching problem between the dense piezoelectric materials and the surrounding medium can be solved by inclusion of porosity in dense piezoceramics. The complete description of acoustic propagation in a multilayered system is of great interest in a variety of applications, such as non-destructive evaluation and acoustic design, and there is need for a flexible model that can describe the reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves in these media. The present paper elaborates a theoretical model, based on the transfer matrix method, for describing reflection and transmission of plane elastic waves through a porous piezoelectric laminated plate, immersed in a fluid. The analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient and acoustic impedance are derived. The effects of frequency, angle of incidence, number of layers, layer thickness and porosity are observed numerically for different configurations. The results obtained are deduced for the piezoelectric laminated structure, piezoelectric layer and poro-elastic layer immersed in a fluid, which are in agreement with earlier established results and experimental studies. (paper)

  15. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  16. Damage detection in hazardous waste storage tank bottoms using ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Adam C.; Fisher, Jay L.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Earnest, Douglas R.

    2018-04-01

    Detecting damage in storage tanks is performed commercially using a variety of techniques. The most commonly used inspection technologies are magnetic flux leakage (MFL), conventional ultrasonic testing (UT), and leak testing. MFL and UT typically involve manual or robotic scanning of a sensor along the metal surfaces to detect cracks or corrosion wall loss. For inspection of the tank bottom, however, the storage tank is commonly emptied to allow interior access for the inspection system. While there are costs associated with emptying a storage tank for inspection that can be justified in some scenarios, there are situations where emptying the tank is impractical. Robotic, submersible systems have been developed for inspecting these tanks, but there are some storage tanks whose contents are so hazardous that even the use of these systems is untenable. Thus, there is a need to develop an inspection strategy that does not require emptying the tank or insertion of the sensor system into the tank. This paper presents a guided wave system for inspecting the bottom of double-shelled storage tanks (DSTs), with the sensor located on the exterior side-wall of the vessel. The sensor used is an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) that generates and receives shear-horizontal guided plate waves using magnetostriction principles. The system operates by scanning the sensor around the circumference of the storage tank and sending guided waves into the tank bottom at regular intervals. The data from multiple locations are combined using the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) to create a color-mapped image of the vessel thickness changes. The target application of the system described is inspection of DSTs located at the Hanford site, which are million-gallon vessels used to store nuclear waste. Other vessels whose exterior walls are accessible would also be candidates for inspection using the described approach. Experimental results are shown from tests on multiple

  17. Dynamics of hydrogen induced blistering of a low carbon steel sheet by lamb waves analysis; Ramuha no teiryo kaiseki ni yoru hakubanteitansoko no suiso hare no dainamikkusu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Teruyoshi.; Takemoto, Mikio. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1999-06-15

    With the aim of studying the fracture dynamics of environmentally assisted fractures in thin plates, we developed a new source simulation method of the zeroth-order symmetric (or S{sub 0}-) Lamb wave using the experimental overall-transfer function of the system. The transfer function was determined by the time-domain deconvolution of detected S{sub 0}-Lamb component by the artificial fracture source of a compression -type PZT element whose vibration kinetics was estimated by the iteration so that the S{sub o}-waveform detected. Hydrogen induced blistering was found to be caused by the succession of fast Mode-I fracture with source rise times from 0.6 to 1.0{mu}s. The crack volume estimated by the source simulation corresponded to that of fine blistering with an opening displacement of 5{mu}m. As the estimated fracture kinetics of hydrogen blistering coincide with those of delayed fracture of high tension low alloy steel under tensile loading, the kinetics of first and micro-fractures and blistering induced by hydrogen gas precipitation appears to be independent on the hydrogen solubility and strength of steels, the applied stresses and the orientation of cracks. (author)

  18. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A., E-mail: alper.erturk@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  19. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver

  20. Change of the spectral sensitivity range of thin-film AlGaAs/GaAs -photoreceivers under influence of ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveryukhina, N. N.; Zaveryukhin, B. N.; Zaveryukhina, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The task of controlled variation of the physical properties of semiconductor materials under the action of external factors is an important problem in the physics of semiconductors. As is well known, one such factor is ultrasonic radiation: propagating in a semiconductor crystal, acoustic (ultrasonic) waves change its properties, in particular, the optical characteristics. In the context of solving the above task, it is expedient to continue investigations of the effect of ultrasonic waves on the characteristics of semiconductor devices. This report presents the results of experimental investigations of the influence of ultrasonic waves on the spectral characteristics of photoreceivers based on AlGaAs/GaAs- heterostructures. The study showed that an exposure to ultrasonic radiation leads to a change, depending on the ultrasonic treatment (UST) parameters, in the spectral characteristics of gallium arsenide crystals, the base materials of modern semiconductor photoelectronics. Some results showed evidence of the positive character of changes in the characteristics of A 3 B 5 -based photoreceivers under the action of ultrasonic waves. The effect of ultrasonic waves on the spectral sensitivity of photoreceivers based on AlGaAs/GaAs- heterostructures has been studied. Ultrasonic treatment of a zinc-doped graded-gap Al x Ga 1-x As- film leads to the formation of a surface layer sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range < 0,55m. It is established that this layer is formed as a result of the acoustostimulated inward diffusion of zinc from the surface to the bulk of the graded-gap layer. The observed expansion of the short-wavelength sensitivity range and an increase in the efficiency of nonequilibrium charge carrier collection in AlGaAs/GaAs- photoreceivers are due to improvement of the crystal defect structure and the dopant redistribution under the action of ultrasound. (authors)

  1. Sonoplasma generated by a combination of ultrasonic waves and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    Plasma chemical vapor deposition (plasma CVD) is a generic term for methods in which a precursor containing a material to be deposited is dissociated in a plasma where it is subject to chemical reactions, and is then deposited as a film on the surface of a heated substrate. A drawback of plasma CVD is that this process cannot be used to synthesize large amounts of adsorbate, or to deposit onto substrates that are vulnerable to high temperatures. As liquids are much denser than gases, synthesis rates are thought to be much higher in the former. The authors have observed the ignition and maintenance of a stable plasma in a liquid hydrocarbon exposed to a combination of ultrasonic waves and microwave radiation. Microwave energy is effectively injected into the interior of acoustic cavitation bubbles, which act as nuclei for the ignition and maintenance of the plasma. Because the plasma is formed in a liquid environment, it is possible to obtain much higher film deposition rates at much lower plasma temperatures than ever before. In addition, this process can be carried out at normal temperatures and pressures

  2. Failure Monitoring and Condition Assessment of Steel-Concrete Adhesive Connection Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rucka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive bonding is increasingly being incorporated into civil engineering applications. Recently, the use of structural adhesives in steel-concrete composite systems is of particular interest. The aim of the study is an experimental investigation of the damage assessment of the connection between steel and concrete during mechanical degradation. Nine specimens consisted of a concrete cube and two adhesively bonded steel plates were examined. The inspection was based on the ultrasound monitoring during push-out tests. Ultrasonic waves were excited and registered by means of piezoelectric transducers every two seconds until the specimen failure. To determine the slip between the steel and concrete a photogrammetric method was applied. The procedure of damage evaluation is based on the monitoring of the changes in the amplitude and phase shift of signals measured during subsequent phases of degradation. To quantify discrepancies between the reference signal and other registered signals, the Sprague and Gears metric was applied. The results showed the possibilities and limitations of the proposed approach in diagnostics of adhesive connections between steel and concrete depending on the failure modes.

  3. Pitch catch ultrasonic study on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using rayleigh wave transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Je Woong; Yang, In Young; Im, Kwang Hee; Hsu, David K.; Jung, Jong An

    2012-01-01

    The importance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized, and CFRP composite laminates have become widely used. Thus, a nondestructive technique would be very useful for evaluating CF/epoxy composite laminates. A pitch catch UT signal is more sensitive than is a normal incidence backwall echo of a longitudinal wave in composites. The depth of the sampling volume where the pitch catch UT signal came from is relatively shallow, but the depth can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Moreover, a method is utilized to determine the porosity content of a composite lay up by processing micrograph images of the laminate. The porosity content of a composite structure is critical to the overall strength and performance of the structure. The image processing method developed utilizes software to process micrograph images of the test sample. The results from the image processing method are compared with existing data. Beam profile is characterized in unidirectional CFRP using pitch catch Rayleigh probes. The one sided and two sided pitch catch techniques are utilized to produce C scan images with the aid of an automatic scanner. The pitch catch ultrasonic signal corresponds with the simulated results of unidirectional CFRP composites

  4. Analytical reverse time migration: An innovation in imaging of infrastructures using ultrasonic shear waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Aziz; Khazanovich, Lev

    2018-04-11

    The emergence of ultrasonic dry point contact (DPC) transducers that emit horizontal shear waves has enabled efficient collection of high-quality data in the context of a nondestructive evaluation of concrete structures. This offers an opportunity to improve the quality of evaluation by adapting advanced imaging techniques. Reverse time migration (RTM) is a simulation-based reconstruction technique that offers advantages over conventional methods, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique. RTM is capable of imaging boundaries and interfaces with steep slopes and the bottom boundaries of inclusions and defects. However, this imaging technique requires a massive amount of memory and its computation cost is high. In this study, both bottlenecks of the RTM are resolved when shear transducers are used for data acquisition. An analytical approach was developed to obtain the source and receiver wavefields needed for imaging using reverse time migration. It is shown that the proposed analytical approach not only eliminates the high memory demand, but also drastically reduces the computation time from days to minutes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satittada, Gannaga

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is one of the most widely used methods for nondestructive inspection. The beam of high-frequency sound wave, ultrasonic wave, is introduced into the material. It travels through the material with some attendant loss of energy and can be reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed. Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect flaws in metal parts as well as in welded, brazed and bonded joints during research work and developing production and service. It is also used to detect and locate porosity, pipe, and flakes. In addition, it can be used for the measurement of metal thickness. Ultrasonic inspection is therefore used for quality control and material inspection in all major industries

  6. Specimen ferromagnetism and the behaviour of electromagnetic ultrasonic shear-wave transducers below and above the Curie point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, T.S.

    1981-04-01

    Interest in the potentialities of electromagnetic ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive testing was re-awakened about 1968 and since then a goodly number of articles have appeared concerning transducers design, performance and use. The aim of this report is to fill a gap by describing the relations between theoretical and actual performance of shear-wave transducers, used on magnetic and on non-magnetic specimens: in particular to trace the phenomena occuring as the temperature of a magnetic specimen (mild steel) is raised through the Curie point. At the transmitting transducer generation of ultrasonic wave is almost exclusively by Lorentz forces applied to the skin of the specimen; at the receiver transduction is via Faraday induction. Wave attenuation in mild steel above the curie point hampers the use of shear waves, but does not render unusable there. An anomaly in performance with mild steel specimens just above the Curie temperature is discussed, which necessitates a brief consideration of electromagnetic longitudinal wave transducers, where the need to invoke magnetostriction as a dominant phenomenon is expressed. (Auhtor)

  7. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  8. Fully Noncontact Wave Propagation Imaging in an Immersed Metallic Plate with a Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ryul Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a noncontact sensing technique with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging algorithm, for damage visualization of liquid-immersed structures. An aluminum plate specimen (400 mm × 400 mm × 3 mm with a 12 mm slit was immersed in water and in glycerin. A 532 nm Q-switched continuous wave laser is used at an energy level of 1.2 mJ to scan an area of 100 mm × 100 mm. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used as a noncontact ultrasonic sensor, which measures guided wave displacement at a fixed point. The tests are performed with two different cases of specimen: without water and filled with water and with glycerin. Lamb wave dispersion curves for the respective cases are calculated, to investigate the velocity-frequency relationship of each wave mode. Experimental propagation velocities of Lamb waves for different cases are compared with the theoretical dispersion curves. This study shows that the dispersion and attenuation of the Lamb wave is affected by the surrounding liquid, and the comparative experimental results are presented to verify it. In addition, it is demonstrated that the developed fully noncontact ultrasonic propagation imaging system is capable of damage sizing in submerged structures.

  9. Hidden corrosion detection in aircraft aluminum structures using laser ultrasonics and wavelet transform signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M Z; Gouyon, R; Lepoutre, F

    2003-06-01

    Preliminary results of hidden corrosion detection in aircraft aluminum structures using a noncontact laser based ultrasonic technique are presented. A short laser pulse focused to a line spot is used as a broadband source of ultrasonic guided waves in an aluminum 2024 sample cut from an aircraft structure and prepared with artificially corroded circular areas on its back surface. The out of plane surface displacements produced by the propagating ultrasonic waves were detected with a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Time-frequency analysis of the signals using a continuous wavelet transform allowed the identification of the generated Lamb modes by comparison with the calculated dispersion curves. The presence of back surface corrosion was detected by noting the loss of the S(1) mode near its cutoff frequency. This method is applicable to fast scanning inspection techniques and it is particularly suited for early corrosion detection.

  10. A finite volume method and experimental study of a stator of a piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborici, V; Dawson, F P; Pugh, M C

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motors are motors that generate torque by using the friction force between a piezoelectric composite ring (or disk-shaped stator) and a metallic ring (or disk-shaped rotor) when a traveling wave is excited in the stator. The motor speed is proportional to the amplitude of the traveling wave and, in order to obtain large amplitudes, the stator is excited at frequencies close to its resonance frequency. This paper presents a non-empirical partial differential equations model for the stator, which is discretized using the finite volume method. The fundamental frequency of the discretized model is computed and compared to the experimentally-measured operating frequency of the stator of Shinsei USR60 piezoelectric motor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of ultrasonic wave influence on magnetic alignment in layered structure 20x[Fe(20 Angstroem)/Cr(12 Angstroem)]/MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Proglyado, V.V.; Khajdukov, Yu.N.; Gavrilov, V.N.; Raitman, E.; Bottyan, L.; Nagy, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    The layered structure 20x[Fe(20 Angstroem)/Cr(12 Angstroem)]/MgO, excited by ultrasonic wave, was investigated using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetic domains vibrations and reduction of their effective size in magnetic field of small strength were observed. In the magnetic field close to saturation the magnetic lattice is formed in the layered structure. Interplane distance of the lattice changes with increase of the magnetic field strength as well as with ultrasonic excitation of the structure

  12. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process.

  13. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process

  14. Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on the Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, J.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Sala, F.

    1972-01-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca2+ or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  15. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  16. Enhanced Removal of Hydrophobic Gas by Aerial Ultrasonic Waves and Two Kinds of Water Mists of Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    Air pollutants can cause health problems, such as bronchitis and cancer, and are now recognized as a social problem. Hence, a method is proposed for the collection and removal of gaseous air pollutants by aerial ultrasonic waves and water mist. Typically, gas removal effects are studied using lemon oil vapor (“lemon gas”), which is a hydrophobic gas. Previous experiments using lemon gas have shown that a removal rate of up to 40% can be achieved in an intense standing wave at 20 kHz, for an amount of water mist of 1.39 cm3/s and an electrical input power of 50 W. Increasing the surface area of the water mist leads to greater removal of hydrophobic gas. In this study, the effects of gas removal are examined by conducting experiments using intense aerial ultrasonic waves to disperse two kinds of water mists, each composed of particles of different sizes: small particles (diameter: ≈3 µm) and conventional large particles (diameter: ≈60 µm).

  17. Transient space-time surface waves characterization using Gabor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L; Wilkie-Chancellier, N; Caplain, E [Universite de Cergy Pontoise, ENS Cachan, UMR CNRS 8029, Laboratoire Systemes et Applications des Techniques de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 5 mail Gay-Lussac, F 9500 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Glorieux, C; Sarens, B, E-mail: nicolas.wilkie-chancellier@u-cergy.f [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica (LATF), Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-11-01

    Laser ultrasonics allow the observation of transient surface waves along their propagation media and their interaction with encountered objects like cracks, holes, borders. In order to characterize and localize these transient aspects in the Space-Time-Wave number-Frequency domains, the 1D, 2D and 3D Gabor transforms are presented. The Gabor transform enables the identification of several properties of the local wavefronts such as their shape, wavelength, frequency, attenuation, group velocity and the full conversion sequence along propagation. The ability of local properties identification by Gabor transform is illustrated by two experimental studies: Lamb waves generated by an annular source on a circular quartz and Lamb wave interaction with a fluid droplet. In both cases, results obtained with Gabor transform enable ones to identify the observed local waves.

  18. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Algorithms for ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2011-07-01

    This report contains research results concerning the use of advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala Univ. in 2009 and 2010. The first part of the report deals with ultrasonic imaging of damage in planar structures using Lamb waves. We present results of the first successful attempt to apply an adaptive beamformer for Lamb waves. Our algorithm is an extension of the adaptive beamformer based on minimum variance distortion less response (MVDR) approach to dispersive, multimodal Lamb waves. We present simulation and experimental results illustrating the performance of the MVDR applied to imaging artificial damage in an aluminum plate. In the second part of the report we present two extensions of the previously proposed 2D phase shift migration algorithms for enhancing resolution in ultrasonic imaging of solid objects. The first extension enables processing 3D data in order to fully utilize the resolution enhancement potential of the technique. The second extension, consists in generalizing the technique to allow for the processing of data acquired using an array instead of a previously concerned single transducer. Robustness issue related to objects having front surfaces that are slightly tilted relative to the scanning axis is also considered

  19. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Algorithms for ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Engholm, Marcus; Olofsson, Tomas (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Dept. of Technical Sciences (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    This report contains research results concerning the use of advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala Univ. in 2009 and 2010. The first part of the report deals with ultrasonic imaging of damage in planar structures using Lamb waves. We present results of the first successful attempt to apply an adaptive beamformer for Lamb waves. Our algorithm is an extension of the adaptive beamformer based on minimum variance distortion less response (MVDR) approach to dispersive, multimodal Lamb waves. We present simulation and experimental results illustrating the performance of the MVDR applied to imaging artificial damage in an aluminum plate. In the second part of the report we present two extensions of the previously proposed 2D phase shift migration algorithms for enhancing resolution in ultrasonic imaging of solid objects. The first extension enables processing 3D data in order to fully utilize the resolution enhancement potential of the technique. The second extension, consists in generalizing the technique to allow for the processing of data acquired using an array instead of a previously concerned single transducer. Robustness issue related to objects having front surfaces that are slightly tilted relative to the scanning axis is also considered

  20. Dispersion curve estimation via a spatial covariance method with ultrasonic wavefield imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, See Yenn; Todd, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Numerous Lamb wave dispersion curve estimation methods have been developed to support damage detection and localization strategies in non-destructive evaluation/structural health monitoring (NDE/SHM) applications. In this paper, the covariance matrix is used to extract features from an ultrasonic wavefield imaging (UWI) scan in order to estimate the phase and group velocities of S0 and A0 modes. A laser ultrasonic interrogation method based on a Q-switched laser scanning system was used to interrogate full-field ultrasonic signals in a 2-mm aluminum plate at five different frequencies. These full-field ultrasonic signals were processed in three-dimensional space-time domain. Then, the time-dependent covariance matrices of the UWI were obtained based on the vector variables in Cartesian and polar coordinate spaces for all time samples. A spatial covariance map was constructed to show spatial correlations within the full wavefield. It was observed that the variances may be used as a feature for S0 and A0 mode properties. The phase velocity and the group velocity were found using a variance map and an enveloped variance map, respectively, at five different frequencies. This facilitated the estimation of Lamb wave dispersion curves. The estimated dispersion curves of the S0 and A0 modes showed good agreement with the theoretical dispersion curves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The study on nondestructive evaluation for a tubular structure by the lamb-type guided wave wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yun Ho; Park, Jung Chul

    1998-01-01

    The study on the cylindrical guided wave was carried out to investigate its feasibility for nondestructive evaluation of tubular structures such as heat exchanger tubings of power industries and various pipings of chemical plants. The concept of wedge design and incident angle selection to optimize guided wave generation is presented based on the dispersion theory and the snell's law for the cylindrical guided wave. The brass tubes with artificial defects in the circumferential or axial direction were used for detect defection experiments. It was found that guided wave sensitivity for detecting an axial defect can be remarkably improved by using non-axisymmetrically launched guided waves. Through this study, it is expected that the guided wave can be successfully applied to tubular structure inspections as an more advanced and efficient NDE technique than a conventional point-by-point technique.

  2. Understanding of Materials State and its Degradation using Non-Linear Ultrasound Approaches for Lamb Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    welded as well as HAZ region. Nonlinear Ultrasonic (NLU) is also now used to characterise the creep damage. Sony Baby et al. used the NLU technique...Šohaj, R Foret, “Microstructural stability of 316TI/P92 and 17242/P91 weld joints”, METAL 2011, 18th – 20th May 2011, Brno, Czech Republic, EU. [60] P J...harmonic generation”, J. Appl. Phys., 81(7); 2957-2962 (1997). [63] G E Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy , McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1988 [64] J H Cantrell, and W

  3. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  4. A study on the diagnosis for power transformer by ultrasonic wave detection(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Gil Doo Song

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to develop a device which could diagnose periodically the degradation of power transformer using ultrasonic signal through ultrasonic transducer attached surface of power transformer. And also it makes possible to reduce power failure time due to the power transformer fault and makes power system more reliable. Ultrasonic diagnostic device for power transformer was developed through this study. The developed device will contributed to early detection of fault and its location in the power transformer while it is operated, and also to extension of transformer life cycle, localization of this device will be reduced it's cost down compared with off shore. This device consisted of a new diagnostic algorithm is well suited for the power transformer which could found out some fault during the operation of on line monitoring system. This system could be extended to the general industrial plant utilizing the accumulated diagnostic technique.

  5. A study on the diagnosis for power transformer by Ultrasonic wave detection (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Gil, Doo Song

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to develop a device which could diagnosis periodically the degradation of power transformer using ultrasonic signal through ultrasonic transducer attached surface of power transformer. And also it makes possible to reduce power failure time due to the power transformer fault and makes power system more reliable. Ultrasonic diagnostic device for power transformer was developed through this study. The developed device will contributed to early detection of fault and its location in the power transformer while it is operated, and also to extension of transformer life cycle, localization of this device will be reduced it's cost down compared with off shore. This device consisted of a new diagnostic algorithm is well suited for the power transformer which could found out some fault during the operation of on line monitoring system. This system could be extended to the general industrial plant utilizing the accumulated diagnostic technique.

  6. Application of the Gaussian beam summation method to the study of the ultrasonic wave propagation in a turbulent medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Some systems for the control and the surveillance of fast reactors are based on the characteristics of the ultrasonic wave propagation. We present here the results of a numerical and experimental study of ultrasonic propagation in a thermal turbulent medium. A numerical model, based on the technique of superposition of discrete Fourier modes for representing isotropic and homogeneous turbulence and on the Gaussian beam summation method for calculating the acoustic field, has been implemented in order to study the propagation of a point source wave in a bidimensional turbulent medium. Our model is based on the following principle: the medium is represented by a great number of independent realizations of a turbulent field and for each of them we calculate the acoustic field in a deterministic way. Statistics over a great number of realizations enable us to access to the different quantities of the distorted acoustic field: variance of the time of flight fluctuations, scintillation index and intensity probability density function. In the case of small fluctuations, the results for these three quantities are in a good agreement with analytical solutions. When the level of the fluctuations grows, the model predicts correct evolutions. However, a great sensitivity to the location of a receiver in the vicinity of a caustic has been proved. Calculations in the temporal domain have also been performed. They give an illustration of the possible effects of the turbulence on an impulsion signal. An experimental device, fitted with thermocouples and acoustic transducers, has been used to study the ultrasonic propagation in turbulent water. The different measures permitted to characterize the turbulent field and to get aware of the effect of the turbulence on the acoustic propagation. The acoustical measures agree well with the analytical solution of Chernov and Rytov. They are show the importance of the knowledge of the real spectrum of the fluctuations and the limitations of

  7. Spatial and spectral image distortions caused by diffraction of an ordinary polarised light beam by an ultrasonic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machikhin, A S; Pozhar, V E [Scientific and Technological Centre of Unique Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-28

    We consider the problem of determining the spatial and spectral image distortions arising from anisotropic diffraction by ultrasonic waves in crystals with ordinary polarised light (o → e). By neglecting the small-birefringence approximation, we obtain analytical solutions that describe the dependence of the diffraction angles and wave mismatch on the acousto-optic (AO) interaction geometry and crystal parameters. The formulas derived allow one to calculate and analyse the magnitude of diffraction-induced spatial and spectral image distortions and to identify the main types of distortions: chromatic compression and trapezoidal deformation. A comparison of the values of these distortions in the diffraction of ordinary and extraordinary polarised light shows that they are almost equal in magnitude and opposite in signs, so that consistent diffraction (o → e → o or e → o → e) in two identical AO cells rotated through 180° in the plane of diffraction can compensate for these distortions. (diffraction of radiation)

  8. Effect of hip and knee position on tensor fasciae latae elongation during stretching: An ultrasonic shear wave elastography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Jun; Ikezoe, Tome; Nishishita, Satoru; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-12-01

    Decreased flexibility of the tensor fasciae latae is one factor that causes iliotibial band syndrome. Stretching has been used to improve flexibility or tightness of the muscle. However, no studies have investigated the effective stretching position for the tensor fasciae latae using an index to quantify muscle elongation in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hip rotation and knee angle on tensor fasciae latae elongation during stretching in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Twenty healthy men participated in this study. The shear elastic modulus of the tensor fasciae latae was calculated using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Stretching was performed at maximal hip adduction and maximal hip extension in 12 different positions with three hip rotation conditions (neutral, internal, and external rotations) and four knee angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant main effect for knee angle, but not for hip rotation. The post-hoc test for knee angle indicated that the shear elastic modulus at 90° and 135° were significantly greater than those at 0° and 45°. Our results suggest that adding hip rotation to the stretching position with hip adduction and extension may have less effect on tensor fasciae latae elongation, and that stretching at >90° of knee flexion may effectively elongate the tensor fasciae latae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phased laser diode array permits selective excitation of ultrasonic guided waves in coated bone-mimicking tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Petro; Salmi, Ari; Kilappa, Vantte; Zhao, Zuomin; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2017-10-01

    This paper validates simulation predictions, which state that specific modes could be enhanced in quantitative ultrasonic bone testing. Tunable selection of ultrasonic guided wave excitation is useful in non-destructive testing since it permits the mediation of energy into diagnostically useful modes while reducing the energy mediated into disturbing contributions. For instance, it is often challenging to distinguish and extract the useful modes from ultrasound signals measured in bone covered by a soft tissue. We show that a laser diode array can selectively excite ultrasound in bone mimicking phantoms. A fiber-coupled diode array (4 elements) illuminated two solid tubes (2-3 mm wall thickness) embraced by an opaque soft-tissue mimicking elastomer coating (5 mm thick). A predetermined time delay matching the selected mode and frequency was employed between the outputs of the elements. The generated ultrasound was detected by a 215 kHz piezo receiver. Our results suggest that this array reduces the disturbances caused by the elastomer cover and so pave way to permit non-contacting in vivo guided wave ultrasound assessment of human bones. The implementation is small, inexpensive, and robust in comparison with the conventional pulsed lasers.

  10. Head waves in ultrasonic testing. Physical principle and application to welded joint testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1984-01-01

    A head wave sensor is developed from distinct emitter and receiver sensors using longitudinal waves under a 70 0 incidence. These heat wave sensors present a high sensitivity for underlying cracks and are not influenced by surface accidents like liquid drops or welding projection. They are multi mode sensors emitting simultaneously longitudinal head waves, a main longitudinal lobe and a transverse wave with a maximum at about 38 0 . This wave combination can be used for automatic testing of welded joints even with austenitic materials for defect detection near internal or external surfaces. This process can substitute or complete liquid penetrant inspection or magnetic inspection for testing pipes (13 references are given) [fr

  11. Instrument for thickness measuring of a workpiece with the help of ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Martin, R.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed ultrasonic measuring instrument has a generator for pulsed ultrasonic signals, a detector as well as a contact arrangement that connects both with the work piece. The transportation lag of the signals through the contact arrangements amounts to at least five times the transportation lag of the signals due to the thickness of a work piece. Furthermore there is an arrangement for the measurement of the delay between two successive echos from the back of the work piece with the help of a zero passage detector for the generation of a time-reference value on each echo signal. This permits an exact time control of the pulses which range in the field around nano seconds. The instrument is explained with 8 drawings and a detailed description. (RW) [de

  12. Dynamic properties of micro-particles in ultrasonic transportation using phase-controllable standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Kun; Mei, Deqing; Meng, Jianxin; Yang, Keji

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation has become an attractive method for surface-sensitive objects in micro-technology. Related phenomena, such as radiation force, multiple scattering, and acoustic streaming, have been widely studied. However, in current studies, the behavior of micro-particles in potential force fields is always analyzed in a quasi-static manner. We developed a dynamic model of a dilute micro-particle in the commonly used two-dimensional ultrasonic manipulation system to provide a systemic and quantitative analysis of the transient properties of particle movement. In this model, the acoustic streaming and hydrodynamic forces, omitted in previous work, were both considered. The trajectory of a spherical silica particle with different initial conditions was derived by numerically solving the established nonlinear differential integral equation system, which was then validated experimentally. The envelope of the experimental data on the x-axis showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation, and the greater influence on the y-axis of the deviation between the actual sound field and the ideal distribution employed in our dynamic model could account for the differences in displacement in that direction. Finally, the influence of particle size on its movement and the effect of acoustic streaming on calculating the hydrodynamic forces for an isolated particle with motion relative to the fluid were analyzed theoretically. It was found that the ultrasonic manipulation system will translate from an under-damped system to an over-damped system with a decrease in particle size and the micro-scale acoustic streaming velocity was negligible when calculating the hydrodynamic forces on the particle in the ultrasonic manipulation system.

  13. Dynamic properties of micro-particles in ultrasonic transportation using phase-controllable standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Mei, Deqing; Meng, Jianxin; Yang, Keji

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation has become an attractive method for surface-sensitive objects in micro-technology. Related phenomena, such as radiation force, multiple scattering, and acoustic streaming, have been widely studied. However, in current studies, the behavior of micro-particles in potential force fields is always analyzed in a quasi-static manner. We developed a dynamic model of a dilute micro-particle in the commonly used two-dimensional ultrasonic manipulation system to provide a systemic and quantitative analysis of the transient properties of particle movement. In this model, the acoustic streaming and hydrodynamic forces, omitted in previous work, were both considered. The trajectory of a spherical silica particle with different initial conditions was derived by numerically solving the established nonlinear differential integral equation system, which was then validated experimentally. The envelope of the experimental data on the x-axis showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation, and the greater influence on the y-axis of the deviation between the actual sound field and the ideal distribution employed in our dynamic model could account for the differences in displacement in that direction. Finally, the influence of particle size on its movement and the effect of acoustic streaming on calculating the hydrodynamic forces for an isolated particle with motion relative to the fluid were analyzed theoretically. It was found that the ultrasonic manipulation system will translate from an under-damped system to an over-damped system with a decrease in particle size and the micro-scale acoustic streaming velocity was negligible when calculating the hydrodynamic forces on the particle in the ultrasonic manipulation system.

  14. Numerical comparison of patch and sandwich piezoelectric transducers for transmitting ultrasonic waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available in the waveguide. Piezoelectric patch transducers are frequently employed, by researchers, for exciting waves in beam like structures. Sonar systems frequently make use of resonant transducers, such as sandwich transducers, for acoustic wave generation...

  15. Certain strength test of concrete with ultrasonic waves by better evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethig, H.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of the increasing demands put to the quality control of buildings and concrete assembly units, ultrasonic testing has found an internationally ever wider application in building industries and facilities in recent years. The ultrasonic method is in its nature analogous to the application with metallic materials, particularly suitable for recognizing defects and poor quality concrete and an increased application in this direction is most promising. However, it is equally important for concrete plants and building sites to certify the specified concrete quality or a required degree of hardness which can be determined by the pressure resistance of a test cube according to the valid specifications. Therefore the non-destructive pressure resistance determination of concrete is of great practical interest and ultrasonic testing is at present, above all being used for this purpose. It is very suitable in many cases for calibration on cubes of the same concrete as the assembly units or buildings to be tested. The quality of the calibration gives a ruling determination of the accuracy and reliability of the non-destructively determined pressure resistance values. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the water turbidity during the oxidation of phenol. Formation of (hydro)peroxo complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Natalia; Lomas, Jose M; Camarero, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the kinetics of aqueous phenol oxidation by a sono-Fenton process reveals that the via involving ortho-substituted intermediates prevails: catechol (25.0%), hydroquinone (7.7%) and resorcinol (0.6%). During the oxidation, water rapidly acquires color that reaches its maximum intensity at the maximum concentration of p-benzoquinone. Turbidity formation occurs at a slower rate. Oxidant dosage determines the nature of the intermediates, being trihydroxylated benzenes (pyrogallol, hydroxyhydroquinone) and muconic acid the main precursors causing turbidity. It is found that the concentration of iron species and ultrasonic waves affects the intensity of the turbidity. The pathway of (hydro)peroxo-iron(II) complexes formation is proposed. Operating with 20.0-27.8mgFe 2+ /kW rates leads to formation of (hydro)peroxo-iron(II) complexes, which induce high turbidity levels. These species would dissociate into ZZ-muconic acid and ferrous ions. Applying relationships around 13.9mgFe 2+ /kW, the formation of (hydro)peroxo-iron(III) complexes would occur, which could react with carboxylic acids (2,5-dioxo-3-hexenedioic acid). That reaction induces turbidity slower. This is due to the organic substrate reacting with two molecules of the (hydro)peroxo complex. Therefore, it is necessary to accelerate the iron regeneration, intensifying the ultrasonic irradiation. Afterwards, this complex would dissociate into maleic acid and ferric ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dispersed Sensing Networks in Nano-Engineered Polymer Composites: From Static Strain Measurement to Ultrasonic Wave Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehai Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-sensing capability of composite materials has been the core of intensive research over the years and particularly boosted up by the recent quantum leap in nanotechnology. The capacity of most existing self-sensing approaches is restricted to static strains or low-frequency structural vibration. In this study, a new breed of functionalized epoxy-based composites is developed and fabricated, with a graphene nanoparticle-enriched, dispersed sensing network, whereby to self-perceive broadband elastic disturbance from static strains, through low-frequency vibration to guided waves in an ultrasonic regime. Owing to the dispersed and networked sensing capability, signals can be captured at any desired part of the composites. Experimental validation has demonstrated that the functionalized composites can self-sense strains, outperforming conventional metal foil strain sensors with a significantly enhanced gauge factor and a much broader response bandwidth. Precise and fast self-response of the composites to broadband ultrasonic signals (up to 440 kHz has revealed that the composite structure itself can serve as ultrasound sensors, comparable to piezoceramic sensors in performance, whereas avoiding the use of bulky cables and wires as used in a piezoceramic sensor network. This study has spotlighted promising potentials of the developed approach to functionalize conventional composites with a self-sensing capability of high-sensitivity yet minimized intrusion to original structures.

  18. Non-Destructive Inspection of Impact Damage in Composite Aircraft Panels by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Statistical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Capriotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a non-destructive evaluation (NDE technique for the detection of damage in composite aircraft structures following high energy wide area blunt impact (HEWABI from ground service equipment (GSE, such as heavy cargo loaders and other heavy equipment. The test structures typically include skin, co-cured stringers, and C-frames that are bolt-connected onto the skin with shear ties. The inspection exploits the waveguide geometry of these structures by utilizing ultrasonic guided waves and a line scan approach. Both a contact prototype and a non-contact prototype were developed and tested on realistic test panels subjected to impact in the laboratory. The results are presented in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves that show excellent probability of detection with low false alarm rates for defects located in the panel skin and stringers.

  19. Towards an Ultrasonic Guided Wave Procedure for Health Monitoring of Composite Vessels: Application to Hydrogen-Powered Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacoubi, Slah; McKeon, Peter; Ke, Weina; Declercq, Nico F; Dahmene, Fethi

    2017-09-19

    This paper presents an overview and description of the approach to be used to investigate the behavior and the defect sensitivity of various ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) modes propagating specifically in composite cylindrical vessels in the framework of the safety of hydrogen energy transportation such as hydrogen-powered aircrafts. These structures which consist of thick and multi-layer composites are envisioned for housing hydrogen gas at high pressures. Due to safety concerns associated with a weakened structure, structural health monitoring techniques are needed. A procedure for optimizing damage detection in these structural types is presented. It is shown that a finite element method can help identify useful experimental parameters including frequency range, excitation type, and receiver placement.

  20. Non-Destructive Inspection of Impact Damage in Composite Aircraft Panels by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Statistical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Kim, Hyungsuk E; Scalea, Francesco Lanza di; Kim, Hyonny

    2017-06-04

    This paper discusses a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for the detection of damage in composite aircraft structures following high energy wide area blunt impact (HEWABI) from ground service equipment (GSE), such as heavy cargo loaders and other heavy equipment. The test structures typically include skin, co-cured stringers, and C-frames that are bolt-connected onto the skin with shear ties. The inspection exploits the waveguide geometry of these structures by utilizing ultrasonic guided waves and a line scan approach. Both a contact prototype and a non-contact prototype were developed and tested on realistic test panels subjected to impact in the laboratory. The results are presented in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves that show excellent probability of detection with low false alarm rates for defects located in the panel skin and stringers.

  1. Towards an Ultrasonic Guided Wave Procedure for Health Monitoring of Composite Vessels: Application to Hydrogen-Powered Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slah Yaacoubi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview and description of the approach to be used to investigate the behavior and the defect sensitivity of various ultrasonic guided wave (UGW modes propagating specifically in composite cylindrical vessels in the framework of the safety of hydrogen energy transportation such as hydrogen-powered aircrafts. These structures which consist of thick and multi-layer composites are envisioned for housing hydrogen gas at high pressures. Due to safety concerns associated with a weakened structure, structural health monitoring techniques are needed. A procedure for optimizing damage detection in these structural types is presented. It is shown that a finite element method can help identify useful experimental parameters including frequency range, excitation type, and receiver placement.

  2. A dynamic model of the piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor stator with the finite volume method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria Marquez, I A; Bolborici, V

    2017-05-01

    This manuscript presents a method to model in detail the piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor (PTRUSM) stator response under the action of DC and AC voltages. The stator is modeled with a discrete two dimensional system of equations using the finite volume method (FVM). In order to obtain accurate results, a model of the stator bridge is included into the stator model. The model of the stator under the action of DC voltage is presented first, and the results of the model are compared versus a similar model using the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. One can observe that there is a difference of less than 5% between the displacements of the stator using the proposed model and the one with COMSOL Multiphysics. After that, the model of the stator under the action of AC voltages is presented. The time domain analysis shows the generation of the traveling wave in the stator surface. One can use this model to accurately calculate the stator surface velocities, elliptical motion of the stator surface and the amplitude and shape of the stator traveling wave. A system of equations discretized with the finite volume method can easily be transformed into electrical circuits, because of that, FVM may be a better choice to develop a model-based control strategy for the PTRUSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of fatigue cracks using nonlinearities of acousto-ultrasonic waves acquired by an active sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Qiang; Cheng, Li

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic (AU) waves to detect damage onset (e.g., micro-fatigue cracks) due to their high sensitivity to damage with small dimensions. However, most existing approaches are able to infer the existence of fatigue damage qualitatively, but fail to further ascertain its location and severity. A damage characterization approach, in conjunction with the use of an active piezoelectric sensor network, was established, capable of evaluating fatigue cracks in a quantitative manner (including the co-presence of multiple fatigue cracks, and their individual locations and severities). Fundamental investigations, using both experiment and enhanced finite element analysis dedicated to the simulation of nonlinear AU waves, were carried out to link the accumulation of nonlinearities extracted from high-order AU waves to the characteristic parameters of a fatigue crack. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed, facilitating an intuitive presentation of identification results in images. The approach was verified experimentally by evaluating multi-fatigue cracks near rivet holes of a fatigued aluminum plate, showing satisfactory precision in characterizing real, barely visible fatigue cracks. Compared with existing methods, this approach innovatively (i) uses permanently integrated active sensor networks, conducive to automatic and online health monitoring; (ii) characterizes fatigue cracks at a quantitative level; (iii) allows detection of multiple fatigue cracks; and (iv) visualizes identification results in intuitive images. (paper)

  4. Ultrasonic standing wave preparation of a liquid cell for glucose measurements in urine by midinfrared spectroscopy and potential application to smart toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Kitazaki, Tomoya; Mori, Keita; Kang, Hanyue; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Smart toilets could be used to monitor different components of urine in daily life for early detection of lifestyle-related diseases and prompt provision of treatment. For analysis of biological samples such as urine by midinfrared spectroscopy, thin-film samples like liquid cells are needed because of the strong absorption of midinfrared light by water. Conventional liquid cells or fixed cells are prepared based on the liquid membrane method and solution technique, but these are not quantitative and are difficult to set up and clean. We generated an ultrasonic standing wave reflection plane in a sample and produced an ultrasonic liquid cell. In this cell, the thickness of the optical path length was adjustable, as in the conventional method. The reflection plane could be generated at an arbitrary depth and internal reflected light could be detected by changing the frequency of the ultrasonic wave. We could generate refractive index boundaries using the density difference created by the ultrasonic standing wave. Creation of the reflection plane in the sample was confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Using the proposed method and midinfrared spectroscopy, we discriminated between normal urine samples spiked with glucose at different concentrations and obtained a high correlation coefficient. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  5. Visualization of Lamb Wave Interaction with a 5 mm Fatigue Crack using 1D Ultra High Frequency Laser Doppler Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    detection of a fatigue crack via 3D LDV measurements, both in aluminum plates. All the referenced LDV/guided wave studies made use of PZT or similar...Figure 1a). (b) (a) (c) Figure 1: (a) Test specimen in MTS fatigue test machine, (b) hole with 5 mm crack, (c) PZT placement with...mm thick aluminum plates with a small (1.59 mm) center hole added to facilitate growth of a fatigue crack. One plate was left undamaged while the

  6. Numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in uniform waveguides with arbitrary cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng, E-mail: ZFAN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhou, Yu [Advanced Remanufacturing and Technology Center (ARTC), 3 Clean Tech Loop, CleanTech Two, Singapore 637143 (Singapore)

    2016-07-15

    Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.

  7. Characteristic analysis of a traveling wave ultrasonic motor using an ellipsoidal static contact model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jung Pil; Rho, Jong Seok; Yi, Kyung Pyo; Jung, Hyun Kyo; Seo, Jung Moo

    2009-01-01

    A characteristic analysis of an ultrasonic motor (USM) at the design stage has thus far been impossible. Therefore, a characteristic analysis method is suggested on the basis of a proposed model describing the complex nonlinear contact condition between the rotor and stator. The proposed contact model and analysis method can guide theoretical research on the minimization of the main disadvantages of the USM, which mainly result from the contact mechanism. The validity and usefulness of the suggested analysis method is verified by experimental data from a prototyped USM

  8. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the stability of all-trans lutein and its degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Da-Jing; Pang, Hui-Li; Liu, Chun-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound treatment has been widely applied in the extraction of biologically active compounds including carotenoids. However, there are few reports on their effects on the stability of these compounds. In the present study, the stability of all-trans lutein, one of the carotenoids, was investigated under the action of ultrasound. Results showed that ultrasound induced the isomerization of all-trans lutein to its isomers, namely to 13-cis lutein, 13'-cis lutein, 9-cis lutein and 9'-cis lutein as analyzed by HPLC coupled with DAD and LC-MS; and the percentage of the isomerization increased with increasing both ultrasonic frequency and power. The stability of all-trans lutein in dichloromethane was worst among multiple kinds of solvents. Interestingly, the retention rate of all-trans lutein improved as the temperature increased, which runs counter to the Arrhenius law. Under ultrasound irradiation, the degradation mechanism might be different with various temperatures, the degradation of all-trans lutein followed first-order kinetics at 20°C, while second-order kinetics was followed at 30-50°C. As the ultrasonic reaction time prolonged, lutein epoxidation nearly occurred. Those results presented here emphasized that UAE techniques should be carefully used in the extraction of all-trans lutein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Complete modeling of rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2000-06-01

    Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. These motors are being adapted for operation at the harsh space environments that include cryogenic temperatures and vacuum and analytical tools for the design of efficient motors are being developed. A hybrid analytical model was developed to address a complete ultrasonic motor as a system. Included in this model is the influence of the rotor dynamics, which was determined experimentally to be important to the motor performance. The analysis employs a 3D finite element model to express the dynamic characteristics of the stator with piezoelectric elements and the rotor. The details of the stator including the teeth, piezoelectric ceramic, geometry, bonding layer, etc. are included to support practical USM designs. A brush model is used for the interface layer and Coulomb's law for the friction between the stator and the rotor. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the motor. In parallel, efforts have been made to determine the thermal and vacuum performance of these motors. To explore telerobotic applications for USMs a robotic arm was constructed with such motors.

  10. Study of a new technique for measuring the travel time of ultrasonic waves using the frequency spectrum; Estudo de uma nova tecnica de medida do tempo de percurso da onda ultra-sonica usando o espectro de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allan Xavier dos

    2010-07-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant and other industrial plants, the operational time and the exposition to severe working conditions may cause the wear of its components, consequently, compromising the safety and the performance of the installation. The implementation of periodical inspections helps to ensure the safe operation and the best performance of the plant. In this way, the use of ultrasonic techniques for inspection and materials characterization becomes more and more attractive, since they offer quick, precise results and are technically ease to implement. The usual ultrasonic techniques, need to the measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in the material examined in order to extract information useful to characterize it. Thus, the measurement of the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave is the overriding factor in most of the applications made with ultrasound. In this work a new technique was developed for measuring the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave using a Fourier's Fast Transformer (FFT). It will be shown mathematically and experimentally that it is possible to use the ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave. Five experiments were carried out for the experimental validation of this new technique. The materials used were 20 ceramic pastilles with different porosities and 3 aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The obtained results have shown that the new technique proposed in this work was able to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave with the same precision as the conventional technique. It was shown, furthermore, that this new technique is able to measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in situations where the conventional technique cannot be applied greatly expanding the range of application of ultrasonic testing and inspections. (author)

  11. Preliminary study of slow and fast ultrasonic waves using MR images of trabecular bone phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Najera, S. E., E-mail: solisnajera@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: lucia.medina@ciencias.unam.mx; Neria-Pérez, J. A., E-mail: solisnajera@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: lucia.medina@ciencias.unam.mx; Medina, L., E-mail: solisnajera@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: lucia.medina@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Garipov, R., E-mail: ruslan.garipov@mrsolutions.co.uk [MR Solutions Ltd, Surrey (United Kingdom); Rodríguez, A. O., E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, México, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Cancellous bone is a complex tissue that performs physiological and biomechanical functions in all vertebrates. It is made up of trabeculae that, from a simplified structural viewpoint, can be considered as plates and beams in a hyperstatic structure that change with time leading to osteoporosis. Several methods has been developed to study the trabecular bone microstructure among them is the Biot’s model which predicts the existence of two longitudinal waves in porous media; the slow and the fast waves, that can be related to porosity of the media. This paper is focused on the experimental detection of the two Biot’s waves of a trabecular bone phantom, consisting of a trabecular network of inorganic hydroxyapatite. Experimental measurements of both waves were performed using through transmission ultrasound. Results had shown clearly that the propagation of two waves propagation is transversal to the trabecular alignment. Otherwise the waves are overlapped and a single wave seems to be propagated. To validate these results, magnetic resonance images were acquired to assess the trabecular direction, and to assure that the pulses correspond to the slow and fast waves. This approach offers a methodology for non-invasive studies of trabecular bones.

  12. Characterizing Hypervelocity Impact (HVI-Induced Pitting Damage Using Active Guided Ultrasonic Waves: From Linear to Nonlinear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypervelocity impact (HVI, ubiquitous in low Earth orbit with an impacting velocity in excess of 1 km/s, poses an immense threat to the safety of orbiting spacecraft. Upon penetration of the outer shielding layer of a typical two-layer shielding system, the shattered projectile, together with the jetted materials of the outer shielding material, subsequently impinge the inner shielding layer, to which pitting damage is introduced. The pitting damage includes numerous craters and cracks disorderedly scattered over a wide region. Targeting the quantitative evaluation of this sort of damage (multitudinous damage within a singular inspection region, a characterization strategy, associating linear with nonlinear features of guided ultrasonic waves, is developed. Linear-wise, changes in the signal features in the time domain (e.g., time-of-flight and energy dissipation are extracted, for detecting gross damage whose characteristic dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the probing wave; nonlinear-wise, changes in the signal features in the frequency domain (e.g., second harmonic generation, which are proven to be more sensitive than their linear counterparts to small-scale damage, are explored to characterize HVI-induced pitting damage scattered in the inner layer. A numerical simulation, supplemented with experimental validation, quantitatively reveals the accumulation of nonlinearity of the guided waves when the waves traverse the pitting damage, based on which linear and nonlinear damage indices are proposed. A path-based rapid imaging algorithm, in conjunction with the use of the developed linear and nonlinear indices, is developed, whereby the HVI-induced pitting damage is characterized in images in terms of the probability of occurrence.

  13. A self-running standing wave-type bidirectional slider for the ultrasonically levitated thin linear stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Takei, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2008-08-01

    A slider for a self-running standing wave-type, ultrasonically levitated, thin linear stage is discussed. The slider can be levitated and moved using acoustic radiation force and acoustic streaming. The slider has a simple configuration and consists of an aluminum vibrating plate and a piezoelectric zirconate titanate (PZT) element. The large asymmetric vibration distribution for the high thrust and levitation performance was obtained by adjusting the configuration determined by finite elemental analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, the computed results of the sound pressure distribution in the 1-mm air gap by FEA was com pared with experimental results obtained using a fiber optic probe. The direction of the total driving force for the acoustic streaming in the small air gap was estimated by the sound pressure distribution calculated by FEA, and it was found that the direction of the acoustic streaming could be altered by controlling the vibration mode of the slider. The flexural standing wave could be generated along the vibrating plate near the frequencies predicted based on the FEA results. The slider could be levitated by the acoustic radiation force radiated from its own vibrating plate at several frequencies. The slider could be moved in the negative and positive directions at 68 kHz and 69 kHz, which correspond to the results computed by FEA, with the asymmetric vibration distribution of the slider's vibrating plate. Larger thrust could be obtained with the smaller levitation distance, and the maximum thrust was 19 mN.

  14. Simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in anisotropic poroelastic bone plate using hybrid spectral/finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of guided waves propagation in in vivo cortical long bone, which is known to be anisotropic medium with functionally graded porosity. The bone is modeled as an anisotropic poroelastic material by using Biot's theory formulated in high frequency domain. A hybrid spectral/finite element formulation has been developed to find the time-domain solution of ultrasonic waves propagating in a poroelastic plate immersed in two fluid halfspaces. The numerical technique is based on a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, which allows to obtain a reduced dimension problem in the frequency-wavenumber domain. In the spectral domain, as radiation conditions representing infinite fluid halfspaces may be exactly introduced, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analyzed by using finite element method. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed procedure. A preliminary study on the first arrived signal velocities computed by using equivalent elastic and poroelastic models will be presented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Modal content based damage indicators and phased array transducers for structural health monitoring of aircraft structures using ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang

    Composite materials, especially carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), have been widely used in the aircraft industry because of their high specific strength and stiffness, resistance to corrosion and good fatigue life. Due to their highly anisotropic material properties and laminated structures, joining methods like bolting and riveting are no longer appropriate for joining CFRP since they initiate defects during the assembly and severely compromise the integrity of the structure; thus new techniques for joining CFRP are highly demanded. Adhesive bonding is a promising method because it relieves stress concentration, reduces weight and provides smooth surfaces. Additionally, it is a low-cost alternative to the co-cured method which is currently used to manufacture components of aircraft fuselage. Adhesive defects, disbonds at the interface between adherend and adhesive layer, are focused on in this thesis because they can be initialized by either poor surface preparation during the manufacturing or fatigue loads during service. Aircraft need structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to increase safety and reduce loss, and adhesive bonds usually represent the hotspots of the assembled structure. There are many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for bond inspection. However, these methods cannot be readily integrated into an SHM system because of the bulk size and weight of the equipment and requirement of accessibility to one side of the bonded joint. The first objective of this work is to develop instruments, actuators, sensors and a data acquisition system for SHM of bond lines using ultrasonic guided waves which are well known to be able to cover large volume of the structure and inaccessible regions. Different from widely used guided wave sensors like PZT disks, the new actuators, piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC) phased array transducers0 (PAT), can control the modal content of the excited waves and the new sensors, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF

  16. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  17. Model-free adaptive speed control on travelling wave ultrasonic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sisi; Li, Huafeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduced a new data-driven control (DDC) method for the speed control of ultrasonic motor (USM). The model-free adaptive control (MFAC) strategy was presented in terms of its principles, algorithms, and parameter selection. To verify the efficiency of the proposed method, a speed-frequency-time model, which contained all the measurable nonlinearity and uncertainties based on experimental data was established for simulation to mimic the USM operation system. Furthermore, the model was identified using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Then, the control of the simulated system using MFAC was evaluated under different expectations in terms of overshoot, rise time and steady-state error. Finally, the MFAC results were compared with that of proportion iteration differentiation (PID) to demonstrate its advantages in controlling general random system.

  18. Simulation of ultrasonic surface waves with multi-Gaussian and point source beam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Schmerr, Lester W. Jr.; Li, Xiongbing; Sedov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, multi-Gaussian beam models have been developed to solve many complicated bulk wave propagation problems. However, to date those models have not been extended to simulate the generation of Rayleigh waves. Here we will combine Gaussian beams with an explicit high frequency expression for the Rayleigh wave Green function to produce a three-dimensional multi-Gaussian beam model for the fields radiated from an angle beam transducer mounted on a solid wedge. Simulation results obtained with this model are compared to those of a point source model. It is shown that the multi-Gaussian surface wave beam model agrees well with the point source model while being computationally much more efficient

  19. Ultrasonic inspection of studs (bolts) using dynamic predictive deconvolution and wave shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D M; Kim, W W; Chung, J G

    1999-01-01

    Bolt degradation has become a major issue in the nuclear industry since the 1980's. If small cracks in stud bolts are not detected early enough, they grow rapidly and cause catastrophic disasters. Their detection, despite its importance, is known to be a very difficult problem due to the complicated structures of the stud bolts. This paper presents a method of detecting and sizing a small crack in the root between two adjacent crests in threads. The key idea is from the fact that the mode-converted Rayleigh wave travels slowly down the face of the crack and turns from the intersection of the crack and the root of thread to the transducer. Thus, when a crack exists, a small delayed pulse due to the Rayleigh wave is detected between large regularly spaced pulses from the thread. The delay time is the same as the propagation delay time of the slow Rayleigh wave and is proportional to the site of the crack. To efficiently detect the slow Rayleigh wave, three methods based on digital signal processing are proposed: wave shaping, dynamic predictive deconvolution, and dynamic predictive deconvolution combined with wave shaping.

  20. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing; Bildgebende Verfahren fuer die Ultraschallpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [German] Dieser Seminarband enthaelt 16 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: 1. Von der Bildgebung bis zur Quantifizierung - Ultraschallverfahren in der medizinischen Diagnostik; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array

  1. Experimental investigation on the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing asphaltene deposition and improving oil recovery under temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Dehshibi, Reza; Mohebbi, Ali; Riazi, Masoud; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2018-07-01

    A well-known complication in the oil reservoir during oil production is asphaltene deposition in and around the production wellbore. Deposition of asphaltene around the production wellbore may cause a significant pressure drop and in turn loss of efficiency in the production process. Various mechanical and chemical methods have been employed in order to reduce asphaltene formation or to eliminate the precipitate. A novel technique which presented a great potential for prevention or elimination of asphaltene is spreading out the high energy ultrasound wave within the oil reservoir. In this study, in a glass micro-model, asphaltene precipitation was first simulated in a transparent porous medium and its removal by application of high energy ultrasound wave was then investigated. To simulate asphaltene precipitation, the micro-model was first saturated with oil and then a normal-pentane was injected. This was followed by flooding the porous media with brine while propagating ultrasound waves (30 kHz and 100 W) to eliminate asphaltene precipitation. The experiment setup was equipped with a temperature controller. The results indicate a significant reduction in asphaltene precipitation in the oil reservoir may be achieved by application of ultrasound energy. Asphaltene particle deposition has been solved reversibly in the oil layer of porous medium and with the oil layering mechanism, the rate of oil production has been increased. In some spots, water/oil emulsion has been formed because of the ultrasonic vibration on the wall. Both the crude and synthetic oils were examined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic longitudinal waves to monitor the integration of titanium rods with host bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2017-04-01

    Osseointegrated prostheses which integrate the prosthesis directly to the limb bone are being developed for patients that are unable to wear traditional socket prostheses. While osseointegration of the prosthesis offers amputees improvement in their quality of life, there remains a need to better understand the integration process that occurs between the bone and the prosthesis. Quantification of the degree of integration is important to track the recuperation process of the amputee, guide physical therapy regimes, and to identify when the state of integration may change (due to damage to the bone). This study explores the development of an assessment strategy for quantitatively assessing the degree of integration between an osseointegrated prosthesis and host bone. Specifically, the strategy utilizes a titanium rod prosthesis as a waveguide with guided waves used to assess the degree of integration. By controlling waveforms launched by piezoelectric wafers bonded on the percutaneous tip of the prosthesis, body waves are introduced into the waveguide with wave reflections at the boneprosthesis interface recorded by the same array. Changes in wave energy are correlated to changes at the contact interface between the titanium rod and the bone material. Both simulation and experimental tests are presented in this paper. Experimental testing is performed using a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) host because the elastic modulus and density of HDPE are close to that of human and animal bone. Results indicate high sensitivity of the longitudinal wave energy to rod penetration depth and confinement stress issued by the host bone.

  3. Propagation of bulk longitudinal waves in thin films using laser ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dong-eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents the investigation of the propagation behavior of bulk longitudinal waves generated by an ultrafast laser system in thin films. A train of femtosecond laser pulses was focused onto the surface of a 150-nm thick metallic (chromium or aluminum) film on a silicon substrate to excite elastic waves, and the change in thermoreflectance at the spot was monitored to detect the arrival of echoes from the film/substrate interface. The experimental results show that the film material characteristics such as the wave velocity and Young's modulus can be evaluated through curve-fitting in numerical solutions. The material properties of nanoscale thin films are difficult to measure using conventional techniques. Therefore, this research provides an effective method for the nondestructive characterization of nanomaterials.

  4. Relative position control and coalescence of independent microparticles using ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuang; Jia, Kun; Chen, Jian; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji

    2017-05-01

    Controlling the relative positions and coalescence of independent cells or microparticles is of particular importance for studying many physical phenomena, biological research, pharmaceutical tests, and chemical material processing. In this work, contactless maneuvering of two independent microparticles initially lying on a rigid surface was performed at a stable levitation height within a water-filled ultrasonic chamber. Three lead zirconate titanate transducers with 2 MHz thickness resonance frequency were obliquely mounted in a homemade device to form a sound field in a half space. By modulating the excitation voltage of a single transducer and the subsequent combination of amplitude and phase modulation, two separate 80 μm diameter silica beads were picked up from the chamber bottom, approached, and then coalesced to form a cluster in different ways. Both particles simultaneously migrated towards each other in the former process, while more dexterous movement with single-particle migration was realized for the other process. There is good agreement between the measured trajectories and theoretical predictions based on the theory of the first-order acoustic radiation force. The method introduced here also has the ability to form a cluster at any desired location in the chamber, which is promising for macromolecule processing ranging from the life sciences to biochemistry and clinical practice.

  5. Ultrasonic wave propagation through aberrating layers: experimental verification of the conjugate gradient Rayleigh method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, L.A.F.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.

    The Conjugate Gradient Rayleigh method for the calculation of acoustic reflection and transmission at a rough interface between two media was experimentally verified. The method is based on a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique and plane-wave expansions. We measured the beam

  6. Characterization and optimization of an ultrasonic piezo-optical ring sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankforter, Erik; Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    A resonant piezo-optical ring sensor with both piezoelectric and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing elements was assessed for ultrasonic wave detection. The ring sensor is an existing device that has been shown experimentally to exhibit a number of sensing features: omnidirectionality, mode selectivity, and frequency tunability. The present study uses finite element modeling to understand these features as a means to characterize and optimize the sensor. A combined vibration-wave propagation modeling approach was used, where the vibrational modeling provided a basis for understanding sensing features, and the wave propagation modeling provided predictive power for sensor performance. The sensor features corresponded to the fundamental vibrational mode of the sensor, particularly to the base motion of this mode. The vibrational modeling was also used to guide sensor optimization, with an emphasis on the FBG and piezoelectric sensing elements. It was found that sensor symmetry and nodes of extraneous resonance modes could be exploited to provide a single-resonance response. A series of pitch-catch guided wave experiments were performed on a thin aluminum plate to assess the optimized sensor configuration. Tuning curves showed a single-frequency response to a Lamb wave and mechanical filtering away from the dominant frequency; the sensor capability for mechanical amplification of a Lamb wave and mechanical amplification of a pencil-lead-break acoustic emission event were also demonstrated. (paper)

  7. PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Xu, Xiaochen; Gottlieb, Emanuel J; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Ameri, Hossein; Humayun, Mark S; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-03-01

    High-frequency needle ultrasound transducers with an aperture size of 0.4 mm were fabricated using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-33% PT) as the active piezoelectric material. The active element was bonded to a conductive silver particle matching layer and a conductive epoxy backing through direct contact curing. An outer matching layer of parylene was formed by vapor deposition. The active element was housed within a polyimide tube and a 20-gauge needle housing. The magnitude and phase of the electrical impedance of the transducer were 47 omega and -38 degrees, respectively. The measured center frequency and -6 dB fractional bandwidth of the PMN-PT needle transducer were 44 MHz and 45%, respectively. The two-way insertion loss was approximately 15 dB. In vivo high-frequency, pulsed-wave Doppler patterns of blood flow in the posterior portion and in vitro ultrasonic backscatter microscope (UBM) images of the rabbit eye were obtained with the 44-MHz needle transducer.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Identification of Seven-Wire Strand Tensions Using Scale Energy Entropy Spectra of Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of tension in multiwire strands is a key issue to ensure structural safety and durability of prestressed concrete structures, cable-stayed bridges, and hoist elevators. This paper proposes a method to identify strand tensions based on scale energy entropy spectra of ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs. A numerical method was first developed to simulate UGW propagation in a seven-wire strand, employing the wavelet transform to extract UGW time-frequency energy distributions for different loadings. Mode separation and frequency band loss of L(0,1 were then found for increasing tension, and UGW scale energy entropy spectra were extracted to establish a tension identification index. A good linear relationship was found between the proposed identification index and tensile force, and effects of propagation distance and propagation path were analyzed. Finally, UGWs propagation was examined experimentally for a long seven-wire strand to investigate attenuation and long distance propagation. Numerical and experimental results verified that the proposed method not only can effectively identify strand tensions but can also adapt to long distance tests for practical engineering.

  9. Ultrasonic P- and S-Wave Attenuation and Petrophysical Properties of Deccan Flood Basalts, India, as Revealed by Borehole Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanti, Nimisha; Malkoti, Ajay; Pandey, O. P.; Shrivastava, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    Petrophysical properties and ultrasonic P- and S-wave attenuation measurements on 35 Deccan basalt core specimens, recovered from Killari borehole site in western India, provide unique reference data-sets for a lesser studied Deccan Volcanic Province. These samples represent 338-m-thick basaltic column, consisting four lava flows each of Ambenali and Poladpur Formations, belonging to Wai Subgroup of the Deccan volcanic sequence. These basalt samples are found to be iron-rich (average FeOT: 13.4 wt%), but relatively poor in silica content (average SiO2: 47.8 wt%). The saturated massive basalt cores are characterized by a mean density of 2.91 g/cm3 (range 2.80-3.01 g/cm3) and mean P- and S-wave velocities of 5.89 km/s (range 5.01-6.50 km/s) and 3.43 km/s (range 2.84-3.69 km/s), respectively. In comparison, saturated vesicular basalt cores show a wide range in density (2.40-2.79 g/cm3) as well as P-wave (3.28-4.78 km/s) and S-wave (1.70-2.95 km/s) velocities. Based on the present study, the Deccan volcanic sequence can be assigned a weighted mean density of 2.74 g/cm3 and a low V p and V s of 5.00 and 3.00 km/s, respectively. Such low velocities in Deccan basalts can be attributed mainly to the presence of fine-grained glassy material, high iron contents, and hydrothermally altered secondary mineral products, besides higher porosity in vesicular samples. The measured Q values in saturated massive basalt cores vary enormously (Q p: 33-1960 and Q s: 35-506), while saturated vesicular basalt samples exhibit somewhat lesser variation in Q p (6-46) as well as Q s (5-49). In general, high-porosity rocks exhibit high attenuation, but we observed the high value of attenuation in some of the massive basalt core samples also. In such cases, energy loss is mainly due to the presence of fine-grained glassy material as well as secondary alteration products like chlorophaeite, that could contribute to intrinsic attenuation. Dominance of weekly bound secondary minerals might also be

  10. Monitoring of corrosion damage using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, D.; Fromme, P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to adverse environmental conditions corrosion can develop during the life cycle of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Structural health monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can in principle be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along...

  11. Environmental influences on age at first lambing and lambing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different environmental factors on age at first lambing and lambing interval of Yankasa sheep kept at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, were studied. Least-squares means ( ± SE) for age at first lambing and lambing interval were respectively, 597.2 ±12.6 days and 253.1± 2.9 days.

  12. Wave propagation visualization in an experimental model for a control rod drive mechanism assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Jeong, Hyomi; Kong, Churl-Won

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We fabricate a full-scale mock-up of the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) assembly in the upper reactor head of the nuclear power plant. → An ultrasonic propagation imaging method using a scanning laser ultrasonic generator is proposed to visualize and simulate ultrasonic wave propagation around the CRDM assembly. → The ultrasonic source location and frequency are simulated by changing the sensor location and the band pass-filtering zone. → The ultrasonic propagation patterns before and after cracks in the weld and nozzle of the CRDM assembly are analyzed. - Abstract: Nondestructive inspection techniques such as ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, and visual testing are being developed to detect primary water stress corrosion cracks in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) assemblies of nuclear power plants. A unit CRDM assembly consists of a reactor upper head including cladding, a penetration nozzle, and J-groove dissimilar metal welds with buttering. In this study, we fabricated a full-scale CRDM assembly mock-up. An ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) method using a scanning laser ultrasonic generator is proposed to visualize and simulate ultrasonic wave propagation around the thick and complex CRDM assembly. First, the proposed laser UPI system was validated for a simple aluminium plate by comparing the ultrasonic wave propagation movie (UWPM) obtained using the system with numerical simulation results reported in the literature. Lamb wave mode identification and damage detectability, depending on the ultrasonic frequency, were also included in the UWPM analysis. A CRDM assembly mock-up was fabricated in full-size and its vertical cross section was scanned using the laser UPI system to investigate the propagation characteristics of the longitudinal and Rayleigh waves in the complex structure. The ultrasonic source location and frequency were easily simulated by changing the sensor location and the band pass filtering zone

  13. Tone burst generator for a Non-Destructive Testing system based on ultrasonic guided waves

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Sánchez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    English: This PFC provides a design of a tested and specific tone-burst generator circuit for a Non-Destructive System based on ultrasonid guided waves. This circuit includes a complementary protection circuit for the NDT system working in a pulse-echo configuration. In this paper, a brief state f art about different driving circuits employed in distinct NDE systems is presented. Castellano: El PFC proporciona un diseño electrónico específico y probado de un circuito excitador de salvas (C...

  14. The quasi-harmonic ultrasonic polar scan for material characterization: experiment and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersemans, Mathias; Martens, Arvid; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Degrieck, Joris; Pyl, Lincy; Zastavnik, Filip; Sol, Hugo; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Conventionally, the ultrasonic polar scan (UPS) records the amplitude or time-of-flight in transmission using short ultrasonic pulses for a wide range of incidence angles, resulting in a fingerprint of the critical bulk wave angles of the material at the insonified spot. Here, we investigate the use of quasi-harmonic ultrasound (bursts) in a polar scan experiment, both experimentally and numerically. It is shown that the nature of the fingerprint drastically changes, and reveals the positions of the leaky Lamb angles. To compare with experiments, both plane wave and bounded beam simulations have been performed based on the recursive stiffness matrix method. Whereas the plane wave computations yield a pure Lamb wave angle fingerprint, this is no longer valid for the more realistic case of a bounded beam. The experimental recordings are fully supported by the bounded beam simulations. To complement the traditional amplitude measurement, experimental and numerical investigations have been performed to record, predict and analyze the phase of the transmitted ultrasonic beam. This results in the conceptual introduction of the 'phase polar scan', exposing even more intriguing and detailed patterns. In fact, the combination of the amplitude and the phase polar scan provides the complete knowledge about the complex transmission coefficient for every possible angle of incidence. This comprehensive information will be very valuable for inverse modeling of the local elasticity tensor based on a single UPS experiment. Finally, the UPS method has been applied for the detection of an artificial delamination. Compared to the pulsed UPS, the quasi-harmonic UPS (both the amplitude and phase recording) shows a superior sensitivity to the presence of a delamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma by the Ultrasonic Standing Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Kanna, Murugappan Suresh; Liu, Chenhui; Zhou, Yufeng; Chan, Casey K

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a volume of autologous plasma that has a higher platelet concentration above baseline. It has already been approved as a new therapeutic modality and investigated in clinics, such as bone repair and regeneration, and oral surgery, with low cost-effectiveness ratio. At present, PRP is mostly prepared using a centrifuge. However, this method has several shortcomings, such as long preparation time (30 min), complexity in operation, and contamination of red blood cells (RBCs). In this paper, a new PRP preparation approach was proposed and tested. Ultrasound waves (4.5 MHz) generated from piezoelectric ceramics can establish standing waves inside a syringe filled with the whole blood. Subsequently, RBCs would accumulate at the locations of pressure nodes in response to acoustic radiation force, and the formed clusters would have a high speed of sedimentation. It is found that the PRP prepared by the proposed device can achieve higher platelet concentration and less RBCs contamination than a commercial centrifugal device, but similar growth factor (i.e., PDGF-ββ). In addition, the sedimentation process under centrifugation and sonication was simulated using the Mason-Weaver equation and compared with each other to illustrate the differences between these two technologies and to optimize the design in the future. Altogether, ultrasound method is an effective method of PRP preparation with comparable outcomes as the commercially available centrifugal products.

  16. Ultrasonic backscatter imaging by shear-wave-induced echo phase encoding of target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for ultrasound backscatter image formation wherein lateral resolution of the target is obtained by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of targets in the phase of the received echo. We demonstrate that the phase modulation as a function of shear wavenumber can be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform of the lateral component of the target echogenicity. The inverse transform, obtained by measurements of the phase modulation over a range of shear wave spatial frequencies, yields the lateral scatterer distribution. Range data are recovered from time of flight as in conventional ultrasound, yielding a B-mode-like image. In contrast to conventional ultrasound imaging, where mechanical or electronic focusing is used and lateral resolution is determined by aperture size and wavelength, we demonstrate that lateral resolution using the proposed method is independent of the properties of the aperture. Lateral resolution of the target is achieved using a stationary, unfocused, single-element transducer. We present simulated images of targets of uniform and non-uniform shear modulus. Compounding for speckle reduction is demonstrated. Finally, we demonstrate image formation with an unfocused transducer in gelatin phantoms of uniform shear modulus.

  17. a Study of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Through Parallel Arrays of Immersed Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, R. P.; Challis, R. E.

    1996-06-01

    Tubular array structures are a very common component in industrial heat exchanging plant and the non-destructive testing of these arrays is essential. Acoustic methods using microphones or ultrasound are attractive but require a thorough understanding of the acoustic properties of tube arrays. This paper details the development and testing of a small-scale physical model of a tube array to verify the predictions of a theoretical model for acoustic propagation through tube arrays developed by Heckl, Mulholland, and Huang [1-5] as a basis for the consideration of small-scale physical models in the development of non-destructive testing procedures for tube arrays. Their model predicts transmission spectra for plane waves incident on an array of tubes arranged in straight rows. Relative transmission is frequency dependent with bands of high and low attenuation caused by resonances within individual tubes and between tubes in the array. As the number of rows in the array increases the relative transmission spectrum becomes more complex, with increasingly well-defined bands of high and low attenuation. Diffraction of acoustic waves with wavelengths less than the tube spacing is predicted and appears as step reductions in the transmission spectrum at frequencies corresponding to integer multiples of the tube spacing. Experiments with the physical model confirm the principle features of the theoretical treatment.

  18. Correlations between ultrasonic pulse wave velocities and rock properties of quartz-mica schist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Chawre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-mechanical properties are critically important parameters for rocks. This study aims to examine some of the rock properties of quartz-mica schist (QMS rocks in a cost-effective manner by establishing correlations between non-destructive and destructive tests. Using simple regression analysis, good correlations were obtained between the pulse wave velocities and the properties of QMS rocks. The results were further improved by using multiple regression analysis as compared to those obtained by the simple linear regression analysis. The results were also compared to the ones obtained by other empirical equations available. The general equations encompassing all types of rocks did not give reliable results of rock properties and showed large relative errors, ranging from 23% to 1146%. It is suggested that empirical correlations must be investigated separately for different types of rocks. The general empirical equations should not be used for the design and planning purposes before they are verified at least on one rock sample from the project site, as they may contain large unacceptable errors. Keywords: Pulse wave velocity, Physico-mechanical properties, Quartz-mica schist (QMS rocks, Non-destructive methods, Static elastic constants, Dynamic elastic constants

  19. A coatable, light-weight, fast-response nanocomposite sensor for the in situ acquisition of dynamic elastic disturbance: from structural vibration to ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Xu, Hao; Liu, Weijian; Liao, Yaozhong; Jin, Hao; Zhou, Limin; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Zhongqing

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by an innovative sensing philosophy, a light-weight nanocomposite sensor made of a hybrid of carbon black (CB)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has been developed. The nanoscalar architecture and percolation characteristics of the hybrid were optimized in order to fulfil the in situ acquisition of dynamic elastic disturbance from low-frequency vibration to high-frequency ultrasonic waves. Dynamic particulate motion induced by elastic disturbance modulates the infrastructure of the CB conductive network in the sensor, with the introduction of the tunneling effect, leading to dynamic alteration in the piezoresistivity measured by the sensor. Electrical analysis, morphological characterization, and static/dynamic electromechanical response interrogation were implemented to advance our insight into the sensing mechanism of the sensor, and meanwhile facilitate understanding of the optimal percolation threshold. At the optimal threshold (˜6.5 wt%), the sensor exhibits high fidelity, a fast response, and high sensitivity to ultrafast elastic disturbance (in an ultrasonic regime up to 400 kHz), yet with an ultralow magnitude (on the order of micrometers). The performance of the sensor was evaluated against a conventional strain gauge and piezoelectric transducer, showing excellent coincidence, yet a much greater gauge factor and frequency-independent piezoresistive behavior. Coatable on a structure and deployable in a large quantity to form a dense sensor network, this nanocomposite sensor has blazed a trail for implementing in situ sensing for vibration- or ultrasonic-wave-based structural health monitoring, by striking a compromise between ‘sensing cost’ and ‘sensing effectiveness’.

  20. Optimal determination of the elastic constants of composite materials from ultrasonic wave-speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnède, Bernard; Jenkins, James T.; Sachse, Wolfgang; Baste, Stéphane

    1990-03-01

    A method is described to optimally determine the elastic constants of anisotropic solids from wave-speeds measurements in arbitrary nonprincipal planes. For such a problem, the characteristic equation is a degree-three polynomial which generally does not factorize. By developing and rearranging this polynomial, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained. The elastic constants are then recovered by minimizing a functional derived from this overdetermined system of equations. Calculations of the functional are given for two specific cases, i.e., the orthorhombic and the hexagonal symmetries. Some numerical results showing the efficiency of the algorithm are presented. A numerical method is also described for the recovery of the orientation of the principal acoustical axes. This problem is solved through a double-iterative numerical scheme. Numerical as well as experimental results are presented for a unidirectional composite material.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Defect Based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave and CHMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The axial length of pipe defects is not linear with the reflection coefficient, which is difficult to identify the axial length of the defect by the reflection coefficient method. Continuous Hidden Markov Model (CHMM is proposed to accurately classify the axial length of defects, achieving the objective of preliminary quantitative evaluation. Firstly, wavelet packet decomposition method is used to extract the characteristic information of the guided wave signal, and Kernel Sliced Inverse Regression (KSIR method is used to reduce the dimension of feature set. Then, a variety of CHMM models are trained for classification. Finally, the trained models are used to identify the artificial corrosion defects on the outer surface of the pipe. The results show that the CHMM model has better robustness and can accurately identify the axial defects.

  2. Determination of the properties of composite interfaces by an ultrasonic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal, A K; Karim, M R [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA); Bar-Cohen, Y [Douglas Aircraft Co., McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, CA (USA)

    1990-06-15

    The feasibility of using a recently developed ultrasonic technique to determine certain macroscopic properties of the interface zones of composite laminates is studied. The strong influence of the elastic properties and the thickness of the interface zone on the phase velocity of guided waves is demonstrated by means of a simple model of a single fiber embedded in a layer of the matrix material. The overall dynamic elastic moduli of a unidirectional graphite-epoxy composite laminate are determined through inversion of guided wave dispersion data obtained by the leaky Lamb wave experiment. The thickness and elastic properties of the interlaminar interface zone in a cross-ply graphite-epoxy laminate are also estimated by the same approach. (orig.).

  3. Multiphysics modelling of the separation of suspended particles via frequency ramping of ultrasonic standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Francisco J; Eberhardt, Sebastian; Möller, Dirk; Dual, Jurg; Knoerzer, Kai

    2013-03-01

    A model was developed to determine the local changes of concentration of particles and the formations of bands induced by a standing acoustic wave field subjected to a sawtooth frequency ramping pattern. The mass transport equation was modified to incorporate the effect of acoustic forces on the concentration of particles. This was achieved by balancing the forces acting on particles. The frequency ramping was implemented as a parametric sweep for the time harmonic frequency response in time steps of 0.1s. The physics phenomena of piezoelectricity, acoustic fields and diffusion of particles were coupled and solved in COMSOL Multiphysics™ (COMSOL AB, Stockholm, Sweden) following a three step approach. The first step solves the governing partial differential equations describing the acoustic field by assuming that the pressure field achieves a pseudo steady state. In the second step, the acoustic radiation force is calculated from the pressure field. The final step allows calculating the locally changing concentration of particles as a function of time by solving the modified equation of particle transport. The diffusivity was calculated as function of concentration following the Garg and Ruthven equation which describes the steep increase of diffusivity when the concentration approaches saturation. However, it was found that this steep increase creates numerical instabilities at high voltages (in the piezoelectricity equations) and high initial particle concentration. The model was simplified to a pseudo one-dimensional case due to computation power limitations. The predicted particle distribution calculated with the model is in good agreement with the experimental data as it follows accurately the movement of the bands in the centre of the chamber. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of impurity inhomogeneity of CdS and CdSe monocrystalline semiconductors on electron absorption of piezoactive ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketis, B.P.; Krivka, I.

    1986-01-01

    Relation of observed anomalies (deviations from predictions of theory for homogeneous piezosemiconductor) of electronic absorption coefficient (EAC) of volume, piezoactive acoustic waves (with 15 MHz frequency) in CdS and CdSe hexagonal crystals with electrical heterogeneity is shown experimentally. Results of electron microanalysis of CdS and CdSe piezosemiconductors confirmed their impurity heterogeneity are presented as well as data of investigations into high-frequency conduction and electronic absorption of ultrasonic waves pointing out to volume nature of impurity and electric heterogeneities of monocrystals investigated. Correlation between EAC anomalies and surface density of impurity aggregates (IA) is noted as well as coincidence of impurity and electrical heterogeneities in CdS and CdSe crystals. In CdS crystals the observed anisotropy of high-frequency conduction and volume radioactive ultrasonic waves EAC is attributed to high density and anisotropy of IA space distribution and shape. To explain EAC anomalies, a crystal is simulated with heterogeneous grid of resistances and condensators

  5. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} micro-/nanostructures: Microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis and their visible-light photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yafang; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Hao; Lu, Zhong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} with different sizes and morphologies were synthesized by a facile microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique for the first time and exhibited different optical properties and visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were prepared by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures could be modulated by varying the solvent and pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures exhibited different photocatalytic activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic performance was influenced by the band gap, phase and size. - Abstract: Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO{sub 4}) micro-/nanostructures with different sizes and morphologies were successfully prepared via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique. The obtained BiVO{sub 4} products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the solvent and pH value had a significant influence on morphology, size and crystalline structure of the product. Nut-like, potato-like and broccoli-like monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} were fabricated in different solvents. The crystal phase could be modulated by varying the pH value of reaction system. The photocatalytic activities of the products were also evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The result revealed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were closely related to the crystalline phase, band gap and particle size. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with small crystal size and large band gap exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance.

  6. Monoclinic BiVO4 micro-/nanostructures: Microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis and their visible-light photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yafang; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Hao; Lu, Zhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Monoclinic BiVO 4 with different sizes and morphologies were synthesized by a facile microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique for the first time and exhibited different optical properties and visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: ► BiVO 4 nanostructures were prepared by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method. ► BiVO 4 nanostructures could be modulated by varying the solvent and pH value. ► Different BiVO 4 nanostructures exhibited different photocatalytic activities. ► The photocatalytic performance was influenced by the band gap, phase and size. - Abstract: Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO 4 ) micro-/nanostructures with different sizes and morphologies were successfully prepared via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique. The obtained BiVO 4 products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the solvent and pH value had a significant influence on morphology, size and crystalline structure of the product. Nut-like, potato-like and broccoli-like monoclinic BiVO 4 were fabricated in different solvents. The crystal phase could be modulated by varying the pH value of reaction system. The photocatalytic activities of the products were also evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The result revealed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO 4 nanostructures were closely related to the crystalline phase, band gap and particle size. Monoclinic BiVO 4 nanoparticles with small crystal size and large band gap exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance.

  7. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  8. Copper toxicity in housed lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A H; Valks, D A; Appleton, M A; Shaw, W B

    1969-09-27

    Copper toxicity among 170 lambs artificially reared indoors at High Mowthorpe NAAS Experimental Husbandry Farm is reported. Although only three lambs were lost it is not unreasonable to suggest that the liver copper levels of the lambs which were slaughtered would have been high and losses could have been much heavier had there been any further copper supplementation. Even a copper level of 20 ppm in lamb concentrates given to lambs reared artificially indoors is dangerous, and intakes of much less than 38 mg per lamb per day can be fatal if given of a prolonged period. 5 references, 1 table.

  9. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  10. Relationship of ultrasonic shear wave velocity with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression in primary liver cancer lesions as well as angiogenesis factor contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yin1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the relationship of ultrasonic shear wave velocity (SWV with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression in primary liver cancer lesions as well as angiogenesis factor contents. Methods: 100 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2014 and September 2016 were collected as observation group, and 50 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The ultrasonic SWV levels of two groups of subjects were measured before the operation, and the observation groups were further divided into high SWV group and low SWV group, 50 cases in each group. Intraoperative tumor tissue samples were kept and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum contents of angiogenesis factors in observation group before operation. Results: Hepatic ultrasonic SWV level in observation group was significantly higher than that in normal control group; proto-oncogene CK, Ki67, Gly-3, Survivin and Pokemon mRNA expression in tumor tissue of high SWV group were higher than those of low SWV group while tumor suppressor genes Tg737, p16, p27, PTEN and runx3 mRNA expression were lower than those of low SWV group; serum angiogenesis factors VEGF, MMP-9 and IGF-1R contents were higher than those in low SWV group. Conclusion: The hepatic ultrasonic SWV level increases in patients with primary liver cancer, and the SWV level is directly correlated with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression as well as angiogenesis factor contents.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Sandstone under Cyclic Loading: Damage Assessment Using Ultrasonic Wave Velocities and Changes in Elastic Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study investigated the damage evolution of sandstone specimens under two types of cyclic loading by monitoring and analyzing changes in the elastic moduli and the ultrasonic velocities during loading. During low-level cyclic loading, the stiffness degradation method was unable to describe the damage accumulations but the ultrasonic velocity measurements clearly reflected the damage development. A crack density parameter is introduced in order to interpret the changes in the tangential modulus and the ultrasonic velocities. The results show the following. (1 Low-level cyclic loading enhanced the anisotropy of the cracks. This results from the compression of intergranular clay minerals and fatigue failure. (2 Irreversible damage accumulations during cyclic loading with an increasing upper stress limit are the consequence of brittle failure in the sandstone’s microstructure.

  12. Dynamic acousto-elastic testing of concrete with a coda-wave probe: comparison with standard linear and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T J

    2017-11-01

    The use of nonlinear acoustic techniques in solids consists in measuring wave distortion arising from compliant features such as cracks, soft intergrain bonds and dislocations. As such, they provide very powerful nondestructive tools to monitor the onset of damage within materials. In particular, a recent technique called dynamic acousto-elasticity testing (DAET) gives unprecedented details on the nonlinear elastic response of materials (classical and non-classical nonlinear features including hysteresis, transient elastic softening and slow relaxation). Here, we provide a comprehensive set of linear and nonlinear acoustic responses on two prismatic concrete specimens; one intact and one pre-compressed to about 70% of its ultimate strength. The two linear techniques used are Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), while the nonlinear ones include DAET (fast and slow dynamics) as well as Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS). In addition, the DAET results correspond to a configuration where the (incoherent) coda portion of the ultrasonic record is used to probe the samples, as opposed to a (coherent) first arrival wave in standard DAET tests. We find that the two visually identical specimens are indistinguishable based on parameters measured by linear techniques (UPV and RUS). On the contrary, the extracted nonlinear parameters from NRUS and DAET are consistent and orders of magnitude greater for the damaged specimen than those for the intact one. This compiled set of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic testing data including the most advanced technique (DAET) provides a benchmark comparison for their use in the field of material characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Signal Decomposition Method for Ultrasonic Guided Wave Generated from Debonding Combining Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution and Vold–Kalman Filter Order Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibre composites have a promising application future of the vehicle, due to its excellent physical properties. Debonding is a major defect of the material. Analyses of wave packets are critical for identification of the defect on ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and testing. In order to isolate different components of ultrasonic guided waves (GWs, a signal decomposition algorithm combining Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution and Vold–Kalman filter order tracking is presented. In the algorithm, the time-frequency distribution of GW is first obtained by using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The frequencies of different modes are computed based on summation of the time-frequency coefficients in the frequency direction. On the basis of these frequencies, isolation of different modes is done by Vold–Kalman filter order tracking. The results of the simulation signal and the experimental signal reveal that the presented algorithm succeeds in decomposing the multicomponent signal into monocomponents. Even though components overlap in corresponding Fourier spectrum, they can be isolated by using the presented algorithm. So the frequency resolution of the presented method is promising. Based on this, we can do research about defect identification, calculation of the defect size, and locating the position of the defect.

  14. ULiAS 4 - Experimental validation of a software that models ultrasonic wave propagation through an anisotropic weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirdelius, Haakan; Persson, Gert; Hamberg, Kenneth; Hoegberg, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    New and stronger demands on reliability of used NDE/NDT procedures and methods have evolved in Europe during the last decade. In order to elaborate these procedures, efforts have to be taken towards the development of mathematical models of applied NDT methods. Modelling of ultrasonic non-destructive testing is useful for a number of reasons, e.g. physical understanding, parametric studies, and the qualification of procedures and personnel. An important issue regarding all models is the validation, i.e. securing that the results of the model and the corresponding computer programs are correct. This can be accomplished by comparisons with other models, but ultimately by comparisons with experiments. In this study a numerical model and experimental results are compared and the work has been performed in collaboration with SQC Kvalificeringscentrum AB. Four different welds have been investigated to give basic data to a mathematical model that describes the ultra sonic wave paths through the welds in these materials. The welds are made in austenitic stainless steel (type 18-8) and in Inconel 182. Two cuts outs are made in each weld, one longitudinal and one transversal cut across the welds, in order to determine the material orientation. In the numerical model the incident field, described by rays, is given by a P wave probe model. The ray tracing technique is based on geometrical optics and a 2D algorithm has been developed. The model of the weld is based on a relatively primitive assumption of the grain structure for a V-butt weld. The columnar structure of austenitic welds is here modelled as a weld where each sub region corresponds to a grain group. The response of the receiver is calculated according to Auld's reciprocity principle. UT data collection was performed by SQC according to guidelines given from Chalmers. The purpose to collect data from real inspection objects with known material structure is to compare experimental data with theoretically calculated

  15. ULiAS 4 - Experimental validation of a software that models ultrasonic wave propagation through an anisotropic weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirdelius, Haakan; Persson, Gert; Hamberg, Kenneth (SCeNDT, Chalmers Univ. Of Tech., SE-412 96 Goeteborg (SE)); Hoegberg, Kjell (SQC Kvalificeringscentrum AB, SE-183 25 Taeby (SE))

    2008-07-01

    New and stronger demands on reliability of used NDE/NDT procedures and methods have evolved in Europe during the last decade. In order to elaborate these procedures, efforts have to be taken towards the development of mathematical models of applied NDT methods. Modelling of ultrasonic non-destructive testing is useful for a number of reasons, e.g. physical understanding, parametric studies, and the qualification of procedures and personnel. An important issue regarding all models is the validation, i.e. securing that the results of the model and the corresponding computer programs are correct. This can be accomplished by comparisons with other models, but ultimately by comparisons with experiments. In this study a numerical model and experimental results are compared and the work has been performed in collaboration with SQC Kvalificeringscentrum AB. Four different welds have been investigated to give basic data to a mathematical model that describes the ultra sonic wave paths through the welds in these materials. The welds are made in austenitic stainless steel (type 18-8) and in Inconel 182. Two cuts outs are made in each weld, one longitudinal and one transversal cut across the welds, in order to determine the material orientation. In the numerical model the incident field, described by rays, is given by a P wave probe model. The ray tracing technique is based on geometrical optics and a 2D algorithm has been developed. The model of the weld is based on a relatively primitive assumption of the grain structure for a V-butt weld. The columnar structure of austenitic welds is here modelled as a weld where each sub region corresponds to a grain group. The response of the receiver is calculated according to Auld's reciprocity principle. UT data collection was performed by SQC according to guidelines given from Chalmers. The purpose to collect data from real inspection objects with known material structure is to compare experimental data with theoretically

  16. Ultrasonic wireless health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lionel; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude; Guy, Philippe; Yuse, Kaori; Monnier, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The integration of autonomous wireless elements in health monitoring network increases the reliability by suppressing power supplies and data transmission wiring. Micro-power piezoelectric generators are an attractive alternative to primary batteries which are limited by a finite amount of energy, a limited capacity retention and a short shelf life (few years). Our goal is to implement such an energy harvesting system for powering a single AWT (Autonomous Wireless Transmitter) using our SSH (Synchronized Switch Harvesting) method. Based on a non linear process of the piezoelement voltage, this SSH method optimizes the energy extraction from the mechanical vibrations. This AWT has two main functions : The generation of an identifier code by RF transmission to the central receiver and the Lamb wave generation for the health monitoring of the host structure. A damage index is derived from the variation between the transmitted wave spectrum and a reference spectrum. The same piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting function and the Lamb wave generation, thus reducing mass and cost. A micro-controller drives the energy balance and synchronizes the functions. Such an autonomous transmitter has been evaluated on a 300x50x2 mm 3 composite cantilever beam. Four 33x11x0.3 mm 3 piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting and for the wave lamb generation. A piezoelectric sensor is placed at the free end of the beam to track the transmitted Lamb wave. In this configuration, the needed energy for the RF emission is 0.1 mJ for a 1 byte-information and the Lamb wave emission requires less than 0.1mJ. The AWT can harvested an energy quantity of approximately 20 mJ (for a 1.5 Mpa lateral stress) with a 470 μF storage capacitor. This corresponds to a power density near to 6mW/cm 3. The experimental AWT energy abilities are presented and the damage detection process is discussed. Finally, some envisaged solutions are introduced for the implementation of the required data

  17. Study of an ultrasonic generation by the electromagnetic waves; Etude de la generation d'ultrasons par des ondes electromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juillard, J

    2000-07-01

    The main subject of this work is the development of a bulk-wave EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) semi-analytical model. At first, we consider the general theory behind this type of transduction, especially in the case of P-Waves; this is followed by an experimental study which points out the need of modelling for the design of EMAT probes. Under certain hypotheses, this modelling can be reduced to three separate models: one model giving the eddy currents, another one the permanent magnetic field and one for the acoustic field generated by a surface density of forces. For each of these phenomena, 3-D semi-analytical models are built: they are based on a decomposition of the source terms into elementary sources. The final solutions are obtained through a convolution of the elementary solutions and of the sources. The implementation of these models is then given, as well as some applications to the field of EC and of EMAT. (author)

  18. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  19. Comparison between sensitivities of quality control methods using ultrasonic waves, radiography and acoustic emission for the thick welded joint testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, Michel; Birac, Claude

    1981-09-01

    The testing of the thick welded joints of the nuclear industry is carried out by radiography and ultrasonics on completion of welding. When a fault is found, its repair requires a sometimes deep cut down to the position of the fault, then filling in of the cut by hand welding with a coated electrode. This very costly operation also involves the risk of causing new defects when building up by hand. Listening to the acoustic emission during the welding has been considered in order to seek the possibility of detecting defects when they appear, or soon after. The industrial use of this method would make an instant repair of the defective areas possible at less cost and with greater reliability. The study presented concerns the comparison between the results of the various non-destructive testing methods: radiography, ultrasonics and acoustic emission, for a thick welded joint in which the defects have been brought about [fr

  20. Ultrasonic signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, E.; Crutzen, S.

    1974-12-01

    The unique and tamperproof identification technique developed at Ispra is based on ultrasonic Non-Destructive-Techniques. Reading fingerprints with ultrasonic requires high reproducibility of standard apparatus and transducers. The present report gives an exhaustive description of the ultrasonic technique developed for identification purposes. Different applications of the method are described

  1. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.303 Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb. (a) Daily reporting of lamb carcass transactions. The corporate officers or...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 1280.111 Section 1280.111 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.111 Lamb. Lamb means...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.112 - Lamb products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb products. 1280.112 Section 1280.112 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.112 Lamb products. Lamb...

  4. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  5. Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internals of Liquid Metal Reactor by using Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han

    2006-02-01

    The primary components such as a reactor core, heat exchangers, pumps and internal structures of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection and continuous monitoring as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures. Reactor core and internal structures of LMR can not be visually examined due to an opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing and remote inspection techniques by using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of reactor internals. The remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic wave have been developed and applied for the visualization and ISI of reactor internals. The under sodium viewing technique has a limitation for the application of LMR due to the high temperature and irradiation environment. In this study, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium viewing and remote inspection. The Lamb wave propagation of a waveguide sensor has been analyzed and the zero-order antisymmetric A 0 plate wave was selected as the application mode of the sensor. The A 0 plate wave can be propagated in the dispersive low frequency range by using a liquid wedge clamped to the waveguide. A new technique is presented which is capable of steering the radiation beam angle of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the sensor assembly. The steering function of the ultrasonic radiation beam can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive range of the A 0 mode. The technique provides an opportunity to overcome the scanning limitation of a waveguide sensor. The beam steering function has been evaluated by an experimental verification. The ultrasonic C-scanning experiments are performed in water and the feasibility of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been verified. The various remote inspection

  6. An experimental study on the structural alteration of C3H8-air premixed flame affected by ultrasonic standing waves of various frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Shin; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study scrutinizes the structural variation of a premixed propane-air flame according to the frequency change of ultrasonic standing waves (USWs) at various equivalence ratios. Visualization technique via Schlieren photography is employed in the observation of the flame structure and in the analysis of the flame velocities along the propagation. A distorted flame front and horizontal splitting in the burnt zone result from the USW. The vertical locations of the distortion and horizontal stripes are closely dependent on the frequency of the USW. In addition, the propagation velocity of the flame front floored by the standing wave is greater than that in the case without the excitation by the standing wave. As expected, the influence of the USW on the premixed-flame propagation becomes prominent as the frequency increases. The results suggest that a well-defined USW may be applied to combustion devices, such as gas turbines and chemical rocket engines, to achieve an active control of the instability that frequently intervenes in such systems.

  7. An experimental study on the structural alteration of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air premixed flame affected by ultrasonic standing waves of various frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Shin [SK E and S, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    This experimental study scrutinizes the structural variation of a premixed propane-air flame according to the frequency change of ultrasonic standing waves (USWs) at various equivalence ratios. Visualization technique via Schlieren photography is employed in the observation of the flame structure and in the analysis of the flame velocities along the propagation. A distorted flame front and horizontal splitting in the burnt zone result from the USW. The vertical locations of the distortion and horizontal stripes are closely dependent on the frequency of the USW. In addition, the propagation velocity of the flame front floored by the standing wave is greater than that in the case without the excitation by the standing wave. As expected, the influence of the USW on the premixed-flame propagation becomes prominent as the frequency increases. The results suggest that a well-defined USW may be applied to combustion devices, such as gas turbines and chemical rocket engines, to achieve an active control of the instability that frequently intervenes in such systems.

  8. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A(sub 0), A(sub 1), S(sub 0), and S(sub 2)Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Is the Lamb Promotion Still Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This objective of this study is to update last year’s analysis of the effectiveness of the lamb advertising and promotion program of the American Lamb Board (ALB). The main conclusion is that the lamb checkoff program is still working effectively to increase lamb consumption and sales in the United States. The analysis shows that ALB lamb promotion programs have generated roughly 8 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $44.45 in addition...

  11. Irradiation of chilled lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    Chilled, vacuum-packed New Zealand lamb loins have been irradiated at doses between 1-8 kGy. The report outlines the methods used and provides dosimetry details. An appendix summarises the results of a taste trial conducted on the irradiated meat by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand. This showed that, even at 1 kGy, detectable flavours were induced by the radiation treatment

  12. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  13. Using PVDF for wavenumber-frequency analysis and excitation of guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Cho, Hwanjeong; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    The role of transducers in nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic guided waves cannot be overstated. Energy conversion from electrical to mechanical for actuation and then back to electrical for signal processing broadly describes transduction, but there are many other aspects of transducers that determine their effectiveness. Recently we have reported on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) array sensors that enable determination of the wavenumber spectrum, which enables modal content in the received signal to be characterized. Modal content is an important damage indicator because, for example, mode conversion is a frequent consequence of wave interaction with defects. Some of the positive attributes of PVDF sensors are: broad frequency bandwidth, compliance for use on curved surfaces, limited influence on the passing wave, minimal cross-talk between elements, low profile, low mass, and inexpensive. The anisotropy of PVDF films also enables them to receive either Lamb waves or shear horizontal waves by proper alignment of the material principal coordinate axes. Placing a patterned set of electrodes on the PVDF film provides data from an array of elements. A linear array of elements is used to enable a 2D fast Fourier transform to determine the wavenumber spectrum of both Lamb waves and shear horizontal waves in an aluminum plate. Moreover, since PVDF film can sustain high voltage excitation, high power pulsers can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The capability of PVDF as a transmitter has been demonstrated with high voltage excitation.

  14. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  15. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claytor, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atterbury, Marie K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  16. Modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in composite materials obtained by the resin transfer molding process; Modelisation de la propagation ultrasonore dans les materiaux composites obtenus par le procede de fabrication RTM (Resin Transfer Molding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonne, S.

    2003-11-01

    The Resin Transfer Molding process for manufacturing composite materials is used to produce parts of complex shape. During the ultrasonic examination of such parts, attenuation is measured to characterize possible porosity content (a potential defect in this material). However, strong variation of attenuation is observed including on sound plates. The present study aims at explaining this by developing a model for ultrasonic propagation and attenuation in such parts which complex microstructure exhibits a multiple-scale aspect. An original model has been developed to predict attenuation at the elementary scale of an unidirectional layer of carbon fibers in an epoxy matrix. It couples multiple scattering by fibers and viscoelastic losses phenomena. It has been experimentally validated and applies to arbitrary two-phase fiber reinforced composites whatever the fiber volume fraction. At the upper scale of a ply made of several elementary layers of various orientations, the anisotropic behavior of ultrasonic waves and their attenuation are obtained by a homogenization procedure. An actual plate is made of several plies separated by pure resin layers. Plies and layers thicknesses are highly variable. A statistical study has been conducted to evaluate the influence of these geometrical variations on the ultrasonic transmission predicted by a model derived from Thomson-Haskell formalism. Ultrasonic attenuation variability practically observed is quantitatively reproduced and explained as resulting from the geometrical irregularity of the microstructure. (author)

  17. Ultrasonic tests. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebbels, K.

    1980-01-01

    After a basic treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation, of the state-of-the-art methods and the technical background in the preceeding part, advanced ultrasonic NDT techniques are presented here. The discussion of new development includes - manipulation systems, - automation of ultrasonic testing methods, documentation and evaluation. In the middle of this part the main problem areas will be discussed: - detection of defects (e.g. in coarse grained structures and welds), - classification of defects (e.g. discrimination between crack-like and volumetric faults), - sizing of defects. Research in the field of acoustical holography, development of probes and phased arrays, electromagnetic acoustic transducers and signal enhancement are the main contributing parts to the report. (orig./RW)

  18. Air-coupled method to investigate the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode in stubbed and air-drilled phononic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbo Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we applied a robust and fully air-coupled method to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb (A0 mode in both a stubbed and an air-drilled phononic-crystal (PC plate. By measuring simply the radiative acoustic waves of A0 mode close to the plate surface, we observed the band gaps for the stubbed PC plate caused by either the local resonance or the Bragg scattering, in frequency ranges in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We measured then the complete band gap of A0 mode for the air-drilled PC plate, in good agreement with the band structures. Finally, we compared the measurements made using the air-coupled method with those obtained by the laser ultrasonic technique.

  19. Air-coupled method to investigate the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode in stubbed and air-drilled phononic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jinfeng, E-mail: jinfeng.zhao@tongji.edu.cn; Li, Libing; Pan, Yongdong; Zhong, Zheng [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 100 Zhangwu Road, 200092, Shanghai (China); Bonello, Bernard [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, F-75005, Paris (France); Wei, Jianxin [State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, 18 Xuefu Road, 102249, Pekin (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we applied a robust and fully air-coupled method to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb (A{sub 0}) mode in both a stubbed and an air-drilled phononic-crystal (PC) plate. By measuring simply the radiative acoustic waves of A{sub 0} mode close to the plate surface, we observed the band gaps for the stubbed PC plate caused by either the local resonance or the Bragg scattering, in frequency ranges in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We measured then the complete band gap of A{sub 0} mode for the air-drilled PC plate, in good agreement with the band structures. Finally, we compared the measurements made using the air-coupled method with those obtained by the laser ultrasonic technique.

  20. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Han; Lim, Sa-Hoe

    2008-01-15

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A{sub 0} Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm.

  1. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Han; Lim, Sa-Hoe

    2008-01-01

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A 0 Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm

  2. Continuous monitoring of the wall thickness of pipelines with ultrasonic waves; Dauerueberwachung der Wanddicke von Rohrleitungen mit Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, Andreas [SONOTEC Ultraschallsensorik Halle GmbH, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Imhof, Dietmar [TUeV NORD MPA GmbH und Co.KG, Leuna (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Pipelines in industrial plants must be constantly monitored due to occurring erosion and corrosion. The determination of the residual wall thickness is generally carried out with ultrasound. Often, the critical points are difficult to access and the pipes insulated. The preparation and evaluation of a measurement is therefore very costly. The measuring system SONOWALL S ultrasonic probes are firmly attached to the pipeline and installed into isolation. The number and position of the probes can be freely selected. Often, the load is not known exactly why the monitoring of the pipe wall thickness over the entire circumference is necessary. The acoustic coupling to the pipe is done with proven adhesives that do not lose their adhesive strength even under changing ambient temperatures. The connecting cables are housed away up to 20 m in an easily accessible place in a terminal box. There can be done a wall thickness measurement with conventional ultrasonic testing devices. By using standardized components, the measuring system meets the requirements of DIN EN 12668 and DIN EN 14127. [German] Rohrleitungen in industriellen Anlagen muessen aufgrund der auftretenden Erosion und Korrosion permanent ueberwacht werden. Die Bestimmung der Restwanddicke erfolgt in der Regel mit Ultraschall. Oftmals sind die kritischen Stellen schwer zugaenglich und die Rohrleitungen isoliert. Die Vor- und Nachbereitung einer Messung ist dadurch sehr aufwendig. Beim Messsystem SONOWALL S werden Ultraschallpruefkoepfe fest an der Rohrleitung angebracht und in die Isolation eingebaut. Die Anzahl und Position der Pruefkoepfe ist dabei frei waehlbar. Oft ist die Belastung nicht genau bekannt, weshalb eine Ueberwachung der Rohrwanddicke ueber den gesamten Umfang notwendig ist. Die akustische Ankopplung an das Rohr erfolgt mit erprobten Klebstoffen, die auch bei wechselnden Umgebungstemperaturen ihre Haftfestigkeit nicht verlieren. Die Anschlusskabel werden bis zu 20m entfernt an einer gut

  3. Practical domain for ultrasonic testing of stainless steel over plain carbon steel layered components using M21 waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, D.S.; Bray, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The first higher order mode of the Rayleigh wave was discussed by Sezawa in the early part of this century in context of seismological wave studies. These Sezawa, or M 21 , or first higher order mode Rayleigh waves, have subsequently been used in the field of nondestructive testing of layered materials based on the development of the seismological model of the Sezawa waves by others. In this paper the study of the Tiersten formulation in context with slow speed over high speed materials, e.g. stainless steel overlay on plain carbon steel, the limitations and applicability of that formulation is reported. This study illustrates the practical bounds for testing such layered media, using numerical analysis of this formulation for the first higher-order mode to establish theoretical limits, and corroboration of these bounds by experimental results

  4. TRANSFORMATION AND SCATTERING OF SURFACE WAVES ON THE ACOUSTIC LOAD TO ULTRASONIC EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENTS. Part 1. The boundary of acoustic contact is sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available for the enhancement and improvement of ultrasonic methods evaluation and measurements. The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the geometric parameters of the acoustic load body and its position on the coefficients of reflection and propagation of the Stoneley and Rayleigh waves and to identify the possibility of using the results of the study for practical applications.Based on the analysis of the acoustic path and the experimental data, the relationship between the measured amplitude parameters and the coefficients of the propagation and reflection of surface waves, as well as the reflectivity of the contact region of the load body in the form of a prism through the sliding boundary, which reaches up to ≈ 32–34 дБ, is established. For the first time, the dependence of these coefficients on the inclination angle of one of the prism lateral faces in the range of 0 ± 45°, dimensionless thickness of the contact layer (0–0,05 and its orientation relative to the acoustic axis.It is established that these coefficients are mainly maximal when the prism is rectangular. The coefficient of reflectivity in the hard contact of bodies is more than an order of magnitude less, and the coefficients of wave propagation – comparable in magnitude. The prospects of using the results of the study to evaluate the quality of adhesion of materials during welding, soldering, gluing, detection of defects in hardto-reach places, as well as to determine the physical and mechanical properties of metals by the proposed method of creating a reference signal are shown.

  5. 7 CFR 65.190 - Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 65.190 Section 65.190 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.190 Lamb. Lamb means meat produced from sheep. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases. (a...

  7. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground lamb. 65.170 Section 65.170 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.170 Ground lamb. Ground lamb means comminuted...

  8. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions.

  9. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions. (paper)

  10. Laser-based ultrasonics by dual-probe interferometer detection and narrow-band ultrasound generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Despite the advantages of laser-based ultrasonic (LBU) systems, the overall sensitivity of LBU systems needs to be improved for practical applications. Progress is reported to achieve better LBU detection accuracy and sensitivity for applications with surface waves and Lamb waves. A novel dual-probe laser interferometer has been developed to measure the same signal at two points. The dual-probe interferometer is a modification of a conventional single-probe interferometer in that the reference beam is guided to a second detecting point on the specimen surface to form a differential measurement mode, which measure the difference of the displacements at the two points. This dual-probe interferometer is particularly useful for accurate measurements of the speed and attenuation of surface waves and Lamb waves. The dual-probe interferometer has been applied to obtain accurate measurements of the surface wave speed and attenuation on surfaces of increasing surface roughness. It has also been demonstrated that with an appropriate signal processing method, namely, the power cepstrum method, the dual-probe interferometer is applicable to measure the local surface wave speed even when the probe separation is so small that the two waveforms in the interferometer output signal overlap in the time domain. Narrow-band signal generation and detection improve the sensitivity of LBU systems. It is proposed to use a diffraction grating to form an array of illuminating strips which form a source of narrowband surface and Lamb waves. The line-array of thermoelastic sources generates narrow-band signals whose frequency and bandwidth can be easily controlled. The optimum line-array parameters, such as width, spacing and the number of lines in the array have been derived theoretically and verified experimentally. Narrow-band signal generation with optimum parameters has been demonstrated. The enhanced LBU system with dual-probe detection and narrowband signal generation has been

  11. Detailed simulation of ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Douglas, S.R.; Dunford, D.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation of ultrasonic inspection of engineering components have been performed at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL for over 10 years. The computer model, called EWE for Elastic Wave Equations, solves the Elastic Wave Equations using a novel finite difference scheme. It simulates the propagation of an ultrasonic wave from the transducer to a flaw, the scatter of waves from the flaw, and measurement of signals at a receive transducer. Regions of different materials, water and steel for example, can be simulated. In addition, regions with slightly different material properties from the parent material can be investigated. The two major types of output are displays of the ultrasonic waves inside the component and the corresponding A-scans. EPRI and other organizations have used ultrasonic models for: defining acceptable ultrasonic inspection procedures, designing and evaluating inspection techniques, and for quantifying inspection reliability. The EWE model has been applied to the inspection of large pipes in a nuclear plant, gas pipeline welds and steam generator tubes. Most recent work has dealt with the ultrasonic inspection of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. Pressure tube inspections can reliably detect and size defects; however, there are improvements that can be made. For example, knowing the sharpness of a flaw-tip is crucial for fitness for service assessments. Computer modelling of the ultrasonic inspection of flaws with different root radius has suggested inspection techniques that provide flaw tip radius information. A preliminary investigation of these methods has been made in the laboratory. The basis for the model will be reviewed at the presentation. Then the results of computer simulations will be displayed on a PC using an interactive program that analyzes simulated A-scans. This software tool gives inspection staff direct access to the results of computer simulations. (author)

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime

  14. Guided wave crack detection and size estimation in stiffened structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md Yeasin; Faisal Haider, Mohammad; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) deals with the nondestructive inspection of defects, corrosion, leaks in engineering structures by using ultrasonic guided waves. In the past, simplistic structures were often considered for analyzing the guided wave interaction with the defects. In this study, we focused on more realistic and relatively complicated structure for detecting any defect by using a non-contact sensing approach. A plate with a stiffener was considered for analyzing the guided wave interactions. Piezoelectric wafer active transducers were used to produce excitation in the structures. The excitation generated the multimodal guided waves (aka Lamb waves) that propagate in the plate with stiffener. The presence of stiffener in the plate generated scattered waves. The direct wave and the additional scattered waves from the stiffener were experimentally recorded and studied. These waves were considered as a pristine case in this research. A fine horizontal semi-circular crack was manufactured by using electric discharge machining in the same stiffener. The presence of crack in the stiffener produces additional scattered waves as well as trapped waves. These scattered waves and trapped wave modes from the cracked stiffener were experimentally measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). These waves were analyzed and compared with that from the pristine case. The analyses suggested that both size and shape of the horizontal crack may be predicted from the pattern of the scattered waves. Different features (reflection, transmission, and mode-conversion) of the scattered wave signals are analyzed. We found direct transmission feature for incident A0 wave mode and modeconversion feature for incident S0 mode are most suitable for detecting the crack in the stiffener. The reflection feature may give a better idea of sizing the crack.

  15. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  16. Ultrasonic Waves and Strength Reduction Indexes for the Assessment of the Advancement of Deterioration Processes in Travertines from Pamukkale and Hierapolis (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowska Alicja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In constructions, the usefulness of modern technical diagnostics of stone as a raw material requires predicting the effects of long-term environmental impact of its qualities and geomechanical properties. The paper presents geomechanical research enabling presentation of the factors for strength loss of the stone and forecasting the rate of development of destructive phenomena on the stone structure on a long-time basis. As research material Turkish travertines were selected from the Denizli-Kaklık Basin (Pamukkale and Hierapolis quarries, which have been commonly used for centuries in global architecture. The rock material was subjected to testing of the impact of various environmental factors, as well as European standards recommended by the author of the research program. Their resistance to the crystallization of salts from aqueous solutions and the effects of SO2, as well as the effect of frost and high temperatures are presented. The studies allowed establishing the following quantitative indicators: the ultrasonic waves index (IVp and the strength reduction index (IRc. Reflections on the assessment of deterioration effects indicate that the most active factors decreasing travertine resistance in the aging process include frost and sulphur dioxide (SO2. Their negative influence is particularly intense when the stone material is already strongly weathered.

  17. Continuous micro-feeding of fine cohesive powders actuated by pulse inertia force and acoustic radiation force in ultrasonic standing wave field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongcheng; Wu, Liqun; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Rangrang; Zhang, Linan

    2018-07-10

    Stable continuous micro-feeding of fine cohesive powders has recently gained importance in many fields. However, it remains a great challenge in practice because of the powder aggregate caused by interparticle cohesive forces in small capillaries. This paper describes a novel method of feeding fine cohesive powder actuated by a pulse inertia force and acoustic radiation force simultaneously in an ultrasonic standing wave field using a tapered glass nozzle. Nozzles with different outlet diameters are fabricated using glass via a heating process. A pulse inertia force is excited to drive powder movement to the outlet section of the nozzle in a consolidated columnar rod mode. An acoustic radiation force is generated to suspend the particles and make the rod break into large quantities of small agglomerates which impact each other randomly. So the aggregation phenomenon in the fluidization of cohesive powders can be eliminated. The suspended powder is discharged continuously from the nozzle orifice owing to the self-gravities and collisions between the inner particles. The micro-feeding rates can be controlled accurately and the minimum values for RespitoseSV003 and Granulac230 are 0.4 mg/s and 0.5 mg/s respectively. The relative standard deviations of all data points are below 0.12, which is considerably smaller than those of existing vibration feeders with small capillaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical Computation of the Nonlinear Far Field of Ultrasonic Waves Scattered by Closed Cracks of Various Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Blanloeuil , Philippe; Meziane , Anissa; Norris , Andrew N.; Renier , Mathieu; Veidt , Martin

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The directivity patterns of the higher harmonics generated by the interaction between a bulk wave and a closed crack are obtained in the far field. A Finite Element (FE) model gives the near field solution which is then analytically propagated with expressions based on Hankel functions. The crack is modeled by an interface of unilateral contact with CoulombÕs friction which takes into account a compression pre-stress s0 that closes the crack. The mode conversion occurr...

  19. Material properties identification using ultrasonic waves and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements: a multi-input multi-output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, R; Vanlanduit, S; Guillaume, P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a multi-input multi-output approach able to determine the material properties of homogeneous materials is presented. To do so, an experimental set-up which combines the use of multi harmonic signals with interleaved frequencies and laser Doppler vibrometer measurements has been developed. A modeling technique, based on transmission and reflection measurements, allowed the simultaneous determination of longitudinal wave velocity, density and thickness of the materials under test with high levels of precision and accuracy. (paper)

  20. Experimental Lamb mode identification in a plate containing a hole using dual signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondel, Sébastien; Assaad, Jamal; Youbi, Faysal El; Moulin, Emmanuel; Leyla, Najib Abou

    2008-01-01

    The identification of Lamb mode amplitude variation as a function of the damage evolution is still the most difficult step in the process of damage monitoring using embedded Lamb wave-based systems. The aim of this paper is to propose a simple system based on the generation of two different frequencies in order to better identify Lamb mode amplitude and to avoid false data interpretation in plates containing a hole of variable diameter. This identification is based on a simple relation between the short-time Fourier transform and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Experimentally, a 3 mm thick aluminium plate is used and the two frequencies have been chosen equal to 400 kHz and 600 kHz in order to generate the two first fundamental Lamb waves

  1. Consumer Perception of the Quality of Lamb and Lamb Confit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Guillermo; Joy, Margalida; Panea, Begoña

    2018-05-22

    The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socioeconomic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were (i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; (ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socioeconomic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and (iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called "Gourmet", "Disinterested", "Conservative", and "Basic". The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit. However, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.

  2. Contact-free ultrasonic testing: applications to metrology and NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, A.

    1988-01-01

    In some cases classical ultrasonic testing is impossible because of adverse environment (high temperature, ionizing radiations, etc). Ultrasonic waves are created by laser impact and detected by electromagneto-acoustic transducers or laser interferometry. Association of ultrasonics generation by photoacoustic effect and reception by heterodyne interferometer is promising for the future [fr

  3. Monitoring localized cracks on under pressure concrete nuclear containment wall using linear and nonlinear ultrasonic coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, J.-B.; Abraham, O.; Durand, O.; Henault, J.-M.

    2018-04-01

    Civil engineering is constantly demanding new methods for evaluation and non-destructive testing (NDT), particularly to prevent and monitor serious damage to concrete structures. Tn this work, experimental results are presented on the detection and characterization of cracks using nonlinear modulation of coda waves interferometry (NCWT) [1]. This method consists in mixing high-amplitude low-frequency acoustic waves with multi-scattered probe waves (coda) and analyzing their effects by interferometry. Unlike the classic method of coda analysis (CWT), the NCWT does not require the recording of a coda as a reference before damage to the structure. Tn the framework of the PTA-ENDE project, a 1/3 model of a preconstrained concrete containment (EDF VeRCoRs mock-up) is placed under pressure to study the leakage of the structure. During this evaluation protocol, specific areas are monitored by the NCWT (during 5 days, which correspond to the protocol of nuclear power plant pressurization under maintenance test). The acoustic nonlinear response due to the high amplitude of the acoustic modulation gives pertinent information about the elastic and dissipative nonlinearities of the concrete. Tts effective level is evaluated by two nonlinear observables extracted from the interferometry. The increase of nonlinearities is in agreement with the creation of a crack with a network of microcracks located at its base; however, a change in the dynamics of the evolution of the nonlinearities may indicate the opening of a through crack. Tn addition, as during the experimental campaign, reference codas have been recorded. We used CWT to follow the stress evolution and the gas leaks ratio of the structure. Both CWT and NCWT results are presented in this paper.

  4. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Copper characterization, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission and ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2009-08-01

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2008. The first part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We present results of attenuation measurement performed for a number of samples taken from a real canister; two from the lid and four from different parts of canister wall. Ultrasonic attenuation of the material originating from canister lid is relatively low (less that 50 dB/m) and essentially frequency independent in the frequency range up to 5 MHz. However, for the material originating from the extruded canister part considerable variations of the attenuation are observed, which can reach even 200 dB/m at 3.5 MHz. In the second part of the report we present further development of the concept of the friction stir welding process monitoring by means of multiple sensors formed into a uniform circular array (UCA). After a brief introduction into modeling Lamb waves and UCA we focus on array processing techniques that enable estimating direction of arrival of multimodal Lamb waves. We consider two new techniques, the Capon beamformer and the broadband multiple signal classification technique (MUSIC). We present simulation results illustrating their performance. In the final part we present the phase shift migration algorithm for ultrasonic imaging of layered media using synthetic aperture concept. We start from explaining theory of the phase migration concept, which is followed by the results of experiments performed on copper blocks with drilled holes. We show that the proposed algorithm performs well for immersion inspection of metal objects and yields both improved spatial resolution and suppressed grain noise

  6. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Copper characterization, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission and ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Engholm, Marcus; Olofsson, Tomas (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Dept. of Technical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2008. The first part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We present results of attenuation measurement performed for a number of samples taken from a real canister; two from the lid and four from different parts of canister wall. Ultrasonic attenuation of the material originating from canister lid is relatively low (less that 50 dB/m) and essentially frequency independent in the frequency range up to 5 MHz. However, for the material originating from the extruded canister part considerable variations of the attenuation are observed, which can reach even 200 dB/m at 3.5 MHz. In the second part of the report we present further development of the concept of the friction stir welding process monitoring by means of multiple sensors formed into a uniform circular array (UCA). After a brief introduction into modeling Lamb waves and UCA we focus on array processing techniques that enable estimating direction of arrival of multimodal Lamb waves. We consider two new techniques, the Capon beamformer and the broadband multiple signal classification technique (MUSIC). We present simulation results illustrating their performance. In the final part we present the phase shift migration algorithm for ultrasonic imaging of layered media using synthetic aperture concept. We start from explaining theory of the phase migration concept, which is followed by the results of experiments performed on copper blocks with drilled holes. We show that the proposed algorithm performs well for immersion inspection of metal objects and yields both improved spatial resolution and suppressed grain noise

  7. Numerical modelling of ultrasonic waves in a bubbly Newtonian liquid using a high-order acoustic cavitation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, G S Bruno; Tzanakis, I; Djambazov, G; Pericleous, K; Eskin, D G

    2017-07-01

    To address difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal with ultrasound, a fundamental study of acoustic cavitation in liquid aluminium, expressed in an experimentally validated numerical model, is presented in this paper. To improve the understanding of the cavitation process, a non-linear acoustic model is validated against reference water pressure measurements from acoustic waves produced by an immersed horn. A high-order method is used to discretize the wave equation in both space and time. These discretized equations are coupled to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation using two different time scales to couple the bubble and flow scales, resulting in a stable, fast, and reasonably accurate method for the prediction of acoustic pressures in cavitating liquids. This method is then applied to the context of treatment of liquid aluminium, where it predicts that the most intense cavitation activity is localised below the vibrating horn and estimates the acoustic decay below the sonotrode with reasonable qualitative agreement with experimental data. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of pipeline defect's characteristic axial length via model-based parameter estimation in ultrasonic guided wave-based inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tse, Peter W; Dordjevich, Alexandar

    2011-01-01

    The reflection signal from a defect in the process of guided wave-based pipeline inspection usually includes sufficient information to detect and define the defect. In previous research, it has been found that the reflection of guided waves from even a complex defect primarily results from the interference between reflection components generated at the front and the back edges of the defect. The respective contribution of different parameters of a defect to the overall reflection can be affected by the features of the two primary reflection components. The identification of these components embedded in the reflection signal is therefore useful in characterizing the concerned defect. In this research, we propose a method of model-based parameter estimation with the aid of the Hilbert–Huang transform technique for the purpose of decomposition of a reflection signal to enable characterization of the pipeline defect. Once two primary edge reflection components are decomposed and identified, the distance between the reflection positions, which closely relates to the axial length of the defect, could be easily and accurately determined. Considering the irregular profiles of complex pipeline defects at their two edges, which is often the case in real situations, the average of varied axial lengths of such a defect along the circumference of the pipeline is used in this paper as the characteristic value of actual axial length for comparison purpose. The experimental results of artificial defects and real corrosion in sample pipes were considered in this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  9. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  10. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  11. Training methods in non-destructive examination with ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walte, F.

    1986-01-01

    German concept for inspection of LWR, leak before break, basic safety; General inspection methods; Ultrasonic inspection - basic principle, generation of ultrasound, bulk and surface waves, piezo electric and electromagnetic transducers, energy balance, scattering and adsorption, divergence; Ultra techniques in compliance with KTA-rules - pulse-echo, tandem, throughtransmission; Valuation of ultrasonic indications; Pre- and in-service inspection; Practical part - ultrasonic equipment, ultrasonic piezo electric transducers, wall thickness measurement, crack depth measurement with potential drop technique. (orig.)

  12. Lamb pulse observed in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that seismograms observed at Longmire, Washington, for four eruptions of Mt. St. Helens, those on May 18, June 13, August 7, and August 8, 1980, can be interpreted as Lamb pulses excited by a nearly vertical single force representing the counter force of the eruption. These data furnish reliable estimates of the impulse of the force K (time integral of the force), from which the total momentum and the kinetic energy, E, of the ejecta associated with the eruption can be estimated. The estimates made of K are 1.4 x 10 to the 19th, 1.4 x 10 to the 16th, 3.7 x 10 to the 15th, and 2.8 x 10 to the 15th dynes-sec for the four eruptions (given chronologically). The corresponding estimates for E range from 0.70 to 2.6 x 10 to the 23rd, 0.70 to 2.6 x 10 to the 20th, 1.9 x 10 to the 19th, and 1.4 to 5.3 x 10 to the 19th erg using values of ejecta velocity ranging from 100 to 375 m/sec. The ratio of K to the amplitude of the air wave excited by the eruption is found to be 20 to 40 times larger for the main event on May 18 than for the other events, indicating a significant difference in the eruptive mechanism. A digital seismograph in the vicinity of a volcano is shown to provide a simple means for quantifying the explosive power of a volcanic eruption.

  13. Ultrasonic Generation and Optimization for EMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, X.; Dixon, Steve; Edwards, Rachel S.

    2005-01-01

    A model for transient ultrasonic wave generation by EMATs in non-magnetic metals is presented. It combines analytical solutions currently available and FEM to calculate ultrasonic bulk and Rayleigh waves generated by the EMAT. Analytical solutions are used as they can be calculated quickly on a standard mathematical computer package. Calculations agree well with the experimental measurement. The model can be used to optimize EMAT design, and has explained some of the results from our previous published measurements

  14. Ewe: a computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It has been applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues

  15. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  17. Ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic flowmeter was assembled and tested. The theoretical basis of this prototype ultrasonic flowmeter is reviewed; the equipment requirements for a portable unit are discussed; the individual electronic modules contained in the prototype are described; the operating procedures and configuration are explained; and the data from preliminary calibrations are presented. The calibration data confirm that the prototype operates according to theoretical predictions and can indeed provide nonintrusive flow measurements to predicted accuracies for pipes larger than two inches, under single phase stable flow conditions

  18. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  19. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  20. Chronic copper poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D B

    1964-08-08

    This communication presented evidence of the elevation of plasma GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transam