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Sample records for ultrashort-pulse laser ellipsometric

  1. Detection of hydrodynamic expansion in ultrashort pulse laser ellipsometric pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikami, Hidetoshi; Yoneda, Hitoki; Ueda, Ken-ichi; More, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    In ultrashort-pulse laser interaction with solid target materials, the target rapidly heats, melts, evaporates, and begins to expand as a vapor or plasma. The onset of hydrodynamic expansion following surface evaporation is a switching point, where the dominant physics changes from temperature dependence of the solid dielectric function to refraction by the dense vapor cloud. We propose and demonstrate a method to analyze reflection data to identify this onset of target expansion. We use two of the Stokes parameters obtained from ellipsometric pump-probe measurements to determine a dielectric function with an assumption of no expansion. We use this dielectric function to predict the full set of reflectivity measurements. If there is a sharply defined target interface, this method reproduces the experimental data. When the plasma expansion is no longer negligible, the prediction deviates from the experimental measurements. This comparison shows when the plasma expansion is no longer negligible

  2. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced

  3. Ultrashort pulse laser technology laser sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempel, Frank; Dausinger, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the femtosecond range up to a few picoseconds provide a unique method for precise materials processing or medical applications. Paired with the recent developments in ultrashort pulse lasers, this technology is finding its way into various application fields. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the principles and applications of ultrashort pulse lasers, especially applied to medicine and production technology. Recent advances in laser technology are discussed in detail. This covers the development of reliable and cheap low power laser sources as well as high average power ultrashort pulse lasers for large scale manufacturing. The fundamentals of laser-matter-interaction as well as processing strategies and the required system technology are discussed for these laser sources with respect to precise materials processing. Finally, different applications within medicine, measurement technology or materials processing are highlighted.

  4. Theory and simulation of ultra-short pulse laser interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R; Walling, R; Price, D; Guethlein, G; Stewart, R; Libby, S; Graziani, F; Levatin, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes recent Livermore work aimed at building computational tools to describe ultra-short pulse laser plasmas. We discuss calculations of laser absorption, atomic data for high-charge ions, and a new idea for linear-response treatment of non-equilibrium phenomena near LTE. (author)

  5. Ultrashort-pulse laser excitation and damage of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Balling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectrics is an intricate problem due to the strong coupling between the rapidly changing material properties and the light. In the present paper, details of a model based on a multiple-rate-equation description of the conduction band are provided. The model...

  6. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail: girolamo.mincuzzi@alphanov.com; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  7. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Ultrashort pulsed laser technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Gerald C.

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Navy has been pursuing a technology development program for advanced, all-fiber, Ultra Short Pulsed Laser (USPL) systems via Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. Multiple topics have been published to promote and fund research that encompasses every critical component of a standard USPL system and enable the demonstration of mJ/pulse class systems with an all fiber architecture. This presentation will summarize published topics and funded programs.

  9. Interaction of intense ultrashort pulse lasers with clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of clusters composed of different material irradiated by a high-intensity ultrashort pulse laser was studied using a fully relativistic three-dimensional molecular dynamics model. Key parameters of the cluster evolution such as particle positions, energy absorption, and cluster explosion were simulated. By a direct comparison of these parameters for clusters of equal initial radius but made of different material (deuterium, neon, argon, and xenon), the main stages and attributes of cluster evolution were elucidated. The simulations showed that clusters made of different material act alike, especially those of heavy elements. Clusters made of heavy elements (neon, argon, and xenon) differentiate from clusters made of light elements (deuterium) by the magnitude of the absorbed energy per cluster and the final mean energy of exploding ions. What most distinguishes clusters composed of different material is the amount of emitted radiation and its spectral range

  10. Investigation of ultrashort-pulsed laser on dental hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchizono, Takeyuki; Awazu, Kunio; Igarashi, Akihiro; Kato, Junji; Hirai, Yoshito

    2007-02-01

    Ultrashort-pulsed laser (USPL) can ablate various materials with precious less thermal effect. In laser dentistry, to solve the problem that were the generation of crack and carbonized layer by irradiating with conventional laser such as Er:YAG and CO II laser, USPL has been studied to ablate dental hard tissues by several researchers. We investigated the effectiveness of ablation on dental hard tissues by USPL. In this study, Ti:sapphire laser as USPL was used. The laser parameter had the pulse duration of 130 fsec, 800nm wavelength, 1KHz of repetition rate and the average power density of 90~360W/cm2. Bovine root dentin plates and crown enamel plates were irradiated with USPL at 1mm/sec using moving stage. The irradiated samples were analyzed by SEM, EDX, FTIR and roughness meter. In all irradiated samples, the cavity margin and wall were sharp and steep, extremely. In irradiated dentin samples, the surface showed the opened dentin tubules and no smear layer. The Ca/P ratio by EDX measurement and the optical spectrum by FTIR measurement had no change on comparison irradiated samples and non-irradiated samples. These results confirmed that USPL could ablate dental hard tissue, precisely and non-thermally. In addition, the ablation depths of samples were 10μm, 20μm, and 60μm at 90 W/cm2, 180 W/cm2, and 360 W/cm2, approximately. Therefore, ablation depth by USPL depends on the average power density. USPL has the possibility that can control the precision and non-thermal ablation with depth direction by adjusting the irradiated average power density.

  11. Amplification of UV ultrashort pulse laser in e-beam pumped KrF amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Tang Xiu Zhang; Gong Kun; Ma Wei Yi; Shan Yu Sheng; Wang Nai Yan

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations were performed for amplification of ultrashort pulse laser with Heaven-I e-beam pumped KrF amplifier in CIAE. A 50 mJ, 420 fs UV ultrashort pulse was amplified to 2-3 J energy, 1.2 ps pulse duration, and 2TW laser power. Experimental technique such as synchronization were describe, some parameters such as nonlinear absorb coefficient were measured in experiment. As a result, it is possible to achieve ultra-strong UV laser with intensity higher than 10 sup 1 sup 9 W/cm sup 2 in recently years

  12. Amplification of UV ultrashort pulse laser in e-beam pumped KrF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiuzhang; Zhang Haifeng; Gong Kun; Ma Weiyi; Shan Yusheng; Wang Naiyan

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations were performed for amplification of ultrashort pulse laser with Heaven-I e-beam pumped KrF amplifier in CIAE. A 50 mJ, 420 fs UV ultrashort pulse was amplified to 2-3 J energy, 1.2 ps pulse duration, and 2TW laser power. Experimental technique such as synchronization were describe, some parameters such as nonlinear absorb coefficient were measured in experiment. As a result, it is possible to achieve ultra-strong UV laser with intensity higher than 10 19 W/cm 2 in recently years

  13. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  14. Plasma luminescence feedback control system for precise ultrashort pulse laser tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Gold, David M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Marion, John E., II; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    1998-05-01

    Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue without damaging nearby soft tissue using an ultrashort pulse laser. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so bone tissue is selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.

  15. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially advantageous for the processing of thin films. A precise control of the heat affected zone, as small as tens of nanometers, depending on the material and laser conditions, can be achieved. It enab...

  16. Axisymmetric modeling of ultrashort-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hyperbolic two-temperature model is used in order to describe the heat propagation in metal film subjected to an ultrashort-pulse laser heating. An axisymmetric heat soureceewith Gaussian temporeal and spatial distributions has been taken into account. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  17. Anterior capsulotomy with an ultrashort-pulse laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackman, Ramon Naranjo; Kuri, Jorge Villar; Nichamin, Louis D Skip; Edwards, Keith

    2011-05-01

    To assess the precision of laser anterior capsulotomy compared with that of manual continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Asociación Para Evitar La Ceguera en México IAP, Hospital Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes, Mexico City, Mexico. Nonrandomized single-center clinical trial. In patients presenting for cataract surgery, the LensAR Laser System was used to create a laser anterior capsulotomy of the surgeon's desired size. Capsule buttons were retrieved and measured and then compared with buttons retrieved from eyes having a manually torn CCC. Deviation from the intended diameter and the regularity of shape were assessed. When removing the capsule buttons at the start of surgery, the surgeon rated the ease of removal on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = required manual capsulorhexis around the whole diameter; 10 = button free floating or required no manual detachment from remaining capsule during removal). The mean deviation from the intended diameter was 0.16 mm ± 0.17 (SD) for laser anterior capsulotomy and 0.42 ± 0.54 mm for CCC (P=.03). The mean absolute deviation from the intended diameter was 0.20 ± 0.12 mm and 0.49 ± 0.47 mm, respectively (P=.003). The mean of the average squared residuals was 0.01 ± 0.03 and 0.02 ± 0.04, respectively (P=.09). The median rating of the ease of removal was 9 (range 5 to 10). Laser anterior capsulotomy created a more precise capsule opening than CCC, and the buttons created by the laser procedure were easy to remove at the beginning of cataract surgery. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Yb3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4: A potential ultrashort pulse laser crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shijia; Xu, Jinlong; Wei, Qi; Lou, Fei; Huang, Yisheng; Yuan, Feifei; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; He, Jingliang; Wang, Guofu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Yb 3+ :Sr 3 Y 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. • The crystal has wide absorption and emission bandwidth. • 3.47 W continuous wave laser output with a slope efficiency of 29% was obtained. • The results show that the crystal is a promising ultrashort pulse laser material. - Abstract: A Yb 3+ :Sr 3 Y 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal was grown successfully by the Czochralski method. The polarized spectral properties and continuous wave laser output of this crystal were investigated in detail. The crystal has larger absorption and emission cross sections compared with many mature Yb 3+ -doped borate crystals. The full width at half maximum of the emission bands around 1023 nm are 69 nm (E//a), 61 nm (E//b) and 65 nm (E//c). 3.47 W continuous wave laser output with a slope efficiency of 29% and an optical conversion efficiency of 24% was obtained. The results reveal that Yb 3+ :Sr 3 Y 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal is an excellent candidate for ultrashort pulse laser crystal

  19. Prospects for a novel ultrashort pulsed laser technology for pathogen inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen Shaw-Wei D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The threat of emerging pathogens and microbial drug resistance has spurred tremendous efforts to develop new and more effective antimicrobial strategies. Recently, a novel ultrashort pulsed (USP laser technology has been developed that enables efficient and chemical-free inactivation of a wide spectrum of viral and bacterial pathogens. Such a technology circumvents the need to introduce potentially toxic chemicals and could permit safe and environmentally friendly pathogen reduction, with a multitude of possible applications including the sterilization of pharmaceuticals and blood products, and the generation of attenuated or inactivated vaccines.

  20. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining system employing a parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.

    2004-04-27

    A method and apparatus are provided for increasing the energy of chirped laser pulses to an output in the range 0.001 to over 10 millijoules at a repetition rate 0.010 to 100 kHz by using a two stage optical parametric amplifier utilizing a bulk nonlinear crystal wherein the pump and signal beam size can be independently adjusted in each stage.

  1. Ultrashort pulse laser machining of metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2003-09-16

    The invention consists of a method for high precision machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of metals and alloys. By using pulses of a duration in the range of 10 femtoseconds to 100 picoseconds, extremely precise machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. Because the pulses are so short, there is negligible thermal conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond approximately 0.1-1 micron (dependent upon the particular material) from the laser machined surface. Due to the short duration, the high intensity (>10.sup.12 W/cm.sup.2) associated with the interaction converts the material directly from the solid-state into an ionized plasma. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces with negligible redeposition either within the kerf or on the surface. Since there is negligible heating beyond the depth of material removed, the composition of the remaining material is unaffected by the laser machining process. This enables high precision machining of alloys and even pure metals with no change in grain structure.

  2. How to optimize ultrashort pulse laser interaction with glass surfaces in cutting regimes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M., E-mail: bulgakova@fzu.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, Vladimir P. [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630073 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Collins, Adam R. [NCLA, NUI Galway, Galway (Ireland); Rostohar, Danijela; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Mocek, Tomáš [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • The factors influencing laser micromachining of transparent materials are analyzed. • Important role of ambient gas in laser processing is shown by numerical simulations. • The large potential of bi-wavelength laser processing is demonstrated. - Abstract: The interaction of short and ultrashort pulse laser radiation with glass materials is addressed. Particular attention is paid to regimes which are important in industrial applications such as laser cutting, drilling, functionalization of material surfaces, etc. Different factors influencing the ablation efficiency and quality are summarized and their importance is illustrated experimentally. The effects of ambient gas ionization in front of the irradiated target are also analyzed. A possibility to enhance laser coupling with transparent solids by bi-wavelength irradiation is discussed.

  3. Self-oscillations in cw solid-state ultrashort-pulse-generating lasers with mode locking by self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V L; Krimer, D O; Mejid, F; Poloiko, I G; Mikhailov, V P

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state and transient regimes of ultrashort pulse generation are studied for cw solid-state lasers with mode locking by self-focusing. It is shown that the control parameter, which governs the nature of lasing, is the relationship between self-phase-modulation and the saturation intensity of an efficient shutter, induced by the Kerr self-focusing. Numerical modelling based on mapping the parameters of a quasi-soliton ultrashort pulse, considered in the aberration-free approximation, yields results in good agreement with experiments. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  4. Study of laser pulses propagation through an ultrashort pulse amplifying systems for the development of an Offner temporal stretcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, Thiago da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The study of laser pulses propagation through an ultrashort pulses amplifying system containing dispersive and spectral modifying media was performed. The study emphasis was the development of an ultrashort pulse stretcher to replace the one inside a hybrid Ti:Sapphire/Cr:LiSAF CPA system operating at the Center for Lasers and Applications at IPEN/CNEN-SP. A spherical aberration free Offner stretcher was theoretically studied, aiming to obtain a stretching ratio larger than the one available in our system. The influence of the phase components in the amplified pulse final duration was also studied, and the bandwidth limiting elements of the system in operation were mapped, with the purpose of determining the conditions under which a new stretcher should be implemented. Based on the actual measurements, computing routines were implemented in order to determine the consequences of an ultrashort pulse travelling through a bandwidth limiting component. (author)

  5. Fabrication of Nb/Pb structures through ultrashort pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontad, Francisco; Lorusso, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lorusso@le.infn.it; Perrone, Alessio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi,” Università del Salento and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Klini, Argyro; Fotakis, Costas [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 100 N. Plastira St., GR 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Broitman, Esteban [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, 581-83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the fabrication of Nb/Pb structures with an application as photocathode devices. The use of relatively low energy densities for the ablation of Nb with ultrashort pulses favors the reduction of droplets during the growth of the film. However, the use of laser fluences in this ablation regime results in a consequent reduction in the average deposition rate. On the other hand, despite the low deposition rate, the films present a superior adherence to the substrate and an excellent coverage of the irregular substrate surface, avoiding the appearance of voids or discontinuities on the film surface. Moreover, the low energy densities used for the ablation favor the growth of nanocrystalline films with a similar crystalline structure to the bulk material. Therefore, the use of low ablation energy densities with ultrashort pulses for the deposition of the Nb thin films allows the growth of very adherent and nanocrystalline films with adequate properties for the fabrication of Nb/Pb structures to be included in superconducting radiofrequency cavities.

  6. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3 C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3 C 2 , as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3 C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  7. Non-destructive testing of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. C.; Qi, Hong; An, X. Y.; Ren, Y. T.; Qiao, Y. B.; Ruan, Liming M.

    2018-04-01

    The non-destructive testing (NDT) of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser is investigated in this study. The discrete ordinate method is applied to solve the transient radiative transfer equation in 2D semitransparent medium and the emerging radiative intensity on boundary serves as input for the inverse analysis. The sequential quadratic programming algorithm is employed as the inverse technique to optimize objective function, in which the gradient of objective function with respect to reconstruction parameters is calculated using the adjoint model. Two reticulated porous ceramics including partially stabilized zirconia and oxide-bonded silicon carbide are tested. The retrieval results show that the main characteristics of defects such as optical properties, geometric shapes and positions can be accurately reconstructed by the present model. The proposed technique is effective and robust in NDT of ceramics even with measurement errors.

  8. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental hard tissues with an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Krillke, Raphael Franz; Frentzen, Matthias; Bourauel, Christoph; Stark, Helmut; Schelle, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Heat generation during the removal of dental hard tissues may lead to a temperature increase and cause painful sensations or damage dental tissues. The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental hard tissues following laser ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system. A total of 85 specimens of dental hard tissues were used, comprising 45 specimens of human dentine evaluating a thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm (15 samples each) and 40 specimens of human enamel with a thickness of 1 and 2 mm (20 samples each). Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1,064 nm, a pulse duration of 9 ps, and a repetition rate of 500 kHz with an average output power of 6 W. Specimens were irradiated for 0.8 s. Employing a scanner system, rectangular cavities of 1-mm edge length were generated. A temperature sensor was placed at the back of the specimens, recording the temperature during the ablation process. All measurements were made employing a heat-conductive paste without any additional cooling or spray. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the dental hard tissue (enamel or dentine) and the thickness of the respective tissue (p dental hard tissues, heat generation has to be considered. Especially during laser ablation next to pulpal tissues, painful sensations and potential thermal injury of pulp tissue might occur.

  9. High-throughput machining using high average power ultrashort pulse lasers and ultrafast polygon scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Streek, André; Kloetzer, Sascha; Loeschner, Udo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, high-throughput ultrashort pulse laser machining is investigated on various industrial grade metals (Aluminium, Copper, Stainless steel) and Al2O3 ceramic at unprecedented processing speeds. This is achieved by using a high pulse repetition frequency picosecond laser with maximum average output power of 270 W in conjunction with a unique, in-house developed two-axis polygon scanner. Initially, different concepts of polygon scanners are engineered and tested to find out the optimal architecture for ultrafast and precision laser beam scanning. Remarkable 1,000 m/s scan speed is achieved on the substrate, and thanks to the resulting low pulse overlap, thermal accumulation and plasma absorption effects are avoided at up to 20 MHz pulse repetition frequencies. In order to identify optimum processing conditions for efficient high-average power laser machining, the depths of cavities produced under varied parameter settings are analyzed and, from the results obtained, the characteristic removal values are specified. The maximum removal rate is achieved as high as 27.8 mm3/min for Aluminium, 21.4 mm3/min for Copper, 15.3 mm3/min for Stainless steel and 129.1 mm3/min for Al2O3 when full available laser power is irradiated at optimum pulse repetition frequency.

  10. Texturing in titanium grade 2 surface irradiate with ultrashort pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Alessandro Francelino

    2015-01-01

    The texturing laser micromachining is an important alternative to improve the bonding adhesion between composites and titanium, which are applied to structural components in the aerospace industry. The texturing running on titanium plates is due to the fact that the preferred joining technique for many composite materials is the adhesive bonding. In this work, titanium plates were texturized using laser ultrashort pulses temporal widths of femtoseconds. This process resulted in minimal heat transfer to the material, avoiding deformation of the titanium plate surface as well as the formation of resolidified material in the ablated region. These drawbacks have occurred with the use of nanoseconds pulses. Were performed three types of texturing using laser with femtosecond pulses, with variations in the distances between the machined lines. The analysis of the obtained surfaces found that the wettability increases when there is the increased distance between the texturing lines. Advancing in the analysis by optical profilometry of textured surfaces was observed that there is substantial increase in the volume available for penetration of structural adhesive when the distances between the textured lines are diminished. In tensile tests conducted it was observed that there is an increase in shear strength of the adhesive joint by reducing the distance between the textured lines. (author)

  11. Ultrashort pulse laser processing of hard tissue, dental restoration materials, and biocompatibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Beer, F.; Verhagen, L.; Wittschier, M.; Wintner, E.

    2007-07-01

    During the last few years, ultra-short laser pulses have proven their potential for application in medical tissue treatment in many ways. In hard tissue ablation, their aptitude for material ablation with negligible collateral damage provides many advantages. Especially teeth representing an anatomically and physiologically very special region with less blood circulation and lower healing rates than other tissues require most careful treatment. Hence, overheating of the pulp and induction of microcracks are some of the most problematic issues in dental preparation. Up till now it was shown by many authors that the application of picosecond or femtosecond pulses allows to perform ablation with very low damaging potential also fitting to the physiological requirements indicated. Beside the short interaction time with the irradiated matter, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of the required quality. One main reason for this can be seen in the fact that during scanning the time period between two subsequent pulses incident on the same spot is so much extended that no heat accumulation effects occur and each pulse can be treated as a first one with respect to its local impact. Extension of this advantageous technique to biocompatible materials, i.e. in this case dental restoration materials and titanium plasma-sprayed implants, is just a matter of consequence. Recently published results on composites fit well with earlier data on dental hard tissue. In case of plaque which has to be removed from implants, it turns out that removal of at least the calcified version is harder than tissue removal. Therefore, besides ultra-short lasers, also Diode and Neodymium lasers, in cw and pulsed modes, have been studied with respect to plaque removal and sterilization. The temperature increase during laser exposure has been experimentally evaluated in parallel.

  12. Ultrashort pulsed laser ablation for decollation of solid state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördemann, C.; Anand, H.; Gillner, A.

    2017-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes are the main energy source for many electronic devices that we use in our everyday lives. However, one of the main drawbacks of this energy storage technology is the use of liquid electrolyte, which can be hazardous to the user as well as the environment. Moreover, lithium-ion batteries are limited in voltage, energy density and operating temperature range. One of the most novel and promising battery technologies available to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks is the Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery (SSLB). This battery type can be produced without limitations to the geometry and is also bendable, which is not possible with conventional batteries1 . Additionally, SSLBs are characterized by high volumetric and gravimetric energy density and are intrinsically safe since no liquid electrolyte is used2-4. Nevertheless, the manufacturing costs of these batteries are still high. The existing production-technologies are comparable to the processes used in the semiconductor industry and single cells are produced in batches with masked-deposition at low deposition rates. In order to decrease manufacturing costs and to move towards continuous production, Roll2Roll production methods are being proposed5, 6. These methods offer the possibility of producing large quantities of substrates with deposited SSLB-layers. From this coated substrate, single cells can be cut out. For the flexible decollation of SSLB-cells from the substrate, new manufacturing technologies have to be developed since blade-cutting, punching or conventional laser-cutting processes lead to short circuiting between the layers. Here, ultra-short pulsed laser ablation and cutting allows the flexible decollation of SSLBs. Through selective ablation of individual layers, an area for the cutting kerf is prepared to ensure a shortcut-free decollation.

  13. Atomistic simulations of ultra-short pulse laser ablation of aluminum: validity of the Lambert-Beer law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, Eugen; Roth, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Based on hybrid molecular dynamics/two-temperature simulations, we study the validity of the application of Lambert-Beer's law, which is conveniently used in various modeling approaches of ultra-short pulse laser ablation of metals. The method is compared to a more rigorous treatment, which involves solving the Helmholtz wave equation for different pulse durations ranging from 100 fs to 5 ps and a wavelength of 800 nm. Our simulations show a growing agreement with increasing pulse durations, and we provide appropriate optical parameters for all investigated pulse durations.

  14. Polarized spectral properties of Yb3+ : Li2Gd4(MoO4)7 crystal: a candidate for tunable and ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haomiao; Chen Yujin; Lin Yanfu; Gong Xinghong; Liao Jinsheng; Chen Xueyuan; Luo Zundu; Huang Yidong

    2007-01-01

    Detailed polarized spectral properties of a 3.2 at.% Yb 3+ : Li 2 Gd 4 (MoO 4 ) 7 crystal, including absorption cross-section, emission cross-section, up-conversion spectrum and intrinsic fluorescence lifetime, were investigated. The laser potentiality was also evaluated and the results show that this crystal is a good candidate for tunable and ultrashort pulse lasers

  15. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of 'Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions', are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop '97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  16. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of `Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions`, are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop `97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  17. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A; Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  18. High-throughput machining using a high-average power ultrashort pulse laser and high-speed polygon scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Streek, André; Kloetzer, Sascha; Loeschner, Udo

    2016-09-01

    High-throughput ultrashort pulse laser machining is investigated on various industrial grade metals (aluminum, copper, and stainless steel) and Al2O3 ceramic at unprecedented processing speeds. This is achieved by using a high-average power picosecond laser in conjunction with a unique, in-house developed polygon mirror-based biaxial scanning system. Therefore, different concepts of polygon scanners are engineered and tested to find the best architecture for high-speed and precision laser beam scanning. In order to identify the optimum conditions for efficient processing when using high-average laser powers, the depths of cavities made in the samples by varying the processing parameter settings are analyzed and, from the results obtained, the characteristic removal values are specified. For overlapping pulses of optimum fluence, the removal rate is as high as 27.8 mm3/min for aluminum, 21.4 mm3/min for copper, 15.3 mm3/min for stainless steel, and 129.1 mm3/min for Al2O3, when a laser beam of 187 W average laser powers irradiates. On stainless steel, it is demonstrated that the removal rate increases to 23.3 mm3/min when the laser beam is very fast moving. This is thanks to the low pulse overlap as achieved with 800 m/s beam deflection speed; thus, laser beam shielding can be avoided even when irradiating high-repetitive 20-MHz pulses.

  19. Time-dependent H-like and He-like Al lines produced by ultra-short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takako; Kato, Masatoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Shepherd, R; Young, B; More, R; Osterheld, Al

    1998-03-01

    We have performed numerical modeling of time-resolved x-ray spectra from thin foil targets heated by the LLNL Ultra-short pulse (USP) laser. The targets were aluminum foils of thickness ranging from 250 A to 1250 A, heated with 120 fsec pulses of 400 nm light from the USP laser. The laser energy was approximately 0.2 Joules, focused to a 3 micron spot size for a peak intensity near 2 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines were recorded using a 900 fsec x-ray streak camera. We calculate the effective ionization, recombination and emission rate coefficients including density effects for H-like and He-like aluminum ions using a collisional radiative model. We calculate time-dependent ion abundances using these effective ionization and recombination rate coefficients. The time-dependent electron temperature and density used in the calculation are based on an analytical model for the hydrodynamic expansion of the target foils. During the laser pulse the target is ionized. After the laser heating stops, the plasma begins to recombine. Using the calculated time dependent ion abundances and the effective emission rate coefficients, we calculate the time dependent Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} lines. The calculations reproduce the main qualitative features of the experimental spectra. (author)

  20. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  1. Self-cleaning effect in high quality percussion ablating of cooling hole by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanqin; Yu, Zhishui

    2018-06-01

    Comparing with the trepanning technology, cooling hole could be processed based on the percussion drilling with higher processing efficiency. However, it is widely believed that the ablating precision of hole is lower for percussion drilling than for trepanning, wherein, the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and the recast layer inside the hole are the two main issues for reducing the ablating precision of hole, especially for the recast layer, it can't be eliminated completely even through the trepanning technology. In this paper, the self-cleaning effect which is a particular property just for percussion ablating of holes has been presented in detail. In addition, the reasons inducing the self-cleaning effect have been discussed. At last, based on the self-cleaning effect of percussion drilling, high quality cooling hole without the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and recast layer inside the hole could be ablated in nickel-based superalloy by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser.

  2. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity

  3. Impacts of ambient and ablation plasmas on short- and ultrashort-pulse laser processing of surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Panchenko, A.N.; Zhukov, V.P.; Kudryashov, S.I.; Pereira, A.; Marine, W.; Mocek, Tomáš; Bulgakov, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 1344-1372 ISSN 2072-666X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed laser ablation * laser material processing * laser plasma * ambient gas breakdown * material redeposition * plasma pipe formation * microstructures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2014

  4. How to optimize ultrashort pulse laser interaction with glass surfaces in cutting regimes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Zhukov, V.P.; Collins, A.R.; Rostohar, Danijela; Derrien, Thibault; Mocek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 336, May (2015), s. 364-374 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser material processing * high power lasers * glass cutting * laser-matter interaction * biwave length irradiation * ambient gas ionization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  5. X-ray emission as a potential hazard during ultrashort pulse laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, Herbert; Schwanke, Christoph; Pentzien, Simone; Dittmar, Günter; Bonse, Jörn; Krüger, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    In laser machining with ultrashort laser pulses unwanted X-ray radiation in the keV range can be generated when a critical laser intensity is exceeded. Even if the emitted X-ray dose per pulse is low, high laser repetition rates can lead to an accumulation of X-ray doses beyond exposure safety limits. For 925 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm, the X-ray emission was investigated up to an intensity of 2.6 × 1014 W/cm2. The experiments were performed in air with a thin disk laser at a repetition rate of 400 kHz. X-ray spectra and doses were measured for various planar target materials covering a wide range of the periodic table from aluminum to tungsten. Without radiation shielding, the measured radiation doses at this high repetition rate clearly exceed the regulatory limits. Estimations for an adequate radiation shielding are provided.

  6. Impacts of Ambient and Ablation Plasmas on Short- and Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Processing of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Bulgakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that more than five decades have passed since the invention of laser, some topics of laser-matter interaction still remain incompletely studied. One of such topics is plasma impact on the overall phenomenon of the interaction and its particular features, including influence of the laser-excited plasma re-radiation, back flux of energetic plasma species, and massive material redeposition, on the surface quality and processing efficiency. In this paper, we analyze different plasma aspects, which go beyond a simple consideration of the well-known effect of plasma shielding of laser radiation. The following effects are considered: ambient gas ionization above the target on material processing with formation of a “plasma pipe”; back heating of the target by both laser-driven ambient and ablation plasmas through conductive and radiative heat transfer; plasma chemical effects on surface processing including microstructure growth on liquid metals; complicated dynamics of the ablation plasma flow interacting with an ambient gas that can result in substantial redeposition of material around the ablation spot. Together with a review summarizing our main to-date achievements and outlining research directions, we present new results underlining importance of laser plasma dynamics and photoionization of the gas environment upon laser processing of materials.

  7. Method and apparatus for improving the quality and efficiency of ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Perry, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the quality and efficiency of machining of materials with laser pulse durations shorter than 100 picoseconds by orienting and maintaining the polarization of the laser light such that the electric field vector is perpendicular relative to the edges of the material being processed. Its use is any machining operation requiring remote delivery and/or high precision with minimal collateral dames.

  8. Histological observation on dental hard tissue irradiated by ultrashort-pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchizono, Takeyuki; Awazu, Kunio; Igarashi, Akihiro; Kato, Junji; Hirai, Yoshito

    2006-04-01

    In the field of dentistry, effectiveness of USPL irradiation is researched because USPL has less thermal side effect to dental hard tissue. In this paper, we observed morphological change and optical change of dental hard tissue irradiated by USPL for discussing the safety and effectiveness of USPL irradiation to dental hard tissues. Irradiated samples were crown enamel and root dentin of bovine teeth. Lasers were Ti:sapphire laser, which had pulse duration (P d)of 130 fsec and pulse repetition rate (f) of 1kHz and wavelength (l) of 800nm, free electron laser (FEL), which had P d of 15 μsec and f of 10Hz and wavelength of 9.6μm, and Er:YAG laser, which had P d of 250 μsec and f of 10Hz and wavelength of 2.94μm. After laser irradiation, the sample surfaces and cross sections were examined with SEM and EDX. The optical change of samples was observed using FTIR. In SEM, the samples irradiated by USPL had sharp and accurate ablation with no crack and no carbonization. But, in FEL and Er:YAG laser, the samples has rough ablation with crack and carbonization. It was cleared that the P/Ca ratio of samples irradiated by USPL had same value as non-irradiated samples. There was no change in the IR absorption spectrum between samples irradiated by USPL and non-irradiated sample. But, they of samples irradiated by FEL and Er:YAG laser, however, had difference value as non-irradiated samples. These results showed that USPL might be effective to ablate dental hard tissue without thermal damage.

  9. Soft x-ray generation in gases with an ultrashort pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditmire, Todd Raymond [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-01-08

    An experimental investigation of soft x-ray production resulting from the interaction of intense near infra-red laser radiation with gases is presented in this thesis. Specifically, soft x-ray generation through high order harmonic generation or exploiting intense inverse bremsstrahlung heating is examined. Most of these studies are conducted with femtosecond, terawatt class Cr:LiSrAlF6 (LiSAF) laser, though results derived from studies with other laser systems are presented as well. The majority of this work is devoted to experimental investigations, however, theoretical and computational models are developed to interpret the data. These studies are motivated by the possibility of utilizing the physics of intense laser/matter interactions as a potential compact source of bright x-rays. Consequently, the thrust of many of the experiments conducted is aimed at characterizing the x-rays produced for possible use in applications. In general, the studies of this manuscript fall into three categories. First, a unique 130 fs, 8 TW laser that is based on chirped pulse amplification, is described, and its performance is evaluated. The generation of x-rays through high order harmonics is then discussed with emphasis on characterizing and optimizing harmonic generation. Finally, the generation of strong, incoherent x-ray radiation by the intense irradiation of large (>1,000 atom) clusters in gas jets, is explored. The physics of laser energy absorption by clusters illuminated with intensities of 1015 to 1017 W/cm2 is considered in detail. X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas that result from the irradiation of the clusters is conducted, and energy transport and kinetics issues in these plasmas are discussed.

  10. Ultrashort pulse laser ablation of dielectrics: thresholds, mechanisms, role of breakdown

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mirza, M. Inam; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Tomáštík, J.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.; Fekete, Ladislav; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Dec (2016), 1-11, č. článku 39133. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser material processing * surfaces * interfaces * thin films Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. Mode-locking peculiarities in an all-fiber erbium-doped ring ultrashort pulse laser with a highly-nonlinear resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretskiy, Dmitriy A.; Sazonkin, Stanislav G.; Kudelin, Igor S.; Orekhov, Ilya O.; Pnev, Alexey B.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Denisov, Lev K.

    2017-12-01

    Today ultrashort pulse (USP) fiber lasers are in great demand in a frequency metrology field, THz pulse spectroscopy, optical communication, quantum optics application, etc. Therefore mode-locked (ML) fiber lasers have been extensively investigated over the last decade due the number of scientific, medical and industrial applications. It should be noted, that USP fiber lasers can be treated as an ideal platform to expand future applications due to the complex ML nonlinear dynamics in a laser resonator. Up to now a series of novel ML regimes have been investigated e.g. self-similar pulses, noise-like pulses, multi-bound solitons and soliton rain generation. Recently, we have used a highly nonlinear germanosilicate fiber (with germanium oxides concentration in the core 50 mol. %) inside the resonator for more reliable and robust launching of passive mode-locking based on the nonlinear polarization evolution effect in fibers. In this work we have measured promising and stable ML regimes such as stretched pulses, soliton rain and multi-bound solitons formed in a highly-nonlinear ring laser and obtained by intracavity group velocity dispersion (GVD) variation in slightly negative region. As a result, we have obtained the low noise ultrashort pulse generation with duration 59 dB) and relative intensity noise <-101 dBc / Hz.

  12. Decoration of silica nanowires with gold nanoparticles through ultra-short pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontad, F.; Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Resta, V.; Taurino, A.; Colombelli, A.; Leo, C.; Klini, A.; Manousaki, A.; Convertino, A.; Rella, R.; Martino, M.; Perrone, A.

    2017-10-01

    The ablation of a metal target at laser energy densities in the range of 1-10 TW/cm2 leads to the generation of nanoparticles (NP) of the ablated material. This aspect is of particular interest if the immobilization of NPs on three-dimensional (3D) substrates is necessary as for example in sensing applications. In this work the deposition of Au NP by irradiation of a Au bulk target with a sub-picosecond laser beam (500 fs; 248 nm; 10 Hz) on 2D (silica and Si(100)) and 3D substrates (silica nanowire forests) is reported for different number of laser pulses (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500). A uniform coverage of small Au NPs (with a diameter of few nm) on both kinds of substrates has been obtained using a suitable number of laser pulses. The presence of spherical droplets, with a diameter ranging from tens of nm up to few μm was also detected on the substrate surface and their presence can be explained by the weak electron-phonon coupling of Au. The optical characterization of the samples on 2D and 3D substrates evidenced the surface plasmon resonance peak characteristic of the Au NPs although further improvements of the size-distribution are necessary for future applications in sensing devices.

  13. The noise of ultrashort pulse mode-locked lasers beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takushima, Y; Haus, H A; Kaertner, F X

    2004-01-01

    The zero-point fluctuations in an L-C circuit of finite Q are revisited. The zero-point energy is shown to approach the value of hbarω 0 /2 only in the limit of an infinite Q. A Fabry-Perot resonator, on the other hand, has bounded zero-point energies of its modes that are equal to hbarω n /2 for each resonance. Based on the Fabry-Perot resonator with broadband noise, we analyse the noise of an ultrafast mode-locked laser when the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) is not valid. This is achieved by reinterpreting the quantized form of the master equation of mode locking as an equation of motion for the electric field rather than for the creation operator of a photon. It is found that in this formulation quantum correlations exist that are not present in the SVEA. The correlations become evident in the spectrum of the zero-point fluctuations and therefore in the background noise of the laser. This behaviour can be detected by homodyne detection of the laser output. The linewidth of the frequency comb generated by the mode-locked laser is not affected by these correlations and is given by the Schawlow-Townes linewidth of an equivalent continuous wave taking the additional intracavity loss due to the mode locking process into account

  14. Dynamics of laser ablation at the early stage during and after ultrashort pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilnitsky, D K; Zhakhovsky, V V; Migdal, K P; Inogamov, N A; Khokhlov, V A; Petrov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Study of material flow in two-temperature states is needed for a fundamental understanding the physics of femtosecond laser ablation. To explore phenomena at a very early stage of laser action on a metallic target our in-house two-temperature hydrodynamics code is used here. The early stage covers duration of laser pulse with next first few picoseconds. We draw attention to the difference in behavior at this stage between the cases: (i) of an ultrathin film (thickness of order of skin depth d skin or less), (ii) thin films (thickness of a film is 4-7 of d skin for gold), and (iii) bulk targets (more than 10 d skin for gold). We demonstrate that these differences follow from a competition among conductive cooling of laser excited electrons in a skin layer, electron-ion coupling, and hydrodynamics of unloading caused by excess of pressure of excited free electrons. Conductive cooling of the skin needs a heat sink, which is performed by the cold material outside the skin. Such sink is unavailable in the ultrathin films. (paper)

  15. Structure modifications in silikon irradiated by ultra-short pulses of XUV free electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelka, J. B.; Andrejczuk, A.; Reniewicz, H.; Schell, N.; Krzywinski, J.; Sobierajski, R.; Wawro, A.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Klinger, D.; Juha, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 382, - (2004), s. 264-270 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA235; GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : XUV ablation * free electron laser Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2004

  16. Technical advantages of disk laser technology in short and ultrashort pulse processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P.; Stollhof, J.; Weiler, S.; Massa, S.; Faisst, B.; Denney, P.; Gounaris, E.

    2011-03-01

    This paper demonstrates that disk-laser technology introduces advantages that increase efficiency and allows for high productivity in micro-processing in both the nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) regimes. Some technical advantages of disk technology include not requiring good pump beam quality or special wavelengths for pumping of the disk, high optical efficiencies, no thermal lensing effects and a possible scaling of output power without an increase of pump beam quality. With cavity-dumping, the pulse duration of the disk laser can be specified between 30 and hundreds of nanoseconds, but is independent of frequency, thus maintaining process stability. TRUMPF uses this technology in the 750 watts average power laser TruMicro 7050. High intensity, along with fluency, is important for high ablation rates in thinfilm removal. Thus, these ns lasers show high removal rates, above 60 cm2/s, in thin-film solar cell production. In addition, recent results in paint-stripping of aerospace material prove the green credentials and high processing rates inherent with this technology as it can potentially replace toxic chemical processes. The ps disk technology meanwhile is used in, for example, scribing of solar cells, wafer dicing and drilling injector nozzles, as the pulse duration is short enough to minimize heat input in the laser-matter interaction. In the TruMicro Series 5000, the multi-pass regenerative amplifier stage combines high optical-optical efficiencies together with excellent output beam quality for pulse durations of only 6 ps and high pulse energies of up to 0.25 mJ.

  17. An ultrashort pulse ultra-violet radiation undulator source driven by a laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anania, M. P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Grant, D. W.; Welsh, G. H.; Issac, R. C.; Cipiccia, S.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Aniculaesei, C.; Jaroszynski, D. A., E-mail: d.a.jaroszynski@strath.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Geer, S. B. van der; Loos, M. J. de [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands); Poole, M. W.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Clarke, J. A. [ASTeC, STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W. A. [SUPA, School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A. M. [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee DD1 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30

    Narrow band undulator radiation tuneable over the wavelength range of 150–260 nm has been produced by short electron bunches from a 2 mm long laser plasma wakefield accelerator based on a 20 TW femtosecond laser system. The number of photons measured is up to 9 × 10{sup 6} per shot for a 100 period undulator, with a mean peak brilliance of 1 × 10{sup 18} photons/s/mrad{sup 2}/mm{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Simulations estimate that the driving electron bunch r.m.s. duration is as short as 3 fs when the electron beam has energy of 120–130 MeV with the radiation pulse duration in the range of 50–100 fs.

  18. Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Ablation of Magnesium Diboride: Plasma Characterization and Thin Films Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Bonis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A MgB2 target has been ablated by Nd:glass laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs. The plasma produced by the laser-target interaction, showing two temporal separated emissions, has been characterized by time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and ICCD fast imaging. The films, deposited on silicon substrates and formed by the coalescence of particles with nanometric size, have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The first steps of the films growth have been studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The films deposition has been studied by varying the substrate temperature from 25 to 500°C and the best results have been obtained at room temperature.

  19. Near-field marking of gold nanostars by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation: experiment and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Søren H.; Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Nazir, Adnan; Eriksen, Emil H.; Julsgaard, Brian; Madsen, Søren P.; Balling, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of the electric near-field distribution of star-shaped gold nanoparticles have been performed by femtosecond laser ablation. Measurements were carried out on and off the plasmon resonance. A detailed comparison with numerical simulations of the electric fields is presented. Semi-quantitative agreement is found, with slight systematic differences between experimentally observed and simulated near-field patterns close to strong electric-field gradients. The deviations are attributed to carrier transport preceding ablation.

  20. Tailored optical vector fields for ultrashort-pulse laser induced complex surface plasmon structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, J; Perrie, W; Allegre, O J; Heil, T; Jin, Y; Fearon, E; Eckford, D; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G

    2015-05-18

    Precise tailoring of optical vector beams is demonstrated, shaping their focal electric fields and used to create complex laser micro-patterning on a metal surface. A Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and a micro-structured S-waveplate were integrated with a picosecond laser system and employed to structure the vector fields into radial and azimuthal polarizations with and without a vortex phase wavefront as well as superposition states. Imprinting Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) elucidates the detailed vector fields around the focal region. In addition to clear azimuthal and radial plasmon surface structures, unique, variable logarithmic spiral micro-structures with a pitch Λ ∼1μm, not observed previously, were imprinted on the surface, confirming unambiguously the complex 2D focal electric fields. We show clearly also how the Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) associated with a helical wavefront induces rotation of vector fields along the optic axis of a focusing lens and confirmed by the observed surface micro-structures.

  1. An ultrashort-pulse reconstruction software: GROG, applied to the FLAME laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Mario

    2016-03-01

    The GRENOUILLE traces of FLAME Probe line pulses (60mJ, 10mJ after compression, 70fs, 1cm FWHM, 10Hz) were acquired in the FLAME Front End Area (FFEA) at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The complete characterization of the laser pulse parameters was made using a new algorithm: GRenouille/FrOG (GROG). A characterization with a commercial algorithm, QUICKFrog, was also made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign the Probe line of FLAME has been completely characterized and it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as QuickFrog algorithm with this type of pulse class.

  2. Texturing in titanium grade 2 surface irradiate with ultrashort pulse laser; Texturizacao em superficies de titanio grau 2 irradiadas com laser com pulsos ultracurtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Alessandro Francelino

    2015-07-01

    The texturing laser micromachining is an important alternative to improve the bonding adhesion between composites and titanium, which are applied to structural components in the aerospace industry. The texturing running on titanium plates is due to the fact that the preferred joining technique for many composite materials is the adhesive bonding. In this work, titanium plates were texturized using laser ultrashort pulses temporal widths of femtoseconds. This process resulted in minimal heat transfer to the material, avoiding deformation of the titanium plate surface as well as the formation of resolidified material in the ablated region. These drawbacks have occurred with the use of nanoseconds pulses. Were performed three types of texturing using laser with femtosecond pulses, with variations in the distances between the machined lines. The analysis of the obtained surfaces found that the wettability increases when there is the increased distance between the texturing lines. Advancing in the analysis by optical profilometry of textured surfaces was observed that there is substantial increase in the volume available for penetration of structural adhesive when the distances between the textured lines are diminished. In tensile tests conducted it was observed that there is an increase in shear strength of the adhesive joint by reducing the distance between the textured lines. (author)

  3. Ultrashort pulse energy distribution for propulsion in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstue, Grant Jared

    This thesis effort focuses on the development of a novel, space-based ultrashort pulse transmission system for spacecraft. The goals of this research include: (1) ultrashort pulse transmission strategies for maximizing safety and efficiency; (2) optical transmission system requirements; (3) general system requirements including control techniques for stabilization; (4) optical system requirements for achieving effective ablative propulsion at the receiving spacecraft; and (5) ultrashort pulse transmission capabilities required for future missions in space. A key element of the research is the multiplexing device required for aligning the ultrashort pulses from multiple laser sources along a common optical axis for transmission. This strategy enables access to the higher average and peak powers required for useful missions in space.

  4. The Application of Cryogenic Laser Physics to the Development of High Average Power Ultra-Short Pulse Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser physics continues to advance at a rapid pace, driven primarily by the development of more powerful and sophisticated diode-pumping sources, the development of new laser materials, and new laser and amplification approaches such as optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification. The rapid development of high average power cryogenic laser sources seems likely to play a crucial role in realizing the long-sought goal of powerful ultrafast sources that offer concomitant high peak and average powers. In this paper, we review the optical, thermal, thermo-optic and laser parameters important to cryogenic laser technology, recently achieved laser and laser materials progress, the progression of cryogenic laser technology, discuss the importance of cryogenic laser technology in ultrafast laser science, and what advances are likely to be achieved in the near-future.

  5. Ultra-short pulse, ultra-high intensity laser improvement techniques for laser-driven quantum beam science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Recent development activities of the Quantum Beam Research Team in JAEA are reported. The downsized, petawatt and femtosecond pulse laser is described at first. The process of the system development and utilization effort of so-called J-KAREN is explained with its time and space control system. For high contrast, OPCPA (Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification) preamplifier is adopted by using the titanium-sapphire laser system in which only the seed light pulses can be amplified. In addition, high contrast is obtained by adopting the high energy seed light to the amplifier. The system configuration of J-KAREN laser is illustrated. Typical spectra with and without OPCPA, as well as the spectra with OPCPA adjustment and without one are shown. The result of the recompressed pulses is shown in which the pulse width of 29.5 femtoseconds is close to the theoretical limit. Considering the throughput of the pulse compressor is 64 percent it is possible to generate high power laser beam of about 600 terawatts. In the supplementary budget of 2012, it has been approved to cope with the aging or obsoleteness of the system and at the same time to further sophisticate the laser using system. The upgraded laser system is named as J-KAREN-P in which the repetition rate is improved and another booster amplifier is added to increase the power. The system configuration of J-KAREN-P after the upgrading is illustrated. (S. Funahashi)

  6. Analytical performances of laser-induced micro-plasma of Al samples with single and double ultrashort pulses in air and with Ar-jet: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Dutouquet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser microablation coupled with optical emission spectroscopy was under study to obtain several micro-LIBS analytical features (shot-to-shot reproducibility, spectral line intensity and lifetime, calibration curves, detection limits). Laser microablation of Al matrix samples with known Cu- and Mg-concentrations was performed by single and double pulses of 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration in air and with Ar-jet. The micro-LIBS analytical features obtained under different experimental conditions were characterized and compared. The highest shot-to-shot reproducibility and gain in plasma spectral line intensity were obtained with double pulses with Ar-jet for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulse durations. The best calibration curves were obtained with 1 ps pulse duration with Ar-jet. Micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses may find its effective application for surface elemental microcartography. - Highlights: • Analytical performances of micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses were studied. • The maximal line intensity gain of 20 was obtained with double pulses and Ar-jet. • LIBS gain was obtained without additional ablation of a sample by the second pulse. • LIBS properties were almost the same for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulses. • The micro-LIBS detection limit was around 35 ppm

  7. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  8. Detection of calculus by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using an ultra-short pulse laser system (USPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelle, F.; Brede, O.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of calculus by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The study was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser, emitting pulses with a duration of 8 ps at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A repetition rate of 500 kHz at an average power of 5 W was used. Employing a focusing lense, intensities of the order of 1011 W/cm2 were reached on the tooth surface. These high intensities led to the generation of a plasma. The light emitted by the plasma was collimated into a fibre and then analyzed by an echelle spectroscope in the wavelength region from 220 nm - 900 nm. A total number of 15 freshly extracted teeth was used for this study. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were assessed separately. Comprising all single measurements median values were calculated for the whole spectrum, leading to two specific spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis 28 areas of interest were defined as wavelength regions, in which the signal strength differed regarding the material. In 7 areas the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p calculus. Further studies are necessary to verify that LIBS is a minimally invasive method allowing a safe application in laser-guided dentistry.

  9. Spectral coherent combination of ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursescu, D.; Banici, R.; Ionel, L.; Rusen, L.; Sandel, S.; Blanaru, C.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The coherent beam combination was chosen in several laser systems, including ELI, as a solution to increase the final attainable intensity. However, the coherent beam combination it is also a difficult technique while it has to combine coherently in space and in time several beams amplified in different laser chains. That means in particular that the beams should be in phase in every point of the amplified beam so the spatial beam profiling techniques have to be mastered with high accuracy for all the combined beams. Here it is proposed an alternative coherent beam combination than the use of identical ultrashort pulses. The idea is to spectrally combine laser pulses with complementary spectra. Collinear and non-collinear approaches have been modelled. Ongoing experimental development, including the demonstration of the rephasing for two spectrally complementary ultrashort pulses will be presented. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (LASERLAB-EUROPE, grant agreement no. 228334).

  10. Low-level ultrahigh-frequency and ultrashort-pulse blue laser irradiation enhances osteoblast extracellular calcification by upregulating proliferation and differentiation via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Risako; Mizutani, Koji; Aoki, Akira; Tamura, Yukihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Yuichi

    2018-04-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) exerts various biostimulative effects, including promotion of wound healing and bone formation; however, few studies have examined biostimulation using blue lasers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) and ultrashort-pulse (USP) blue laser irradiation on osteoblasts. The MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line was used in this study. Following LLLI with a 405 nm newly developed UHF-USP blue laser (80 MHz, 100 fs), osteoblast proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed. In addition, mRNA levels of the osteoblast differentiation markers, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), and osteopontin (Opn) was evaluated, and extracellular calcification was quantified. To clarify the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in LLLI-induced biostimulation, cells were treated prior to LLLI with capsazepine (CPZ), a selective inhibitor of TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and subsequent proliferation and ALP activity were measured. LLLI with the 405 nm UHF-USP blue laser significantly enhanced cell proliferation and ALP activity, compared with the non-irradiated control and LLLI using continuous-wave mode, without significant temperature elevation. LLLI promoted osteoblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner up to 9.4 J/cm 2 and significantly accelerated cell proliferation in in vitro wound healing assay. ALP activity was significantly enhanced at doses up to 5.6 J/cm 2 , and expression of Osx and Alp mRNAs was significantly increased compared to that of the control on days 3 and 7 following LLLI at 5.6 J/cm 2 . The extent of extracellular calcification was also significantly higher as a result of LLLI 3 weeks after the treatment. Measurement of TRPV1 protein expression on 0, 3, and 7 days post-irradiation revealed no differences between the LLLI and control groups; however, promotion of cell

  11. Investigation of ultrashort pulse laser ablation of solid targets by measuring the ablation-generated momentum using a torsion pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wang, Wentao; Zhu, Xiaonong; Liu, Jiansheng; Xu, Kuanhong; Huang, Peng; Zhao, Jiefeng; Li, Ruxin; Wang, Mingwei

    2011-04-25

    50 fs - 12 ps laser pulses are employed to ablate aluminum, copper, iron, and graphite targets. The ablation-generated momentum is measured with a torsion pendulum. Corresponding time-resolved shadowgraphic measurements show that the ablation process at the optimal laser fluence achieving the maximal momentum is primarily dominated by the photomechanical mechanism. When laser pulses with specific laser fluence are used and the pulse duration is tuned from 50 fs to 12 ps, the generated momentum firstly increases and then remains almost constant, which could be attributed to the change of the ablation mechanism involved from atomization to phase explosion. The investigation of the ablation-generated momentum also reveals a nonlinear momentum-energy conversion scaling law, namely, as the pulse energy increases, the momentum obtained by the target increases nonlinearly. This may be caused by the effective reduction of the dissipated energy into the surrounding of the ablation zone as the pulse energy increases, which indicates that for femtosecond laser the dissipated energy into the surrounding target is still significant.

  12. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  13. Study and realisation of a femtosecond dye laser operating at different wavelengths. Ultrashort pulses compression and amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    We present the study and the realization of a passively mode-locked dye laser producing pulses shorter than 100 femto-seconds (10 -13 s). In a ring cavity with an amplifier medium (Rhodamine 60) and a saturable absorber (DODCI), a sequence of four prisms controls the group velocity dispersion and allows the generation of very short pulses. Then we have studied the production of femtosecond pulses at other wavelengths directly from the femtosecond dye laser. For the first rime, 60 fs pulses at 685 nm and pulses shorter than 50 fs between 775 nm and 800 nm have been produced by passive mode locking. These near infrared pulses have been used to study the absorption saturation kinetics in semiconductors multiple quantum wells GaAs/GaAlAs. We have observed a singular behavior of the laser operating at 685 nm and analyzed the produced pulses in terms of optical solitons. To perform time resolved spectroscopy with shortest pulses, we have studied a pulse compressor and a multipass amplifier to increase the pulses energy. Pulses of 20 fs and 10 micro-joules (peak power: 0.5 GW) have been obtained at low repetition rate (10 Hz) and pulses of 16 fs and 0.6 micro-joules pulses have been generated at high repetition rate (11 kHz) using a copper vapor laser. These pulses have been used to study the absorption saturation kinetics of an organic dye (the Malachite Green). (author) [fr

  14. Multi-Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0194 Multi- Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics Jeremy Gulley KENNESAW STATE...Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi- chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...in, and modification of, dielectric solids by multi- chromatic ultrashort laser pulses. It was a theoretical effort to develop models of multi

  15. Steering population transfer of the Na2 molecule by an ultrashort pulse train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Hua; Wang, Shuo; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Tao, Hong-Cai; Wang, Si-Qi

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the complete population transfer among quantum states of the Na2 molecule using ultrashort pulse trains using the time-dependent wave packet method. The population accumulation of the target state can be steered by controlling the laser parameters, such as the variable pulse pairs, the different pulse widths, the time delays and the repetition period between two contiguous pulses; in particular, the pulse pairs and the pulse widths have a great effect on the population transfer. The calculations show that the ultrashort pulse train is a feasible solution, which can steer the population transfer from the initial state to the target state efficiently with lower peak intensities.

  16. Single-pass, efficient type-I phase-matched frequency doubling of high-power ultrashort-pulse Yb-fiber laser using LiB_3O_5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Samir; Das, Ritwick

    2016-05-01

    We report 48 % efficient single-pass second harmonic generation of high-power ultrashort-pulse ({≈ }250 fs) Yb-fiber laser by utilizing type-I phase matching in LiB_3O_5 (LBO) crystal. The choice of LBO among other borate crystals for high-power frequency doubling is essentially motivated by large thermal conductivity, low birefringence and weak group velocity dispersion. By optimally focussing the beam in a 4-mm-long LBO crystal, we have generated about 2.3 W of average power at 532 nm using 4.8 W of available pump power at 1064 nm. The ultrashort green pulses were found out to be near-transform limited sech^2 pulses with a pulse width of Δ τ ≈ 150 fs and being delivered at 78 MHz repetition rate. Due to appreciably low spatial walk-off angle for LBO ({≈ }0.4°), we obtain M^2beam which signifies marginal distortion in comparison with the pump beam (M^2<1.15). We also discuss the impact of third-order optical nonlinearity of the LBO crystal on the generated ultrashort SH pulses.

  17. Non-vacuum, single-step conductive transparent ZnO patterning by ultra-short pulsed laser annealing of solution-deposited nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Daeho; Pan, Heng; Kim, Eunpa; Grigoropoulos, Costas P. [University of California, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ko, Seung Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee K. [AppliFlex LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    A solution-processable, high-concentration transparent ZnO nanoparticle (NP) solution was successfully synthesized in a new process. A highly transparent ZnO thin film was fabricated by spin coating without vacuum deposition. Subsequent ultra-short-pulsed laser annealing at room temperature was performed to change the film properties without using a blanket high temperature heating process. Although the as-deposited NP thin film was not electrically conductive, laser annealing imparted a large conductivity increase and furthermore enabled selective annealing to write conductive patterns directly on the NP thin film without a photolithographic process. Conductivity enhancement could be obtained by altering the laser annealing parameters. Parametric studies including the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the annealed ZnO NP thin film were conducted for various laser powers, scanning speeds and background gas conditions. The lowest resistivity from laser-annealed ZnO thin film was about 4.75 x 10{sup -2} {omega} cm, exhibiting a factor of 10{sup 5} higher conductivity than the previously reported furnace-annealed ZnO NP film and is even comparable to that of vacuum-deposited, impurity-doped ZnO films within a factor of 10. The process developed in this work was applied to the fabrication of a thin film transistor (TFT) device that showed enhanced performance compared with furnace-annealed devices. A ZnO TFT performance test revealed that by just changing the laser parameters, the solution-deposited ZnO thin film can also perform as a semiconductor, demonstrating that laser annealing offers tunability of ZnO thin film properties for both transparent conductors and semiconductors. (orig.)

  18. Ablation of burned skin with ultra-short pulses laser to promote healing: evaluation by optical coherence tomography, histology, μATR-FTIR and Nonlinear Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Moises Oliveira dos

    2012-01-01

    Burns cause changes in the anatomical structure of the skin associated with trauma. The severity of the burn injury is divided into first, second and third-degree burns. The third-degree burns have been a major focus of research in search of more conservative treatments and faster results in repair for a functional and cosmetically acceptable. The conventional treatment is the use of topical natural or synthetic skin graft. An alternative therapy is the laser ablation process for burned tissue necrosis removal due to the no mechanical contact, fast application and access to difficult areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using high intensity femtosecond lasers as an adjunct treatment of burned patients. For this study, 65 Wistar rats were divided into groups of five animals: healthy skin, burned skin, two types of treatment (surgical debridement or femtosecond laser ablation) and four different times in the healing process monitoring. Three regions of the back of the animals were exposed to steam source causing third-degree burn. On the third day after the burn, one of the regions was ablated with high intensity ultrashort laser pulses (λ = 785 nm, 90 fs, 2 kHz and 10 μJ/ pulse), the other received surgical debridement, and the last was considered the burn control. The regions were analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), histology, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform (μ-ATR-FTIR), two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) and second harmonic generation technique (SHG) on days 3, 5, 7 and 14 pos-treatments. The results showed that with the laser irradiation conditions used it was possible to remove debris from third degree burn. The techniques used to characterize the tissue allowed to verify that all treatments promoted wound healing. On the fourteenth day, the regeneration curve showed that the attenuation coefficient of laser ablated tissue converges to the values of

  19. Multifunctional gold nanorods for selective plasmonic photothermal therapy in pancreatic cancer cells using ultra-short pulse near-infrared laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Tania; Mahajan, Ujjwal; Palankar, Raghavendra; Medvedev, Nikolay; Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus; Mayerle, Julia; Delcea, Mihaela

    2015-03-12

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted considerable attention in plasmonic photothermal therapy for cancer treatment by exploiting their selective and localized heating effect due to their unique photophysical properties. Here we describe a strategy to design a novel multifunctional platform based on AuNRs to: (i) specifically target the adenocarcinoma MUC-1 marker through the use of the EPPT-1 peptide, (ii) enhance cellular uptake through a myristoylated polyarginine peptide (MPAP) and (iii) selectively induce cell death by ultra-short near infrared laser pulses. We used a biotin-avidin based approach to conjugate EPPT-1 and MPAP to AuNRs. Dual-peptide (EPPT-1+MPAP) labelled AuNRs showed a significantly higher uptake by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells when compared to their single peptide or avidin conjugated counterparts. In addition, we selectively induced cell death by ultra-short near infrared laser pulses in small target volumes (∼1 μm3), through the creation of plasmonic nanobubbles that lead to the destruction of a local cell environment. Our approach opens new avenues for conjugation of multiple ligands on AuNRs targeting cancer cells and tumors and it is relevant for plasmonic photothermal therapy.

  20. Ellipsometric study of nanostructured carbon films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, M.; Budai, J.; Hanyecz, I.; Kopniczky, J.; Veres, M.; Koos, M.; Toth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    When depositing carbon films by plasma processes the resulting structure and bonding nature strongly depends on the plasma energy and background gas pressure. To produce different energy plasma, glassy carbon targets were ablated by laser pulses of different excimer lasers: KrF (248 nm) and ArF (193 nm). To modify plume characteristics argon atmosphere was applied. The laser plume was directed onto Si substrates, where the films were grown. To evaluate ellipsometric measurements first a combination of the Tauc-Lorentz oscillator and the Sellmeier formula (TL/S) was applied. Effective Medium Approximation models were also used to investigate film properties. Applying argon pressures above 10 Pa the deposits became nanostructured as indicated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Above ∼ 100 and ∼ 20 Pa films could not be deposited by KrF and ArF laser, respectively. Our ellipsometric investigations showed, that with increasing pressure the maximal refractive index of both series decreased, while the optical band gap starts with a decrease, but shows a non monotonous course. Correlation between the size of the nanostructures, bonding structure, which was followed by Raman spectroscopy and optical properties were also investigated.

  1. Ultrashort pulse shaping by optical parametric chirped amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelet, Ambre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose new laser architectures based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). Common goals of OPCPA pre-amplifiers are to reach high energy level while maintaining the spectrum width and to adapt geometry of the amplified beam to the high power laser chain optics. We consider OPCPA as a way to control and to sculpt ultrashort pulses. Our first set-up aims at thwarting possible time recovery default between pump and signal pulses, which lower the energy extraction. A regenerative OPCPA, idler resonant, is a way to produce a high-intensity and high-repetition rate train of amplified signal replicas. Our second laser system pre-compensates the spectral gain narrowing by sculpting pulses directly within the OPCPA section, where a temporal shaping of the pump beam permits a spectro-spectral shaping of the amplified signal. Finally, we propose an OPCPA based on spatial coding and uniform amplification of spectral signal components by using a fan-out periodically poled crystal and a zero dispersion line. (author) [fr

  2. Application of the ultrashort pulses in bovine dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todescan, Carla de Rago

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of lasers with the hard structures of the teeth, has found the excess of heat as a problem for its utilization. This study analyzes, in vitro, the interaction of the ultrashort pulse laser of Ti:safire (830 nm) with the bovine dental enamel. The system consisted in one main oscillator integrated with an amplifier (CPA). The pulses extracted before the temporal compression inside the amplifier had 30 ps, 1000 Hz and ∼1 mJ. The pulses extracted after the compression had 60 fs, 1000 Hz and ∼0,7 mJ. The M 2 was 1,3, the focal lens 2,5 cm, the focal distance 29,7 and a computerized translation stage x,y,z. We evaluated the amount of tissue removed per pulse,the resulting cavities and the surrounding tissues not irradiated, under OM and SEM. The fluency was the major factor for differentiating the two regimens studied, therefore, the intensity was not so important as we expected in this process. We found: one ablation region in 'cat tongue', one ablation length, one fluency ∼0,7 J/cm 2 for 30 ps and ∼0,5 J/cm 2 for 60 fs (50% of high speed burr), smooth edge for 30 ps and high precision of the sharp edge cut of submicrometric order for 60 fs. (author)

  3. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw 50-370 (Poland); Macherzynski, W.; Paletko, P. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroclaw 50-372 (Poland)

    2015-08-03

    Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of black phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.

  4. Mid-infrared beam splitter for ultrashort pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Carmine; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Kiel, Thomas; Busch, Kurt; Braun, Andreas; Matalla, Mathias; Ickert, Karina; Krüger, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    A design is presented for a beam splitter suitable for ultrashort pulses in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range consisting of a structured metal layer on a diamond substrate. Both the theory and experiment show that this beam splitter does not distort the temporal pulse shape.

  5. Prepulse suppression using a self-induced, ultrashort pulse plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, D.M.; Nathel, H.; Bolton, P.R.; White, W.E.; Van Woerkom, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma mirror is a self-induced, plasm-based optical element which can be inserted into existing experiments to reduce repulse energy without significant degradation of ultrashort pulse laser light. The authors have characteristics of the reflected pulse. The initial measurements indicate that the incident pulse reflects specularly from a high density, highly reflective plasma. The reflected pulse has a smoothed spatial profile and reduced pulsewidth. This paper outlines future work to characterize both the plasm mirror technique of repulse suppression and its reflected pulse

  6. Variational analysis of self-focusing of intense ultrashort pulses in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, E.; Becker, A.

    2005-01-01

    By using perturbation theory we derive an expression for the electrical field of a Gaussian laser beam propagating in a gas medium. This expression is used as a trial solution in a variational method to get quasianalytical solutions for the width, intensity, and self-focusing distance. The approximation gives a better agreement with results of numerical simulations for a broad range of values of the input power than previous analytical results available in the literature. The results apply in the case of ultrashort pulses too

  7. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  8. Autler-Townes doublet and electromagnetically induced transparency resonance probed by an ultrashort pulse train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A A; De Araujo, Luis E E

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the interaction between an ultrashort pulse train and a three-level atom driven by a cw laser. We show that the pulse train can be employed to observe spectra of Autler-Townes doublet and electromagnetically induced transparency resonance that are time and frequency resolved. The observation of subnatural linewidth features associated with the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance is described. The temporal evolution of electromagnetically induced transparency of the pulse train is shown to exhibit new and different features compared to that of the related phenomenon of coherent population trapping. By matching the tooth separation of the frequency comb associated with the pulse train to that of the Autler-Townes doublet, quantum beats between the doublet components can be induced. We show that coherent accumulation of excitation plays a major role in the two studied phenomena.

  9. Coherent Control of Multiphoton Transitions in the Gas and Condensed Phases with Shaped Ultrashort Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantus, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Controlling laser-molecule interactions has become an integral part of developing devices and applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, optical switching, micromachining and photochemistry. Coherent control of multiphoton transitions could bring a significant improvement of these methods. In microscopy, multi-photon transitions are used to activate different contrast agents and suppress background fluorescence; coherent control could generate selective probe excitation. In photochemistry, different dissociative states are accessed through two, three, or more photon transitions; coherent control could be used to select the reaction pathway and therefore the yield-specific products. For micromachining and processing a wide variety of materials, femtosecond lasers are now used routinely. Understanding the interactions between the intense femtosecond pulse and the material could lead to technologically important advances. Pulse shaping could then be used to optimize the desired outcome. The scope of our research program is to develop robust and efficient strategies to control nonlinear laser-matter interactions using ultrashort shaped pulses in gas and condensed phases. Our systematic research has led to significant developments in a number of areas relevant to the AMO Physics group at DOE, among them: generation of ultrashort phase shaped pulses, coherent control and manipulation of quantum mechanical states in gas and condensed phases, behavior of isolated molecules under intense laser fields, behavior of condensed phase matter under intense laser field and implications on micromachining with ultrashort pulses, coherent control of nanoparticles their surface plasmon waves and their nonlinear optical behavior, and observation of coherent Coulomb explosion processes at 10 16 W/cm 2 . In all, the research has resulted in 36 publications (five journal covers) and nine invention disclosures, five of which have continued on to patenting

  10. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  11. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, LEE

    2010-01-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emi...

  12. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  13. Interaction of ultrashort pulses with molecules and solids: Physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-26

    energy materials. Abstract. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with molecules and solids is an extremely complex area of science research encompassing the fields of physics, chemistry, and materials science. The physics ...

  14. High-density optical data storage based on grey level recording in photobleaching polymers using two-photon excitation under ultrashort pulse and continuous wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganic, D.; Day, D.; Gu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Two-photon excitation has been employed in three-dimensional optical data storage by many researchers in an attempt to increase the storage density of a given material. The probability of two-photon excitation is proportional to the squared intensity of the incident light; this effect produces excitation only within a small region of the focus spot. Another advantage of two-photon excitation is the use of infrared illumination, which results in the reduction of scattering and enables the recording of layers at a deep depth in a thick material. The storage density thus obtained using multi-layered bit optical recording can be as high as Tbit/cm 3 . To increase this storage density even further, grey level recording can be employed. This method utilises variable exposure times of a laser beam focused into a photobleaching sample. As a result, the bleached area possesses a certain pixel value which depends upon the exposure time; this can increase the storage density many times depending upon the number of grey levels used. Our experiment shows that it is possible to attain grey level recording using both ultrashort pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. Although continuous wave illumination requires an average power of approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that for ultrashort pulsed illumination, it is a preferred method of recording due to its relatively low system cost and compactness. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  15. Controlling semiconductor nanoparticle size distributions with tailored ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroeder, R; Miclea, M; Hommes, V

    2006-01-01

    The laser generation of size-controlled semiconductor nanoparticle formation under gas phase conditions is investigated. It is shown that the size distribution can be changed if picosecond pulse sequences of tailored ultra short laser pulses (<200 fs) are employed. By delivering the laser energy in small packages, a temporal energy flux control at the target surface is achieved, which results in the control of the thermodynamic pathway the material takes. The concept is tested with silicon and germanium, both materials with a predictable response to double pulse sequences, which allows deduction of the materials' response to complicated pulse sequences. An automatic, adaptive learning algorithm was employed to demonstrate a future strategy that enables the definition of more complex optimization targets such as particle size on materials less predictable than semiconductors

  16. Application of the ultrashort pulses in bovine dental enamel; Aplicacao de pulsos ultracurtos em esmalte dental bovino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todescan, Carla de Rago

    2003-07-01

    The interaction of lasers with the hard structures of the teeth, has found the excess of heat as a problem for its utilization. This study analyzes, in vitro, the interaction of the ultrashort pulse laser of Ti:safire (830 nm) with the bovine dental enamel. The system consisted in one main oscillator integrated with an amplifier (CPA). The pulses extracted before the temporal compression inside the amplifier had 30 ps, 1000 Hz and {approx}1 mJ. The pulses extracted after the compression had 60 fs, 1000 Hz and {approx}0,7 mJ. The M{sup 2} was 1,3, the focal lens 2,5 cm, the focal distance 29,7 and a computerized translation stage x,y,z. We evaluated the amount of tissue removed per pulse,the resulting cavities and the surrounding tissues not irradiated, under OM and SEM. The fluency was the major factor for differentiating the two regimens studied, therefore, the intensity was not so important as we expected in this process. We found: one ablation region in 'cat tongue', one ablation length, one fluency {approx}0,7 J/cm{sup 2} for 30 ps and {approx}0,5 J/cm{sup 2} for 60 fs (50% of high speed burr), smooth edge for 30 ps and high precision of the sharp edge cut of submicrometric order for 60 fs. (author)

  17. Application of the ultrashort pulses in bovine dental enamel; Aplicacao de pulsos ultracurtos em esmalte dental bovino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todescan, Carla de Rago

    2003-07-01

    The interaction of lasers with the hard structures of the teeth, has found the excess of heat as a problem for its utilization. This study analyzes, in vitro, the interaction of the ultrashort pulse laser of Ti:safire (830 nm) with the bovine dental enamel. The system consisted in one main oscillator integrated with an amplifier (CPA). The pulses extracted before the temporal compression inside the amplifier had 30 ps, 1000 Hz and {approx}1 mJ. The pulses extracted after the compression had 60 fs, 1000 Hz and {approx}0,7 mJ. The M{sup 2} was 1,3, the focal lens 2,5 cm, the focal distance 29,7 and a computerized translation stage x,y,z. We evaluated the amount of tissue removed per pulse,the resulting cavities and the surrounding tissues not irradiated, under OM and SEM. The fluency was the major factor for differentiating the two regimens studied, therefore, the intensity was not so important as we expected in this process. We found: one ablation region in 'cat tongue', one ablation length, one fluency {approx}0,7 J/cm{sup 2} for 30 ps and {approx}0,5 J/cm{sup 2} for 60 fs (50% of high speed burr), smooth edge for 30 ps and high precision of the sharp edge cut of submicrometric order for 60 fs. (author)

  18. Optical imaging of objects in turbid medium with ultrashort pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sun, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chih Chung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2000-07-01

    Photons are seriously scattered when entering turbid medium; this the images of objects hidden in turbid medium can not be obtained by just collecting the transmitted photons. Early-arriving photons, which are also called ballistic or snake protons, are much less scattered when passing through turbid medium, and contains more image information than the late-arriving ones. Therefore, objects embedded in turbid medium can be imaged by gathering the ballistic and snake photons. In the present research we try to recover images of objects in turbid medium by simultaneously time-gate and polarization-gate to obtain the snake photons. An Argon-pumped Ti-Sapphire laser with 100fs pulses was employed as a light source. A streak camera with a 2ps temporal resolution was used to extract the ballistic and snake photons. Two pieces of lean swine meat, measured 4mmX3mm and 5xxX4mm, respectively, were placed in a 10cmX10cmX3cm acrylic tank, which was full of diluted milk. A pair of polarizer and an analyzer was used to extract the light that keeps polarization unchanged. The combination of time gating and polarization gating resulted in good images of objects hidden in turbid medium.

  19. Improved ultrashort pulse-retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R.

    1994-01-01

    We report on significant improvements in the pulse-retrieval algorithm used to reconstruct the amplitude and the phase of ultrashort optical pulses from the experimental frequency-resolved optical gating trace data in the polarization-gate geometry. These improvements involve the use of an intensity constraint, an overcorrection technique, and a multidimensional minimization scheme. While the previously published, basic algorithm converged for most common ultrashort pulses, it failed to retrieve pulses with significant intensity substructure. The improved composite algorithm successfully converges for such pulses. It can now retrieve essentially all pulses of practical interest. We present examples of complex waveforms that were retrieved by the improved algorithm

  20. Ultrashort-pulse measurement using noninstantaneous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency-resolved optical gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, K.W.; Ladera, C.L.; Trebino, R.; Kohler, B.; Wilson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse-characterization techniques generally require instantaneously responding media. We show that this is not the case for frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). We include, as an example, the noninstantaneous Raman response of fused silica, which can cause errors in the retrieved pulse width of as much as 8% for a 25-fs pulse in polarization-gate FROG. We present a modified pulse-retrieval algorithm that deconvolves such slow effects and use it to retrieve pulses of any width. In experiments with 45-fs pulses this algorithm achieved better convergence and yielded a shorter pulse than previous FROG algorithms

  1. Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi

    1996-11-01

    Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)

  2. Depolarization of an Ultrashort Pulse in a Disordered Ensemble of Mie Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichev, E. E.; Ivliev, S. V.; Kuzovlev, A. I.; Rogozkin, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study propagation of an ultrashort pulse of polarized light through a turbid medium with the Reynolds-McCormick phase function. Within the basic mode approach to the vector radiative transfer equation, the temporal profile of the degree of polarization is calculated analytically with the use of the small-angle approximation. The degree of polarization is shown to be described by the self-similar dependence on some combination of the transport scattering coefficient, the temporal delay and the sample thickness. Our results are in excellent agreement with the data of numerical simulations carried out previously for aqueous suspension of polystyrene microspheres.

  3. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Luís E. E.

    2010-09-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emission losses, it is insensitive to the pump-dump-train delay, and it requires only basic pulse shaping.

  4. Analytic description of Raman-induced frequency shift in the case of non-soliton ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Khalyapin, Vyacheslav A.

    2017-01-01

    Raman-induced frequency shift of ultrashort pulses have been studied extensively for the soliton propagation regime. Here we derive explicit analytic expressions for the evolution of Raman-induced frequency shift in much less studied case of non-soliton ultrashort pulses. Pulse spectra may belong to any region of group velocity dispersion including zero group dispersion point. The analysis is based on the moment method. Obtained expressions fit well to the numerical solution of the nonlinear wave equation. - Highlights: • Explicit analytic formulas for the evolution of Raman-induced frequency shift are derived in the case of non-soliton pulses. • Dynamics of non-soliton ultrashort pulses in the cases of positive and zero group dispersion is considered. • The deceleration and the saturation of Raman-induced frequency shift are analyzed. • The calculation relies on the moment method and fit well to the numerical solution of the nonlinear wave equation.

  5. Analytic description of Raman-induced frequency shift in the case of non-soliton ultrashort pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugay, Aleksandr N., E-mail: bugay_aleksandr@mail.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khalyapin, Vyacheslav A., E-mail: slavasxi@gmail.com [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, 236041 (Russian Federation); Kaliningrad State Technical University, Kaliningrad, 236000 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-30

    Raman-induced frequency shift of ultrashort pulses have been studied extensively for the soliton propagation regime. Here we derive explicit analytic expressions for the evolution of Raman-induced frequency shift in much less studied case of non-soliton ultrashort pulses. Pulse spectra may belong to any region of group velocity dispersion including zero group dispersion point. The analysis is based on the moment method. Obtained expressions fit well to the numerical solution of the nonlinear wave equation. - Highlights: • Explicit analytic formulas for the evolution of Raman-induced frequency shift are derived in the case of non-soliton pulses. • Dynamics of non-soliton ultrashort pulses in the cases of positive and zero group dispersion is considered. • The deceleration and the saturation of Raman-induced frequency shift are analyzed. • The calculation relies on the moment method and fit well to the numerical solution of the nonlinear wave equation.

  6. Inelastic processes in interaction of an atom with ultrashort pulse of an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.I.; Gusarevich, E.S.; Pashev, I.N.

    2005-01-01

    Electron transitions occurring when a heavy relativistic atom interacts with a spatially inhomogeneous ultrashort electromagnetic pulse are considered. Transition probabilities are expressed in terms of the known inelastic atomic form factors. By way of example, the inelastic processes accompanying the interaction of ultrashort pulses with hydrogen-like atoms are considered. The probabilities of ionization and production of a bound-free electron-positron pair on a bare nucleus, which are accompanied by the formation of a hydrogen-like atom in the final state and a positron in the continuum, are calculated. The developed technique makes it possible to take into exact account magnetic interaction besides spatial inhomogeneity of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse [ru

  7. Ablation of burned skin with ultra-short pulses laser to promote healing: evaluation by optical coherence tomography, histology, {mu}ATR-FTIR and Nonlinear Microscopy; Ablacao de pele queimada com laser de pulsos ultra-curtos para promocao da cicatrizacao: avaliacao por tomografia por coerencia optica, histologia, {mu}ATR-FTIR e microscopia nao-linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Moises Oliveira dos

    2012-07-01

    Burns cause changes in the anatomical structure of the skin associated with trauma. The severity of the burn injury is divided into first, second and third-degree burns. The third-degree burns have been a major focus of research in search of more conservative treatments and faster results in repair for a functional and cosmetically acceptable. The conventional treatment is the use of topical natural or synthetic skin graft. An alternative therapy is the laser ablation process for burned tissue necrosis removal due to the no mechanical contact, fast application and access to difficult areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using high intensity femtosecond lasers as an adjunct treatment of burned patients. For this study, 65 Wistar rats were divided into groups of five animals: healthy skin, burned skin, two types of treatment (surgical debridement or femtosecond laser ablation) and four different times in the healing process monitoring. Three regions of the back of the animals were exposed to steam source causing third-degree burn. On the third day after the burn, one of the regions was ablated with high intensity ultrashort laser pulses ({lambda} = 785 nm, 90 fs, 2 kHz and 10 {mu}J/ pulse), the other received surgical debridement, and the last was considered the burn control. The regions were analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), histology, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform ({mu}-ATR-FTIR), two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) and second harmonic generation technique (SHG) on days 3, 5, 7 and 14 pos-treatments. The results showed that with the laser irradiation conditions used it was possible to remove debris from third degree burn. The techniques used to characterize the tissue allowed to verify that all treatments promoted wound healing. On the fourteenth day, the regeneration curve showed that the attenuation coefficient of laser ablated tissue converges to the values

  8. Study and realisation of a femtosecond dye laser operating at different wavelengths. Ultrashort pulses compression and amplification; Etude et realisation d'un laser a colorant femtoseconde fonctionnant a differentes longueurs d'onde. Compression et amplification d'impulsions ultrabreves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georges, Patrick

    1989-12-21

    We present the study and the realization of a passively mode-locked dye laser producing pulses shorter than 100 femto-seconds (10{sup -13} s). In a ring cavity with an amplifier medium (Rhodamine 60) and a saturable absorber (DODCI), a sequence of four prisms controls the group velocity dispersion and allows the generation of very short pulses. Then we have studied the production of femtosecond pulses at other wavelengths directly from the femtosecond dye laser. For the first rime, 60 fs pulses at 685 nm and pulses shorter than 50 fs between 775 nm and 800 nm have been produced by passive mode locking. These near infrared pulses have been used to study the absorption saturation kinetics in semiconductors multiple quantum wells GaAs/GaAlAs. We have observed a singular behavior of the laser operating at 685 nm and analyzed the produced pulses in terms of optical solitons. To perform time resolved spectroscopy with shortest pulses, we have studied a pulse compressor and a multipass amplifier to increase the pulses energy. Pulses of 20 fs and 10 micro-joules (peak power: 0.5 GW) have been obtained at low repetition rate (10 Hz) and pulses of 16 fs and 0.6 micro-joules pulses have been generated at high repetition rate (11 kHz) using a copper vapor laser. These pulses have been used to study the absorption saturation kinetics of an organic dye (the Malachite Green). (author) [French] Ce memoire presente l'etude et la realisation d'un laser a colorant a verrouillage de modes passif produisant des impulsions de 100 femtosecondes (10- 13 s). Dans une cavite en anneau contenant un milieu amplificateur (Rhodamine 60) et un absorbant saturable (DODCI), un systeme de prismes permettant de controler la dispersion de vitesse de groupe realise une mise en phase de toutes les frequences du spectre des impulsions. Nous avons ensuite etudie la possibilite de produire des impulsions femtosecondes a d'autres longueurs d'onde directement avec l'oscillateur. Des impulsions de 60 fs a

  9. Coherent control of atoms and diatomic molecules with shaped ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degert, J.

    2002-12-01

    This thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental study of coherent control of atomic and molecular systems with shaped pulses. At first, we present several experiments of control of coherent transients in rubidium. These transients appear when a two-level system is excited by a perturbative chirped pulse, and are characterized by oscillations in the excited state population. For a strong chirp, we show that a phase step in the spectrum modifies the phase of the oscillations. Then, by direct analogy with Fresnel zone lens, we conceive a chirped pulse with a highly modulated amplitude, allowing to suppress destructive contributions to the population transfer. In a second set of experiments, we focus on quantum path interferences in two-photon transitions excited by linearly chirped pulses. Owing to the broad bandwidth of ultrashort pulses, sequential and direct excitation paths contribute to the excited state population. Oscillations resulting from interferences between these two paths are observed in atomic sodium. Moreover, we show that they are observable whatever the sign of chirp. Theoretically, we study the control of the predissociation of a benchmark diatomic molecule: NaI. Predissociation leads to matter wave interferences in the fragments distribution. First, we show that a suitably chosen probe pulse allows the observation of theses interferences. Next, using a sequence of control pulse inducing electronic transition, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate fragment energy distribution. (author)

  10. Performance of a nonlinear receiver for the ultrashort-pulse optical CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bin; Lehnert, James S.

    2005-09-01

    At the receiver of an ultrashort-pulse optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system, a nonlinear thresholder is needed to discriminate between the correctly decoded short pulse and the interference that appears to be a pseudorandom signal. It has been demonstrated that the self phase modulation (SPM) effect can be used to realize this nonlinear thresholder. The performance of a system that exploits this phenomenon is analyzed in this paper. If the spreading code is random, the electrical field of the interfering signal from the multiple users can be shown to be a complex Gaussian random process. The broadened power spectral density (PSD) function caused by the SPM effect can be calculated. When "1" is transmitted, the correctly decoded signal from the desired user, which is a deterministic waveform, is added to the Gaussian random process. Beating between the two signals causes random fluctuations in the power. Since the strength of the SPM effect is proportional to the variation rate of power, the broadened signal spectrum will appear random. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the properties of the decision statistic. Finally, the bit-error rate (BER) is calculated, and the simulation results are presented. The result reveals that the performance of the SPM-based nonlinear receiver can outperform the ideal linear receiver in some circumstances.

  11. Integrability Aspects and Soliton Solutions for a System Describing Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in an Inhomogeneous Multi-Component Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Tian Bo; Lue Xing; Zhang Haiqiang; Xu Tao

    2010-01-01

    For the propagation of the ultrashort pulses in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium, a system of coupled equations is analytically studied in this paper. Painleve analysis shows that this system admits the Painleve property under some constraints. By means of the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur procedure, the Lax pair of this system is derived, and the Darboux transformation (DT) is constructed with the help of the obtained Lax pair. With symbolic computation, the soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the DT algorithm. Figures are plotted to illustrate the dynamical features of the soliton solutions. Characteristics of the solitons propagating in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium are discussed: (i) Propagation of one soliton and two-peak soliton; (ii) Elastic interactions of the parabolic two solitons; (iii) Overlap phenomenon between two solitons; (iv) Collision of two head-on solitons and two head-on two-peak solitons; (v) Two different types of interactions of the three solitons; (vi) Decomposition phenomenon of one soliton into two solitons. The results might be useful in the study on the ultrashort-pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear media. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Laser Bioeffects Resulting from Non-Linear Interactions of Ultrashort Pulses with Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    pp. 73-76, 1990. 2. K. Kong, P. - - -l, B. J. T.rc.b. .nd E. Gratt., P.on it lifetime imaging of autofluorescence in cells during UVA and NIR...photostress", J. Micros. 183, pp. 197-204, 1996. 4. K. Konig, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, " Autofluorescence spectroscopy of...of melanin", Photochem. Photobiol. 70, pp. 146-151, 1999. 10. R. D. Glickman, "Phototoxicity to the retina : Mechanisms of damage", International

  13. Development of an Ultrashort Pulse Soft X-Ray Light Source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    1998-01-01

    .... In the course of exploring laser produced plasmas and high order harmonic generation sources this work uncovered a wealth of new physics in the realm of high intensity laser-atom photoionization...

  14. Advances in high-power, Ultrashort pulse DPSSL technologies at HiLASE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, Martin; Novák, Ondřej; Mužík, Jiří; Turčičová, Hana; Chyla, Michal; Nagisetty, Siva S.; Vyvlečka, Michal; Roškot, Lukáš; Miura, Taisuke; Černohorská, Jitka; Sikocinski, Pawel; Chen, Liyuan; Huynh, Jaroslav; Severová, Patricie; Pranovich, Alina; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku 1016. ISSN 2076-3417 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA ČR GA16-12960S; GA MŠk LM2015086; GA TA ČR(CZ) TG02010056 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 739573 Grant - others:OP VVV - HiLASE-CoE(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000674 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode-pumped solid- state lasers (DPSSL) * high average power lasers * higher harmonic generation * Yb:YAG * mid-infrared radiation * thin-disk laser * picosecond pulses Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2016

  15. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, No. 18, October - December 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-25

    370. Golubeva, N. S . , V. 1. Kozintsev, V. N. Rozhdestvin, and V. P. Lebedenko (0). Synchronization of two solid scate lasers...Language Services Office 2 5 April 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: D^ National Technical Information Service U. S . DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...Laser Components, Nonlinear Opt ic s , Spectroscopy of Laser Materials, Ultrashort Pulse Generation, Crystal Growing, Gamma Lasers

  16. Combined lineage mapping and gene expression profiling of embryonic brain patterning using ultrashort pulse microscopy and image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly C.; Dodson, Colin R.; Bai, Yuqiang; Lekven, Arne C.; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2014-12-01

    During embryogenesis, presumptive brain compartments are patterned by dynamic networks of gene expression. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these networks, however, have not been characterized with sufficient resolution for us to understand the regulatory logic resulting in morphogenetic cellular behaviors that give the brain its shape. We have developed a new, integrated approach using ultrashort pulse microscopy [a high-resolution, two-photon fluorescence (2PF)-optical coherence microscopy (OCM) platform using 10-fs pulses] and image registration to study brain patterning and morphogenesis in zebrafish embryos. As a demonstration, we used time-lapse 2PF to capture midbrain-hindbrain boundary morphogenesis and a wnt1 lineage map from embryos during brain segmentation. We then performed in situ hybridization to deposit NBT/BCIP, where wnt1 remained actively expressed, and reimaged the embryos with combined 2PF-OCM. When we merged these datasets using morphological landmark registration, we found that the mechanism of boundary formation differs along the dorsoventral axis. Dorsally, boundary sharpening is dominated by changes in gene expression, while ventrally, sharpening may be accomplished by lineage sorting. We conclude that the integrated visualization of lineage reporter and gene expression domains simultaneously with brain morphology will be useful for understanding how changes in gene expression give rise to proper brain compartmentalization and structure.

  17. Advances in High-Power, Ultrashort Pulse DPSSL Technologies at HiLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smrž

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of kW-class diode-pumped picosecond laser sources emitting at various wavelengths started at the HiLASE Center four years ago. A 500-W Perla C thin-disk laser with a diffraction limited beam and repetition rate of 50–100 kHz, a frequency conversion to mid-infrared (mid-IR, and second to fifth harmonic frequencies was demonstrated. We present an updated review on the progress in the development of compact picosecond and femtosecond high average power radiation sources covering the ultraviolet (UV to mid-IR spectral range at the HiLASE Center. We also report on thin-disk manufacturing by atomic diffusion bonding, which is a crucial technology for future high-power laser development.

  18. Hydrodynamic model for ultra-short pulse ablation of hard dental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.; Alley, W.E.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Neev, J. [Beckman Laser Inst., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 fsec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  19. Using a fast dual-wavelength imaging ellipsometric system to measure the flow thickness profile of an oil thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Wei; Han, Chien-Yuan; Jhou, Jhe-Yi; Peng, Zeng-Yi

    2017-11-01

    Dual-wavelength light sources with stroboscopic illumination technique were applied in a process of photoelastic modulated ellipsometry to retrieve two-dimensional ellipsometric parameters of thin films on a silicon substrate. Two laser diodes were alternately switched on and modulated by a programmable pulse generator to generate four short pulses at specific temporal phase angles in a modulation cycle, and short pulses were used to freeze the intensity variation of the PEM modulated signal that allows ellipsometric images to be captured by a charge-coupled device. Although the phase retardation of a photoelastic modulator is related to the light wavelength, we employed an equivalent phase retardation technique to avoid any setting from the photoelastic modulator. As a result, the ellipsometric parameters of different wavelengths may be rapidly obtained using this dual-wavelength ellipsometric system every 4 s. Both static and dynamic experiments are demonstrated in this work.

  20. Application of organic compounds for high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of a few organic compounds (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene, sugar, coffee, and leaf) are reported. Harmonic generation in the laser-produced plasmas containing the molecules and large particles of above materials is demonstrated. These studies showed that the harmonic distributions and harmonic cutoffs from organic compound plasmas were similar to those from the graphite ablation. The characteristic feature of observed harmonic spectra was the presence of bluesided lobes near the lower-order harmonics.

  1. Development of high resolution Michelson interferometer for stable phase-locked ultrashort pulse pair generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takumi; Komori, Kazuhiro; Goshima, Keishiro; Yamauchi, Shohgo; Morohashi, Isao; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Ogura, Mutsuo; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2008-10-01

    We developed a high resolution Michelson interferometer with a two-frequency He-Ne laser positioning system in order to stabilize the relative phase of a pulse pair. The control resolution corresponded to a 12 as time resolution or a phase of 1.5 degrees at 900 nm. This high resolution Michelson interferometer can generate a phase-locked pulse pair either with a specific relative phase such as 0 or pi radians or with an arbitrary phase. Coherent control of an InAs self-assembled quantum dot was demonstrated using the high resolution Michelson interferometer with a microspectroscopy system.

  2. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of femtosecond technology. Development of ultra-short pulse optoelectronics technology; 1999 nendo femutobyo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chotan pulse hikari electronics gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1999 results of the R and D of femtosecond technology. For the purpose of creating new industrial basement technology which supports the highly information-oriented society in the 21st century, the ultra-high speed electronics technology is indispensable which is beyond speed limits of the existing electronics technology and has new functionality. The ultra-high speed electronics basement technology is established through the R and D of the technology to control the state of light and electronics in the femtosecond time domain (10{sup -15} - 10{sup -12} second). Themes of the R and D are technology to generate/transmit femtosecond optical pulse, technology for control/distribution, and ultra-short pulse optoelectronics common basement technology. In FY 1999, a lot of results were obtained in the following: generation of the pulse train highly repeated at 500GHz in semiconductor laser; 139km transmission of 250fs optical pulse; switching movement at ultra-high speed of 150fs-1.2ps in transition among subbands of GaN base and Sb base materials; DEMUXA movement toward 160-10Gb/s in Mach-Zehnder type optical switch. (NEDO)

  3. Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Pashinin, P.P.; Grivas, C.; Laversenne, L.; Wilkinson, J.S.; Eason, R.W.; Shepherd, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-doped sapphire is one of the most prominent laser materials and is appreciated for its excellent heat conductivity and broadband gain spectrum, allowing for a wide wavelength tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses. As one of the hardest materials, it can also serve as a model system

  4. The wavelength dependence of gold nanorod-mediated optical breakdown during infrared ultrashort pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletshin, Yevgeniy R.; Kumaradas, J. Carl [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    This paper investigates the wavelength dependence of the threshold of gold nanorod-mediated optical breakdown during picosecond and femtosecond near infrared optical pulses. It was found that the wavelength dependence in the picosecond regime is governed solely by the changes of a nanorod's optical properties. On the other hand, the optical breakdown threshold during femtosecond pulse exposure falls within one of two regimes. When the ratio of the maximum electric field from the outside to the inside of the nanorod is less then 7 (the absorption regime) the seed electrons are initiated by photo-thermal emission, and the wavelength dependence in the threshold of optical breakdown is the result of optical properties of the nanoparticle. When the ratio is greater than 7 (the near-field regime) more seed electrons are initiated by multiphoton ionization, and the wavelength dependence of the threshold of optical breakdown results from a combination of nanorod's optical properties and transitions in the order of multiphoton ionization. The findings of this study can guide the design of nanoparticle based optical breakdown applications. This analysis also deepens the understanding of nanoparticle-mediated laser induced breakdown for picosecond and femtosecond pulses at near infrared wavelengths. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Regenerative similariton laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault North

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-pulsating lasers based on cascaded reshaping and reamplification (2R are capable of initiating ultrashort pulses despite the accumulation of large amounts of nonlinearities in all-fiber resonators. The spectral properties of pulses in self-similar propagation are compatible with cascaded 2R regeneration by offset filtering, making parabolic pulses suitable for the design of a laser of this recently introduced class. A new type of regenerative laser giving birth to similaritons is numerically investigated and shows that this laser is the analog of regenerative sources based solely on self-phase modulation and offset filtering. The regenerative similariton laser does not suffer from instabilities due to excessive nonlinearities and enables ultrashort pulse generation in a simple cavity configuration.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  7. Ultra-short laser pulses: review of the 3. physics talks, September 17-18, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the operation of lasers with ultra-short pulses and with the laser beam-matter interaction. The applications in concern are: the acceleration of particles, the production of X-ray or photon sources, the micro-machining, the fast ignition in thermonuclear fusion, the production of thin films and the surgery of cornea. (J.S.)

  8. Modeling short-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Sandkamm, Ditte Både; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical description of ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials based on strong-field excitation in the Keldysh picture combined with a multiple-rateequation model for the electronic excitation including collisional processes is presented. The model includes light attenuation...

  9. Masers and lasers an historical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the progress of research and practical use of lasers chronologically, covering the fundamental science in detail alongside fascinating biographical sketches of famous physicists and summaries of seminal papers. It supplies helpful drawings of prototype devices, conceptual diagrams to aid in understanding, and remarkable historical photographs. The Second Edition features new chapters on ultrashort pulse lasers and nonlinear optics, incorporates the latest developments and insights from key scientists, and includes extensive updates on fiber lasers, amplifiers, ultraviolet an

  10. Standard measurement procedures for the characterization of fs-laser optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Kai; Ristau, Detlev; Welling, Herbert

    2003-05-01

    Ultra-short pulse laser systems are considered as promising tools in the fields of precise micro-machining and medicine applications. In the course of the development of reliable table top laser systems, a rapid growth of ultra-short pulse applications could be observed during the recent years. The key for improving the performance of high power laser systems is the quality of the optical components concerning spectral characteristics, optical losses and the power handling capability. In the field of ultra-short pulses, standard measurement procedures in quality management have to be validated in respect to effects induced by the extremely high peak power densities. The present work, which is embedded in the EUREKA-project CHOCLAB II, is predominantly concentrated on measuring the multiple-pulse LIDT (ISO 11254-2) in the fs-regime. A measurement facility based on a Ti:Sapphire-CPA system was developed to investigate the damage behavior of optical components. The set-up was supplied with an improved pulse energy detector discriminating the influence of pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations on the incidence of damage. Aditionally, a laser-calorimetric measurement facility determining the absorption (ISO 11551) utilizing a fs-Ti:Sapphire laser was accomplished. The investigation for different pulse durations between 130 fs and 1 ps revealed a drastic increase of absorption in titania coatings for ultra-short pulses.

  11. Coherent control of atoms and diatomic molecules with shaped ultrashort pulses; Manipulation coherente d'atomes et de molecules diatomiques avec des impulsions mises en forme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degert, J

    2002-12-15

    This thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental study of coherent control of atomic and molecular systems with shaped pulses. At first, we present several experiments of control of coherent transients in rubidium. These transients appear when a two-level system is excited by a perturbative chirped pulse, and are characterized by oscillations in the excited state population. For a strong chirp, we show that a phase step in the spectrum modifies the phase of the oscillations. Then, by direct analogy with Fresnel zone lens, we conceive a chirped pulse with a highly modulated amplitude, allowing to suppress destructive contributions to the population transfer. In a second set of experiments, we focus on quantum path interferences in two-photon transitions excited by linearly chirped pulses. Owing to the broad bandwidth of ultrashort pulses, sequential and direct excitation paths contribute to the excited state population. Oscillations resulting from interferences between these two paths are observed in atomic sodium. Moreover, we show that they are observable whatever the sign of chirp. Theoretically, we study the control of the predissociation of a benchmark diatomic molecule: NaI. Predissociation leads to matter wave interferences in the fragments distribution. First, we show that a suitably chosen probe pulse allows the observation of theses interferences. Next, using a sequence of control pulse inducing electronic transition, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate fragment energy distribution. (author)

  12. Surface modification of organic polymer by dual action of extreme ultraviolet/visible-near infrared ultrashort pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Homer, Pavel; Jakubczak, Krzysztof; Rus, Bedřich; Kim, I. J.; Kim, C. M.; Lee, G.H.; Nam, C. H.; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 2 (2009), 026105/1-026105/3 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA ČR GC202/07/J008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-speed optical techniques * polymers * surface structure * ultraviolet radiation effects Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.072, year: 2009

  13. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  14. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liewei; Yang, Sihua; Zhong, Junping; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Da

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor. In addition to be a MRI contrast agent for tumor localization, HSA-SPIO can absorb pulsed microwave energy and transform it into shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is expected to be a sensitive and accurate representation of the HSA-SPIO accumulation in tumor. More importantly, owing to the selective retention of HSA-SPIO in tumor tissues and strong TA shockwave at the cellular level, HSA-SPIO induced TA effect under microwave-pulse radiation can be used to highly-efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, ultra-short pulsed microwave with high excitation efficiency and deep penetrability in biological tissues makes TA therapy a highly-efficient anti-tumor modality on the versatile platform. Overall, HSA-SPIO mediated MRI and TA imaging would offer more comprehensive diagnostic information and enable dynamic visualization of nanoagents in the tumorous tissue thereby tumor-targeted therapy.

  15. Effect of thermal management on the properties of saturable absorber mirrors in high-power mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantamäki, Antti; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Jari Nikkinen; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2011-01-01

    The thermal management of saturable absorbers is shown to have a critical impact on a high-power mode-locked disk laser. The absorber with efficient heat removal makes it possible to generate ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates and high power density.

  16. A method for ultra-short pulse-shape measurements using far infrared coherent radiation from an undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method for non-destructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-ray free electron lasers. The method is based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by a bunch passing through an undulator. Coherent radiation energy within a central cone turns out to be proportional, per pulse, to the square modulus of the bunch form-factor at the resonant frequency of the fundamental harmonic. An attractive feature of the proposed technique is the absence of any apparent limitation which would distort measurements. Indeed, the radiation process takes place in vacuum and is described by analytical formulae. CSR propagates to the detector placed in vacuum. Since CSR energy is in the range up to a fraction of mJ, a simple bolometer is used to measure the energy with a high accuracy. The proposed technique is very sensitive and it is capable of probing the electron bunches with a resolution down to a few microns

  17. Comparative study of the dissociative ionization of 1,1,1-trichloroethane using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available , but different fragmentation patterns. A general trend is that when using femtosecond laser pulses for ionization, the parent molecular ion is observed but not for nanosecond laser ionization. There is also a fundamental interest in laser...-molecule interactions at the high intensities available from femtosecond lasers [12,13]. These papers describe the multiphoton ionization mechanisms termed ladder climbing and ladder switching, which explain the presence of parent molecular ion in ultrashort pulse...

  18. 100 TW CPA Nd: Glass laser for fast ignition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Daido, H.; Jitsuno, T.

    2001-01-01

    A 100 TW chirped pulse amplification (CPA) Nd:glass laser has been developed to investigate the fast ignition concept. The ultrashort-pulse (60 TW, 42 J, 0.7 ps) was focused on plane targets, plane targets with preformed plasma, and high density compressed plasmas produced by the GEKKO-XII (12 beam, 20 kJ) laser. Focus intensity of >10 19 W/cm 2 has been achieved. (author)

  19. Instability of stationary lasing and self-starting mode locking in external-cavity semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, Igor V; Vasil'ev, Petr P

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of external-cavity semiconductor lasers, when the stationary lasing becomes unstable, were analysed within the framework of a theoretical model of self-starting mode locking. In this case, a train of ultrashort pulses can be generated due to intrinsic nonlinearities of the laser medium. A decisive role of the transverse optical field nonuniformity, pump rate, and gain spectral bandwidth in the development of the instability of stationary lasing was demonstrated. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  20. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  1. An intensity-monitoring technique for measuring ellipsometric transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, J.M.M.; Bootsma, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Intensity-monitoring techniques make possible the measurement of rapid changes in the ellipsometric parameters. Methods used hitherto have been suitable for measuring slight changes only and require prior knowledge of the Δ and Ψ values for the initial surface. It is shown that larger changes can

  2. 3-D mapping with ellipsometrically determined physical thickness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values at different points (121 nos.) with 1 mm gap between two points. Those data were utilized in the Auto- lisp programme for 3-D mapping. Radial distribution of the evaluated values was also displayed. Keywords. Sol–gel silica layer; ellipsometric studies; refractive index; physical thickness; 3D-mapping. 1. Introduction.

  3. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible

  4. The laser-matter interaction. Press conference wednesday 17 november 1999; L'interaction laser-matiere. Conference de presse mercredi 17 novembre 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Dept. de Physique, 75 - Paris (France); Mons, M.; Schmidt, M.; Salieres, P. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, DRECAM, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chieze, J.P. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, DAPNIA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-11-01

    During the press conference of wednesday 17 november 1999, scientists of the CEA presented the knowledge and the researches in the domain of the laser-matter interactions. The possibilities of the new ultra-short pulses laser offer to study in real time the molecular dynamic, the molecules and chemical reactions vibrations. The texts of the five speeches form this paper. The CEA missions are also recalled. (A.L.B.)

  5. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements.

  6. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Baker, Colin; Frantz, Jesse; Sadowski, Bryan; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements. PMID:28817044

  7. Interaction of ultrashort laser pulses and silicon solar cells under short circuit conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundus, M., E-mail: markus.mundus@ise.fraunhofer.de; Giesecke, J. A.; Fischer, P.; Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-02-28

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are promising tools for numerous measurement purposes. Among other benefits their high peak powers allow for efficient generation of wavelengths in broad spectral ranges and at spectral powers that are orders of magnitude higher than in conventional light sources. Very recently this has been exploited for the establishment of sophisticated measurement facilities for electrical characterization of photovoltaic (PV) devices. As the high peak powers of ultrashort pulses promote nonlinear optical effects they might also give rise to nonlinear interactions with the devices under test that possibly manipulate the measurement outcome. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinearities affecting short circuit current (I{sub SC}) measurements of silicon (Si) solar cells. We derive a set of coupled differential equations describing the radiation-device interaction and discuss the nonlinearities incorporated in those. By a semi-analytical approach introducing a quasi-steady-state approximation and integrating a Green's function we solve the system of equations and obtain simulated I{sub SC} values. We validate the theoretical model by I{sub SC} ratios obtained from a double ring resonator setup capable for reproducible generation of various ultrashort pulse trains. Finally, we apply the model to conduct the most prominent comparison of I{sub SC} generated by ultrashort pulses versus continuous illumination. We conclude by the important finding that the nonlinearities induced by ultrashort pulses are negligible for the most common I{sub SC} measurements. However, we also find that more specialized measurements (e.g., of concentrating PV or Si-multijunction devices as well as highly localized electrical characterizations) will be biased by two-photon-absorption distorting the I{sub SC} measurement.

  8. Recent advances in excimer laser technology at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.; Czuchlewski, S.; McCown, A.W.; Taylor, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that current research in excimer laser technology at Los Alamos progresses in two major areas: In the Bright Source program, the development of ultra-high brightness (sub-piosecond) laser systems, based on discharge -pumped excimer laser amplifiers, continues Recently the authors have completed rigorous measurements of the saturation parameter for ultra-short pulses. In the laser fusion program, implementation of the large KrF laser fusion amplifiers have been accompanied by numerous studies of the laser physics and kinetics of large e-beam pumped devices

  9. Ultra-short laser pulse ablation using shear-force feedback: Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samek, Ota; Kurowski, Andre; Kittel, Silke; Kukhlevsky, Sergei; Hergenroeder, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on a feasibility study of proximity ablation using femtosecond pulses. Ultra-short pulses were launched to a bare tapered optical fiber and delivered to the sample. The tip-sample distance was controlled by means of shear-force feedback. Consequently, ablation craters with submicrometer dimensions were obtained. Potential analytical applications for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, such as e.g. inclusions in steel or bio cells, are suggested

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet Ar2*laser pumped by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We observed a small-signal gain of Ar 2 * emission at 126 nm by use of an Ar-filled hollow fiber to guide the ultrashort-pulse high-intensity laser propagation. The small signal gain coefficient was measured to be 0.05 cm -1 at 126 nm. Kinetic analysis revealed that the electrons produced by the high-intensity laser through an optical-field ionization process initiated the Ar 2 * production process. This laser scheme could be combined with high harmonic radiation of the pump laser in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), leading to the production of amplified ultrashort VUV pulses. (author)

  11. Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas by Anthony R Valenzuela Approved for public release; distribution is...AND SUBTITLE Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer (SHED): An Optical System for Diagnosing Free Electron Density in Laser-Produced Plasmas 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Shack-Hartmann Electron Densitometer is a novel method to diagnose ultrashort pulse laser–produced plasmas

  12. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb...

  13. Additional external electromagnetic fields for laser microprocessing of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, V; Bischoff, K; Brief, S; Koch, J; Suttmann, O; Overmeyer, L

    2016-11-14

    Ultra-short pulsed laser processing is a potent tool for microstructuring of a lot of materials. At certain laser parameters, particular periodical and/or quasi-periodical µm-size surface structures evolve apparently during processing. With extended plasmonics theory, it is possible to predict the structure formation, and a systematic technology can be derived to alter the surface for laser processing. In this work, we have demonstrated the modification of the laser processing with applying tailored dynamic surface electro-magnetic fields. Possible improvement in applications is seen in the fields of process efficiency of laser ablation and a superior control of the surface topography.

  14. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 63, January-February 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Positron annihilation in laser-irradiated silicon. FTP, no. 1, 1983, 157-159. 89 633. Demchuk, 14.1., V.P. lMikhaylov, A.G. Vakar, L.I. Micheyeva...708. Krieger, W. (NS). Applications of laser spectroscopy . APP, v. A61, no. 6, 1982, 571-588. (RZhF, 1/83, 1D1535) 709. Kuz’min, S.V., Yu.A. Mityagin...Lasers, Chemical Lasers, Laser Components, Nonlinear Optics, Spectroscopy of Laser Materials, Ultrashort Pulse Generation, Laser Crystal Growing, Free

  15. Strong field laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.

  16. High-order harmonics from an ultraintense laser pulse propagating inside a fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Naumova, N.M.; Sokolov, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    A strong effect of high harmonic radiation during the propagation of a high intensity short laser pulse in a thin wall hollow channel ('fiber') is found and studied via relativistic particle-in-cell simulations. The fiber has finite width walls comprised of an overdense plasma. Only the harmonic radiation with the harmonic number above critical value, for which the fiber walls are transparent, propagates outwards in the form of a coherent ultrashort pulse with very short wavelength

  17. Ultrashort laser-pulse diagnostics for detection of ordering within an ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Guidi, V.; Lenisa, P.; Mariotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    A novel diagnostic method to detect ordering within one-dimensional ion beams in a storage ring is presented. The ions are simultaneously excited by a ultrashort pulsed laser (≅1 ps) at two different locations along the beam and fluorescence is detected by a group of four photomultipliers. Correlation in fluorescence signals is a firm indication that the ion beam has an ordered structure. (orig.)

  18. YCOB lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Martin; Hammons, Dennis; Eichenholz, Jason; Chai, Bruce; Ye, Qing; Jang, Won; Shah, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    We review new developments with a new laser host material, YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 or YCOB. Lasers based on this host material will open new opportunities for the development of compact, high-power, frequency-agile visible and near IR laser sources, as well as sources for ultrashort pulses. Efficient diode-pumped laser action with both Nd-doped and Yb-doped YCOB has already been demonstrated. Moreover, since these materials are biaxial, and have high nonlinear optical coefficients, they have become the first laser materials available as efficient self-frequency-doubled lasers, capable of providing tunable laser emission in several regions of the visible spectrum. Self-frequency doubling eliminates the need for inclusion of a nonlinear optical element within or external to the laser resonator. These laser materials possess excellent thermal and optical properties, have high laser-damage thresholds, and can be grown to large sizes. In addition they are non-hygroscopic. They therefore possess all the characteristics necessary for laser materials required in rugged, compact systems. Here we summarize the rapid progress made in the development of this new class of lasers, and review their potential for a number of applications. (author)

  19. Ellipsometric studies of ErMnO3 single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babonas, G.-J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Reza, A.

    2007-01-01

    Ellipsometric studies of ErMnO3 single crystals have been carried out in the spectral range of 1-5 eV by means of photometric ellipsometers. Experimental ellipsometric data were analysed in the uniaxial crystal model. For the first time, the components of dielectric function of ErMnO3 were...

  20. Multiple-Pulse Operation and Bound States of Solitons in Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of our research on a multiple-pulse operation of passive mode-locked fiber lasers. The research has been performed on basis of numerical simulation. Multihysteresis dependence of both an intracavity energy and peak intensities of intracavity ultrashort pulses on pump power is found. It is shown that the change of a number of ultrashort pulses in a laser cavity can be realized by hard as well as soft regimes of an excitation and an annihilation of new solitons. Bound steady states of interacting solitons are studied for various mechanisms of nonlinear losses shaping ultrashort pulses. Possibility of coding of information on basis of soliton trains with various bonds between neighboring pulses is discussed. The role of dispersive wave emitted by solitons because of lumped intracavity elements in a formation of powerful soliton wings is analyzed. It is found that such powerful wings result in large bounding energies of interacting solitons in steady states. Various problems of a soliton interaction in passive mode-locked fiber lasers are discussed.

  1. Study of ablation on surfaces of nuclear-use metals irradiated with Femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Alessandro F.; Samad, Ricardo E.; Vieira Junior, Nilson D.; Rossi, Wagner de

    2017-01-01

    The use of ultrashort pulsed lasers is an alternative for micro-machining in metal surfaces, with diverse applications in several industrial areas, such as aeronautics, aerospace, naval, nuclear, among others, where there is a growing concern with reliability in service. In this work, micro-machining were performed on titanium surfaces using femtosecond ultrashort pulses. Such a process resulted in minimal heat transfer to the material, thus avoiding and surface deformation of the titanium plate and the formation of resolidified material in the ablated region, which are drawbacks present in the use of the long pulsed keyed laser of the order of nanoseconds. Three types of micro-machining were performed, with variations in the distances between the machined lines. It was also verified that the wettability increases when there is an increase in the distance between machined lines. Finally, in order to change the surface with minimal removal of material, it has been found that the use of ultra-short pulse lasers provide great benefits for the integrity of the ablated material. This initial study is the starting point for the study of other metals, such as Maraging Steels and Zircaloy that will be the target of future work. (author)

  2. Study of ablation on surfaces of nuclear-use metals irradiated with Femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Alessandro F.; Samad, Ricardo E.; Vieira Junior, Nilson D.; Rossi, Wagner de, E-mail: alessandro.nogueira@usp.br, E-mail: resamad@ipen.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba (FACENS), Ipero, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The use of ultrashort pulsed lasers is an alternative for micro-machining in metal surfaces, with diverse applications in several industrial areas, such as aeronautics, aerospace, naval, nuclear, among others, where there is a growing concern with reliability in service. In this work, micro-machining were performed on titanium surfaces using femtosecond ultrashort pulses. Such a process resulted in minimal heat transfer to the material, thus avoiding and surface deformation of the titanium plate and the formation of resolidified material in the ablated region, which are drawbacks present in the use of the long pulsed keyed laser of the order of nanoseconds. Three types of micro-machining were performed, with variations in the distances between the machined lines. It was also verified that the wettability increases when there is an increase in the distance between machined lines. Finally, in order to change the surface with minimal removal of material, it has been found that the use of ultra-short pulse lasers provide great benefits for the integrity of the ablated material. This initial study is the starting point for the study of other metals, such as Maraging Steels and Zircaloy that will be the target of future work. (author)

  3. Ellipsometric and channeling studies on ion-implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohner, T.; Mezey, G.; Kotai, E.; Paszti, F.; Kiralyhidi, L.; Valyi, G.; Gyulai, J.

    1980-09-01

    RBS and ellipsometric investigations were combined to separate the contribution of radiation damage and overlayer contamination. It is pointed out that disorder effects which were produced by silicon self-implantation are shielded without proper surface cleaning. For cleaning, plasma stripping proved to be an effective method. The change in psi parameter could be correlated with the degree of amorphousness. It seems that Δ parameter ''feels'' crystalline-amorphous phase transition on low dose 31 P + and 27 Al + implants. No clear evidence was found for impurity effects on high-dose 75 As + and 31 P + implants. (author)

  4. Mode locking of an external cavity asymmetric quantum-well GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Petr P; Kan, H; Ohta, H; Hiruma, T; Tanaka, K A

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model of the optical gain in asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is developed. It is demonstrated that the emission spectrum of asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is much broader than that of standard quantum-well lasers. The experimental samples of such lasers and superluminescent diodes with the emission bandwidth exceeding 50 nm are fabricated. Wavelength tunable ultrashort pulses with duration of 1-2 ps at repetition rates of 0.4-1 GHz are obtained by active mode locking of an external cavity laser. (lasers)

  5. Femtosecond laser 3D micromachining for microfluidic and optofluidic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers opened up new avenue in materials processing due to its unique features of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. One of the most important features of femtosecond laser processing is that strong absorption can be induced even by materials which are transparent to the femtosecond laser beam due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption. The multiphoton absorption allows us to perform not only surface but also three-dimensionally internal microfabrication of transparent materials such as glass. This capability makes it possible to directly fabricate three-dimensi

  6. Fiscal 1998 R and D report on femtosecond technology (ultra-short pulse optoelectronics technology); 1998 nendo femuto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu (chotan pulse hikari electronics gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report reports the result of the fiscal 1998 R and D on femtosecond technology supported by NEDO. For creation of industrial basic technologies supporting the advanced information society in the 21st century, ultra-high speed electronics technology including new functions beyond the speed limit of conventional electronics technologies is indispensable. From such viewpoint, this R and D aims at establishment of the basic technology necessary for ultra- high speed electronics technology through R and D of technology controlling conditions of beams and electrons in a femtosecond (10{sup -15}-10{sup -12} seconds) region. In fiscal 1998, this project first succeeded in fabrication of a prototype pulse compressor by using semiconductors, and developed a new pulse compressing method by using fibers to generate ultra-short pulse of 38fs. By developing new materials for intersubband transition where ultra-high speed responses can be expected, optical absorption by intersubband transition was first confirmed at optical communication wavelength. The main result for every theme is reported and explained. (NEDO)

  7. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  8. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  9. Frequency-doubled diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    . However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20...... fs are measured. These results open the opportunity of establishing diode laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers for e.g. biophotonic applications like retinal optical coherence tomography or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS microscopy.......A single-pass frequency doubled high-power tapered diode laser emitting nearly 1.3 W of green light suitable for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The pump efficiencies reached 75 % of the values achieved with a commercial solid-state pump laser...

  10. Inner-shell photo-ionized X-ray laser schemes for low-Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.J.; Strobel, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Gain calculations for inner-shell photo-ionized lasing in C at 45 angstrom are performed. An incident x-ray source represented by a 150 eV blackbody with a rise time of 50 fsec gives a gain of order 10 cm -1 . The x-ray source and thus the driving optical laser requirements are significantly reduced as compared to what is needed for Ne at 15 angstrom. The authors expect that existing ultra-short pulse lasers can produce the required x-ray source and thus produce a table-top x-ray laser at 45 angstrom

  11. Comparison of soft and hard tissue ablation with sub-ps and ns pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L.B.; Stuart, B.C.; Celliers, P.M.; Feit, M.D.; Glinsky, M.E.; Heredia, N.J.; Herman, S.; Lane, S.M.; London, R.A.; Matthews, D.L.; Perry, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chang, T.D. [Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States); Neev, J. [Beckman Laser Inst. and Medical Clinic, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Tissue ablation with ultrashort laser pulses offers several unique advantages. The nonlinear energy deposition is insensitive to tissue type, allowing this tool to be used for soft and hard tissue ablation. The localized energy deposition lead to precise ablation depth and minimal collateral damage. This paper reports on efforts to study and demonstrate tissue ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser. Ablation efficiency and extent of collateral damage for 0.3 ps and 1000 ps duration laser pulses are compared. Temperature measurements of the rear surface of a tooth section is also presented.

  12. Ultrashort Generation Regimes in the All-Fiber Kerr Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser for Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Voropaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many femtosecond engineering applications require for a stable generation of ultrashort pulses. Thus, in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy a measurement error in the refractive index is strongly dependent on the pulse duration stability with allowable variation of few femtoseconds. The aim of this work is to study the ultrashort pulses (USP regimes stability in the all – fiber erbium doped ring laser with Kerr mode-locking. The study was conducted at several different values of the total resonator intra-cavity dispersion. Three laser schemes with the intra-cavity dispersion values from -1.232 ps2 to +0.008 ps2 have been studied. In the experiment there were two regimes of generation observed: the stretched pulse generation and ordinary soliton generation. Main attention is focused on the stability of regimes under study. The most stable regime was that of the stretched pulse generation with a spectrum form of sech2 , possible pulse duration of 490 fs at least, repetition rate of 2.9 MHz, and average output power of 17 mW. It is worth noting, that obtained regimes had characteristics suitable for the successful use in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The results may be useful in the following areas of science and technology: a high-precision spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, super-continuum generation, and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The future system development is expected to stabilize duration and repetition rate of the obtained regime of ultra-short pulse generation.

  13. Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yufeng; Liang, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiantao; Chen, Yunxiang; Li, Zhongjun; Lu, Lu; Ge, Yanqi; Wang, Ke; Zheng, Jilin; Lu, Shunbin; Ji, Jianhua; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    Antimonene, a new type of mono/few-layer two-dimensional (2D) mono-elemental material purely consisting of antimony similar as graphene and phosphorene, has been theoretically predicted with excellent optical response and enhanced stability. Herein, we experimentally investigated the broadband nonlinear optical response of highly stable few-layer antimonene (FLA) by performing an open-aperture Z-scan laser measurement. Thanks to the direct bandgap and resonant absorption at the telecommunication band, we demonstrated the feasibility of FLA-decorated microfiber not only as an optical saturable absorber for ultrafast photonics operation, but also as a stable all-optical pulse thresholder that can effectively suppress the transmission noise, boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reshape the deteriorated input signal. Our findings, as the first prototypic device of absorption of antimonene, might facilitate the development of antimonene-based optical communication technologies towards high stability and practical applications in the future.

  14. An Assemblable, Multi-Angle Fluorescence and Ellipsometric Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Victoria; Rizzo, John

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a multi-functional microscope for research laboratories that have significant cost and space limitations. The microscope pivots around the sample, operating in upright, inverted, side-on and oblique geometries. At these geometries it is able to perform bright-field, fluorescence and qualitative ellipsometric imaging. It is the first single instrument in the literature to be able to perform all of these functionalities. The system can be assembled by two undergraduate students from a provided manual in less than a day, from off-the-shelf and 3D printed components, which together cost approximately $16k at 2016 market prices. We include a highly specified assembly manual, a summary of design methodologies, and all associated 3D-printing files in hopes that the utility of the design outlives the current component market. This open design approach prepares readers to customize the instrument to specific needs and applications. We also discuss how to select household LEDs as low-cost light sources for fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the utility of the microscope in varied geometries and functionalities, with particular emphasis on studying hydrated, solid-supported lipid films and wet biological samples. PMID:27907008

  15. An Assemblable, Multi-Angle Fluorescence and Ellipsometric Microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nguyen

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-functional microscope for research laboratories that have significant cost and space limitations. The microscope pivots around the sample, operating in upright, inverted, side-on and oblique geometries. At these geometries it is able to perform bright-field, fluorescence and qualitative ellipsometric imaging. It is the first single instrument in the literature to be able to perform all of these functionalities. The system can be assembled by two undergraduate students from a provided manual in less than a day, from off-the-shelf and 3D printed components, which together cost approximately $16k at 2016 market prices. We include a highly specified assembly manual, a summary of design methodologies, and all associated 3D-printing files in hopes that the utility of the design outlives the current component market. This open design approach prepares readers to customize the instrument to specific needs and applications. We also discuss how to select household LEDs as low-cost light sources for fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the utility of the microscope in varied geometries and functionalities, with particular emphasis on studying hydrated, solid-supported lipid films and wet biological samples.

  16. High-precision laser microcutting and laser microdrilling using diffractive beam-splitting and high-precision flexible beam alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibner, F.; Fornaroli, C.; Holtkamp, J.; Shachaf, Lior; Kaplan, Natan; Gillner, A.

    2017-08-01

    High-precision laser micro machining gains more importance in industrial applications every month. Optical systems like the helical optics offer highest quality together with controllable and adjustable drilling geometry, thus as taper angle, aspect ratio and heat effected zone. The helical optics is based on a rotating Dove-prism which is mounted in a hollow shaft engine together with other optical elements like wedge prisms and plane plates. Although the achieved quality can be interpreted as extremely high the low process efficiency is a main reason that this manufacturing technology has only limited demand within the industrial market. The objective of the research studies presented in this paper is to dramatically increase process efficiency as well as process flexibility. During the last years, the average power of commercial ultra-short pulsed laser sources has increased significantly. The efficient utilization of the high average laser power in the field of material processing requires an effective distribution of the laser power onto the work piece. One approach to increase the efficiency is the application of beam splitting devices to enable parallel processing. Multi beam processing is used to parallelize the fabrication of periodic structures as most application only require a partial amount of the emitted ultra-short pulsed laser power. In order to achieve highest flexibility while using multi beam processing the single beams are diverted and re-guided in a way that enables the opportunity to process with each partial beam on locally apart probes or semimanufactures.

  17. Free-Electron Lasers Push Into New Frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen V.

    2003-01-01

    From the early days of the development of free-electron lasers (FELs) the promise of high power and short wavelengths has tantalized physicists and other scientists. Recent developments in accelerator technologies and some new discoveries about the physics of FELs have allowed researchers to push the performance of FELs into new frontiers of high power, short wavelength, and ultra-short pulses. Spin-offs from the FELs have also opened up new radiation sources in the THz, X-ray and gamma ray wavelength ranges

  18. Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R; Pissadakis, S; Ehrhardt, M; Ruthe, D; Zimmer, K

    2006-01-01

    Similarly to laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) with nanosecond ultraviolet (ns UV) laser pulses, the irradiation of the solid/liquid interface of fused silica with sub-picosecond (sub-ps) UV and femtosecond near infrared (fs NIR) laser pulses results in etching of the fused silica surface and deposition of decomposition products from liquid. Furthermore, the etch threshold is reduced compared with both direct ablation with an fs laser in air and backside etching with UV ns pulses. Using 0.5 M pyrene/toluene as absorbing liquid, the thresholds were determined to be 70 mJ cm -2 (sub-ps UV) and 330 mJ cm -2 (fs NIR). Furthermore, an almost linear increase in the etch rate with increasing laser fluence was found. The roughness of surfaces backside etched with ultra-short pulses is higher in comparison with ns pulses but lower than that obtained using direct fs laser ablation. Hence a combination of processes involved in fs laser ablation and ns backside etching can be expected. The processes at the ultra-short pulse laser irradiated solid/liquid interface are discussed, considering the effects of ultra-fast heating, multi-photon absorption processes, as well as defect generation in the materials

  19. First results with the novel petawatt laser acceleration facility in Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Irman, A; Siebold, M; Zeil, K; Albach, D; Bernert, C; Bock, S; Brack, F; Branco, J; Couperus, JP; Cowan, TE; Debus, A; Eisenmann, C; Garten, M; Gebhardt, R; Grams, S; Helbig, U; Huebl, A; Kluge, T

    2017-01-01

    We report on first commissioning results of the DRACO Petawatt ultra-short pulse laser system implemented at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. Key parameters of the laser system essential for efficient and reproducible performance of plasma accelerators are presented and discussed with the demonstration of 40 MeV proton acceleration under TNSA conditions as well as peaked electron spectra with unprecedented bunch charge in the 0.5 nC range. (paper)

  20. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2016-05-01

    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  1. Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Zhou, D H; Xia, C T; Wu, F; Zhuang, S D; Wang, Z P; Xu, J

    2010-01-01

    A Nd:LYSO crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.65, 5.75, and 7.37×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The large absorption cross section (6.14×10 -20 cm 2 ) and broad absorption band (5 nm) around 811 nm indicate that this crystal can be pumped efficiently by laser diodes. The broad emission band from the 4 F 3/2 multiplet shows that the crystal is a promising medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum 814 mW continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 28.9%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material

  2. Laser wakefield electron acceleration. A novel approach employing supersonic microjets and few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. This process, known as laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), relies on strongly driven plasma waves for the generation of accelerating gradients in the vicinity of several 100 GV/m, a value four orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by conventional accelerators. This thesis demonstrates that laser pulses with an ultrashort duration of 8 fs and a peak power of 6 TW allow the production of electron energies up to 50 MeV via LWFA. The special properties of laser accelerated electron pulses, namely the ultrashort pulse duration, the high brilliance, and the high charge density, open up new possibilities in many applications of these electron beams. (orig.)

  3. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  4. Latest advances in high brightness disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Vincent; Gottwald, Tina; Stolzenburg, Christian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Killi, Alexander; Ryba, Tracey

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade diode pumped solid state lasers have become an important tool for many industrial materials processing applications. They combine ease of operation with efficiency, robustness and low cost. This paper will give insight in latest progress in disk laser technology ranging from kW-class CW-Lasers over frequency converted lasers to ultra-short pulsed lasers. The disk laser enables high beam quality at high average power and at high peak power at the same time. The power from a single disk was scaled from 1 kW around the year 2000 up to more than 10 kW nowadays. Recently was demonstrated more than 4 kW of average power from a single disk close to fundamental mode beam quality (M²=1.38). Coupling of multiple disks in a common resonator results in even higher power. As an example we show 20 kW extracted from two disks of a common resonator. The disk also reduces optical nonlinearities making it ideally suited for short and ultrashort pulsed lasers. In a joint project between TRUMPF and IFSW Stuttgart more than 1.3 kW of average power at ps pulse duration and exceptionally good beam quality was recently demonstrated. The extremely low saturated gain makes the disk laser ideal for internal frequency conversion. We show >1 kW average power and >6 kW peak power in multi ms pulsed regime from an internally frequency doubled disk laser emitting at 515 nm (green). Also external frequency conversion can be done efficiently with ns pulses. >500 W of average UV power was demonstrated.

  5. Quasiperiodic Raman technique for ultrashort pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D.D.; Walker, D.R.; Shverdin, M.Y.; Yin, G.Y.; Harris, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a new Raman technique that produces 200 sidebands, ranging in wavelength from 3 μm to 195 nm. By studying multiphoton ionization of nitric oxide (NO) molecules, we show mutual phase coherence among 15 visible sidebands covering 0.63 octaves of bandwidth

  6. Femtosecond Mode-locked Fiber Laser at 1 μm Via Optical Microfiber Dispersion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Xu, Peizhen; Li, Yuhang; Han, Jize; Guo, Xin; Cui, Yudong; Liu, Xueming; Tong, Limin

    2018-03-16

    Mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers around 1 μm are attractive for high power applications and low noise pulse train generation. Mode-locked fiber lasers working in soliton and stretched-pulse regime outperform others in terms of the laser noise characteristics, mechanical stability and easy maintenance. However, conventional optical fibers always show a normal group velocity dispersion around 1 μm, leading to the inconvenience for necessary dispersion management. Here we show that optical microfibers having a large anomalous dispersion around 1 μm can be integrated into mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers with ultralow insertion loss down to -0.06 dB, enabling convenient dispersion management of the laser cavity. Besides, optical microfibers could also be adopted to spectrally broaden and to dechirp the ultrashort pulses outside the laser cavity, giving rise to a pulse duration of about 110 fs. We believe that this demonstration may facilitate all-fiber format high-performance ultrashort pulse generation at 1 μm and may find applications in precision measurements, large-scale facility synchronization and evanescent-field-based optical sensing.

  7. Dynamics of a Dispersion-Managed Passively Mode-Locked Er-Doped Fiber Laser Using Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Nishizawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dynamics of a dispersion-managed, passively mode-locked, ultrashort-pulse, Er-doped fiber laser using a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT device. A numerical model was constructed for analysis of the SWNT fiber laser. The initial process of passive mode-locking, the characteristics of the output pulse, and the dynamics inside the cavity were investigated numerically for soliton, dissipative-soliton, and stretched-pulse mode-locking conditions. The dependencies on the total dispersion and recovery time of the SWNTs were also examined. Numerical results showed similar behavior to experimental results.

  8. Passive mode locking of a Tm,Ho:KY(WO4)2 laser around 2 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatsky, A A; Fusari, F; Calvez, S; Gupta, J A; Kisel, V E; Kuleshov, N V; Brown, C T A; Dawson, M D; Sibbett, W

    2009-09-01

    We report the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of passive mode locking in a Tm(3+), Ho(3+)-codoped KY(WO(4))(2) laser operating in the 2000-2060 nm spectral region. An InGaAsSb-based quantum well semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is used for the initiation and stabilization of the ultrashort pulse generation. Pulses as short as 3.3 ps were generated at 2057 nm with average output powers up to 315 mW at a pulse repetition frequency of 132 MHz for 1.15 W of absorbed pump power at 802 nm from a Ti:sapphire laser.

  9. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W...... of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2....... The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected....

  10. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika; Le, Tuan; Stingl, Andreas; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2011-06-20

    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected.

  11. Investigation of ellipsometric parameters of 2D microrough surfaces by FDTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Ran, D F; Liu, Y B; Liu, L H

    2016-07-10

    Ellipsometry is a powerful method for measuring the optical constants of materials and is very sensitive to surface roughness. In previous ellipsometric measurement of optical constants of solid materials with rough surfaces, researchers frequently used effective medium approximation (EMA) with roughness already known to fit the complex refractive index of the material. However, the ignored correlation length, the other important parameter of rough surfaces, will definitely result in fitting errors. Hence it is necessary to consider the influence of surface roughness and correlation length on the ellipsometric parameters Δ (phase difference) and Ψ (azimuth) characterizing practical systems. In this paper, the influence of roughness of two-dimensional randomly microrough surfaces (relative roughness σ/λ ranges from 0.001 to 0.025) of silicon on ellipsometric parameters was simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method which was validated with experimental results. The effects of incident angle, relative roughness, and correlation length were numerically investigated for two-dimensional Gaussian distributed randomly microrough surfaces, respectively. The simulated results showed that compared with the smooth surface, only tiny changes of the ellipsometric parameter Δ could be observed for microrough silicon surface in the vicinity of the Brewster angle, but obviously changes of Ψ occur especially in the vicinity of the Brewster angle. More differences between the ellipsometric parameters of the rough surface and smooth surface can been seen especially in the vicinity of the Brewster angle as the relative roughness σ/λ increases or correlation length τ decreases. The results reveal that when we measure the optical constants of solid materials by ellipsometry, the smaller roughness, larger correlation length and larger incident wavelength will lead to the higher precision of measurements.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  13. Passively mode-locked diode-pumped Tm3+:YLF laser emitting at 1.91 µm using a GaAs-based SESAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyazhev, A.; Soulard, R.; Godin, T.; Paris, M.; Brasse, G.; Doualan, J.-L.; Braud, A.; Moncorgé, R.; Laroche, M.; Camy, P.; Hideur, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser passively mode-locked with an InGaAs saturable absorber. The laser emits a train of 31 ps pulses at a wavelength of 1.91 µm with a repetition rate of 94 MHz and a maximum average power of 95 mW. A sustained and robust mode-locking with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~70 dB is obtained even at high relative air humidity, making this system attractive for applications requiring ultra-short pulses in the spectral window just below 2 µm.

  14. 179th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Gizzi, L A; Faccini, R

    2012-01-01

    Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility. This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: "Laser-Plasma Acceleration" , held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011. The school provided an opportunity for young scientists to experience the best from the worlds of laser-plasma and accelerator physics, with intensive training and hands-on opportunities related to key aspects of laser-plasma acceleration. Subjects covered include: the secrets of lasers; the power of numerical simulations; beam dynamics; and the elusive world of laboratory plasmas. The object...

  15. Image-converter diagnostics of laser and laser plasma in pico-femtosecond region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelev, M.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    In the present communication we would like to outline some new trends in development of pico-femtosecond image-converter diagnostics for laser and laser plasma research on the basis of the recent works done in P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute. The discussion of the following subjects will be included: new generation of picosecond image-converter tubes (ICT), pulsed control circuitry, late prototype of picosecond image-converter cameras (ICC), test installation consisting of Nd: glass and YAG lasers for production the ultra-short pulses and sinusoidally modulated radiation, methods and techniques for image tube and camera dynamic measurements in IR, visible and X-ray spectral regions. Also discussed are the image processing technique for pictures taken with picosecond ICC in order to correct the geometrical distortions, enhance pictures quality and evaluate parameters of the input signals through their recorded images. (author)

  16. Far infrared ellipsometric study of HTSC gap in ab- and c-oriented epitaxial YBaCuO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, A.B.; Tishchenko, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    To test different models of HTSC and to study mechanism of this phenomenon comparison of the measured complex dielectric function var-epsilon(w,T) and of the computed one is very useful. In the case of anisotropic substance, such as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , var-epsilon(w,T) is a tensor with different var-epsilon a , var-epsilon b , var-epsilon c components. However, the structure of oriented YBaCuO films permits one to determine var-epsilon c and only averaged var-epsilon ab value. To carry out ellipsometric measurements on small samples in far IR the light beam should be focused onto the sample surface. Earlier the authors found an original decision of the direct problem of convergent beam ellipsometry (CBE). This report is devoted to the inverse problem of CBE for the following reflecting system: 1-axis anisotropic film on isotropic substrate. By this technique they have obtained temperature dependencies (4--300 K) of var-epsilon ab and var-epsilon c , at fixed laser frequencies 84, 120, 357 cm -1

  17. Broadly tunable femtosecond mode-locking in a Tm:KYW laser near 2 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatsky, A A; Calvez, S; Gupta, J A; Kisel, V E; Kuleshov, N V; Brown, C T A; Dawson, M D; Sibbett, W

    2011-05-09

    Efficient mode-locking in a Tm:KY(WO(4))(2) laser is demonstrated by using InGaAsSb quantum-well SESAMs. Self-starting ultrashort pulse generation was realized in the 1979-2074 nm spectral region. Maximum average output power up to 411 mW was produced around 1986 nm with the corresponding pulse duration and repetition rate of 549 fs and 105 MHz respectively. Optimised pulse durations of 386 fs were produced with an average power of 235 mW at 2029 nm. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Dispersion engineering of mode-locked fibre lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    Mode-locked fibre lasers are important sources of ultrashort pulses, where stable pulse generation is achieved through a balance of periodic amplitude and phase evolutions. A range of distinct cavity pulse dynamics have been revealed, arising from the interplay between dispersion and nonlinearity in addition to dissipative processes such as filtering. This has led to the discovery of numerous novel operating regimes, offering significantly improved laser performance. In this Topical Review, we summarise the main steady-state pulse dynamics reported to date through cavity dispersion engineering, including average solitons, dispersion-managed solitons, dissipative solitons, giant-chirped pulses and similaritons. Characteristic features and the stabilisation mechanism of each regime are described, supported by numerical modelling, in addition to the typical performance and limitations. Opportunities for further pulse energy scaling are discussed, in addition to considering other recent advances including automated self-tuning cavities and fluoride-fibre-based mid-infrared mode-locked lasers.

  19. Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Jang, Heesuk; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Kyung-In; Lim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report a test operation of an Er-doped fibre femtosecond laser which was conducted for the first time in outer space. The fibre-based ultrashort pulse laser payload was designed to meet space-use requirements, undergone through ground qualification tests and finally launched into a low-earth orbit early in 2013. Test results obtained during a one-year mission lifetime confirmed stable mode-locking all the way through although the radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in the Er-doped gain fibre caused an 8.6% reduction in the output power. This successful test operation would help facilitate diverse scientific and technological applications of femtosecond lasers in space and earth atmosphere in the near future. PMID:24875665

  20. Fast Prototyping of Sensorized Cell Culture Chips and Microfluidic Systems with Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Bonk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a confined microfluidic cell culture system with a bottom plate made of a microscopic slide with planar platinum sensors for the measurement of acidification, oxygen consumption, and cell adhesion. The slides were commercial slides with indium tin oxide (ITO plating or were prepared from platinum sputtering (100 nm onto a 10-nm titanium adhesion layer. Direct processing of the sensor structures (approximately three minutes per chip by an ultrashort pulse laser facilitated the production of the prototypes. pH-sensitive areas were produced by the sputtering of 60-nm Si3N4 through a simple mask made from a circuit board material. The system body and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS molding forms for the microfluidic structures were manufactured by micromilling using a printed circuit board (PCB milling machine for circuit boards. The microfluidic structure was finally imprinted in PDMS. Our approach avoided the use of photolithographic techniques and enabled fast and cost-efficient prototyping of the systems. Alternatively, the direct production of metallic, ceramic or polymeric molding tools was tested. The use of ultrashort pulse lasers improved the precision of the structures and avoided any contact of the final structures with toxic chemicals and possible adverse effects for the cell culture in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  1. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  2. Ellipsometric study of metal-organic chemically vapor deposited III-V semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sekula-Moise, Patricia A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Drotos, Mark N.; Bogner, Nancy A.

    1992-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of MOCVD-grown layers of AlGaAs and InGaAs in thick films and strained layer complex structures is presented. It is concluded that the ternary composition of thick nonstrained layers can be accurately determined to within experimental errors using numerical algorithms. In the case of complex structures, thickness of all layers and the alloy composition of nonstrained layers can be determined simultaneously, provided that the correlations between parameters is no higher than 0.9.

  3. Two-photon transitions driven by a combination of diode and femtosecond lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marco P; Nogueira, Giovana T; Felinto, Daniel; Vianna, Sandra S

    2012-10-15

    We report on the combined action of a cw diode laser and a train of ultrashort pulses when each of them drives one step of the 5S-5P-5D two-photon transition in rubidium vapor. The fluorescence from the 6P(3/2) state is detected for a fixed repetition rate of the femtosecond laser while the cw-laser frequency is scanned over the rubidium D(2) lines. This scheme allows for a velocity selective spectroscopy in a large spectral range including the 5D(3/2) and 5D(5/2) states. The results are well described in a simplified frequency domain picture, considering the interaction of each velocity group with the cw laser and a single mode of the frequency comb.

  4. Femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of krypton for high-speed flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yejun; Capps, Cade; Kulatilaka, Waruna D

    2017-02-15

    Ultrashort-pulse (femtosecond-duration) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) of an inert gas tracer krypton (Kr) is investigated. A detailed spectroscopic study of fluorescence channels followed by the 5p'←←4p excitation of Kr at 204.1 nm is reported. The experimental line positions in the 750-840 nm emission region agree well with the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The present work provides an accurate listing of relative line strengths in this spectral region. In the range of laser pulse energies investigated, a quadratic dependence was observed between the Kr-TPLIF signal and the laser pulse energy. The single-laser-shot 2D TPLIF images recorded in an unsteady jet demonstrate the potential of using fs excitation at 204.1 nm for mixing and flow diagnostic studies using Kr as an inert gas tracer.

  5. Inhibited-coupling HC-PCF based beam-delivery-system for high power green industrial lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafer, M.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Lekiefs, Q.; Maurel, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2018-02-01

    We report on an ultra-low loss Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) beam delivery system (GLO-GreenBDS) for high power ultra-short pulse lasers operating in the green spectral range (including 515 nm and 532 nm). The GLOBDS- Green combines ease-of-use, high laser-coupling efficiency, robustness and industrial compatible cabling. It comprises a pre-aligned laser-injection head, a sheath-cable protected HC-PCF and a modular fiber-output head. It enables fiber-core gas loading and evacuation in a hermetic fashion. A 5 m long GLO-BDS were demonstrated for a green short pulse laser with a transmission coefficient larger than 80%, and a laser output profile close to single-mode (M2 <1.3).

  6. Long distance measurement with a femtosecond laser based frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N.; Cui, M.; Zeitouny, M. G.; Urbach, H. P.; van den Berg, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in the field of ultra-short pulse lasers have led to the development of reliable sources of carrier envelope phase stabilized femtosecond pulses. The pulse train generated by such a source has a frequency spectrum that consists of discrete, regularly spaced lines known as a frequency comb. In this case both the frequency repetition and the carrier-envelope-offset frequency are referenced to a frequency standard, like an atomic clock. As a result the accuracy of the frequency standard is transferred to the optical domain, with the frequency comb as transfer oscillator. These unique properties allow the frequency comb to be applied as a versatile tool, not only for time and frequency metrology, but also in fundamental physics, high-precision spectroscopy, and laser noise characterization. The pulse-to-pulse phase relationship of the light emitted by the frequency comb has opened up new directions for long range highly accurate distance measurement.

  7. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of niobium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, M.; De Bonis, A.; Santagata, A.; Rau, J.V.; Galasso, A.; Teghil, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have deposited in vacuum niobium carbide films by fs and ns PLD. • We have compared PLD performed by ultra-short and short laser pulses. • The films deposited by fs PLD of NbC are formed by nanoparticles. • The structure of the films produced by fs PLD at 500 °C corresponds to NbC. - Abstract: NbC crystalline films have been deposited in vacuum by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition technique. The films have been characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopies and by X-ray diffraction. To clarify the ablation–deposition mechanism, the plasma produced by the ablation process has been characterized by optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging. A comparison of the results with those obtained by ns pulsed deposition of the same target has been carried out.

  8. Influence of Femtosecond Laser Parameters and Environment on Surface Texture Characteristics of Metals and Non-Metals - State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatish, A.; Soundarapandian, S.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the surface functionality by ultrashort pulsed laser texturing has received the considerable attention from researchers in the past few decades. Femtosecond lasers are widely adopted since it provides high repeatability and reproducibility by minimizing the heat affected zone (HAZ) and other collateral damages to a great extent. The present paper reports some recent studies being made worldwide on femtosecond laser surface texturing of metals, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, thinfilms and advanced nanocomposites. It presents the state of the art knowledge in femtosecond laser surface texturing and the potential of this technology to improve properties in terms of biological, tribological and wetting performance. Since the texture quality and functionality are enhanced by the proper selection of appropriate laser parameters and ambient conditions for individual application, reporting the influence of laser parameters on surface texture characteristics assume utmost importance.

  9. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  10. Increasing the mode-locking efficiency of a cw solid-state laser with an auxiliary cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V.L.; Kalosha, V.P.; Mikhailov, V.P.; Demchuk, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    It is predicted theoretically that the efficiency of self-mode locking can be raised by means of a bleachable shutter in the main cavity or an auxiliary cavity. The laser emits a stable train of ultrashort pulses under these conditions. The theory is based on a fluctuation model of the operation of a cw solid-state laser with a linear auxiliary cavity. The increase in efficiency involves a broadening of the region of parameter values of the system in which self-mode locking occurs, a significant decrease in the threshold pump intensity, and a reduced sensitivity of the operation to the phase mismatch of the lengths of the cavities. It is shown, for the first time, that a stable train of double ultrashort pulses can be generated by a system with a shutter in the auxiliary cavity. It is also shown that a self-mode locking is possible in the case in which there is a phase mismatch of the cavity lengths and there is no phase self-modulation in the main cavity. 15 refs., 8 figs

  11. Predictive modelling of the dielectric response of plasmonic substrates: application to the interpretation of ellipsometric spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliara, A.; Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.; Carles, R.; Respaud, M.; Makasheva, K.

    2018-03-01

    A predictive modelling of plasmonic substrates appropriate to read ellipsometric spectra is presented in this work. We focus on plasmonic substrates containing a single layer of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded in silica matrices. The model uses the Abeles matrix formalism and is based on the quasistatic approximation of the classical Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule, however accounting for the electronic confinement effect through the damping parameter. It is applied on samples elaborated by: (i) RF-diode sputtering followed by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and (ii) Low Energy Ion Beam Synthesis (LE-IBS), and represents situations with increasing degree of complexity that can be accounted for by the model. It allows extraction of the main characteristics of the AgNPs population: average size, volume fraction and distance of the AgNPs layer from the matrix free surface. Model validation is achieved through comparison with results obtained from transmission electron microscopy approving for its applicability. The advantages and limitations of the proposed model are discussed after eccentricity-based statistical analysis along with further developments related to the quality of comparison between the model-generated spectra and the experimentally-recorded ellipsometric spectra.

  12. Amorphous Carbon Gold Nanocomposite Thin Films: Structural and Spectro-ellipsometric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel-Gonzalez, Z., E-mail: zeuzmontiel@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Mendoza-Galvan, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, 76010 Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fernandez, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic Ellipsometry was used to determine the optical and structural properties of amorphous carbon:gold nanocomposite thin films deposited by dc magnetron co-sputtering at different deposition power. The incorporation of gold as small particles distributed in the amorphous carbon matrix was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Based on these results, an optical model for the films was developed using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium with the Drude-Lorentz model representing the optical response of gold and the Tauc-Lorentz model for the amorphous carbon. The gold volume fraction and particle size obtained from the fitting processes were comparable to those from the physical characterization. The analysis of the ellipsometric spectra for all the samples showed strong changes in the optical properties of the carbon films as a consequence of the gold incorporation. These changes were correlated to the structural modification observed by Raman Spectroscopy, which indicated a clustering of the sp{sup 2} phase with a subsequent decrease in the optical gap. Finally, measurements of Reflection and Transmission Spectroscopy were carried out and Transmission Electron Microscopy images were obtained in order to support the ellipsometric model results.

  13. Progress of Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2007-01-01

    There is a great interest worldwide in plasma accelerators driven by ultra-intense lasers which make it possible to generate ultra-high gradient acceleration and high quality particle beams in a much more compact size compared with conventional accelerators. A frontier research on laser and plasma accelerators is focused on high energy electron acceleration and ultra-short X-ray and Tera Hertz radiations as their applications. These achievements will provide not only a wide range of sciences with benefits of a table-top accelerator but also a basic science with a tool of ultrahigh energy accelerators probing an unknown extremely microscopic world.Harnessing the recent advance of ultra-intense ultra-short pulse lasers, the worldwide research has made a tremendous breakthrough in demonstrating high-energy high-quality particle beams in a compact scale, so called ''dream beams on a table top'', which represents monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators and GeV acceleration by capillary plasma-channel laser wakefield accelerators. This lecture reviews recent progress of results on laser-driven plasma based accelerator experiments to quest for particle acceleration physics in intense laser-plasma interactions and to present new outlook for the GeV-range high-energy laser plasma accelerators

  14. Ellipsometric measurements of the refractive indices of linear alkylbenzene and EJ-301 scintillators from 210 to 1000 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Chan Tseung, H; Tolich, N

    2011-01-01

    We report on ellipsometric measurements of the refractive indices of linear alkylbenzene-2,5-diphenyloxazole (LAB-PPO), Nd-doped LAB-PPO and EJ-301 scintillators to the nearest ± 0.005, in the wavelength range 210-1000 nm.

  15. Multimodal imaging of heterogeneous polymers at the nanoscale by AFM and scanning near-field ellipsometric microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumurcu, Aysegul; Duvigneau, Joost; Lindsay, I.D.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning near field ellipsometric microscopy (SNEM) was used to simultaneously obtain optical images and tapping mode topography images of the microphase separated morphology of PS-b-P2VP block copolymer thin films. Optical images revealed a spatial resolution well below the diffraction limit. The

  16. Tungsten diselenide for mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with short pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Mengli; OuYang, Yuyi; Hou, Huanran; Ma, Guoli; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a WSe2 film prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a tapered fiber, and a WSe2 saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated. In order to measure the third-order optical nonlinearity of the WSe2, the Z-scan technique is applied. The modulation depth of the WSe2 SA is measured as being 21.89%. Taking advantage of the remarkable nonlinear absorption characteristic of the WSe2 SA, a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated at 1557.4 nm with a bandwidth of 25.8 nm and signal to noise ratio of 96 dB. To the best of our knowledge, the pulse duration of 163.5 fs is confirmed to be the shortest compared with previous mode-locked fiber lasers based on transition-metal dichalcogenides SAs. These results indicate that WSe2 is a powerful competitor in the application of ultrashort pulse lasers.

  17. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  18. Electrochromism and Swelling of Polypyrrole Membranes: An Electrochemical and Ellipsometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Zerbino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of polypyrrole (Ppy layers on gold electrodes in nearly neutral pH solutions is analysed using “in situ” voltametric and ellipsometric techniques. Different film structures are obtained depending on the potentiodynamic programme and the composition of the electrolyte. More compact dodecylsulphate-(DS doped Ppy layers were grown at 1.2 V versus RHE than those obtained by applying a higher potential. The more compact layers correspond to the growth of an oxidised Ppy/DS layer that shows low pseudo capacity behaviour. After dipping, the doped Ppy/DS film in KCl solution-significant variations in optical indices and thickness are detected as a function of the applied potential. Higher electrochromism as well as decrease in film thickness after cathodisation is achieved. The optical indices and the thickness of the Ppy layer formed under different applied potential/time programmes are estimated.

  19. Optical third-harmonic generation using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, D.; Keto, J.W.; Becker, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better predict optical third-harmonic generation (THG) in transparent dielectrics, we model a typical ultrashort pulsed Gaussian beam, including both group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch of the fundamental and harmonic fields. We find that competition between the group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch leads to third-harmonic generation that is sensitive only to interfaces. In this case, the spatial resolution is determined by the group velocity walk-off length. THG of modern femtosecond lasers in optical solids is a bulk process, without a surface susceptibility, but bears the signature of a surface enhancement effect in z-scan measurements. We demonstrate the accuracy of the model, by showing the agreement between the predicted spectral intensity and the measured third-harmonic spectrum from a thin sapphire crystal

  20. The Supercontinuum Laser Source Fundamentals with Updated References

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Photonics and nonlinear optics are important areas of science, engineering and technology. One of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes is the supercontinuum (SC) – the production of intense white light pulses covering: uv, visible, NIR, MIR, and IR. It is produced using ultrashort laser pulses (ps/fs) to produce the ultrabroad band of frequencies. This book covers the fundamental principles and surveys research of current thinkers and experts in the field with updated references of the key breakthroughs over the past decade and a half. The application of SC are time-resolved pump-SC probe absorption and excitation spectroscopy for chemistry, biology and physics fundamental processes; optical coherence tomography; ultrashort pulse generation in femtosecond and attosecond regions; frequency clocks; phase stabilization; optical communication; atmospheric science; lightning control; optical medical imaging; biological cell imaging; and metrology standards.

  1. Femtosecond resolution timing jitter correction on a TW scale Ti:sapphire laser system for FEL pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatari Divall, Marta; Mutter, Patrick; Divall, Edwin J; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-11-16

    Intense ultrashort pulse lasers are used for fs resolution pump-probe experiments more and more at large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers (FEL). Measurement of the arrival time of the laser pulses and stabilization to the machine or other sub-systems on the target, is crucial for high time-resolution measurements. In this work we report on a single shot, spectrally resolved, non-collinear cross-correlator with sub-fs resolution. With a feedback applied we keep the output of the TW class Ti:sapphire amplifier chain in time with the seed oscillator to ~3 fs RMS level for several hours. This is well below the typical pulse duration used at FELs and supports fs resolution pump-probe experiments. Short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented. Applicability to other wavelengths and integration into the timing infrastructure of the FEL are also covered to show the full potential of the device.

  2. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  3. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  4. Suppressing the memory state of floating gate transistors with repeated femtosecond laser backside irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambonneau, Maxime; Souiki-Figuigui, Sarra; Chiquet, Philippe; Della Marca, Vincenzo; Postel-Pellerin, Jérémy; Canet, Pierre; Portal, Jean-Michel; Grojo, David

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that infrared femtosecond laser pulses with intensity above the two-photon ionization threshold of crystalline silicon induce charge transport through the tunnel oxide in floating gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor transistor devices. With repeated irradiations of Flash memory cells, we show how the laser-produced free-electrons naturally redistribute on both sides of the tunnel oxide until the electric field of the transistor is suppressed. This ability enables us to determine in a nondestructive, rapid and contactless way the flat band and the neutral threshold voltages of the tested device. The physical mechanisms including nonlinear ionization, quantum tunneling of free-carriers, and flattening of the band diagram are discussed for interpreting the experiments. The possibility to control the carriers in memory transistors with ultrashort pulses holds promises for fast and remote device analyses (reliability, security, and defectivity) and for considerable developments in the growing field of ultrafast microelectronics.

  5. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  6. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles.

  7. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of femtosecond technology. Development of the ultra-short pulse optoelectronic technology; 2000 nendo femto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chotan pulse hikari electronics gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project aims at creating new industrial basement technology which supports the highly information-oriented society in the 21st century, conducts the R and D of technology to control the state of light and electron in the femtosecond time domain (10{sup -15} - 10{sup -12} sec), and establishes the basement technology which exceeds the speed limit of the conventional electronics technology and also includes new functionality. Especially, it aims at establishing the basement technology of the ultra-high speed optoelectronics which are absolutely necessary for construction of the Tb/s class ultra-high speed/large capacity information communication infrastructure. The results obtained in this fiscal year were as follows: successful transmission of 144km of 600fs optical pulse, successful experiment of 4-chain pulse DEMUX equivalent to 1Tb/s by ultra-high speed intersubband transition optical switch of Sb-base material combination quantum well, realization of 2-bit coding/decoding in the spectral region, realization of serial-parallel conversion motion of optical pulse equivalent to 1Tb/s using squarylium J aggregate thin films, realization of subpico second optical pulse 20nm wavelength conversion by DFB laser structure, etc. (NEDO)

  9. Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Z.; Xu, X. D.; Zhou, D. H.; Zhuang, S. D.; Wang, Z. P.; Xia, C. T.; Wu, F.; Xu, J.

    2010-11-01

    A Nd:LYSO crystal has been grown by the Czochralski technique. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intense parameters Ω2,4,6 were obtained to be 2.65, 5.75, and 7.37×10-20 cm2, respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and the branching ratios were calculated. The large absorption cross section (6.14×10-20 cm2) and broad absorption band (5 nm) around 811 nm indicate that this crystal can be pumped efficiently by laser diodes. The broad emission band from the 4F3/2 multiplet shows that the crystal is a promising medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum 814 mW continuous-wave laser output has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 28.9%. All the results show that this crystal is a promising laser material.

  10. Passive, active, and hybrid mode-locking in a self-optimized ultrafast diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloush, M. Ali; Pilny, Rouven H.; Brenner, Carsten; Klehr, Andreas; Knigge, Andrea; Tränkle, Günther; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor lasers are promising sources for generating ultrashort pulses. They are directly electrically pumped, allow for a compact design, and therefore they are cost-effective alternatives to established solid-state systems. Additionally, their emission wavelength depends on the bandgap which can be tuned by changing the semiconductor materials. Theoretically, the obtained pulse width can be few tens of femtoseconds. However, the generated pulses are typically in the range of several hundred femtoseconds only. Recently, it was shown that by implementing a spatial light modulator (SLM) for phase and amplitude control inside the resonator the optical bandwidth can be optimized. Consequently, by using an external pulse compressor shorter pulses can be obtained. We present a Fourier-Transform-External-Cavity setup which utilizes an ultrafast edge-emitting diode laser. The used InGaAsP diode is 1 mm long and emits at a center wavelength of 850 nm. We investigate the best conditions for passive, active and hybrid mode-locking operation using the method of self-adaptive pulse shaping. For passive mode-locking, the bandwidth is increased from 2.34 nm to 7.2 nm and ultrashort pulses with a pulse width of 216 fs are achieved after external pulse compression. For active and hybrid mode-locking, we also increased the bandwidth. It is increased from 0.26 nm to 5.06 nm for active mode-locking and from 3.21 nm to 8.7 nm for hybrid mode-locking. As the pulse width is strongly correlated with the bandwidth of the laser, we expect further reduction in the pulse duration by increasing the bandwidth.

  11. Progress in ultrafast laser processing and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji

    2017-03-01

    The unique characteristics of ultrafast lasers have rapidly revolutionized materials processing after their first demonstration in 1987. The ultrashort pulse width of the laser suppresses heat diffusion to the surroundings of the processed region, which minimizes the formation of a heat-affected zone and thereby enables ultrahigh precision micro- and nanofabrication of various materials. In addition, the extremely high peak intensity can induce nonlinear multiphoton absorption, which extends the diversity of materials that can be processed to transparent materials such as glass. Nonlinear multiphoton absorption enables three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication by irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials. Thus, ultrafast lasers are currently widely used for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review presents progress in ultrafast laser processing, including micromachining, surface micro- and nanostructuring, nanoablation, and 3D and volume processing. Advanced technologies that promise to enhance the performance of ultrafast laser processing, such as hybrid additive and subtractive processing, and shaped beam processing are discussed. Commercial and industrial applications of ultrafast laser processing are also introduced. Finally, future prospects of the technology are given with a summary.

  12. Ellipsometric study and application of rubrene thin film in organic Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Deng, Jinxiang, E-mail: jdeng@bjut.edu.cn; Gao, Hongli; Yang, Qianqian; Kong, Le; Cui, Min; Zhang, Zijia

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The optical constants of rubrene were studied by ellipsometry spectroscopic. • The α reveals direct allowed transition with corresponding energy 2.21 eV. • A Schottky diodes based on rubrene were fabricated. • The basic device parameters were determined by the I–V measurement. - Abstract: Rubrene thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum (∼10{sup −4} Pa). The film surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ellipsometric studies on rubrene thin film were presented for understanding its growth and optical characteristics by the Classical-Oscillator model. The analysis of the absorption coefficient (α) revealed the direct allowed transition with corresponding energy 2.21 eV of the rubrene film. In order to exploring the rubrene applications, Al/rubrene/ITO Schottky diode was fabricated. The basic device parameters, barrier height and ideality factor were determined by the I–V measurement. The log(I)–log(V) characteristic indicated three distinct regions. These regions followed ohmic conduction, TCL conduction and SCLC conduction mechanisms.

  13. Temperature calibration procedure for thin film substrates for thermo-ellipsometric analysis using melting point standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappert, Emiel J.; Raaijmakers, Michiel J.T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Nijmeijer, Arian; Huiskes, Cindy; Benes, Nieck E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile temperature calibration method for thermo-ellipsometric analysis. • The melting point of thin films of indium, lead, zinc, and water can be detected by ellipsometry. • In-situ calibration of ellipsometry hot stage, without using any external equipment. • High-accuracy temperature calibration (±1.3 °C). - Abstract: Precise and accurate temperature control is pertinent to studying thermally activated processes in thin films. Here, we present a calibration method for the substrate–film interface temperature using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The method is adapted from temperature calibration methods that are well developed for thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry instruments, and is based on probing a transition temperature. Indium, lead, and zinc could be spread on a substrate, and the phase transition of these metals could be detected by a change in the Ψ signal of the ellipsometer. For water, the phase transition could be detected by a loss of signal intensity as a result of light scattering by the ice crystals. The combined approach allowed for construction of a linear calibration curve with an accuracy of 1.3 °C or lower over the full temperature range

  14. Ellipsometric study of GaN/AIN/Si(111) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, M. A. U.; Ashfaq, A.; Arshad, M. I.; Ali, A.; Mahmood, K.; Hasan, M. A.; Asghar, M.

    2013-01-01

    GaN and related structures attracted a great interest in the recent years for electronic and optoelectronic applications due to their promising properties. GaN is grown popularly on foreign substrates like sapphire and SiC. However, silicon due to its favourable properties attended the great attention of material scientists and researchers to utilize as substrate for heteroepitaxy of GaN based structures and devices. Silicon substrates are low cost, available in large diameters and have well characterized thermal and electrical properties. In this study, GaN/AlN/Si(111) heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We performed x-ray diffraction spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry on these samples to study their structural and optical properties. XRD measurements performed on these samples revealed the presence of high quality GaN films as well as the presence of AlN buffer layer with the following miller indices: GaN (002), GaN (004), GaN (006) and GaN (110) along with Si peak of phase (111). The ellipsometric data obtained were used to characterize the GaN/Si samples as a function of film thickness. Refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were calculated by the measured data. (author)

  15. In-situ ellipsometric characterization of the growth of porous anisotropic nanocrystalline ZnO layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, P., E-mail: plaha@vub.ac.be; Terryn, H.; Ustarroz, J., E-mail: justarro@vub.ac.be [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Brussels (Belgium); Nazarkin, M. Y., E-mail: mikleo@mail.ru; Gavrilov, S. A. [Department of Materials of Functional Electronics (MFE), National Research University of Electronic Technology, Bld. 5, Pas. 4806, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation); Volkova, A. V.; Simunin, M. M. [Department of Quantum Physics and Nanoelectronics (QPN), National Research University of Electronic Technology, Bld. 5, Pas. 4806, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-09

    ZnO films have increasingly been in the spotlight due to their largely varied electro-physical and optical properties. For several applications, porous anisotropic nanocrystalline layers are especially interesting. To study the growth kinetics of such films during different fabrication processes, a powerful non-destructive in-situ technique is required. In this work, both ex-situ and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry are used along with advanced modelling techniques that are able to take both the anisotropy and the porosity of the films into account. Scanning electron microscopy, along with nitrogen absorption methods for measuring porosity, validated the ellipsometric data and proposed model. The film, grown by chemical bath deposition, was monitored from around 700 to 1800 nm in thickness. This same principle can now be used to monitor any other porous and/or anisotropic structure in an effective in-situ manner, e.g., growth of porous anodic aluminium oxides, nano-porous silica films, etc.

  16. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  17. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Rocio; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon [Manufacturing Processes Department, Fundacion TEKNIKER, Av. Otaola 20, 20600, Eibar, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon [Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  18. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Rocio; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  19. Technique for long and absolute distance measurement based on laser pulse repetition frequency sweeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, A.; Jost, Michael; Rebordão, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we present a technique to perform long and absolute distance measurements based on mode-locked diode lasers. Using a Michelson interferometer, it is possible to produce an optical cross-correlation between laser pulses of the reference arm with the pulses from the measurement arm, adjusting externally their degree of overlap either changing the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or the position of the reference arm mirror for two (or more) fixed frequencies. The correlation of the travelling pulses for precision distance measurements relies on ultra-short pulse durations, as the uncertainty associated to the method is dependent on the laser pulse width as well as on a highly stable PRF. Mode-locked Diode lasers are a very appealing technology for its inherent characteristics, associated to compactness, size and efficiency, constituting a positive trade-off with regard to other mode-locked laser sources. Nevertheless, main current drawback is the non-availability of frequency-stable laser diodes. The laser used is a monolithic mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) laser. The laser PRF is locked to an external stabilized RF reference. In this work we will present some of the preliminary results and discuss the importance of the requirements related to laser PRF stability in the final metrology system accuracy.

  20. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-15

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  1. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-01

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  2. Interaction of ultrashort pulses with molecules and solids: Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... The physics of interaction has been fairly understood over the last couple of decades and, consequently, several applications have been envisaged from these interactions in the fields of photonics, lithography, biomedicine, sensing, telecommunications etc. In the present article we describe three different ...

  3. Interaction of ultrashort pulses with molecules and solids: Physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ent applications resulting from such interactions in photonics and ... nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, figures-of-merit and, consequently, identify ..... ings and other photonic components in fibres, (c) creation of nanoaquarium for dynamic ... is to utilize the plasmonic nanostructures of Ag, Cu, and alloys prepared by ultrafast.

  4. Optical soliton communication using ultra-short pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Sadegh Amiri, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    This brief analyzes the characteristics of a microring resonator (MRR) to perform communication using ultra-short soliton pulses. The raising of nonlinear refractive indices, coupling coefficients and radius of the single microring resonator leads to decrease in input power and round trips wherein the bifurcation occurs. As a result, bifurcation or chaos behaviors are seen at lower input power of 44 W, where the nonlinear refractive index is n2=3.2×10−20 m2/W. Using a decimal convertor system, these ultra-short signals can be converted into quantum information. Results show that multi solitons with FWHM and FSR of 10 pm and 600 pm can be generated respectively. The multi optical soliton with FWHM and FSR of 325 pm and 880 nm can be incorporated with a time division multiple access (TDMA) system wherein the transportation of quantum information is performed.

  5. Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Nd:(Lu0.5Gd0.5)2SiO5 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D Z; Xu, X D; Wu, F; Xia, C T; Zhang, J; Ma, J; Cong, Z H; Tang, D Y; Zhu, H M; Chen, X Y; Xu, J

    2011-01-01

    A Nd:(Lu 0.5 Gd 0.5 ) 2 SiO 5 (Nd:LGSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω 2,4,6 were obtained to be 5.37, 1.63, and 5.57×10 -20 cm 2 , respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and branching ratios were calculated. The Nd:LGSO crystal reveals a broadband emission feature (FWHM = 9.8 nm), which shows potential as gain medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. The radiative and fluorescence lifetimes are 299 and 230 μs, respectively, resulting in a quantum efficiency of 77%. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 444 mW and a slope efficiency of 17.7% have been obtained

  6. Growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of Nd:(Lu0.5Gd0.5)2SiO5 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Z.; Xu, X. D.; Zhang, J.; Cong, Z. H.; Tang, D. Y.; Ma, J.; Zhu, H. M.; Chen, X. Y.; Wu, F.; Xia, C. T.; Xu, J.

    2011-09-01

    A Nd:(Lu0.5Gd0.5)2SiO5 (Nd:LGSO) crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The cell parameters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2,4,6 were obtained to be 5.37, 1.63, and 5.57×10-20 cm2, respectively. The absorption and emission cross sections and branching ratios were calculated. The Nd:LGSO crystal reveals a broadband emission feature (FWHM = 9.8 nm), which shows potential as gain medium for ultrashort pulse lasers. The radiative and fluorescence lifetimes are 299 and 230 μs, respectively, resulting in a quantum efficiency of 77%. Pumped by a laser diode, the maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 444 mW and a slope efficiency of 17.7% have been obtained.

  7. Measurement of x-ray emission and thermal transport in near-solid-density plasmas heated by 130 fs laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.K.; Wilson, B.G.; Price, D.F.; Stewart, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Near-solid-density plasmas with peak temperatures of 370±50 eV have been generated using a high-contrast (∼10 -7 ), 400 nm, 130 fs laser pulse of intensity 3x10 17 Wcm -2 at the Ultrashort Pulse Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The x-ray-emission spectra from thin tracer layers of germanium, tamped by layers of plastic, were measured as a function of target depth. The results qualitatively agree with calculations based on detailed local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and modified non-LTE spectroscopic opacity models using plasma conditions determined using LASNEX hydrodynamic simulations. No evidence of thermal flux inhibition into the bulk target material was observed. The experiments and detailed simulations are presented. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Ellipsometric studies of synthetic albumin-binding chitosan-derivatives and selected blood plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    This dissertation summarizes work on the synthesis of chitosan-derivatives and the development of ellipsometric methods to characterize materials of biological origin. Albumin-binding chitosan-derivatives were synthesized via addition reactions that involve amine groups naturally present in chitosan. These surfaces were shown to have an affinity towards human serum albumin via ELISA, UV spectroscopy and SDS PAGE. Modified surfaces were characterized with IR ellipsometry at various stages of their synthesis using appropriate optical models. It was found that spin cast chitosan films were anisotropic in nature. All optical models used for characterizing chitosan-derivatives were thus anisotropic. Chemical signal dependence on molecular structure and composition was illustrated via IR spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE). An anisotropic optical model of an ensemble of Lorentz oscillators were used to approximate material behavior. The presence of acetic acid in spin-cast non-neutralized chitosan samples was thus shown. IRSE application to biomaterials was also demonstrated by performing a step-wise chemical characterizations during synthesis stages. Protein adsorbed from single protein solutions on these modified surfaces was monitored by visible in-situ variable wavelength ellipsometry. Based on adsorption profiles obtained from single protein adsorption onto silicon surfaces, lumped parameter kinetic models were developed. These models were used to fit experimental data of immunoglobulin-G of different concentrations and approximate conformational changes in fibrinogen adsorption. Biomaterial characterization by ellipsometry was further extended to include characterization of individual protein solutions in the IR range. Proteins in an aqueous environment were characterized by attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) IR ellipsometry using a ZnSe prism. Parameterized dielectric functions were created for individual proteins using Lorentz oscillators. These

  9. Optimization of silver nanoparticles production by laser ablation in water using a 150-ps laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stašić, J.; Živković, Lj.; Trtica, M.

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation in liquid (water) using a 150-ps Nd:YAG laser. Due to their extraordinary characteristics, especially when obtained by this method providing high purity and high stability of colloids, silver NPs are nowadays highly important in various applications. The objective of this study was to optimize the process parameters in order to achieve the highest possible yield while retaining small particle size. Yield/mass concentration of the obtained particles was measured depending on different parameters: time of irradiation, pulse energy, position regarding the focus, and number of irradiation locations. The conditions providing relatively high yield, small particle size, highest production rate, and highest efficiency are 7 mJ, 15-min irradiation time (9000 pulses), and target position ∼4 mm in front of the lens focus. The results are compared with the results obtained by the longer nanosecond as well as the ultrashort pulsed lasers. A possible physical explanation is given.

  10. Optimization of silver nanoparticles production by laser ablation in water using a 150-ps laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stašić, J.; Živković, Lj.; Trtica, M., E-mail: etrtica@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinča” (Serbia)

    2016-12-15

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation in liquid (water) using a 150-ps Nd:YAG laser. Due to their extraordinary characteristics, especially when obtained by this method providing high purity and high stability of colloids, silver NPs are nowadays highly important in various applications. The objective of this study was to optimize the process parameters in order to achieve the highest possible yield while retaining small particle size. Yield/mass concentration of the obtained particles was measured depending on different parameters: time of irradiation, pulse energy, position regarding the focus, and number of irradiation locations. The conditions providing relatively high yield, small particle size, highest production rate, and highest efficiency are 7 mJ, 15-min irradiation time (9000 pulses), and target position ∼4 mm in front of the lens focus. The results are compared with the results obtained by the longer nanosecond as well as the ultrashort pulsed lasers. A possible physical explanation is given.

  11. Mode-locked thin-disk lasers and their potential application for high-power terahertz generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Clara J.

    2018-04-01

    The progress achieved in the last few decades in the performance of ultrafast laser systems with high average power has been tremendous, and continues to provide momentum to new exciting applications, both in scientific research and technology. Among the various technological advances that have shaped this progress, mode-locked thin-disk oscillators have attracted significant attention as a unique technology capable of providing ultrashort pulses with high energy (tens to hundreds of microjoules) and at very high repetition rates (in the megahertz regime) from a single table-top oscillator. This technology opens the door to compact high repetition rate ultrafast sources spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the XUV to the terahertz regime, opening various new application fields. In this article, we focus on their unexplored potential as compact driving sources for high average power terahertz generation.

  12. Photoelectron diffraction from single oriented molecules: Towards ultrafast structure determination of molecules using x-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Misato; Fujikawa, Takashi; Kishimoto, Naoki; Mizuno, Tomoya; Adachi, Jun-ichi; Yagishita, Akira

    2013-06-01

    We provide a molecular structure determination method, based on multiple-scattering x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) calculations. This method is applied to our XPD data on several molecules having different equilibrium geometries. Then it is confirmed that, by our method, bond lengths and bond angles can be determined with a resolution of less than 0.1 Å and 10∘, respectively. Differently from any other scenario of ultrafast structure determination, we measure the two- or three-dimensional XPD of aligned or oriented molecules in the energy range from 100 to 200 eV with a 4π detection velocity map imaging spectrometer. Thanks to the intense and ultrashort pulse properties of x-ray free-electron lasers, our approach exhibits the most probable method for obtaining ultrafast real-time structural information on small to medium-sized molecules consisting of light elements, i.e., a “molecular movie.”

  13. 256 fs, 2 nJ soliton pulse generation from MoS2 mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zike; Chen, Hao; Li, Jiarong; Yin, Jinde; Wang, Jinzhang; Yan, Peiguang

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate an Er-doped fiber laser (EDFL) mode-locked by a MoS2 saturable absorber (SA), delivering a 256 fs, 2 nJ soliton pulse at 1563.4 nm. The nonlinear property of the SA prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) is measured with a modulation depth (MD) of ∼19.48% and a saturable intensity of 4.14 MW/cm2. To the best of our knowledge, the generated soliton pulse has the highest pulse energy of 2 nJ among the reported mode-locked EDFLs based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Our results indicate that MSD-grown SAs could offer an exciting platform for high pulse energy and ultrashort pulse generation.

  14. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Laser Interactions with Atoms, Solids,and Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this NATO Advanced Study Institute was to bring together scientists and students working in the field of laser matter interactions in order to review and stimulate developmentoffundamental science with ultra-short pulse lasers. New techniques of pulse compression and colliding-pulse mode-locking have made possible the construction of lasers with pulse lengths in the femtosecond range. Such lasers are now in operation at several research laboratories in Europe and the United States. These laser facilities present a new and exciting research direction with both pure and applied science components. In this ASI the emphasis is on fundamental processes occurring in the interaction of short laser pulses with atoms, molecules, solids, and plasmas. In the case of laser-atom (molecule) interactions, high power lasers provide the first access to extreme high-intensity conditions above 10'8 Watts/em', a new frontier for nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and molecules. New phenomena observed include ...

  16. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH2PO4 crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH2PO4 crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  17. The development of novel Ytterbium fiber lasers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bai

    The aim of my Ph.D. research is to push the fundamental limits holding back the development of novel Yb fiber lasers with high pulse energy and short pulse duration. The purpose of developing these lasers is to use them for important applications such as multiphoton microscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. My first project was to develop a short-pulse high-energy ultrafast fiber laser for multiphoton microscopy. To achieve high multiphoton efficiency and depth resolved tissue imaging, ultrashort pulse duration and high pulse energy are required. In order to achieve this, an all-normal dispersion cavity design was adopted. Output performances of the built lasers were investigated by varying several cavity parameters, such as pump laser power, fiber length and intra-cavity spectral filter bandwidth. It was found that the length of the fiber preceding the gain fiber is critical to the laser performance. Generally, the shorter the fiber is, the broader the output spectrum is. The more interesting parameter is the intra-cavity spectral filter bandwidth. Counter intuitively, laser cavities using narrower bandwidth spectral filters generated much broader spectra. It was also found that fiber lasers with very narrow spectral filters produced laser pulses with parabolic profile, which are referred to as self-similar pulses or similaritons. This type of pulse can avoid wave-breaking and is an optimal approach to generate pulses with high pulse energy and ultrashort pulse duration. With a 3nm intra-cavity spectral filter, output pulses with about 20 nJ pulse energy were produced and compressed to about 41 fs full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. Due to the loss in the compression device, the peak power of the compressed pulses is about 250 kW. It was the highest peak power generated from a fiber oscillator when this work was published. This laser was used for multiphoton microscopy on living tissues like Drosophila larva and fruit fly wings. Several

  18. Hybrid Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sawyer; Trujillo, Skyler; Fort Lewis College Laser Group Team

    This work concerns the novel design of an inexpensive pulsed Nd:YAG laser, consisting of a hybrid Kerr Mode Lock (KLM) and Q-switch pulse. The two pulse generation systems work independently, non simultaneously of each other, thus generating the ability for the user to easily switch between ultra-short pulse widths or large energy density pulses. Traditionally, SF57 glass has been used as the Kerr medium. In this work, novel Kerr mode-locking mediums are being investigated including: tellurite compound glass (TeO2), carbon disulfide (CS2), and chalcogenide glass. These materials have a nonlinear index of refraction orders of magnitude,(n2), larger than SF57 glass. The Q-switched pulse will utilize a Pockels cell. As the two pulse generation systems cannot be operated simultaneously, the Pockels cell and Kerr medium are attached to kinematic mounts, allowing for quick interchange between systems. Pulse widths and repetition rates will vary between the two systems. A goal of 100 picosecond pulse widths are desired for the mode-locked system. A goal of 10 nanosecond pulse widths are desired for the Q-switch system, with a desired repetition rate of 50 Hz. As designed, the laser will be useful in imaging applications.

  19. Dosimetry of laser-accelerated electron beams used for in vitro cell irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, C.; Kaluza, M.; Karsch, L.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schürer, M.; Sobiella, M.; Woithe, J.; Pawelke, J.

    2011-01-01

    The dosimetric characterization of laser-accelerated electrons applied for the worldwide first systematic radiobiological in vitro cell irradiation will be presented. The laser-accelerated electron beam at the JeTi laser system has been optimized, monitored and controlled in terms of dose homogeneity, stability and absolute dose delivery. A combination of different dosimetric components were used to provide both an online beam as well as dose monitoring and a precise absolute dosimetry. In detail, the electron beam was controlled and monitored by means of an ionization chamber and an in-house produced Faraday cup for a defined delivery of the prescribed dose. Moreover, the precise absolute dose delivered to each cell sample was determined by an radiochromic EBT film positioned in front of the cell sample. Furthermore, the energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated electron beam was determined. As presented in a previous work of the authors, also for laser-accelerated protons a precise dosimetric characterization was performed that enabled initial radiobiological cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, a precise dosimetric characterization, optimization and control of laser-accelerated and therefore ultra-short pulsed, intense particle beams for both electrons and protons is possible, allowing radiobiological experiments and meeting all necessary requirements like homogeneity, stability and precise dose delivery. In order to fulfill the much higher dosimetric requirements for clinical application, several improvements concerning, i.e., particle energy and spectral shaping as well as patient safety are necessary.

  20. Proton- and x-ray beams generated by ultra-fast CO2 lasers for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Shkolnikov, Peter; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Palmer, Charlotte A. J.; Dover, Nicholas P.; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress in using picosecond CO2 lasers for Thomson scattering and ion-acceleration experiments underlines their potentials for enabling secondary radiation- and particle- sources. These experiments capitalize on certain advantages of long-wavelength CO2 lasers, such as higher number of photons per energy unit, and favorable scaling of the electrons' ponderomotive energy and critical plasma density. The high-flux x-ray bursts produced by Thomson scattering of the CO2 laser off a counter-propagating electron beam enabled high-contrast, time-resolved imaging of biological objects in the picosecond time frame. In different experiments, the laser, focused on a hydrogen jet, generated monoenergetic proton beams via the radiation-pressure mechanism. The strong power-scaling of this regime promises realization of proton beams suitable for laser-driven proton cancer therapy after upgrading the CO2 laser to sub-PW peak power. This planned improvement includes optimizing the 10-μm ultra-short pulse generation, assuring higher amplification in the CO2 gas under combined isotopic- and power-broadening effects, and shortening the postamplification pulse to a few laser cycles (150-200 fs) via chirping and compression. These developments will move us closer to practical applications of ultra-fast CO2 lasers in medicine and other areas.

  1. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian [Center for Precision Engineering, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chen, Mingjun, E-mail: chenmj@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: chowdhury.24@osu.edu; Wang, Jinghe; Xiao, Yong [Center for Precision Engineering, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Kafka, Kyle; Austin, Drake; Chowdhury, Enam, E-mail: chenmj@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: chowdhury.24@osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  2. Femtosecond laser machining for characterization of local mechanical properties of biomaterials: a case study on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Severin; Pfeifenberger, Manuel J.; Hohenwarter, Anton; Pippan, Reinhard

    2017-12-01

    The standard preparation technique for micro-sized samples is focused ion beam milling, most frequently using Ga+ ions. The main drawbacks are the required processing time and the possibility and risks of ion implantation. In contrast, ultrashort pulsed laser ablation can process any type of material with ideally negligible damage to the surrounding volume and provides 4 to 6 orders of magnitude higher ablation rates than the ion beam technique. In this work, a femtosecond laser was used to prepare wood samples from spruce for mechanical testing at the micrometre level. After optimization of the different laser parameters, tensile and compressive specimens were produced from microtomed radial-tangential and longitudinal-tangential sections. Additionally, laser-processed samples were exposed to an electron beam prior to testing to study possible beam damage. The specimens originating from these different preparation conditions were mechanically tested. Advantages and limitations of the femtosecond laser preparation technique and the deformation and fracture behaviour of the samples are discussed. The results prove that femtosecond laser processing is a fast and precise preparation technique, which enables the fabrication of pristine biological samples with dimensions at the microscale.

  3. Tunable femtosecond lasers with low pump thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppo, Karen

    The work in this thesis is concerned with the development of tunable, femtosecond laser systems, exhibiting low pump threshold powers. The main motive for this work was the development of a low threshold, self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser in order to replace the conventional large-frame argon-ion pump laser with a more compact and efficient all-solid-state alternative. Results are also presented for an all-solid-state, self-modelocked Cr:LiSAF laser, however most of this work is concerned with self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser systems. In chapter 2, the operation of a regeneratively-initiated, and a hard-aperture self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser, pumped by an argon-ion laser, is discussed. Continuous- wave oscillation thresholds as low as 160mW have been demonstrated, along with self-modelocked threshold powers as low as 500mW. The measurement and suppression of phase noise on modelocked lasers is discussed in chapter 3. This is followed by a comparison of the phase noise characteristics of the regeneratively-initiated, and hard-aperture self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 lasers. The use of a synchronously-operating, high resolution electron-optical streak camera in the evaluation of timing jitter is also presented. In chapter 4, the construction and self-modelocked operation of an all-solid-state Ti:Al2O3 laser is described. The all-solid-state alternative to the conventional argon-ion pump laser was a continuous-wave, intracavity-frequency doubled, diode-laser pumped Nd:YLF ring laser. At a total diode-laser pump power of 10W, this minilaser was capable of producing a single frequency output of 1W, at 523.5nm in a TEM00 beam. The remainder of this thesis looks at the operation of a self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser generating ultrashort pulses at wavelengths as long as 1053nm. The motive for this work was the development of an all-solid-state, self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser operating at 1053nm, for use as a master oscillator in a Nd:glass power chain.

  4. Optimization and application of electron acceleration in relativistic laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigstein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments and simulations of the acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies (toward γ e ∼ 10 3 ) by structures in plasmas which are generated by ultrashort (pulse length < 10 -14 s) laser pulses. The first part of this work discusses experiments in a parameter space where quasimonoenergetic electron bunches are generated in subcritical (gaseous) plasmas and compares them to analytical scalings. A primary concern in this work is to optimize the stability of the energy and the pointing of the electrons. The second part deals with acceleration of electrons along the surface of solid substrates by laser-plasma interaction. The measurements show good agreement with existing analytical scalings and dedicated numerical simulations. In the third part, two new concepts for multi-stage acceleration will be presented and parameterised by analytical considerations and numerical simulations. The first method uses electron pairs, as produced in the first part, to transfer energy from the first bunch to the second by means of a plasma wave. The second method utilizes a low intensity laser pulse in order to inject electrons from a neutral gas into the accelerating phase of a plasma wave. The final chapter proposes and demonstrates a first application that has been developed in collaboration with ESA. The use of electron beams with exponential energy distribution, as in the second part of this work, offers the potential to investigate the resistance of electronic components against space radiation exposure.

  5. Preformed transient gas channels for laser wakefield particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Acceleration of electrons by laser-driven plasma wake fields is limited by the range over which a laser pulse can maintain its intensity. This distance is typically given by the Rayleigh range for the focused laser beam, usually on the order of 0.1 mm to 1 mm. For practical particle acceleration, interaction distances on the order of centimeters are required. Therefore, some means of guiding high intensity laser pulses is necessary. Light intensities on the order of a few times 10 17 W/cm 2 are required for laser wakefield acceleration schemes using near IR radiation. Gas densities on the order of or greater than 10 17 cm -3 are also needed. Laser-atom interaction studies in this density and intensity regime are generally limited by the concomitant problems in beam propagation introduced by the creation of a plasma. In addition to the interaction distance limit imposed by the Rayleigh range, defocusing of the high intensity laser pulse further limits the peak intensity which can be achieved. To solve the problem of beam propagation limitations in laser-plasma wakefield experiments, two potential methods for creating transient propagation channels in gaseous targets are investigated. The first involves creation of a charge-neutral channel in a gas by an initial laser pulse, which then is ionized by a second, ultrashort, high-intensity pulse to create a waveguide. The second method involves the ionization of a gas column by an ultrashort pulse; a transient waveguide is formed by the subsequent expansion of the heated plasma into the neutral gas

  6. Overview and future prospects of the use of lasers for packaging by the microelectronics and photonics industry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Kunihiko; Kouta, Hikaru

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an overview and future prospects of the use of lasers for packaging by the microelectronics and photonics industry in Japan. Various kinds of lasers and material processing technologies have been developed and applied for manufacturing electronic and photonic devices to meet the strong demands for high-performance, lightweight, low energy-consumption mobile digital consumer electronics, broadband optical fiber communications, low-emission and fuel-efficient, easy-to-steer smart cars, etc. This paper emphasizes solid-state lasers as convenient and versatile light sources for packaging advanced compact devices with sensitive passive or active components having small feature sizes. Some of the representative material processing applications using solid-state lasers for electronic and photonic devices are, opaque and clear defects repairing of LCDs, trimming of functional modules, fine-tuning of optical characteristics of photonic devices, forming of various micro-vias for high-density interconnection circuits, laser patterning of amorphous solar-cells, and high-precision laser welding of electronic components such as optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. The recent progress in high-power ultra-short pulse solid-state lasers seems to be rapidly increasing their processing capabilities such as for fine adjustment of optical filters, etc.

  7. Near-field enhanced femtosecond laser nano-drilling of glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hong, M.H.; Fuh, J.Y.H.; Lu, L.; Lukyanchuk, B.S.; Wang, Z.B.

    2008-01-01

    Particle mask assisted near-field enhanced femtosecond laser nano-drilling of transparent glass substrate was demonstrated in this paper. A particle mask was fabricated by self-assembly of spherical 1 μm silica particles on the substrate surface. Then the samples were exposed to femtosecond laser (800 nm, 100 fs) and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The nano-hole array was found on the glass surface. The hole sizes were measured from 200 to 300 nm with an average depth of 150 nm and increased with laser fluence. Non-linear triple-photon absorption and near-field enhancement were the main mechanisms of the nano-feature formation. Calculations based on Mie theory shows an agreement with experiment results. More debris, however, was found at high laser fluence. This can be attributed to the explosion of silica particles because the focusing point is inside the 1 μm particle. The simulation predicts that the focusing point will move outside the particle if the particle size increases. The experiment performed under 6.84 μm silica particles verified that no debris was formed. And for all the samples, no cracks were found on the substrate surface because of ultra-short pulse width of femtosecond laser. This method has potential applications in nano-patterning of transparent glass substrate for nano-structure device fabrication

  8. Selective ablation of dental enamel and dentin using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarelli, R F Z; Costa, M M; Carvalho-Filho, E; Bagnato, V S; Nunes, F D

    2008-01-01

    The study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter, as well as transient response of atoms and molecules is very appropriated because of the laser energy concentration in a femtosecond optical pulses. The fundamental problem to be solved is to find tools and techniques which allow us to observe and manipulate on a femtosecond time scale the photonics events on and into the matter. Six third human extracted molars were exposed to a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire Q-switched and mode locked laser (Libra-S, Coherent, Palo Alto, CA, USA), emitting pulses with 70 fs width, radiation wavelength of 801 nm, at a constant pulse repetition rate of 1 KHz. The laser was operated at different power levels (70 to 400 mW) with constant exposition time of 10 seconds, at focused and defocused mode. Enamel and dentin surfaces were evaluated concerned ablation rate and morphological aspects under scanning electron microscopic. The results in this present experiment suggest that at the focused mode and under higher average power, enamel tissues present microcavities with higher depth and very precise edges, but, while dentin shows a larger melt-flushing, lower depth and melting and solidification aspect. In conclusion, it is possible to choose hard or soft ablation, under lower and higher average power, respectively, revealing different aspects of dental enamel and dentin, depending on the average power, fluence and distance from the focal point of the ultra-short pulse laser on the tooth surface

  9. Q-switched all-fiber laser with short pulse duration based on tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyi; OuYang, Yuyi; Ma, Guoli; Liu, Mengli; Liu, Wenjun

    2018-05-01

    Fiber lasers are widely used in industrial processing, sensing, medical and communications applications due to their simple structure, good stability and low cost. With the rapid development of fiber lasers and the sustained improvement of industrial laser quality requirements, researchers in ultrafast optics focus on how to get laser pulses with high output power and narrow pulse duration. Q-switched technology is one of the most effective techniques to generate ultrashort pulses. In this paper, a tungsten diselenide saturable absorber with 16.82% modulation depth is prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Experimental results show that when the pump power changes from 115.7 mW to 630 mW, the all-fiber laser can achieve a stable Q-switched pulse output. The repetition rate of the output pulse varies from 80.32 kHz to 204.2 kHz, the pulse duration is 581 ns, the maximum output power is 17.1 mW and the maximum pulse energy is 83.7 nJ. Results in this paper show that tungsten diselenide can be applied to ultrafast optics, which is a kind of saturable absorption material with excellent properties.

  10. Optimal configuration of partial Mueller matrix polarimeter for measuring the ellipsometric parameters in the presence of Poisson shot noise and Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Naicheng; Zhang, Chunmin; Mu, Tingkui

    2018-05-01

    We address the optimal configuration of a partial Mueller matrix polarimeter used to determine the ellipsometric parameters in the presence of additive Gaussian noise and signal-dependent shot noise. The numerical results show that, for the PSG/PSA consisting of a variable retarder and a fixed polarizer, the detection process immune to these two types of noise can be optimally composed by 121.2° retardation with a pair of azimuths ±71.34° and a 144.48° retardation with a pair of azimuths ±31.56° for four Mueller matrix elements measurement. Compared with the existing configurations, the configuration presented in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement precision of the ellipsometric parameters.

  11. Asymmetry of light absorption upon propagation of focused femtosecond laser pulses with spatiotemporal coupling through glass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Vladimir P.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.

    2017-05-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses are usually described in terms of temporal and spatial dependences of their electric field, assuming that the spatial dependence is separable from time dependence. However, in most situations this assumption is incorrect as generation of ultrashort pulses and their manipulation lead to couplings between spatial and temporal coordinates resulting in various effects such as pulse front tilt and spatial chirp. One of the most intriguing spatiotemporal coupling effects is the so-called "lighthouse effect", the phase front rotation with the beam propagation distance [Akturk et al., Opt. Express 13, 8642 (2005)]. The interaction of spatiotemporally coupled laser pulses with transparent materials have interesting peculiarities, such as the effect of nonreciprocal writing, which can be used to facilitate microfabrication of photonic structures inside optical glasses. In this work, we make an attempt to numerically investigate the influence of the pulse front tilt and the lighthouse effect on the absorption of laser energy inside fused silica glass. The model, which is based on nonlinear Maxwell's equations supplemented by the hydrodynamic equations for free electron plasma, is applied. As three-dimensional solution of such a problem would require huge computational resources, a simplified two-dimensional model has been proposed. It has enabled to gain a qualitative insight into the features of propagation of ultrashort laser pulses with the tilted front in the regimes of volumetric laser modification of transparent materials, including directional asymmetry upon direct laser writing in glass materials.

  12. Focusing effects in laser-electron Thomson scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of laser pulse focusing on the spectral properties of Thomson scattered radiation. Modeling the laser as a paraxial beam we find that, in all but the most extreme cases of focusing, the temporal envelope has a much bigger effect on the spectrum than the focusing itself. For the case of ultrashort pulses, where the paraxial model is no longer valid, we adopt a subcycle vector beam description of the field. It is found that the emission harmonics are blue shifted and broaden out in frequency space as the pulse becomes shorter. Additionally the carrier envelope phase becomes important, resulting in an angular asymmetry in the spectrum. We then use the same model to study the effects of focusing beyond the limit where the paraxial expansion is valid. It is found that fields focussed to subwavelength spot sizes produce spectra that are qualitatively similar to those from subcycle pulses due to the shortening of the pulse with focusing. Finally, we study high-intensity fields and find that, in general, the focusing makes negligible difference to the spectra in the regime of radiation reaction.

  13. Surface Texturing of CVD Diamond Assisted by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele M. Trucchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with excellent physical properties which allow it to operate under extreme conditions. However, the technological use of diamond was mostly conceived for the fabrication of ultraviolet, ionizing radiation and nuclear detectors, of electron emitters, and of power electronic devices. The use of nanosecond pulse excimer lasers enabled the microstructuring of diamond surfaces, and refined techniques such as controlled ablation through graphitization and etching by two-photon surface excitation are being exploited for the nanostructuring of diamond. On the other hand, ultrashort pulse lasers paved the way for a more accurate diamond microstructuring, due to reduced thermal effects, as well as an effective surface nanostructuring, based on the formation of periodic structures at the nanoscale. It resulted in drastic modifications of the optical and electronic properties of diamond, of which “black diamond” films are an example for future high-temperature solar cells as well as for advanced optoelectronic platforms. Although experiments on diamond nanostructuring started almost 20 years ago, real applications are only today under implementation.

  14. Development of an integrated automated retinal surgical laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S F; Wright, C H; Oberg, E D; Rockwell, B A; Cain, C; Rylander, H G; Welch, A J

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas and the USAF Academy have worked toward the development of a retinal robotic laser system. The overall goal of this ongoing project is to precisely place and control the depth of laser lesions for the treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears. Separate low speed prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion depth using lesion reflectance feedback parameters and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Both subsystems have been successfully demonstrated in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser. Preliminary testing on rhesus primate subjects have been accomplished with the CW argon laser and also the ultrashort pulse laser. Recent efforts have concentrated on combining the two subsystems into a single prototype capable of simultaneously controlling both lesion depth and placement. We have designated this combined system CALOSOS for Computer Aided Laser Optics System for Ophthalmic Surgery. Several interesting areas of study have developed in integrating the two subsystems: 1) "doughnut" shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, 2) the optimal retinal field of view (FOV) to achieve both tracking and lesion parameter control, and 3) development of a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry to achieve retinal tracking speeds of up to 100 dgs. This presentation will discuss these design issues of this clinically significant prototype system. Details of the hybrid prototype system are provided in "Hybrid Eye Tracking for Computer-Aided Retinal Surgery" at this conference. The paper will close with remaining technical hurdles to clear prior to testing the full-up clinical prototype system.

  15. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-01-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ∼ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi 0.85 Co 0.15 O 2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  16. Fabrication and hydrophobic characteristics of micro / nanostructures on polydimethylsiloxane surface prepared by picosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Wang; Dong, Shiyun; Yan, Shixing; Gang, Xiao; Xie, Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Picosecond laser has ultrashort pulse width and ultrastrong peak power, which makes it widely used in the field of micro-nanoscale fabrication. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a typical silicone elastomer with good hydrophobicity. In order to further improve the hydrophobicity of PDMS, the picosecond laser was used to fabricate a grid-like microstructure on the surface of PDMS, and the relationship between hydrophobicity of PDMS with surface microstructure and laser processing parameters, such as processing times and cell spacing was studied. The results show that: compared with the unprocessed PDMS, the presence of surface microstructure significantly improved the hydrophobicity of PDMS. When the number of processing is constant, the hydrophobicity of PDMS decreases with the increase of cell spacing. However, when the cell spacing is fixed, the hydrophobicity of PDMS first increases and then decreases with the increase of processing times. In particular, when the times of laser processing is 6 and the cell spacing is 50μm, the contact angle of PDMS increased from 113° to 154°, which reached the level of superhydrophobic.

  17. Femtosecond Laser System for Research on High-Speed Optical Transmultiplexing and Coding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    .... This would fill an important need in both TDM packet networks and bit-parallel WDM linds. The research also aims at experimental tests of an ultrashort pulse code-division, multiple-access (CDMA...

  18. Computational study of plasma-assisted photoacoustic response from gold nanoparticles irradiated by off-resonance ultrafast laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatef, Ali; Darvish, Behafarid; Sajjadi, Amir Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are capable of enhancing the incident laser field in the form of scattered near field for even an off-resonance irradiation where the incident laser wavelength is far away from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). If the intensity of the pulse laser is large enough, this capability can be employed to generate a highly localized free electron (plasma) in the vicinity of the particles. The generated plasma can absorb more energy during the pulse, and this energy deposition can be considered as an energy source for structural mechanics calculations in the surrounding media to generate a photoacoustic (PA) signal. To show this, in this paper, we model plasma-mediated PA pressure wave propagation from a 100-nm AuNPs and the surrounding media irradiated by an ultrashort pulse laser. In this model, the AuNP is immersed in water and the laser pulse width is ranging from 70 fs to 2 ps at the wavelength of 800 nm (off-resonance). Our results qualitatively show the substantial impact of the energy deposition in plasma on the PA signal through boosting the pressure amplitudes up to ∼1000 times compared to the conventional approach.

  19. Computational study of plasma-assisted photoacoustic response from gold nanoparticles irradiated by off-resonance ultrafast laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatef, Ali, E-mail: alih@nipissingu.ca; Darvish, Behafarid [Nipissing University, Nipissing Computational Physics Laboratory (NCPL), Department of Computer Science and Mathematics (Canada); Sajjadi, Amir Yousef [Massachusetts General Hospital, Cutaneous Biology Research Center (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are capable of enhancing the incident laser field in the form of scattered near field for even an off-resonance irradiation where the incident laser wavelength is far away from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). If the intensity of the pulse laser is large enough, this capability can be employed to generate a highly localized free electron (plasma) in the vicinity of the particles. The generated plasma can absorb more energy during the pulse, and this energy deposition can be considered as an energy source for structural mechanics calculations in the surrounding media to generate a photoacoustic (PA) signal. To show this, in this paper, we model plasma-mediated PA pressure wave propagation from a 100-nm AuNPs and the surrounding media irradiated by an ultrashort pulse laser. In this model, the AuNP is immersed in water and the laser pulse width is ranging from 70 fs to 2 ps at the wavelength of 800 nm (off-resonance). Our results qualitatively show the substantial impact of the energy deposition in plasma on the PA signal through boosting the pressure amplitudes up to ∼1000 times compared to the conventional approach.

  20. International Conference on the Interaction of atoms, molecules and plasmas with intense ultrashort laser pulses. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    International Conference on the Interaction of atoms, molecules and plasmas with intense ultrashort laser pulses was held in Hungary in 2006. This conference which joined the ULTRA COST activity ('Laser-matter interactions with ultra-short pulses, high-frequency pulses and ultra-intense pulses. From attophysics to petawatt physics') and the XTRA ('Ultrashort XUV Pulses for Time-Resolved and Non-Linear Applications') Marie-Curie Research Training Network, intends to offer a possibility to the members of both of these activities to exchange ideas on recent theoretical and experimental results on the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter giving a broad view from theoretical models to practical and technical applications. Ultrashort laser pulses reaching extra high intensities open new windows to obtain information about molecular and atomic processes. These pulses are even able to penetrate into atomic scalelengths not only by generating particles of ultrahigh energy but also inside the spatial and temporal atomic scalelengths. New regimes of laser-matter interaction were opened in the last decade with an increasing number of laboratories and researchers in these fields. (S.I.)

  1. Switchable Q-switched and modelocked operation in ytterbium doped fiber laser under all-normal-dispersion configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranb K., E-mail: pkm@rrcat.gov.in; Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Chandra Pal; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M. [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore, M.P. 452013 (India)

    2015-03-15

    We have constructed an Yb-doped fiber laser in all-normal-dispersion configuration which can be independently operated in Q-switched or modelocked configuration with the help of a simple fiber optic ring resonator (FORR). In the presence of FORR, the laser operates in Q-switched mode producing stable pulses in the range of 1 μs-200 ns with repetition rate in the range of 45 kHz-82 kHz. On the other hand, the laser can be easily switched to mode-locked operation by disjoining the FORR loop producing train of ultrashort pulses of ∼5 ps duration (compressible to ∼150 fs) at ∼38 MHz repetition rate. The transmission characteristics of FORR in combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation for passive Q-switching operation is numerically investigated and experimentally verified. The laser can serve as a versatile seed source for power amplifier which can be easily configured for application in the fields that require different pulsed fiber lasers.

  2. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  3. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  4. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugioka, Koji, E-mail: ksugioka@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Cheng, Ya, E-mail: ya.cheng@siom.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper

  5. Biodegradable microsphere-mediated cell perforation in microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Atsuhiro; Ariyasu, Kazumasa; Mitsuhashi, Tatsuki; Heinemann, Dag; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2016-05-01

    The use of small particles has expanded the capability of ultrashort pulsed laser optoinjection technology toward simultaneous treatment of multiple cells. The microfluidic platform is one of the attractive systems that has obtained synergy with laser-based technology for cell manipulation, including optoinjection. We have demonstrated the delivery of molecules into suspended-flowing cells in a microfluidic channel by using biodegradable polymer microspheres and a near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse. The use of polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres realized not only a higher optoinjection ratio compared to that with polylactic acid microspheres but also avoids optical damage to the microfluidic chip, which is attributable to its higher optical intensity enhancement at the localized spot under a microsphere. Interestingly, optoinjection ratios to nucleus showed a difference for adhered cells and suspended cells. The use of biodegradable polymer microspheres provides high throughput optoinjection; i.e., multiple cells can be treated in a short time, which is promising for various applications in cell analysis, drug delivery, and ex vivo gene transfection to bone marrow cells and stem cells without concerns about residual microspheres.

  6. Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, O J; Perrie, W; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2012-01-01

    The use of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) device to convert a linearly polarized femtosecond laser beam into a radially or azimuthally polarized vortex beam is demonstrated. In order to verify the state of polarization at the focal plane, laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on stainless steel, imprinting the complex vectorial polarization structures and confirming the efficacy of the SLM in producing the desired polarization modes. Stainless steel plates of various thicknesses are micromachined with the radially and azimuthally polarized vortex beams and the resulting cut-outs are analysed. The process efficiency and quality of each mode are compared with those of circular polarization. Radial polarization is confirmed to be the most efficient mode for machining high-aspect-ratio (depth/width > 3) channels thanks to its relatively higher absorptivity. Following our microprocessing tests, liquid-crystal SLMs emerged as a flexible off-the-shelf tool for producing radially and azimuthally polarized beams in existing ultrashort-pulse laser microprocessing systems. (paper)

  7. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing and welding for 3D manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Nie, Bai; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Due to the unique ultra-short pulse duration and high peak power, femtosecond (fs) laser has emerged as a powerful tool for many applications but has rarely been studied for 3D printing. In this paper, welding of both bulk and powder materials is demonstrated for the first time by using high energy and high repetition rate fs fiber lasers. It opens up new scenarios and opportunities for 3D printing with the following advantages - greater range of materials especially with high melting temperature, greater-than-ever level of precision (sub-micron) and less heat-affected-zone (HAZ). Mechanical properties (strength and hardness) and micro-structures (grain size) of the fabricated parts are investigated. For dissimilar materials bulk welding, good welding quality with over 210 MPa tensile strength is obtained. Also full melting of the micron-sized refractory powders with high melting temperature (above 3000 degree C) is achieved for the first time. 3D parts with shapes like ring and cube are fabricated. Not only does this study explore the feasibility of melting dissimilar and high melting temperature materials using fs lasers, but it also lays out a solid foundation for 3D printing of complex structure with designed compositions, microstructures and properties. This can greatly benefit the applications in automobile, aerospace and biomedical industries, by producing parts like nozzles, engines and miniaturized biomedical devices.

  8. Femtosecond laser-induced structural difference in fused silica with a non-reciprocal writing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Dai, Ye; Song, Juan; Ma, Hongliang; Yan, Xiaona; Ma, Guohong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report a non-reciprocal writing process for inducing asymmetric microstructure using a femtosecond laser with tilted pulse fronts in fused silica. The shape of the induced microstructure at the focus closely depends on the laser scan direction. An elongated end is observed as a kind of structural difference between the written lines with two reverse scans along + x and - x, which further leads to a birefringence intensity difference. We also find a bifurcation in the head region of the induced microstructure between the written lines along x and y. That process results from the focal intensity distortion caused by the pulse front tilt by comparing the simulated intensity distribution with the experimental results. The current results demonstrate that the pulse front tilt not only affects the free electron excitation at the focus but also further distorts the shape of the induced microstructure during a high-energy femtosecond laser irradiation. These results offer a route to fabricate optical elements by changing the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort pulses.

  9. Synchronization control for ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhongsheng; Kuang, Zheng; Ouyang, Jinlei; Liu, Dun; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart P.; Dearden, Geoff

    2014-11-01

    Ultrafast lasers, emitting ultra-short pulses of light, generally of the order of femtoseconds to ten picoseconds, are widely used in micro-processing with the advantage of very little thermal damage. Parallel micro-processing is seen significant developments in laser fabrication, thanking to the spatial light modulator (SLM) which can concert single beam to multiple beams through computer generate holograms (CGHs). However, without synchronization control, on the conditions of changing different holograms or processing on large area beyond scanning galvo's ability, the fabrication will be interrupted constantly for changing holograms and moving the stages. Therefore, synchronization control is very important to improve the convenience and application of parallel micro-processing. A synchronization control method, carried out through two application software: SAMLight (or WaveRunner) and Labview, is presented in this paper. SAMLight is used to control the laser and the scanning galvo to implement microprocessing, and the developed program with Labview is used to control the SLM and motion stages. The synchronization signals, transmitted between the two software, are utilized by a National Instruments (NI) device USB-6008. Using optimal control methods, the synchronized system can easily and automatically accomplish complicated fabrications with minimum time. A multi-drilling application is provided to verify the affectivity of the synchronized control method. It uses multiple annular beams, generated by superimposing multi-beam CGH onto a diffractive axicon CGH, to drill multiple holes at one time, and it can automatically finish different patterns based on synchronization control. This drilling way is an optical trepanning and it avoids huge laser energy waste with attenuation. The multi-beam CGHs, generated by the Grating and Lens algorithm, are different for different patterns. The processing is over 200 times faster than traditional mechanical trepanning

  10. Formation of metal nanoparticles of various sizes in plasma plumes produced by Ti:sapphire laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, U.; Naik, P. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Kumbhare, S. R.; Gupta, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on generation of nanoparticle various sizes using Ti:sapphire laser pulses, is reported. Nanoparticle formation in plasma plumes of metals like silver and copper, expanding in vacuum, has been studied using stretched pulses of 300 ps duration [subnanoseconds (sub-ns)] from a Ti:sapphire laser. It has been compared with the nanoparticle formation (of the same materials) when compressed pulses of 45 fs duration were used under similar focusing conditions. Nanoparticle formation is observed at intensities as high as 2x10 16 W/cm 2 . The structural analysis of the nanoparticle deposition on a silicon substrate showed that, using 45 fs pulses, smaller nanoparticles of average size ∼20 nm were generated, whereas on using the sub-ns pulses, larger particles were produced. Also, the visible light transmission and reflection from the nanoparticle film of Ag on glass substrate showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The SPR curves of the films of nanoparticles deposited by femtosecond pulses were always broader and reflection/transmission was always smaller when compared with the films formed using the sub-ns pulses, indicating smaller size particle formation by ultrashort pulses. Thus, it has been demonstrated that variation in the laser pulse duration of laser offers a simple tool for varying the size of the nanoparticles generated in plasma plumes.

  11. Laser-Neuron Interaction with Femtosecond Beat-Modulated 800-1200 nm Photon Beams, as the Treatment of Brain Cancer Tissue. Laser Neurophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-03-01

    I propose a novel mechanism for the brain cancer tissue treatment: nonlinear interaction of ultrashort pulses of beat-photon, (ω1 -- ω2) , or double-photon, (ω1 +ω2) , beams with the cancer tissue. The multiphoton scattering is described via photon diffusion equation. The open-scull cerebral tissue can be irradiated with the beat-modulated photon pulses with the laser irradiances in the range of a few mW/cm2 , and repetition rate of a few 100s Hz generated in the beat-wave driven free electron laser. V. Stefan, B. I. Cohen, and C. Joshi, Nonlinear Mixing of Electromagnetic Waves in PlasmasScience 27 January 1989: V. Alexander Stefan, Genomic Medical Physics: A New Physics in the Making, (S-U-Press, 2008).} This highly accurate cancer tissue ablation removal may prove to be an efficient method for the treatment of brain cancer. Work supported in part by Nikola Tesla Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  12. Spectro-ellipsometric studies of sputtered amorphous Titanium dioxide thin films: simultaneous determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient, and void distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S I; Oh, S G

    1999-01-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide thin films were deposited onto silicon substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering, and the index of refraction, the extinction coefficient, and the void distribution of these films were simultaneously determined from the analyses of there ellipsometric spectra. In particular, our novel strategy, which combines the merits of multi-sample fitting, the dual dispersion function, and grid search, was proven successful in determining optical constants over a wide energy range, including the energy region where the extinction coefficient was large. Moreover, we found that the void distribution was dependent on the deposition conditions, such as the sputtering power, the substrate temperature, and the substrate surface.

  13. Organization of lasers with particle accelerators to create new tools for frontier sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Masuda, Shinichi; Honma, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    Recently great advances of ultraintense ultrashort pulse lasers have brought about tremendous experimental and theoretical progress in maturity of laser-driven particle accelerator concepts. In near future creation of new tools for frontier sciences is forseen, which will be combined and organized from ultraintense lasers and particle accelerators. Here we report research activities on the laser acceleration at JAERI - APR as well as the outlook for developments of laser-driven particle injectors, accelerators and radiation sources. Recent world-wide experiments have successfully demonstrated that the self-modulated LWFA mechanism is capable of generating ultrahigh accelerating gradient of the order of 100 GeV/m, while the maximum energy gain is limited at most to 200 MeV with energy spread of 100% because of dephasing and wavebreaking effects in plasmas. The first high energy gain acceleration 300 MeV has been opened with the injection of an electron beam at an energy matched to a wakefield phase velocity in a fairly underdense plasma by our group. Our activities on laser acceleration research have focused on the laser wakefield accelerator developments for high energy electron acceleration achieving more than 1 GeV with channel-guided scheme, and on high quality beam generation with both conventional and advanced technologies. The main task has been devoted to completion of the Laser Acceleration Test Facility (LATF) consisting of the photocathode RF gun, the 150 MeV microtron accelerator and the test beam line as well as the estimation of radiation doses produced by LATF for the radiation safety clearance. With the use of LATF, we plan to demonstrate the channel-guided LWFA in which both the driving laser pulses and particle beams can be guided through the capillary discharge plasmas with a cm-scale length. The development of the plasma waveguide is underway after the first demonstration of propagating a 2 TW, 90 fs laser pulse through a stable 2 cm plasma

  14. Influence of chirp on laser-pulse amplification in Brillouin backscattering schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Goetz; Schluck, Friedrich; Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    Plasma-based amplification of laser pulses is currently discussed as a key component for the next generation of high-intensity laser systems, possibly enabling the generation of ultra-short pulses in the exawatt-zetawatt regime. In these scenarios the energy of a long pump pulse (several ps to ns of duration) is transferred to a short seed pulse via a plasma oscillation. Weakly- and strongly-coupled (sc) Brillouin backscattering have been identified as potential candidates for robust amplification scenarios. With the help of three-wave interaction models, we investigate the influence of a chirp of the pump beam on the seed amplification. We show that chirp can mitigate deleterious spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump off noise and that at the same time the amplification dynamics due to Brillouin scattering is still intact. For the experimentally very interesting case of sc-Brillouin we find a dependence of the efficiency on the sign of the chirp. Funding provided by project B10 of SFB TR18 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  15. Radial focusing and energy compression of a laser-produced proton beam by a synchronous rf field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ikegami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a MeV laser-produced proton beam affected by a radio frequency (rf electric field has been studied. The proton beam was emitted normal to the rear surface of a thin polyimide target irradiated with an ultrashort pulsed laser with a power density of 4×10^{18}  W/cm^{2}. The energy spread was compressed to less than 11% at the full width at half maximum (FWHM by an rf field. Focusing and defocusing effects of the transverse direction were also observed. These effects were analyzed and reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results show that the transversely focused protons had a broad continuous spectrum, while the peaks in the proton spectrum were defocused. Based on this new information, we propose that elimination of the continuous energy component of laser-produced protons is possible by utilizing a focal length difference between the continuous spectral protons and the protons included in the spectral peak.

  16. Dynamics of a broad-band quantum cascade laser: from chaos to coherent dynamics and mode-locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, L. L.; Barbieri, S.; Sirtori, C.; Brambilla, M.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of a multimode Quantum Cascade Laser, is studied in a model based on effective semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations, encompassing key features for the radiationmedium interaction such as an asymmetric, frequency dependent, gain and refractive index as well as the phase-amplitude coupling provided by the Henry factor. By considering the role of the free spectral range and Henry factor, we develop criteria suitable to identify the conditions which allow to destabilize, close to threshold, the traveling wave emitted by the laser and lead to chaotic or regular multimode dynamics. In the latter case our simulations show that the field oscillations are associated to self-confined structures which travel along the laser cavity, bridging mode-locking and solitary wave propagation. In addition, we show how a RF modulation of the bias current leads to active mode-locking yielding high-contrast, picosecond pulses. Our results compare well with recent experiments on broad-band THz-QCLs and may help understanding the conditions for the generation of ultrashort pulses and comb operation in Mid-IR and THz spectral regions

  17. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb generation from a completely common-path, unidirectional lasing cavity would be an interesting territory to explore. In this paper, we demonstrate such a dual-comb lasing scheme based on a nanomaterial saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms concurrently introduced into a mode-locked fiber laser. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in unusual bifurcation into two-pulse states with quite different characteristics. Simultaneous oscillation of pulses with four-fold difference in pulsewidths and tens of Hz repetition rate difference is observed. The coherence between these spectral-overlapped, picosecond and femtosecond pulses is further verified by the corresponding asynchronous cross-sampling and dual-comb spectroscopy measurements.

  18. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloff, L.-P., E-mail: oloff@physik.uni-kiel.de; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K., E-mail: rossnagel@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-06-14

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  19. Towards a petawatt-class few-cycle infrared laser system via dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuxi; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Takahashi, Eiji J

    2018-05-16

    Expansion of the wavelength range for an ultrafast laser is an important ingredient for extending its range of applications. Conventionally, optical parametric amplification (OPA) has been employed to expand the laser wavelength to the infrared (IR) region. However, the achievable pulse energy and peak power have been limited to the mJ and the GW level, respectively. A major difficulty in the further energy scaling of OPA results from a lack of suitable large nonlinear crystals. Here, we circumvent this difficulty by employing a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme. We successfully generate a multi-TW IR femtosecond laser pulse with an energy of 100 mJ order, which is higher than that reported in previous works. We also obtain excellent energy scaling ability, ultrashort pulses, flexiable wavelength tunability, and high-energy stability, which prove that DC-OPA is a superior method for the energy scaling of IR pulses to the 10 J/PW level.

  20. All-polarization maintaining erbium fiber laser based on carbon nanowalls saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Shintaro; Izawa, Jun; Kawaguchi, Norihito

    2018-02-01

    We report a soliton mode locked femtosecond oscillation with all-polarization maintaining erbuim doped fiber laser based on Carbon Nanowalls saturable absorber (CNWs SA). To improve the stability and the capability of the oscillator, the all-polarization maintaining(all-PM) fiber is generally used since PM fiber is tolerant of stretches and bends. The saturable absorber is an optical device that placed in a laser cavity to suppress continuous wave operation to promote cooperation between many modes to sustain ultrashort pulse operation. We apply CNWs for the material of SAs in our oscillator. CNWs are one of the nanocarbon materials, which are a high-aspect-ratio structure in the cross-section, where, although their width and height range in a few micrometers, the thickness is as small as ten nanometers or so. A sheet of CNWs is made up of nano-size graphite grain aggregates. Then CNWs structure is expected to have a high absorption to the incident light and large modulation depth due to a small number of carbon layers as well as CNT and Graphene. With this all-PM fiber laser oscillator based on CNWs SA, the soliton mode-locked laser oscillated with 66.3MHz repetition frequency and its spectrum width is 5.6nm in FWHM. Average output power is 8.1mW with 122.5mW laser diode pump power. In addition, the laser amplification system with erbium-doped fiber is constructed and amplifies the femtosecond pulse laser into 268.2mW and 3000mW pumping power.

  1. TruMicro Series 2000 sub-400 fs class industrial fiber lasers: adjustment of laser parameters to process requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, Florian; Kahmann, Max; Tan, Chuong; Diekamp, Holger; Jansen, Florian; Scelle, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The matchless properties of ultrashort laser pulses, such as the enabling of cold processing and non-linear absorption, pave the way to numerous novel applications. Ultrafast lasers arrived in the last decade at a level of reliability suitable for the industrial environment.1 Within the next years many industrial manufacturing processes in several markets will be replaced by laser-based processes due to their well-known benefits: These are non-contact wear-free processing, higher process accuracy or an increase of processing speed and often improved economic efficiency compared to conventional processes. Furthermore, new processes will arise with novel sources, addressing previously unsolved challenges. One technical requirement for these exciting new applications will be to optimize the large number of available parameters to the requirements of the application. In this work we present an ultrafast laser system distinguished by its capability to combine high flexibility and real time process-inherent adjustments of the parameters with industry-ready reliability. This industry-ready reliability is ensured by a long experience in designing and building ultrashort-pulse lasers in combination with rigorous optimization of the mechanical construction, optical components and the entire laser head for continuous performance. By introducing a new generation of mechanical design in the last few years, TRUMPF enabled its ultrashort-laser platforms to fulfill the very demanding requirements for passively coupling high-energy single-mode radiation into a hollow-core transport fiber. The laser architecture presented here is based on the all fiber MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technology. The pulses are generated in a high repetition rate mode-locked fiber oscillator also enabling flexible pulse bursts (groups of multiple pulses) with 20 ns intra-burst pulse separation. An external acousto-optic modulator (XAOM) enables linearization

  2. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C., E-mail: weber@ikv-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T. [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Steger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  3. Ultra-fast laser microprocessing of medical polymers for cell engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, R. [Ultraprecision Processes Unit, Fundación IK4-TEKNIKER, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600, Eibar, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Moreno-Flores, S., E-mail: susana.moreno-flores@boku.ac.at [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Po Miramón, 182, 20009, San Sebastián, Donostia (Spain); Quintana, I., E-mail: iban.quintana@tekniker.es [Ultraprecision Processes Unit, Fundación IK4-TEKNIKER, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600, Eibar, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Micro and Nanoengineering Unit, CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9, 20500, Arrasate-Mondragón, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Vivanco, MdM [Cell Biology and Stem Cells Unit, CIC bioGUNE, Technology Park of Bizkaia, Ed. 801A, 48160 Derio (Spain); Sarasua, J.R. [University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV), School of Engineering, Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Toca-Herrera, J.L. [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Po Miramón, 182, 20009, San Sebastián, Donostia (Spain); Micro and Nanoengineering Unit, CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9, 20500, Arrasate-Mondragón, Gipuzkoa (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Picosecond laser micromachining technology (PLM) has been employed as a tool for the fabrication of 3D structured substrates. These substrates have been used as supports in the in vitro study of the effect of substrate topography on cell behavior. Different micropatterns were PLM-generated on polystyrene (PS) and poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and employed to study cellular proliferation and morphology of breast cancer cells. The laser-induced microstructures included parallel lines of comparable width to that of a single cell (which in this case is roughly 20 μm), and the fabrication of square-like compartments of a much larger area than a single cell (250,000 μm{sup 2}). The results obtained from this in vitro study showed that though the laser treatment altered substrate roughness, it did not noticeably affect the adhesion and proliferation of the breast cancer cells. However, pattern direction directly affected cell proliferation, leading to a guided growth of cell clusters along the pattern direction. When cultured in square-like compartments, cells remained confined inside these for eleven incubation days. According to these results, laser micromachining with ultra-short laser pulses is a suitable method to directly modify the cell microenvironment in order to induce a predefined cellular behavior and to study the effect of the physical microenvironment on cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Microstructuring of biocompatible polymers by ultra-short pulsed laser technology. • Contact guidance effect on a supracellular scale along microgrooved substrates. • Cell confinement inside square compartments. • Fabrication of a 3D microenvironment that induces predefined behavior of cells.

  4. Ultra-fast laser microprocessing of medical polymers for cell engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, R.; Moreno-Flores, S.; Quintana, I.; Vivanco, MdM; Sarasua, J.R.; Toca-Herrera, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Picosecond laser micromachining technology (PLM) has been employed as a tool for the fabrication of 3D structured substrates. These substrates have been used as supports in the in vitro study of the effect of substrate topography on cell behavior. Different micropatterns were PLM-generated on polystyrene (PS) and poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and employed to study cellular proliferation and morphology of breast cancer cells. The laser-induced microstructures included parallel lines of comparable width to that of a single cell (which in this case is roughly 20 μm), and the fabrication of square-like compartments of a much larger area than a single cell (250,000 μm 2 ). The results obtained from this in vitro study showed that though the laser treatment altered substrate roughness, it did not noticeably affect the adhesion and proliferation of the breast cancer cells. However, pattern direction directly affected cell proliferation, leading to a guided growth of cell clusters along the pattern direction. When cultured in square-like compartments, cells remained confined inside these for eleven incubation days. According to these results, laser micromachining with ultra-short laser pulses is a suitable method to directly modify the cell microenvironment in order to induce a predefined cellular behavior and to study the effect of the physical microenvironment on cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Microstructuring of biocompatible polymers by ultra-short pulsed laser technology. • Contact guidance effect on a supracellular scale along microgrooved substrates. • Cell confinement inside square compartments. • Fabrication of a 3D microenvironment that induces predefined behavior of cells

  5. Time-resolved study of femtosecond laser induced micro-modifications inside transparent brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, F.; Matylitsky, V. V.; Domke, M.; Huber, Heinz P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser processing of optically transparent or semi-transparent, brittle materials is finding wide use in various manufacturing sectors. For example, in consumer electronic devices such as smartphones or tablets, cover glass needs to be cut precisely in various shapes. The unique advantage of material processing with femtosecond lasers is efficient, fast and localized energy deposition in nearly all types of solid materials. When an ultra-short laser pulse is focused inside glass, only the localized region in the neighborhood of the focal volume absorbs laser energy by nonlinear optical absorption. Therefore, the processing volume is strongly defined, while the rest of the target stays unaffected. Thus ultra-short pulse lasers allow cutting of the chemically strengthened glasses such as Corning Gorilla glass without cracking. Non-ablative cutting of transparent, brittle materials, using the newly developed femtosecond process ClearShapeTM from Spectra-Physics, is based on producing a micron-sized material modification track with well-defined geometry inside. The key point for development of the process is to understand the induced modification by a single femtosecond laser shot. In this paper, pump-probe microscopy techniques have been applied to study the defect formation inside of transparent materials, namely soda-lime glass samples, on a time scale between one nanosecond to several tens of microseconds. The observed effects include acoustic wave propagation as well as mechanical stress formation in the bulk of the glass. Besides better understanding of underlying physical mechanisms, our experimental observations have enabled us to find optimal process parameters for the glass cutting application and lead to better quality and speed for the ClearShapeTM process.

  6. Physics Of, and Science With, the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser: 19th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.

    2003-01-01

    The workshop brought together scientists working on the development of x-ray free-electron lasers, and its applications. X-ray free-electron lasers produce high intensity, subpicosecond long, coherent, X-ray pulses, and will open a new frontier to study the structure of matter at the molecular and atomic levels. Some fields of interest are structural changes in chemical reactions, single biological molecule, warm plasmas, nanosystems. Summary of discussions and conclusions of Group 1: Physics and Technology of the XFEL - The main issues that were discussed by the 50 participants in this group were the photo-injector, the production of ultra-short pulses, the effects of wake-fields induced by the electron bunch, the operation at lower charge and emittance, the possibility of harmonic generation and the diagnostics in the undulator. The following is a short summary of the discussions and their conclusions. Summary of discussions and conclusions of Group 2: Science with the XFEL - About 25 people attended sessions to discuss the possible scientific applications of a x-ray FEL. Because of the recent focus on the first experiments with the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the discussions were mainly focussed on these proposals. The extension of the characteristics beyond the initial stage and the further developments of the source were also part of the program. Six scientific areas were discussed: Atomic Physics, Warm Dense Matter, Femtosecond Chemistry, Imaging/Holography, Bio-molecular Structures and X-Ray Fluctuations Spectroscopy.

  7. Self-protecting nonlinear compression in a solid fiber for long-term stable ultrafast lasers at 2 μm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, Fabian; Gaida, Christian; Gebhardt, Martin; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2017-02-01

    Ultrashort-pulse laser systems are an enabling technology for numerous applications. The stability of such systems is especially crucial for frequency metrology and high precision spectroscopy. Thulium-based fiber lasers are an ideal starting point as a reliable and yet powerful source for the nonlinear conversion towards the mid-IR region. Recently, we have demonstrated that nonlinear self-compression in a fused silica solid-core fiber allows for few-cycle pulse duration with up to 24 MW peak power using a high-repetition rate thulium-based fiber laser system operating at around 2 μm wavelength [1]. This experiment operates near the self-focusing limit of about 24 MW for circular polarization, which increases the requirements for the system stability due to the risk of a fiber damage. Here, we present a self-protecting nonlinear compression regime allowing for long-term operation and high output-pulse stability with very similar output performance.

  8. Review of physics and applications of relativistic plasmas driven by ultra-intense lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstadter, Donald

    2001-01-01

    As tabletop lasers continue to reach record levels of peak power, the interaction of light with matter has crossed a new threshold, in which plasma electrons at the laser focus oscillate at relativistic velocities. The highest forces ever exerted by light have been used to accelerate beams of electrons and protons to energies of a million volts in distances of only microns. Not only is this acceleration gradient up to a thousand times greater than in radio-frequency-based sources, but the transverse emittance of the particle beams is comparable or lower. Additionally, laser-based accelerators have been demonstrated to work at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, an improvement of a factor of 1000 over their best performance of just a couple of years ago. Anticipated improvements in energy spread may allow these novel compact laser-based radiation sources to be useful someday for cancer radiotherapy and as injectors into conventional accelerators, which are critical tools for x-ray and nuclear physics research. They might also be used as a spark to ignite controlled thermonuclear fusion. The ultrashort pulse duration of these particle bursts and the x rays they can produce, hold great promise as well to resolve chemical, biological or physical reactions on ultrafast (femtosecond) time scales and on the spatial scale of atoms. Even laser-accelerated protons are soon expected to become relativistic. The dense electron-positron plasmas and vast array of nuclear reactions predicted to occur in this case might even help bring astrophysical phenomena down to Earth, into university laboratories. This paper reviews the many recent advances in this emerging discipline, called high-field science

  9. Synchrotron radiation based on laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, F.

    2007-12-01

    This work illustrates the experimental characterization of a new compact X-ray source: the Betatron X-ray source. It is the first time that collimated hard X-ray source is produced by laser. Through the focusing of an ultra-intense laser radiation (30 TW, 30 fs) on a helium plasma, the ponderomotive force linked to the light intensity gradient expels the plasma electrons forming an accelerating cavity in the wake of the laser plasma. Some electrons trapped in the back of this structure, are accelerated and oscillate to produce X-radiation. This document is composed of 8 chapters. The first one is a presentation of the topic. The second chapter gives an account of the physics behind the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range and for ultra-short pulses. The third chapter presents the theoretical characteristics of the Betatron X-ray source. This chapter begins with an analogy with current synchrotron radiation and the radiation emitted by an electron undergoing Betatron oscillations is described in terms of power, spectral intensity and photon flux. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the numerical simulation of the Betatron radiation. The trajectories of the electrons are computed from the equation of motion, taking into account longitudinal and transverse forces. The radiation emission term is then computed from the radiation equation detailed in the previous chapter. The fifth chapter presents the experimental setting to produce Betatron X-rays. The sixth chapter gives the experimental characterization of the source (size, divergence and spectrum) on one hand, and on the other hand studies how source flux and spectra vary when laser and plasma parameters change. The seventh chapter presents experimental methods used to characterize the electrons trajectories in the plasma wiggler. The last chapter draws some perspectives on this source in terms of improvement and uses. (A.C.)

  10. High-Average-Power Diffraction Pulse-Compression Gratings Enabling Next-Generation Ultrafast Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Pulse compressors for ultrafast lasers have been identified as a technology gap in the push towards high peak power systems with high average powers for industrial and scientific applications. Gratings for ultrashort (sub-150fs) pulse compressors are metallic and can absorb a significant percentage of laser energy resulting in up to 40% loss as well as thermal issues which degrade on-target performance. We have developed a next generation gold grating technology which we have scaled to the petawatt-size. This resulted in improvements in efficiency, uniformity and processing as compared to previous substrate etched gratings for high average power. This new design has a deposited dielectric material for the grating ridge rather than etching directly into the glass substrate. It has been observed that average powers as low as 1W in a compressor can cause distortions in the on-target beam. We have developed and tested a method of actively cooling diffraction gratings which, in the case of gold gratings, can support a petawatt peak power laser with up to 600W average power. We demonstrated thermo-mechanical modeling of a grating in its use environment and benchmarked with experimental measurement. Multilayer dielectric (MLD) gratings are not yet used for these high peak power, ultrashort pulse durations due to their design challenges. We have designed and fabricated broad bandwidth, low dispersion MLD gratings suitable for delivering 30 fs pulses at high average power. This new grating design requires the use of a novel Out Of Plane (OOP) compressor, which we have modeled, designed, built and tested. This prototype compressor yielded a transmission of 90% for a pulse with 45 nm bandwidth, and free of spatial and angular chirp. In order to evaluate gratings and compressors built in this project we have commissioned a joule-class ultrafast Ti:Sapphire laser system. Combining the grating cooling and MLD technologies developed here could enable petawatt laser systems to

  11. Expansion-limited aggregation of nanoclusters in a single-pulse laser-produced plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamaly, E. G.; Madsen, N. R.; Rode, A. V.; Golberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of carbon nanoclusters in a single-laser-pulse created ablation plume was studied both in vacuum and in a noble gas environment at various pressures. The developed theory provides cluster radius dependence on combination of laser parameters, properties of ablated material, and type and pressure of an ambient gas in agreement with experiments. The experiments were performed on carbon nanoclusters formed by laser ablation of graphite targets with 12 picosecond 532 nm laser pulses at MHz-range repetition rate in a broad range of ambient He, Ar, Kr, and Xe gas pressures from 2x10 -2 to 1500 Torr. The experimental results confirmed our theoretical prediction that the average size of the nanoparticles depends weakly on the type of the ambient gas used, and is determined exclusively by the single laser pulse parameters even at the repetition rate as high as 28 MHz with the time gap 36 ns between the pulses. The most important finding relates to the fact that in vacuum the cluster size is mainly determined by hydrodynamic expansion of the plume while in the ambient gas it is controlled by atomic diffusion in the gas. We demonstrate that the ultrashort pulses can be used for production of clusters with the size less than the critical value, which separates the particles with properties drastically different from those of a material in a bulk. The presented results of experiments on formation of carbon nanoclusters are in close agreement with the theoretical scaling. The developed theory is applicable for cluster formation from any monatomic material, such as silicon for example.

  12. Efficient processing of CFRP with a picosecond laser with up to 1.4 kW average power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuseit, V.; Freitag, C.; Wiedenmann, M.; Weber, R.; Negel, J.-P.; Löscher, A.; Abdou Ahmed, M.; Graf, T.

    2015-03-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforce plastic (CFRP) is a very promising method to solve a lot of the challenges for large-volume production of lightweight constructions in automotive and airplane industries. However, the laser process is actual limited by two main issues. First the quality might be reduced due to thermal damage and second the high process energy needed for sublimation of the carbon fibers requires laser sources with high average power for productive processing. To achieve thermal damage of the CFRP of less than 10μm intensities above 108 W/cm² are needed. To reach these high intensities in the processing area ultra-short pulse laser systems are favored. Unfortunately the average power of commercially available laser systems is up to now in the range of several tens to a few hundred Watt. To sublimate the carbon fibers a large volume specific enthalpy of 85 J/mm³ is necessary. This means for example that cutting of 2 mm thick material with a kerf width of 0.2 mm with industry-typical 100 mm/sec requires several kilowatts of average power. At the IFSW a thin-disk multipass amplifier yielding a maximum average output power of 1100 W (300 kHz, 8 ps, 3.7 mJ) allowed for the first time to process CFRP at this average power and pulse energy level with picosecond pulse duration. With this unique laser system cutting of CFRP with a thickness of 2 mm an effective average cutting speed of 150 mm/sec with a thermal damage below 10μm was demonstrated.

  13. Laser Science and Technology Program Update 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L A; Chen, H L

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LSandT) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are of interest to the NIF Directorate but outside the scope of the NIF funding. The primary objectives of LSandT activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and to invent develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. Special efforts have been devoted to building and maintaining our capabilities in three technology areas: high-power short-pulse solid-state lasers, high-power optical materials, and applications of advanced lasers. LSandT activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project--LSandT led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 3ω optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)--LSandT personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LSandT continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy

  14. Reduction of the Adhesive Friction of Elastomers through Laser Texturing of Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Voyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order to separate or to functionalize the contact surfaces of elastomers. Alternatively, the high adhesion tendency of elastomers may be explicitly reduced by modifying the elastomer composition itself or by enabling a reduction of its effective contact area through, for example, surface laser texturing. This second approach, i.e., the reduction of the adhesive character of elastomers through laser structuring, will be the main topic of the present study. For this purpose, different micro-sized grooved structures were produced on flat injection molds using an ultra-short pulsed laser. The micro-structured molds were then used to produce injection molded micro-ridged Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR sample pads. The investigations consisted firstly of determining the degree of replication of the mold micro-structures onto the surface of the LSR pads and secondly, to ascertain the degree of reduction of the friction force (or coefficient of friction of these micro-ridged LSR pads in comparison to the benchmark (unstructured LSR pads when tested under dry conditions against Aluminum alloy (Al-6082 or PA6.6-GF30 plates. For this second part of the investigation, the normal force (or contact pressure dependency of the coefficient of friction was determined through stepwise load increasing friction tests. The results of these investigations have shown that the production of micro-ridged surfaces on LSR pads through laser structuring of the injection molds could be successfully achieved and that it enables a significant reduction of the friction force for low normal forces (or contact pressures, where the component of adhesion friction is playing an important and determining

  15. PROCEEDING OF THE SEEDED X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER WORKSHOP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,X.J.; MURPHY,J.B.; YU,L.H.; FAATZ,B.; HUANG,Z.; REICHE,S.; ZOLOTOREV,M.

    2002-12-13

    The underlying theory of a high gain free electron laser (FEL) has existed for two decades [1-2], but it is only in the last few years that these novel radiation sources have been realized experimentally. Several high gain FELs have successfully reached saturation in the infrared, visible and the VUV portion of the spectrum: the High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) free electron lasers [3] at BNL and the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FELs at LEUTL, VISA and TTF [4-6]. The outstanding challenges for future FELs are to extend high gain FELs to the X-ray regime, improve the longitudinal coherence of the radiation using seeded FEL schemes and generate ultrashort pulses (<100 fs). The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) sponsored a Seeded X-ray Free Electron Laser Workshop on December 13-14, 2002 to explore these challenging issues. Representatives from BNL, DESY, LBNL, SLAC and UCLA made presentations on the novel schemes under consideration at their laboratories. Workshop participants had a lively discussion on the feasibility, performance and R&D issues associated with the seeded XFEL schemes. An improvement of the electron beam quality will certainly be necessary to drive the XFEL. Self-seeding SASE, cascaded HGHG, and SASE pulse compression FELs show the most promise for producing short pulse X-rays. Of these, only the self-seeded and HGHG schemes generate longitudinally coherent radiation. While the pulse length in the self-seeded scheme is determined by the electron bunch length ({approx}100 fs), the pulse length in the HGHG scheme is determined by the short pulse seed laser, and so can be much shorter ({approx} 20 fs).

  16. New advanced characterization tools for PW-class lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Fabien

    2017-05-01

    Spatio-temporal couplings (STC) of laser beams are ubiquitous in ultrafast optics. In the femtosecond range, chirped-pulse amplification (CPA), the key technology of amplified ultrashort pulses, relies on the use of massive STCs induced at different locations in laser systems (for instance by gratings or prisms), which should all eventually perfectly cancel out at the laser output. Residual STCs, for example resulting from imperfect compensation, decrease the peak intensity at focus by increasing both the focal spot size and the pulse duration. This is particularly detrimental for ultrahigh-intensity (UHI) lasers, which aim for the highest possible peak intensities. However, it is precisely with these lasers that such uncontrolled defects are most likely to occur, due to the complexity of these systems and the large diameters of the output beams. Accurately measuring STCs is thus essential in ultrafast optics. Significant progress has been made in the last decade, and several techniques are now available for the partial or complete spatiotemporal characterization of near-visible femtosecond laser beams. However, none of these has yet been applied to UHI femtosecond lasers, due to the difficulty of handling these large and powerful beams. As a result, all UHI lasers are currently characterized under the unjustified and unverified assumption of the absence of STCs, using separate measurements in space and time. This situation is now becoming a major bottleneck for the development of UHI lasers and their applications. In particular, the optimal and reliable operation of PW-class lasers now available or under construction all around the world will simply not be possible without a proper spatiotemporal metrology. In this talk, we present the first complete spatiotemporal experimental reconstruction of the field E(t,r) for a 100 TW peak-power laser, obtained using self-referenced spatially-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy [1,2], and thus reveal the spatiotemporal

  17. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  18. Laser-matter interaction at high intensity and high temporal contrast; Interaction laser matiere a haut flux et fort contraste temporel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumy, G

    2006-01-15

    The continuous progress in the development of laser installations has already lead to ultra-short pulses capable of achieving very high focalized intensities (I > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}). At these intensities, matter presents new non-linear behaviours, due to the fact that the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. The experimental access to this interaction regime on solid targets has long been forbidden because of the presence, alongside the femtosecond pulse, of a pedestal (mainly due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) which occurs in the laser chain) intense enough to modify the state of the target. In this thesis, we first characterized, both experimentally and theoretically, a device which allows an improvement of the temporal contrast of the pulse: the Plasma Mirror. It consists in adjusting the focusing of the pulse on a dielectric target, so that the pedestal is mainly transmitted, while the main pulse is reflected by the overcritical plasma that it forms at the surface. The implementation of such a device on the UHI 10 laser facility (CEA Saclay - 10 TW - 60 fs) then allowed us to study the interaction between ultra-intense, high contrast pulses with solid targets. In a first part, we managed to generate and characterize dense plasmas resulting directly from the interaction between the main pulse and very thin foils (100 nm). This characterization was realized by using an XUV source obtained by high order harmonics generation in a rare gas jet. In a second part, we studied experimentally the phenomenon of high order harmonics generation on solid targets, which is still badly understood, but could potentially lead to a new kind of energetic ultra-short XUV sources. (author)

  19. Laser coherent control of quantum dynamics at the CSIR: NLC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available reaction channels. The principle used is controlled interference of the quantum wave functions via time domain shaped ultra-short pulses. The time/frequency product of a pulse is a constant, determined by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, therefore, a...

  20. Laser Science and Technology Program Annual Report-2002 NIF Programs Directorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L; Chen, H L

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LSandT) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are consistent with the goals of the NIF Directorate and develop state-of-the-art capabilities. The primary objectives of LSandT activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and (d) to invent, develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. LSandT activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project-LSandT led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 30.1 optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)-LSandT personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LSandT continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy-LSandT continued development of kW- to MW-class, diode-pumped, solid-state laser (DPSSL). (4) Department of Defense (DoD)-LSandT continued development of a 100 kw-class solid-state heat-capacity laser

  1. Variable Gap Undulator for 1.5-48 Kev Free Electron Laser at Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    We study the feasibility of generating femtosecond duration Free-Electron Laser with a variable photon energy from 1.5 to 48 keV, using an electron bunch with the same characteristics of the LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) bunch, and a planar undulator with additional focusing. We assume that the electron bunch energy can be changed, and the undulator has a variable gap, allowing a variable undulator parameter. It is assumed to be operated in an ultra-low charge and ultra-short pulse regime. We study the feasibility of a tunable, short pulse, X-ray FEL with photon energy from 1.5 to 48 keV, using an electron beam like the one in the LCLS and a 2:5 cm period, variable gap, planar undulator. The beam energy changes from 4.6 to 13.8 GeV, the electorn charge is kept at 10 pC, and the undulator parameter varies from 1 to 3. The undulator length needed to saturate the 48 keV FEL is about 55 m, with a peak power around 5 GW. At longer wavelength the saturation length is as short as 15 m, and the peak power around 20 GW. The results from the analytical models and the GENESIS simulations show that the system is feasible. The large wavelength range, full tunability and short, few femtosecond pulses, together with the large peak power, would provide a powerful research tool.

  2. Laser-matter interaction at high intensity and high temporal contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous progress in the development of laser installations has already lead to ultra-short pulses capable of achieving very high focalized intensities (I > 10 18 W/cm 2 ). At these intensities, matter presents new non-linear behaviours, due to the fact that the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. The experimental access to this interaction regime on solid targets has long been forbidden because of the presence, alongside the femtosecond pulse, of a pedestal (mainly due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) which occurs in the laser chain) intense enough to modify the state of the target. In this thesis, we first characterized, both experimentally and theoretically, a device which allows an improvement of the temporal contrast of the pulse: the Plasma Mirror. It consists in adjusting the focusing of the pulse on a dielectric target, so that the pedestal is mainly transmitted, while the main pulse is reflected by the overcritical plasma that it forms at the surface. The implementation of such a device on the UHI 10 laser facility (CEA Saclay - 10 TW - 60 fs) then allowed us to study the interaction between ultra-intense, high contrast pulses with solid targets. In a first part, we managed to generate and characterize dense plasmas resulting directly from the interaction between the main pulse and very thin foils (100 nm). This characterization was realized by using an XUV source obtained by high order harmonics generation in a rare gas jet. In a second part, we studied experimentally the phenomenon of high order harmonics generation on solid targets, which is still badly understood, but could potentially lead to a new kind of energetic ultra-short XUV sources. (author)

  3. Surface 3D nanostructuring by tightly focused laser pulse: simulations by Lagrangian code and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.

    2016-02-01

    There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and 3D structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical model which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized 3D structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular dynamics code for simulation of surface 3D nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Using Photonic Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R

    1999-01-01

    ...) light for imaging and diagnosis of cancerous lesions of human breast. The imaging method involves illuminating the specimen with ultrashort pulses of NIR laser light and construction of images using two approaches...

  5. Roll-to-roll suitable short-pulsed laser scribing of organic photovoltaics and close-to-process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Thomas; Wollmann, Philipp; Klotzbach, Udo; Fledderus, Henri

    2017-03-01

    The proper long term operation of organic electronic devices like organic photovoltaics OPV depends on their resistance to environmental influences such as permeation of water vapor. Major efforts are spent to encapsulate OPV. State of the art is sandwich-like encapsulation between two ultra-barrier foils. Sandwich encapsulation faces two major disadvantages: high costs ( 1/3 of total costs) and parasitic intrinsic water (sponge effects of the substrate foil). To fight these drawbacks, a promising approach is to use the OPV substrate itself as barrier by integration of an ultra-barrier coating, followed by alternating deposition and structuring of OPV functional layers. In effect, more functionality will be integrated into less material, and production steps are reduced in number. All processing steps must not influence the underneath barrier functionality, while all electrical functionalities must be maintained. As most reasonable structuring tool, short and ultrashort pulsed lasers USP are used. Laser machining applies to three layers: bottom electrode made of transparent conductive materials (P1), organic photovoltaic operative stack (P2) and top electrode (P3). In this paper, the machining of functional 110…250 nm layers of flexible OPV by USP laser systems is presented. Main focus is on structuring without damaging the underneath ultra-barrier layer. The close-to-process machining quality characterization is performed with the analysis tool "hyperspectral imaging" (HSI), which is checked crosswise with the "gold standard" Ca-test. It is shown, that both laser machining and quality controlling, are well suitable for R2R production of OPV.

  6. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    mode-field-diameter for spectral broadening, we obtained ultrashort pulses with the pulse energies up to 20 nJ. We applied such an enabling source to drive MPM imaging of both cancer cells and skin samples.

  7. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  8. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-15

    to broaden a narrowband spectrum followed by bandpass filters to select the rightmost/leftmost spectral lobes. Widely tunable in 820-1225 nm, the resulting sources generated nearly transform-limited, ∝100 fs pulses. Using short fibers with large mode-field-diameter for spectral broadening, we obtained ultrashort pulses with the pulse energies up to 20 nJ. We applied such an enabling source to drive MPM imaging of both cancer cells and skin samples.

  9. Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: Microscopic theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, S.; Borri, P.; Knorr, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present microscopic modeling and experimental measurements of femtosecond-pulse interactions in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Two novel nonlinear propagation effects are demonstrated: pulse breakup in the gain regime and pulse compression in the transparency regime. These propagation phen...... phenomena highlight the microscopic origin and important role of adiabatic following in semiconductor optical amplifiers. Fundamental light-matter interactions are discussed in detail and possible applications are highlighted....

  10. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Sola, I. [Grupo de Investigación en Óptica Extrema (GIOE), Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Krolikowski, W. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Science Program, Texas A and M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Sheng, Y. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.

  11. Controllable delay of ultrashort pulses in a quantum dot optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    Optical and electrical tuning of the propagation time of 170 fs pulses in a quantum dot semiconductor amplifier at room temperature is demonstrated. Both pulse slowdown and advancement is possible and we achieve fractional delays (delay divided with pulse duration) of up to 40%. The results...

  12. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Krolikowski, W.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system

  13. Examination of vocal fold movement by ultra-short pulse X radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noscoe, N.J.; Berry, R.J.; Brown, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Antero-posterior radiographs of the larynx lack spatial and temporal resolution, due to the movement of the vocal folds during phonation. By utilising the electrolaryngograph to monitor vocal fold movement, single X-ray pulses of 30 nanoseconds duration have been triggered at pre-determined points during the cycle of vocal fold movement to visualise these in normal phonation. (author)

  14. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings written with ultrashort pulses and a tunable phase mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Christian; Thomas, Jens; Wikszak, Elodie; Dannberg, Peter; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We report a fabrication technique for chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs) using a flexible setup based on a poly(methyl-methacrylate) phase mask. The period of the phase mask can be thermally tuned during the inscription process, allowing the grating period of uniform fiber Bragg gratings to be shifted about 7 nm by a temperature change of 74 K. In addition, CFBGs with bandwidths up to 2 nm are demonstrated in non-photosensitive fibers by IR femtosecond inscription.

  15. Limitations of the strong field approximation in ionization of the hydrogen atom by ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbo, D.G.; Toekesi, K.; Miraglia, J.E.; FCEN, University of Buenos Aires

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We presented a theoretical study of the ionization of hydrogen atoms as a result of the interaction with an ultrashort external electric field. Doubly-differential momentum distributions and angular momentum distributions of ejected electrons calculated in the framework of the Coulomb-Volkov and strong field approximations, as well as classical calculations are compared with the exact solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation. We have shown that the Coulomb-Volkov approximation (CVA) describes the quantum atomic ionization probabilities exactly when the external field is described by a sudden momentum transfer [1]. The velocity distribution of emitted electrons right after ionization by a sudden momentum transfer is given through the strong field approximation (SFA) within both the CVA and CTMC methods. In this case, the classical and quantum time dependent evolutions of an atom subject to a sudden momentum transfer are identical. The difference between the classical and quantum final momentum distributions resides in the time evolution of the escaping electron under the subsequent action of the Coulomb field. Furthermore, classical mechanics is incapable of reproducing the quantum angular momentum distribution due to the improper initial radial distribution used in the CTMC calculations, i.e., the microcanonical ensemble. We find that in the limit of high momentum transfer, based on the SFA, there is a direct relation between the cylindrical radial distribution dP/dρ and the final angular momentum distribution dP/dL. This leads to a close analytical expression for the partial wave populations (dP/dL) SFA-Q given by dP SFA-Q / dL = 4Z 3 L 2 / (Δp) 3 K 1 (2ZL/Δp) which, together with the prescription L = l + 1/2, reproduces quite accurately the quantum (CVA) results. Considering the inverse problem, knowing the final angular momentum distribution can lead to the inference of the initial probability distribution, and consequently, the atomic potential. The SFA prediction for the most probable partial population results to be very accurate except in the dipole regime, when l 0 = 1. The authors acknowledge fruitful discussions with M. S. Gravielle. This work was performed with financial support of CONICET, UBACyT, and ANPCyT PICT 772 of Argentina, the Hungarian-Argentine collaboration PA05-EIII/007, the Bolyai grant from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian National Office for Research and Technology and the Hungarian Scientific Research Found OTKA (K72172). One of us (KT) was also partially supported by the European COST Action CM0702

  16. Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom by ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Alicia; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2010-01-01

    Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom was the subject of early experiments at FLASH and will be the subject of future benchmark measurements of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. As the photon energy of a single femtosecond pulse is raised from the threshold for two-photon double ionization at 39.5 eV to beyond the sequential ionization threshold at 54.4 eV, the electron ejection dynamics change from the highly correlated motion associated with nonsequential absorption to the much less correlated sequential ionization process. The signatures of both processes have been predicted in accurate ab initio calculations of the joint angular and energy distributions of the electrons, and those predictions contain some surprises. The dominant terms that contribute to sequential ionization make their presence apparent several eV below that threshold. In two-color pump probe experiments with short pulses whose central frequencies require that the sequential ionization process necessarily dominates, a two-electron interference pattern emerges that depends on the pulse delay and the spin state of the atom.

  17. A histopathologic evaluation of the Plasma Skin Regeneration System (PSR) versus a standard carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R; Bernstein, E; Iyer, S; Brown, D; Andrews, P; Penny, K

    2008-02-01

    A variety of high energy, pulsed, and scanned carbon dioxide lasers are available to perform cutaneous resurfacing. Rhytec has developed a device for skin regeneration that utilizes energy delivered via a burst of nitrogen plasma. This study was undertaken to benchmark the energy outputs of the plasma skin regeneration device as compared to an ultra-short pulsed carbon dioxide laser (the control device). The two systems were compared for time to complete healing, and the healing response post-treatment. Three Yucatan mini-pigs were utilized for this study. Following anesthesia, five experimental sites were marked along the skin atop the psoas muscle on each side of the spine. Treatment was applied using either the plasma skin regeneration system or the carbon dioxide laser, with one site remaining untreated as a control. Biopsies were taken from all treatment sites 0, 2, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days following treatment and processed to hematoxylin-eosin staining. Histopathologic examination was performed by observers blinded as to the treatment conditions. Skin treated with the plasma skin regeneration device showed a wider range of tissue effects across the energy settings used as compared to the laser treatment. All treatment sites had clinically regenerated epidermis by 7 days after treatment, with active cellular response below the D/E junction noted at the day 30 time-point at energies ranging from 2 to 4 J. The Rhytec PSR system provides an attractive alternative to standard CO2 laser with good remodeling of tissue architecture. Epidermis regenerated after PSR treatment shows a smoother surface profile than adjacent untreated tissue.

  18. Ultrafast population transfer in a Λ-configuration level system driven by few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Jing; Xie Xiao-Tao; Jin Lu-Ling; Bai Jin-Tao

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of population transfer from a populated level via an intermediate state to the target level driven by few-cycle pulses is theoretically discussed. The processes of on- or far-resonance stimulated Raman scattering with sequential or simultaneous ultrashort pulses are investigated respectively. We find that the ultrashort pulses with about two optical cycles can be used to realize the population operation. This suggests that the population transfer can be completed in the femtosecond time scale. At the same time, our simulation shows that the signal of the carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effect can be enlarged due to quantum interference in some conditions. Our theoretic study may promote the research on the coherent control via ultrashort pulses in the related fields

  19. Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) in sooting hydrocarbon flames using femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yejun; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, femtosecond (fs)-duration, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) are reported in rich, sooting hydrocarbon flames. CO-TPLIF detection using conventional nanosecond or picosecond lasers are often plagued by photochemical interferences, specifically under fuel-rich flames conditions. In the current study, we investigate the commonly used CO two-photon excitation scheme of the B1Σ+ ← X1Σ+ electronic transition, using approximately 100-fs-duration excitation pulses. Fluorescence emission was observed in the Ångström band originating from directly populated B1Σ+ upper state, as well as, in the third positive band from collisionally populated b3Σ+ upper state. The current work was focused on the Ångström band emission. Interference from nascent C2 emissions originating from hot soot particles in the flame could be reduced to a negligible level using a narrower detection gate width. In contrast, avoiding interferences from laser-generated C2 Swan-band emissions required specific narrowband spectral filtering in sooting flame conditions. The observed less than quadratic laser pulse energy dependence of the TPLIF signal suggests the presence of strong three-photon ionization and stimulated emission processes. In a range of CH4/air and C2H4/air premixed flames investigated, the measured CO fluorescence signals agree well with the calculated equilibrium CO number densities. Reduced-interference CO-TPLIF imaging in premixed C2H4/O2/N2 jet flames is also reported.

  20. Holding molecular dications together in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chunlei

    2006-01-01

    Metastable channel of doubly ionized carbon monoxide, CO 2+ , was scantly seen in previous strong-field experiments at the visible wavelength region, but was commonly observed using single high-energy photon or electron excitation. For the first time with near-IR ultrashort-pulse radiation, we observe an abundance of CO 2+ . We show that CO 2+ results from nonsequential double ionization, while its dissociation counterpart, C + +O + , results from sequential processes, and CO 2+ can be obtained through either single high-energy photon or electron excitation or multiphoton ionization with ultrashort pulses before a critical internuclear distance is reached. Our study demonstrates the experimental conditions to converge the outcomes from two vastly different regimes, namely, multiphoton excitation and ionization in strong fields and single high-energy photon or electron excitation and ionization in weak fields

  1. Manipulating femtosecond laser interactions in bulk glass and thin-film with spatial light modulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadian, Ehsan; Ho, Stephen; Ertorer, Erden; Gherghe, Sebastian; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are emerging as a power tool for laser beam shaping whereby digitally addressed phase shifts can impose computer-generated hologram patterns on incoming laser light. SLM provide several additional advantages with ultrashort-pulsed lasers in controlling the shape of both surface and internal interactions with materials. Inside transparent materials, nonlinear optical effects can confine strong absorption only to the focal volume, extend dissipation over long filament tracks, or reach below diffraction-limited spot sizes. Hence, SLM beam shaping has been widely adopted for laser material processing applications that include parallel structuring, filamentation, fiber Bragg grating formation and optical aberration correction. This paper reports on a range of SLM applications we have studied in femtosecond processing of transparent glasses and thin films. Laser phase-fronts were tailored by the SLM to compensate for spherical surface aberration, and to further address the nonlinear interactions that interplay between Kerr-lens self-focusing and plasma defocusing effects over shallow and deep focusing inside the glass. Limits of strong and weak focusing were examined around the respective formation of low-loss optical waveguides and long uniform filament tracks. Further, we have employed the SLM for beam patterning inside thin film, exploring the limits of phase noise, resolution and fringe contrast during interferometric intra-film structuring. Femtosecond laser pulses of 200 fs pulse duration and 515 nm wavelength were shaped by a phase-only LCOS-SLM (Hamamatsu X10468-04). By imposing radial phase profiles, axicon, grating and beam splitting gratings, volume shape control of filament diameter, length, and uniformity as well as simultaneous formation of multiple filaments has been demonstrated. Similarly, competing effects of spherical surface aberration, self-focusing, and plasma de-focusing were studied and delineated to enable formation

  2. Insight into excimer laser crystallization exploiting ellipsometry: Effect of silicon film precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi; Fortunato, Guglielmo [IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano, 42 - 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-16

    The optical diagnostic of spectroscopic ellipsometry is shown to be an effective tool to investigate the mechanism of excimer laser crystallization (ELC) of silicon thin films. A detailed spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of the microstructures of polycrystalline Si films obtained on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers by ELC of a-Si:H and nc-Si films deposited, respectively, by SiH{sub 4} plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and SiF{sub 4}-PECVD is presented. It is shown that ellipsometric spectra of the pseudodielectric function of polysilicon thin films allows to discern the three different ELC regimes of partial melting, super lateral growth and complete melting. Exploiting ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that ELC of nc-Si has very low energy density threshold of 95 mJ/cm{sup 2} for complete melting, and that re-crystallization to large grains of {approx} 2 {mu}m can be achieved by multi-shot irradiation at an energy density as low as 260 mJ/cm{sup 2} when using nc-Si when compared to 340 mJ/cm{sup 2} for the ELC of a-Si films.

  3. High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, R.T.; Witte, S.; Hogervorst, W.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Phase-stable parametric chirped-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses from a carrier-envelope phase-stabilized mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator (11.0 fs) to 0.25 mJ/pulse at 1 kHz is demonstrated. Compression with a grating compressor and a LCD shaper yields near-Fourier-limited 11.8-fs pulses

  4. Excitation and deexcitation of the Si-H stretching mode in a Si:H with picosecond free electron laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Fauchet, M.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen in amorphous and crystalline silicon has been the topic of intense theoretical and experimental investigations for more than one decade. To better understand how the Si-H bonds interact with the Si matrix and how they can be broken, it would be useful to excite selectively these bonds and monitor the energy flow from the Si-H bonds into the bulk Si modes. One attractive way of exciting the Si-H modes selectively is with an infrared laser tuned to a Si-H vibrational mode. Unfortunately, up to now, this type of experiment had not been possible because of the lack of a laser producing intense, ultrashort pulses that are tunable in the mid infrared. In this presentation, we report the first measurement where a 1 picosecond long laser pulse was used to excite the Si-H stretching modes near 2000 cm -1 and another identical laser pulse was used to measure the deexcitation from that specific vibrational mode. The laser was the Stanford free electron laser generating ∼1 ps-long pulses, tunable in the 5 μm region and focussed to an intensity of ∼1 GW/cm 2 . The pump-probe measurements were performed in transmission at room temperature on several 2 μm thick a-Si:H films deposited on c-Si. Samples with predominant Si-H 1 modes, predominant Si-H n>1 modes and with a mixture of modes were prepared. The laser was tuned on resonance with either of these modes. Immediately after excitation, we observe a bleaching of the infrared absorption, which can be attributed to excitation of the Si-H mode. Beaching is expected since, as a result of anharmonicity, the detuning between the (E 3 - E 2 ) resonance and the (E 2 - E 1 ) resonance is larger than the laser bandwidth. Note that despite the anharmonicity, it should be possible to climb the vibrational ladder due to power broadening

  5. [Utilizing the ultraintense JanUSP laser at LLNL]. 99-ERD-049 Final LDRD Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P K; Price, D F; Mackinnon, A J; Springer, P T

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and optical technologies have now enabled the current generation of high intensity, ultrashort-pulse lasers to achieve focal intensities of 10 20 -10 21 W/cm 2 in pulse durations of 100-500fs. These ultraintense laser pulses are capable of producing highly relativistic plasma states with densities, temperatures, and pressures rivaling those found in the interiors of stars and nuclear weapons. Utilizing the ultraintense 100TW JanUSP laser at LLNL we have explored the possibility of ion shock heating small micron-sized plasmas to extremely high energy densities approaching 1GJ/g on timescales of a few hundred femtoseconds. The JanUSP laser delivers 10 Joules of energy in a 100fs pulse in a near diffraction-limited beam, producing intensities on target of up to 10 21 W/cm 2 . The electric field of the laser at this intensity ionizes and accelerates electrons to relativistic MeV energies. The sudden ejection of electrons from the focal region produces tremendous electrostatic forces which in turn accelerate heavier ions to MeV energies. The predicted ion flux of 1 MJ/cm 2 is sufficient to achieve thermal equilibrium conditions at high temperature in solid density targets. Our initial experiments were carried out at the available laser contrast of 10 -7 (i.e. the contrast of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and of the pre-pules produced in the regenerative amplifier). We used the nuclear photoactivation of Au-197 samples to measure the gamma production above 12MeV-corresponding to the threshold for the Au-197(y,n) reaction. Since the predominant mechanism for gamma production is through the bremsstrahlung emission of energetic electrons as they pass through the solid target we were able to infer a conversion yield of several percent of the incident laser energy into electrons with energies >12MeV. This result is consistent with the interaction of the main pulse with a large pre-formed plasma. The contrast of the laser was improved to

  6. FS laser processing of bio-polymer thin films for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalova, A., E-mail: a_daskalova@code.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nathala, Chandra S.R. [Institute of General Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/134, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Spectra-Physics Vienna, Fernkorngasse 10, 1100 Wien (Austria); Kavatzikidou, P.; Ranella, A. [Institute for Electronic Structure and Lasers-FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Szoszkiewicz, R. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw, Poland (Poland); Husinsky, W. [Institute of General Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/134, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Fotakis, C. [Institute for Electronic Structure and Lasers-FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Systematic research in the field of fs laser interaction with biopolymers for application in tissue engineering. • Utilizing a new biopolymer blend of collagen/elastin material for studying the interaction process in the fs domain. • Obtaining of improved, circularly shaped, interconnected nanopores, with high reproducibility from collagen/elastin layer. • Observation of randomly arranged pattern outside modification zone due to formation of an impact wave over biofilm surface. • NIH/3T3 cell-interface interaction reveal a preferable cell migration on fs laser-modified surface array. - Abstract: The use of ultra-short pulses for nanoengineering of biomaterials opens up possibilities for biological, medical and tissue engineering applications. Structuring the surface of a biomaterial into arrays with micro- and nanoscale features and architectures, defines new roadmaps to innovative engineering of materials. Thin films of novel collagen/elastin composite and gelatin were irradiated by Ti:sapphire fs laser in air at central wavelength 800 nm, with pulse durations in the range of 30 fs. The size and shape as well as morphological forms occurring in the resulted areas of interaction were analyzed as a function of irradiation fluence and number of pulses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The fs interaction regime allows generation of well defined micro porous surface arrays. In this study we examined a novel composite consisting of collagen and elastin in order to create a biodegradable matrix to serve as a biomimetic surface for cell attachment. Confocal microscopy images of modified zones reveal formation of surface fringe patterns with orientation direction alongside the area of interaction. Outside the crater rim a wave-like topography pattern is observed. Structured, on a nanometer scale, surface array is employed for cell-culture experiments for testing cell’s responses to substrate morphology. Mice fibroblasts migration was monitored

  7. FS laser processing of bio-polymer thin films for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalova, A.; Nathala, Chandra S.R.; Kavatzikidou, P.; Ranella, A.; Szoszkiewicz, R.; Husinsky, W.; Fotakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic research in the field of fs laser interaction with biopolymers for application in tissue engineering. • Utilizing a new biopolymer blend of collagen/elastin material for studying the interaction process in the fs domain. • Obtaining of improved, circularly shaped, interconnected nanopores, with high reproducibility from collagen/elastin layer. • Observation of randomly arranged pattern outside modification zone due to formation of an impact wave over biofilm surface. • NIH/3T3 cell-interface interaction reveal a preferable cell migration on fs laser-modified surface array. - Abstract: The use of ultra-short pulses for nanoengineering of biomaterials opens up possibilities for biological, medical and tissue engineering applications. Structuring the surface of a biomaterial into arrays with micro- and nanoscale features and architectures, defines new roadmaps to innovative engineering of materials. Thin films of novel collagen/elastin composite and gelatin were irradiated by Ti:sapphire fs laser in air at central wavelength 800 nm, with pulse durations in the range of 30 fs. The size and shape as well as morphological forms occurring in the resulted areas of interaction were analyzed as a function of irradiation fluence and number of pulses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The fs interaction regime allows generation of well defined micro porous surface arrays. In this study we examined a novel composite consisting of collagen and elastin in order to create a biodegradable matrix to serve as a biomimetic surface for cell attachment. Confocal microscopy images of modified zones reveal formation of surface fringe patterns with orientation direction alongside the area of interaction. Outside the crater rim a wave-like topography pattern is observed. Structured, on a nanometer scale, surface array is employed for cell-culture experiments for testing cell’s responses to substrate morphology. Mice fibroblasts migration was monitored

  8. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  9. Microvoid channel polymer photonic crystals with large infrared stop gaps and a multitude of higher-order bandgaps fabricated by femtosecond laser drilling in solid resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, M.; Ventura, M.; Gu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Photosensitive polymer materials are ideally suited for laser-induced micro- and nanostructuring, as structural and compositional changes are achieved already under exposure to moderate intensities of high-repetition rate ultrashort-pulsed light. Photonic crystals with bandgaps in the infrared or the visible spectral region are a particularly interesting application, because highly correlated structural elements at a size of only a few hundred nanometers are required. We fabricated infrared photonic crystals based on microvoid channels inside solid polymer material. Femtosecond-pulsed visible light was focused into UV-cured Norland NOA63 resin by a high numerical aperture objective. In the focal spot microexplosions drive the material out of the center of the focus. Void channels of 0.7-1.3 μm diameter are generated by translating the sample along a preprogrammed pathway. Woodpile structures of void channels at layer spacings of 1.6-2.6 μm and in-plane channel spacings of 1.2-1.3 μm allowed for bandgap-induced suppression of infrared transmission in the stacking direction of as much as 86% by only 20 layers. As these structures are highly correlated and do not contain many imperfections, up to three higher-order stop gaps are observed. Consistent with theory, the number and gapwidth of higher-order gaps strongly increases with the ratio between layer- and in-plane spacing. Due to their low refractive index contrast and the missing interconnectivity of voids our structures do not provide complete photonic bandgaps. However, their manifold of sizable higher-order gaps allows for the engineering of photonic stop gaps down to the near-infrared wavelength region using comparatively large structural dimensions

  10. Efficient chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20 fs laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Shinichi; Yamakawa, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a model for ultrabroadband and ultrashort pulse amplification including the effects of a pulse shaper for regenerative pulse shaping, gain narrowing and gain saturation in the amplifiers. Thin solid etalons are used to control both gain narrowing and gain saturation during amplification. This model has been used to design an optimized Ti:sapphire amplifier system for producing efficiently pulses of < 20-fs duration with approaching peak and average powers of 100 TW and 20 W. (author)

  11. Carrier-envelope phase effect on the asymmetric H2^+ dissociation in an ultrashort pulse using Floquet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shuo; Esry, B. D.

    2010-03-01

    The tilted structure of the asymmetry pattern of H2^+dissociation as a function of carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and nuclear kinetic energy release (KER) at low energies (0 ˜3eV) has been seen both theoretically [1] and experimentally [2, 3]. We present a method to interpret this tilted structure using a Floquet-like theory [1]. In this formalism, it is convenient to rewrite the contribution of a given Floquet channel n to the KER spectrum in polar form with phase δn(E) , where E is the KER, which enables us to explain the tilt as a result of the interference between different channels. Our calculations demonstrate the dependence of the asymmetry pattern on wavelength, duration and CEP.[4pt] [1] J.J.Hua et al., J. Phys. B 42 085601 (2009)[0pt] [2] Manuel Kremer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103.213003 (2009)[0pt] [3] M.F.Kling et al., Mol. Phys. (2008)

  12. Diffraction properties study of reflection volume holographic grating in dispersive photorefractive material under ultra-short pulse readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Yingyan; Liu Deming; Liu Hairong, E-mail: yiyingyan0410@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Based on the modified Kogelnik diffraction efficiency equation, we study the diffraction intensity spectrum and the total diffraction efficiency of reflection volume holographic gratings in photorefractive media. Taking photorefractive LiNbO{sub 3} crystal as an example, the effect of the grating parameters and the pulse width on the diffraction properties is presented under the influence of crystal material dispersion. Under the combined effects, the diffraction pulse profiles and the total diffraction efficiency are compared with and without crystal material dispersion. The results show that the dispersion will decrease the diffraction intensity. Moreover, when pulse width is smaller or the grating spacing and the grating thickness are larger, the influence of dispersion on diffraction is large. The results of our paper can be used in pulse shaping applications.

  13. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  14. Ultrafast coherent diffractive imaging of nanoparticles using X-ray free-electron laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassemeyer, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Coherent diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FEL) promises high-resolution structure determination of single microscopic particles without the need for crystallization. The diffraction signal of small samples can be very weak, a difficulty that can not be countered by merely increasing the number of photons because the sample would be damaged by a high absorbed radiation dose. Traditional X-ray crystallography avoids this problem by bringing many sample particles into a periodic arrangement, which amplifies the individual signals while distributing the absorbed dose. Depending on the sample, however, crystallization can be very difficult or even impossible. This thesis presents algorithms for a new imaging approach using X-FEL radiation that works with single, non-crystalline sample particles. X-FELs can deliver X-rays with a peak brilliance many orders of magnitude higher than conventional X-ray sources, compensating for their weak interaction cross sections. At the same time, FELs can produce ultra-short pulses down to a few femtoseconds. In this way it is possible to perform ultra-fast imaging, essentially ''freezing'' the atomic positions in time and terminating the imaging process before the sample is destroyed by the absorbed radiation. This thesis primarily focuses on the three-dimensional reconstruction of single (and not necessarily crystalline) particles using coherent diffractive imaging at X-FELs: in order to extract three-dimensional information from scattering data, two-dimensional diffraction patterns from many different viewing angles must be combined. Therefore, the diffraction signal of many identical sample copies in random orientations is measured. The main result of this work is a globally optimal algorithm that can recover the sample orientations solely based on the diffraction signal, enabling three-dimensional imaging for arbitrary samples. The problem of finding three-dimensional orientations is

  15. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  16. Controlled molecules for X-ray diffraction experiments at free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    X-ray diffractive imaging is at the very heart of materials science and has been utilized for decades to solve unknown molecular structures. Nowadays, it serves as the key method of structural biology to solve molecular structures of large biological molecules comprising several thousand or even millions of atoms. However, X-ray diffraction from isolated molecules is very weak. Therefore, the regular and periodic arrangement of a huge number of identical copies of a certain molecule of interest within a crystal lattice has been a necessary condition in order to exploit Bragg diffraction of X-rays. This results in a huge increase in scattered signal and a strongly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to diffraction from non-crystalline samples. The major bottleneck of structural biology is that many of biologically interesting molecules refuse to form crystals of sufficient size to be used at synchrotron X-ray lightsources. However, novel X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), which became operational very recently, promise to address this issue. X-ray pulses provided by XFELs are many orders of magnitude more intense than X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source and at the same time as short as only several tens of femtoseconds. Combined with wavelengths in the nm-pm range, XFELs are well-suited to study ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Additionally, the ultrashort pulses can be utilized to circumvent the damage threshold which set a limit to the incident intensity in X-ray diffraction experiments before. At XFELs, though eventually destroying the investigated sample, no significant sample deterioration happens on the ultrashort timescale of the XFEL pulse and the measured diffraction pattern is due to an (almost) unharmed sample. In the framework of this thesis, the approach of utilizing the highly intense XFEL pulses for X-ray diffraction of weakly-scattering non-crystalline samples was taken to the limit of small isolated molecules. X-ray diffraction was

  17. Controlled molecules for X-ray diffraction experiments at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Stephan

    2013-12-15

    X-ray diffractive imaging is at the very heart of materials science and has been utilized for decades to solve unknown molecular structures. Nowadays, it serves as the key method of structural biology to solve molecular structures of large biological molecules comprising several thousand or even millions of atoms. However, X-ray diffraction from isolated molecules is very weak. Therefore, the regular and periodic arrangement of a huge number of identical copies of a certain molecule of interest within a crystal lattice has been a necessary condition in order to exploit Bragg diffraction of X-rays. This results in a huge increase in scattered signal and a strongly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to diffraction from non-crystalline samples. The major bottleneck of structural biology is that many of biologically interesting molecules refuse to form crystals of sufficient size to be used at synchrotron X-ray lightsources. However, novel X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), which became operational very recently, promise to address this issue. X-ray pulses provided by XFELs are many orders of magnitude more intense than X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source and at the same time as short as only several tens of femtoseconds. Combined with wavelengths in the nm-pm range, XFELs are well-suited to study ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Additionally, the ultrashort pulses can be utilized to circumvent the damage threshold which set a limit to the incident intensity in X-ray diffraction experiments before. At XFELs, though eventually destroying the investigated sample, no significant sample deterioration happens on the ultrashort timescale of the XFEL pulse and the measured diffraction pattern is due to an (almost) unharmed sample. In the framework of this thesis, the approach of utilizing the highly intense XFEL pulses for X-ray diffraction of weakly-scattering non-crystalline samples was taken to the limit of small isolated molecules. X-ray diffraction was

  18. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    Persson, K Osvay, C-G Wahlström, D C Carroll, P McKenna, A Flacco and V Malka Proton acceleration by moderately relativistic laser pulses interacting with solid density targets Erik Lefebvre, Laurent Gremillet, Anna Lévy, Rachel Nuter, Patrizio Antici, Michaël Carrié, Tiberio Ceccotti, Mathieu Drouin, Julien Fuchs, Victor Malka and David Neely Holographic visualization of laser wakefields P Dong, S A Reed, S A Yi, S Kalmykov, Z Y Li, G Shvets, N H Matlis, C McGuffey, S S Bulanov, V Chvykov, G Kalintchenko, K Krushelnick, A Maksimchuk, T Matsuoka, A G R Thomas, V Yanovsky and M C Downer The scaling of proton energies in ultrashort pulse laser plasma acceleration K Zeil, S D Kraft, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, T Kluge, J Metzkes, T Richter, R Sauerbrey and U Schramm Plasma cavitation in ultraintense laser interactions with underdense helium plasmas P M Nilson, S P D Mangles, L Willingale, M C Kaluza, A G R Thomas, M Tatarakis, R J Clarke, K L Lancaster, S Karsch, J Schreiber, Z Najmudin, A E Dangor and K Krushelnick Radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin foils Andrea Macchi, Silvia Veghini, Tatyana V Liseykina and Francesco Pegoraro Target normal sheath acceleration: theory, comparison with experiments and future perspectives Matteo Passoni, Luca Bertagna and Alessandro Zani Generation of a highly collimated, mono-energetic electron beam from laser-driven plasma-based acceleration Sanyasi Rao Bobbili, Anand Moorti, Prasad Anant Naik and Parshotam Dass Gupta Controlled electron acceleration in the bubble regime by optimizing plasma density Meng Wen, Baifei Shen, Xiaomei Zhang, Fengchao Wang, Zhangying Jin, Liangliang Ji, Wenpeng Wang, Jiancai Xu and Kazuhisa Nakajima A multidimensional theory for electron trapping by a plasma wake generated in the bubble regime I Kostyukov, E Nerush, A Pukhov and V Seredov Investigation of the role of plasma channels as waveguides for laser-wakefield accelerators T P A Ibbotson, N Bourgeois, T P Rowlands-Rees, L S Caballero, S I

  19. Temperature dependent optical dispersion and electronic transitions of highly a-axis oriented 0.8Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.2PbTiO{sub 3} films on SrTiO{sub 3} crystals: An ellipsometric evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.Q.; Zhang, J.Z.; Xu, L.P.; Zhu, J.J.; Duan, Z.H.; Hu, Z.G., E-mail: zghu@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Chu, J.H.

    2016-03-31

    The relaxor ferroelectric 0.8Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.2PbTiO{sub 3} (0.8PZN-0.2PT) films have been fabricated on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by the sol–gel method. The structure, optical properties and electronic transitions have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometric spectra. The pure perovskite phase with highly a-axis (100)-preferential orientation as well as low screw dislocation are extracted based on high resolution XRD. Moreover, the red-shift trend of the electronic transitions at about 3.01 eV as a function of temperature follows the Bose-Einstein law induced by the electron–phonon interactions and lattice thermal expansion. Interestingly, the different optical behavior and structure variation can be observed at about 500 K, which reveal tetragonal to cubic structural transformations for the 0.8PZN-0.2PT films. It indicates that the potential application of ellipsometric spectra in judging the phase transitions and symmetries of ferroelectric material. - Highlights: • The highly a-axis oriented as well as low screw dislocated films were fabricated. • The temperature-dependent evolution of band gap was investigated. • The tetragonal to cubic structural transformations were observed at about 500 K. • The electronic transition mechanism was discussed mainly by first-principles calculations.

  20. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  1. Investigation of attosecond ionization dynamics in gases and solids with intense few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of intense light fields with dielectric materials has fascinated scientists since the invention of pulsed lasers in the early sixties. Despite the many decades of research, the interest in the field keeps growing because of the potential technological applications of optical (meta-) materials and the prospects of light-controlled peta-Hertz electronics as well as the improving understanding of the fundamental processes behind light-matter interactions. The progress in the short-pulse laser technology that delivered ever-shorter light pulses was echoed by the discoveries of different progressively shorter time scales in the cycle of excitation and energy/charge relaxation in transparent solids, many parts of which are now well understood. The ultimate challenge lies in recovering the earliest stages of the dynamics which are linked to optical-field-ionization that proceeds within a fraction of an optical cycle. One of the complications of advancing the attosecond science to the bulk media is the problem of inducing and detecting a synchronized attosecond response. The charged particles spectroscopy, well developed in gaseous media during last decade and capable of reaching an attosecond temporal resolution cannot be used as an experimental tool for investigation since direct detection of charged particles is impossible in the volume of a solid material. However, solids are the natural place where electronic processes on the sub-femtosecond or attosecond time scale are expected. Very recently several methods for measuring attosecond dynamics in condensed media have been proposed utilizing optical fields in the transparency range of the material. In this thesis a method, suggested in our scientific group is presented. It is an all-optical method based on the detection of optical harmonics originating from ultrafast modulation of a free electron current due to ionization in the field of intense few-cycle laser pulses. This technique will allow retrieving

  2. Anisotropic enhancement of Yb3+ luminescence by disordered plasmonic networks self-assembled on RbTiOPO4 ferroelectric crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Increasing Yb3+ absorption efficiency is currently desired in a number of applications including bio-imaging, photovoltaics, near infrared driven photocatalysis or ultra-short pulsed solid-state lasers. In this work, silver nanoparticles, which are connected forming disordered networks, have been...

  3. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@knu.ac.kr; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; Won, Jang Si [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK, E-mail: yujung@kaeri.re.kr; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha [WCI Center for Quantum-Beam-based Radiation Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was −39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  4. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; won Jang, Si; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha

    2015-01-01

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was -39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  5. Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Laser Resurfacing Uses for Laser Resurfacing Learn more ...

  6. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  7. Multiphoton interactions in molecules with picosecond laser pulses. Progress report, July 15, 1985-July 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomena of superexcitation is discussed for C 2 F 5 Cl. This phenomena, which was first observed for SF 6 , is the excitation of very high levels of molecules by ultrashort pulses. For the same fluence, picosecond pulses were found to deposit more energy into the molecule than longer duration pulses. A second experimental result is discussed. The effect of collisions and pulse duration on the absorption spectrum of C 3 F 7 I. In this experiment it is observed that the linewidth decreases with pulse length. A red shift is observed with increased pressure. 2 refs., 2 figs

  8. Potential clinical impact of laser-accelerated beams in cancer ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obcemea, Ceferino

    2016-09-01

    In this article, I present three advantages of plasma-accelerated ion beams for cancer therapy. I discuss how: 1. low-emittance and well-collimated beams are advantageous in proximal normal tissue-sparing; 2. highly-peaked quasi-monoenergetic beams are ideal for fast energy selection and switching in Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) as a treatment delivery; 3. high fluence and ultra-short pulse delivery produce collective excitations in the medium and enhance the stopping power. This in turn produces denser ionization track signatures (spurs, blobs, etc.) in target tumors, higher linear energy transfer, higher Bragg peak, and higher radiobiological effectiveness at the micro-level.

  9. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  10. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  11. Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    -power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation have precluded mid-infrared applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular ‘fingerprint region’, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics3, gas sensing and food quality control....

  12. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  13. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  14. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  15. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  16. A prospective study analyzing the application of radiofrequency energy and high-voltage, ultrashort pulse duration electrical fields on the quantitative reduction of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Diane Irvine; Kim, Theresa H M; Temaat, Robbin

    2016-10-01

    Noninvasive fat reduction is claimed by many device manufacturers, but proof of efficacy has been difficult to establish. This prospective study was designed to measure the reduction of fat thickness and actual volume reduction in 20 female patients treated with an external radiofrequency (RF) device. This device combines RF heat, suction coupled vacuum, and oscillating electrical pulses that induce adipocyte death over time. Patients underwent pre- and post-treatment and intercurrent measurements of weight, body mass index, ultrasonic transcutaneous fat thickness, and 2D and 3D Vectra photography with independent calculation of circumferential and volumetric change. Mean transcutaneous ultrasound thickness at reproducible points was 2.78 cm; at 1-month post-treatment, the mean fat thickness was 1.71 cm. At 3-month post-treatment, the mean fat thickness reduction was 39.6%. Vectra circumference measurements were taken at 10-mm intervals, with postural and breathing cycle control. Independent analysis of serial measurements from + 60 to - 70 mm showed mean abdominal circumference measurement of 2.3 cm. Mean abdominal volume loss was 202.4 and 428.5 cc at 1- and 3-month post-treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that permanent cell destruction was caused by irreversible electroporation. Pyroptosis appears to be the mechanism of action.

  17. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  18. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  19. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  20. Laser Refractography

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkevichyus, B.S; Raskovskaya, I.L

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of laser refractography, a flexible new diagnostic tool for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography is based on digital imaging and computer processing of structured laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous transparent media. Laser refractograms provide both qualitative and quantitative measurements and can be used for the study of fast and transient processes. In this book, the theoretical basis of refractography is explored in some detail, and experimental setups are described for measurement of transparent media using either 2D (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. Specific examples and applications are discussed, including visualization of the boundary layer near a hot or cold metallic ball in water, and observation of edge effects and microlayers in liquids and gases. As the first book to describe this new and exciting technique, this monograph has broad cross-disciplinary appeal and will be of interest t...

  1. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  2. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  3. Bound electron nonlinearity beyond the ionization threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S.; Bahl, A.; Kolesik, M.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Although high field laser-induced ionization is a fundamental process underlying many applications, there have been no absolute measurements of the nonlinear polarizability of atoms and molecules in the presence of ionization. Such information is crucial, for example, for understanding the propagation of high intensity ultrashort pulses in matter. Here, we present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, ni...

  4. Sublimationsschneiden von Silizium mit ultrakurz gepulster Laserstrahlung

    OpenAIRE

    Fornaroli, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sublimation cutting with ultra-short pulsed Laser radiation is due to the very short interaction time between laser beam and material a promising singulation technology for semiconductor parts. The short interaction time leads to a direct vaporization of the illuminatedarea on the part instead of melting and therefore increased precision and less heat affection.In contrast to mechanical singulation technologies no mechanical load on the sensitive material has to be considered. By decreasing t...

  5. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  6. Laser Resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Joseph P.; Markus, Jodi L.; Al-Dujaili, Zeena; Markus, Ramsey F.

    2007-01-01

    In a society desiring images of beauty and youthfulness, the world of cutaneous surgery offers the gifts of facial rejuvenation for those determined to combat the signs of aging. With the development of novel laser and plasma technology, pigmentary changes, scarring, and wrinkles can be conquered providing smoother, healthier, younger-looking skin. This review highlights five of the most popular resurfacing technologies in practice today including the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, the erbium:yt...

  7. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  8. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  9. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  10. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of laser therapy? What does the future hold ... therapy is appropriate for them. What are the disadvantages of laser therapy? Laser therapy also has several ...

  11. Practical laser safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winburn, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book includes discussions of the following topics: characteristics of lasers; eye components; skin damage thresholds; classification of lasers by ANSI Z136.1; selecting laser-protective eyewear; hazards associated with lasers; and, an index

  12. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  13. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  14. Laser Heterodyning

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir V

    2009-01-01

    Laser heterodyning is now a widespread optical technique, based on interference of two waves with slightly different frequencies within the sensitive area of a photo-detector. Its unique feature – preserving phase information about optical wave in the electrical signal of the photo-detector – finds numerous applications in various domains of applied optics and optoelectronics: in spectroscopy, polarimetry, radiometry, laser radars and Lidars, microscopy and other areas. The reader may be surprised by a variety of disciplines that this book covers and satisfied by detailed explanation of the phenomena. Very well illustrated, this book will be helpful for researches, postgraduates and students, working in applied optics.

  15. Laser polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Polarimetry, or transmission ellipsometry, is an important experimental technique for the determination of polarization properties of bulk materials. In this technique, source radiation of known polarization is passed through bulk samples to determine, for example, natural or induced birefringence and dichroism. The laser is a particularly appropriate source for this technique because of its monochromaticity, collimation, and radiant intensity. Lasers of many different wavelengths in different spectral regions are now available. Laser polarimetry can be done in any of these wavelength regions where polarizing elements are available. In this paper, polarimetry is reviewed with respect to applications, sources used, and polarization state generator and analyzer configurations. Scattering ellipsometry is also discussed insofar as the forward scattering measurement is related to polarimetry. The authors then describe an infrared laser polarimeter which we have designed and constructed. This instrument can operate over large wavelength regions with only a change in source. Polarization elements of the polarimeter are in a dual rotating retarder configuration. Computer controlled rotary stages and computer monitored detectors automate the data collection. The Mueller formulation is used to process the polarization information. Issues and recent progress with this instrument are discussed

  16. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... is necessary to deposit one order higher input electric power into gas medium than ... cross-sectional view of the laser system is shown in figure 2A. The system mainly consists ... Considering the simplicity and reliability of the.

  17. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material...

  18. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  19. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  20. Laser ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskij, Yu

    1979-02-01

    The characteristics a laser source of multiply-ionized ions are described with regard to the interaction of laser radiation and matter, ion energy spectrum, angular ion distribution. The amount of multiple-ionization ions is evaluated. Out of laser source applications a laser injector of multiple-ionization ions and nuclei, laser mass spectrometry, laser X-ray microradiography, and a laser neutron generators are described.

  1. Dermatological laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk, N.J.; Austad, J.; Helland, S.; Thune, P.; Volden, G.; Falk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The article reviews the different lasers used in dermatology. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of naevus flammeus (''portwine stain'') where lasers are the treatment of choice. Argon laser and pulsed dye laser are the main lasers used in vascular skin diseases, and the article focuses on these two types. Copper-vapour laser, neodymium-YAG laser and CO 2 laser are also presented. Information is provided about the availability of laser technology in the different health regions in Norway. 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  3. Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes; 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in ultrashort pulsed laser technology have opened new frontiers in atomic, molecular and optical sciences. The 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP12) and the 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics (ATTO3), held jointly in Sapporo, Japan, during July 3-8, showcased studies at the forefront of research on multiphoton processes and attosecond physics. This book summarizes presentations and discussions from these two conferences.

  4. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A new method to coherently control the electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp, then an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained and even shorter pulse is achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes which have never be a...

  5. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-02-09

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  6. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  7. Project LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  8. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  9. Laser therapy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  10. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  11. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  12. Bleaching Dengan Teknologi Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eliwaty

    2008-01-01

    Penulisan tentang bleaching dengan laser dimaksudkan untuk menambah wawasan serta pengetahuan dari pembaca di bidang kedokteran gigi. Macam-macam laser yang dipergunakan dalam bleaching yaitu argon, CO2 serta dioda laser. Contoh merek produk laser yaitu Blulaze, Dentcure untuk argonlaser, Novapulse untuk C02 serta Opus 5 untuk dioda laser. Laser bleaching hasilnya dapat dicapai dalam satu kunjungan saja, cepat, efisien namun biayanya relatif mahal, dapat menimbulkan burn, sensitivitas se...

  13. Comparison of lanthanum substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) thin films deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M.P.; Djani-ait Aissa, H.; Barroy, P.R.J.; Lafane, S.; Tessier, P.Y.; Angleraud, B.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Brohan, L.; Djouadi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bi 4-x La x Ti 3 O 12 (BLT x ) (x = 0 to 1) thin films were grown on silicon (100) and platinized substrates Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si using RF diode sputtering, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stoichiometric home-synthesized targets were used. Reactive sputtering was investigated in argon/oxygen gas mixture, with a pressure ranging from 0.33 to 10 Pa without heating the substrate. PLD was investigated in pure oxygen, at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa for a substrate temperature of 400-440 deg. C. Comparative structural, chemical, optical and morphological characterizations of BLT thin films have been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Spectro-ellipsometric measurements (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Both sputtering techniques allow to obtain uniform films with thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm and chemical composition varying from (Bi,La) 2 Ti 3 O 12 to (Bi,La) 4.5 Ti 3 O 12 , depending on deposition pressure and RF power. In addition, BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering, at a pressure deposition ranging from 1.1 to 5 Pa, were well-crystallized after a post-deposition annealing at 650 deg. C in oxygen. They exhibit a refractive index and optical band gap of 2.7 and 3.15 eV, respectively. Regarding PLD, single phase and well-crystallized, 100-200 nm thick BLT films with a stoichiometric (Bi,La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 chemical composition were obtained, exhibiting in addition a preferential orientation along (200). It is worth noting that BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering are as well-crystallized than PLD ones

  14. Laser safety at high profile laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Laser safety has been an active concern of laser users since the invention of the laser. Formal standards were developed in the early 1970's and still continue to be developed and refined. The goal of these standards is to give users guidance on the use of laser and consistent safety guidance and requirements for laser manufacturers. Laser safety in the typical research setting (government laboratory or university) is the greatest challenge to the laser user and laser safety officer. This is due to two factors. First, the very nature of research can put the user at risk; consider active manipulation of laser optics and beam paths, and user work with energized systems. Second, a laser safety culture that seems to accept laser injuries as part of the graduate student educational process. The fact is, laser safety at research settings, laboratories and universities still has long way to go. Major laser facilities have taken a more rigid and serious view of laser safety, its controls and procedures. Part of the rationale for this is that these facilities draw users from all around the world presenting the facility with a work force of users coming from a wide mix of laser safety cultures. Another factor is funding sources do not like bad publicity which can come from laser accidents and a poor safety record. The fact is that injuries, equipment damage and lost staff time slow down progress. Hence high profile/large laser projects need to adapt a higher safety regimen both from an engineering and administrative point of view. This presentation will discuss all these points and present examples. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the University of California, Director, Office of Science.

  15. Measurement and control of optical nonlinearities of importance to glass laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnit, N.A.; Shimada, T.; Sorem, M.S.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Clement, T.S.; James, D.F.V.; Milonni, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Results of a number of studies carried out at Los Alamos, both experimental and theoretical, of nonlinear optical phenomena important to the design of the National Ignition Facility are summarized. These include measurements of nonlinear index coefficients, Raman scattering in atmospheric oxygen, and theoretical studies of harmonic conversion. The measurements were made by two different techniques in order to increase confidence in the results. One method was an application of a recently-developed technique for measuring the amplitude and phase of an ultrashort pulse by Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG). The other utilized a modified version of the Z-scan technique that measures beam distortion introduced by scanning a sample through the focus of a beam. The measurements by both techniques for fused silica were consistent with the lower range of previously measured values, indicating that it should not be necessary to further expand the beam size in the NIF to stay below the self-focusing threshold

  16. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  17. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  18. Laser Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    inverted by the first, i.e., at the moment of time t = T, such that i = (2n+)lT, where 0 is the Rabi frequency (Oraevski et al., 1976). . classical... anisotropic molecule present. CW HeNe, Ar+ and Kr+ lasers are used, and the filter method is necessary because of time-scales lo8 - 10ll Hz. Some general...e.g., truncated harmonic oscillator, square well, spherically symmetric Morse or Lennard-Jones, anisotropic (angle-dependent) Morse or Lennard-Jones

  19. The JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FELS and THEIR cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, we need a powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) for academic and industrial uses in almost all fields. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, the JAERI FEL group and I have developed an industrial FEL driven by a compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off super-conducting rf linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the JAERI FEL and cryogenics will cover market-requirements for the industrial FELs, some answers from the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off cryostat concept and operational experiences over these 9 years, our discovery of the new, highly-efficient, high-power, and ultra-short pulse lasing mode, and the energy-recovery geometry. (author)

  20. Laser safety and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    Lasers are finding increasing routine applications in many areas of science, medicine and industry. Though laser radiation is non-ionizing in nature, the usage of high power lasers requires specific safety procedures. This paper briefly outlines the properties of laser beams and various safety procedures necessary in their handling and usage. (author)

  1. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  2. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  3. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  4. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  5. Laser Microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Andra R; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Siegal, Gene P; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Tangrea, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a relatively rapid and precise method of isolating and removing specified cells from complex tissues for subsequent analysis of their RNA, DNA, protein or metabolite content, thereby allowing assessment of the role of different cell types in the normal physiological or disease processes being studied. In this unit, protocols for the preparation of mammalian frozen tissues, fixed tissues, and cytologic specimens for LM, including tissue freezing, tissue processing and paraffin embedding, histologic sectioning, cell processing, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and image-guided cell targeting are presented. Also provided are recipes for generating lysis buffers for the recovery of nucleic acids and proteins. The Commentary section addresses the types of specimens that can be utilized for LM and approaches to staining of specimens for cell visualization. Emphasis is placed on the preparation of tissue or cytologic specimens as this is critical to effective LM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Laser EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Schwenzel, R.E.; Campbell, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for obtaining EXAFS data of a material, comprising means for directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target in such manner as to produce X-rays at the target of a selected spectrum and intensity, suitable for obtaining the EXAFS spectrum of the material, means for directing X-rays from the target onto spectral dispersive means so located as to direct the spectrally resolved X-rays therefrom onto recording means, and means for positioning a sample of material in the optical path of the X-rays, the recording means providing a reference spectrum of X-rays not affected by the sample and absorption spectrum of X-rays modified by transmission through the sample

  7. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  8. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  9. History and principle of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, Ch.H.; Schwob, C.; Julien, J.; Forget, S.; Robert-Philip, I.; Balcou, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    In the first article C.H. Townes, the inventor of the maser, describes the work and ideas that led to the invention of the laser. The second article explains how a laser operate and the third article reviews the main different types of laser: solid lasers, gas lasers, diode lasers and dye lasers

  10. Technological laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia, D.O.; Kollen, R.; Rods, U.

    1980-01-01

    Problems of the technological applications of lasers are stated in the popular form. Main requirements to a technological laser as well as problems arising in designing any system using lasers have been considered. Areas of the laser applications are described generally: laser treatment of materials, thermal treatment, welding, broach and drilling of holes, scribing, microtreatment and adjustment of resistors, material cutting, investigations into controlled thermonuclear fussion

  11. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  12. New power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Daido, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    As the new power lasers which are expected to exert large extending effect to the fields of advanced science and technology including precision engineering as well as laser nuclear fusion, LD-excited solid laser, X-ray laser and free electron laser are taken up and outlined. Recently, the solid laser using high power output, high efficiency semiconductor laser as the exciting beam source has been developed. This is called laser diode (LD)-excited solid laser, and the heightening of power output and efficiency and the extension of life are planned. Its present status and application to medical use, laser machining, laser soldering and so on are described. In 1960, the laser in visible region appeared, however in 1985, the result of observing induced emission beam by electron collision exciting method was reported in USA. In the wavelength range of 200 A, holography and contact X-ray microscope applications were verified. The various types of soft X-ray laser and the perspective hereafter are shown. The principle of free electron laser is explained. In the free electron laser, wavelength can be changed by varying electron beam energy, the period of wiggler magnetic field and the intensity of magnetic field. Further, high efficiency and large power output are possible. Its present status, application and the perspective hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes

  14. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  15. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Carbone, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  16. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  17. Lasers in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-08-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

  18. Excimer laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, R.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with laser induced material photoprocessing, especially concerning those processes which are initiated by u.v. lasers (mostly excimer laser). Advantages of using the u.v. radiation emitted by excimer lasers, both in photophysical and photochemical processes of different materials, are discussed in detail. Applications concerning microelectronics are stressed with respect to other applications in different fields (organic chemistry, medicine). As further applications of excimer lasers, main spectroscopic techniques for ''on line'' diagnostics which employ excimer pumped dye lasers, emitting tunable radiation in the visible and near u.v. are reviewed

  19. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  20. Laser in urology. Laser i urologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisland, H.O. (Aker Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-09-01

    The neodymium YAG laser is particularly suited for endoscopic urologic surgery because the YAG laser light can be conducted in flexible fibers. Superficial bladder tumours can be treated under local anaesthesia in the outpatient department. The frequency of local recurrences is low, significantly lower than after electrosection or electrocoagulation. Selected cases of T2-muscle invasive bladder tumours can be cured with laser coagulation applied subsequently to transurethral resection. Combined treatment with electrosection and laser coagulation of localized prostatic cancer is a promising method which compares favourably with results obtained by other treatment modalities. Tumours in the upper urinary tract can be laser-treated through ureteroscopes or nephroscopes, but the treatment should be limited to low stage, low grade tumours. Laser is the treatment of choice for intraurethral condylomatas. Laser treatment of penil carcinoma gives excellent cosmetic and functional results and few local recurrences. Laser lithotripsy is a new technique for treatment of ureteric stones and photodynamic laser therapy is a promising tecnique for treatment of carcinoma in situ in the bladder empithelium. However, neither of these techniques are available for clinical use in Norway as yet. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  1. Laser materials processing with diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1996-01-01

    Laser materials processing is currently dominated by CO2, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers. Continuous advances in semiconductor laser technology over the last decade have increased the average power output of the devices annualy by two fold, resulting in the commercial availability of the diode lasers today with delivery output powers in excess of 60W in CW mode and 5kW in qasi-CW mode. The advantages of compactness, high reliability, high efficiency and potential low cost, due to the mass producti...

  2. 1982 laser program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R.

    1983-08-01

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications

  3. Photonic bandgap fiber lasers and multicore fiber lasers for next generation high power lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA....

  4. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  5. Laser for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state lasers have proven to be very versatile tools for the study and demonstration of inertial confinement fusion principles. When lasers were first contemplated to be used for the compression of fusion fuel in the late 1950s, the laser output energy levels were nominally one joule and the power levels were 10 3 watts (pulse duration's of 10 -3 sec). During the last 25 years, lasers optimized for fusion research have been increased in power to typically 100,000 joules with power levels approaching 10 14 watts. As a result of experiments with such lasers at many locations, DT target performance has been shown to be consistent with high gain target output. However, the demonstration of ignition and gain requires laser energies of several megajoules. Laser technology improvements demonstrated over the past decade appear to make possible the construction of such multimegajoule lasers at affordable costs. (author)

  6. Radiological protection against lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballereau, P

    1974-04-01

    A brief description of the biological effects of laser beams is followed by a review of the factors involved in eye and skin damage (factors linked with the nature of lasers and those linked with the organ affected) and a discussion of the problems involved in the determination of threshold exposure levels. Preventive measures are recommended, according to the type of laser (high-energy pulse laser, continuous laser, gas laser). No legislation on the subject exists in France or in Europe. Types of lasers marketed, threshold exposure levels for eye and skin, variations of admissible exposure levels according to wavelength, etc. are presented in tabular form. Nomogram for determination of safe distance for direct vision of a laser is included.

  7. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  8. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  9. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  10. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  11. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  12. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  13. In situ ellipsometric study of surface immobilization of flagellar filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurunczi, S., E-mail: kurunczi@mfa.kfki.hu [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, A.; Huelber, T. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Kozma, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Petrik, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Jankovics, H. [Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Sebestyen, A. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Vonderviszt, F. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Institute of Enzymology, Karolina ut 29-33, Budapest, H-1113 (Hungary); and others

    2010-10-15

    Protein filaments composed of thousands of subunits are promising candidates as sensing elements in biosensors. In this work in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to monitor the surface immobilization of flagellar filaments. This study is the first step towards the development of layers of filamentous receptors for sensor applications. Surface activation is performed using silanization and a subsequent glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Structure of the flagellar filament layers immobilized on activated and non-activated Si wafer substrates is determined using a two-layer effective medium model that accounted for the vertical density distribution of flagellar filaments with lengths of 300-1500 nm bound to the surface. The formation of the first interface layer can be explained by the multipoint covalent attachment of the filaments, while the second layer is mainly composed of tail pinned filaments floating upwards with the free parts. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy, covalent immobilization resulted in an increased surface density compared to absorption.

  14. ELLIPSOMETRIC STUDY OF SEMITRANSPARENT SILVER LAYERS DEPOSITED ON GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Toranzos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using ellipsometry, the film structure is characterized by optical indices n, k (visible region, 450 nm <  < 580 nm and the thickness (15 < d < 35 nm. The optical indices change with the quantity of silver deposited, obtaining effective indices of 1.0 < n < 1.8 and 1.6 < k < 2.6 to the smaller deposits that belong to a volumetric fraction between 0.35 and 0.5 of silver in the air. An effective optical thickness film decrease is observed when the silver volumetric fraction increases, and a thickness increase with close indices to solid silver when the deposited silver increases. Optical and effective medium theory indices are compared.

  15. Ellipsometric study of salt film formation during passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, Lee Warren [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to gain further understanding into the kinetics of salt film formation during repassivation of a corroding metal. Experiments were conducted using an ellipsometer to examine an electrode surface undergoing anodic dissolution and passivation. Because of the constraints of the ellipsometer, the sample had to be mounted vertically. As a consequence natural convection currents had to be taken into account. Calculation showed that the mass transfer limiting current was exceeded by transient currents, indicating that natural convection was present to an extent that could drastically change the system from the diffusion model that was proposed. It was determined that recessing the electrode led to minimized natural convective effects, and to uniform current distribution. The ellipsometer output provided times which were associated with precipitation and dissolution of the salt film. The experimental data was in good agreement with the mathematical model, further strengthening the precipitation-dissolution mechanism of passivation. Furthermore, a dimensionless model was shown capable of a first approximation of the passivation behavior of any metal. Investigations reported here were carried out on iron, nickel, and cobalt.

  16. Laser in operative dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yasini; Gh. Rahbari; A. Matorian

    1994-01-01

    Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy) and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry), etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks...

  17. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  18. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  19. Application of Various Lasers to Laser Trimming Resistance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-feng

    2007-01-01

    Though the laser trimming resistance has been an old laser machining industry for over 30 years, the development of technology brings new alternative lasers which can be used for the traditional machining. The paper describes application of various lasers to laser trimming resistance system including early traditional krypton arc lamp pumped Nd:YAG to laser, modern popular diode pumped solid state laser and the present advanced harmonic diode pumped solid state laser. Using the new alternative lasers in the laser trimming resistance system can dramatically improve the yields and equipment performance.

  20. Laser technologies for laser accelerators. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary result of the work reported is the determination of laser system architectures that satsify the requirements of high luminosity, high energy (about 1 TeV), electron accelerators. It has been found that high laser efficiency is a very hard driver for these accelerators as the total average laser output optical power is likely to fall above 10 MW. The luminosity requires rep rates in the kHz range, and individual pulse lengths in the 1-10 psec range are required to satisfy acceleration gradient goals. CO 2 and KrF lasers were chosen for study because of their potential to simultaneously satisfy the given requirements. Accelerator luminosity is reviewed, and requirements on laser system average power and rep rate are determined as a function of electron beam bunch parameters. Laser technologies are reviewed, including CO 2 , excimers, solid state, and free electron lasers. The proposed accelerator mechanisms are summarized briefly. Work on optical transport geometries for near and far field accelerators are presented. Possible exploitation of the CO 2 and DrF laser technology to generate the required pulse lengths, rep rates, and projected efficiencies is illustrated and needed development work is suggested. Initial efforts at developing a 50 GeV benchmark conceptual design and a 100 MeV demonstration experiment conceptual design are presented

  1. Laser induced pyrolysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

  2. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  3. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  4. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  5. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  6. LaserFest Celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

    2011-08-25

    LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and its many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.

  7. Laser beam cutting method. Laser ko ni yoru kaitai koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsumizu, A. (Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    In this special issue paper concerning the demolition of concrete structures, was introduced a demolition of concrete structures using laser, of which practical application is expected due to the remarkable progress of generating power and efficiency of laser radiator. The characteristics of laser beam which can give a temperature of one million centigrade at the irradiated spot, the laser radiator consisting of laser medium, laser resonator and pumping apparatus, and the laser kinds for working, such as CO{sub 2} laser, YAG laser and CO laser, were described. The basic constitution of laser cutting equipment consisting of large generating power radiator, beam transmitter, beam condenser, and nozzle for working was also illustrated. Furthermore, strong and weak points in the laser cutting for concrete and reinforcement were enumerated. Applications of laser to cutting of reinforced and unreinforced concrete constructions were shown, and the concept and safety measure for application of laser to practical demolition was discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  9. Development of soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system with a two-dimensional angle-resolved time-of-flight analyzer at SPring-8 BL07LSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Manami; Yamamoto, Susumu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Yukawa, Ryu; Fukushima, Akiko; Harasawa, Ayumi; Kakizaki, Akito; Matsuda, Iwao [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kousa, Yuka; Kondoh, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshihito [RIKEN/SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a soft x-ray time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy system using synchrotron radiation (SR) at SPring-8 BL07LSU and an ultrashort pulse laser system. Two-dimensional angle-resolved measurements were performed with a time-of-flight-type analyzer. The photoemission spectroscopy system is synchronized to light pulses of SR and laser using a time control unit. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by mapping the band structure of a Si(111) crystal over the surface Brillouin zones and observing relaxation of the surface photo-voltage effect using the pump (laser) and probe (SR) method.

  10. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff; Hitz, C Breck; John Wiley & Sons

    2001-01-01

    Electrical Engineering Introduction to Laser Technology , Third Edition. Would you like to know how a laser works, and how it can be modified for your own specific tasks? This intuitive third edition-previously published as Understanding Laser Technology , First and Second Editions-introduces engineers, scientists, technicians, and novices alike to the world of modern lasers, without delving into the mathematical details of quantum electronics. It is the only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasers. A unique combinatio.

  11. Quantum well lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zory, Jr, Peter S; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.* The first comprehensive book-length treatment of quantum well lasers* Provides a detailed treatment

  12. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  13. The laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.; Decroisette, M.; Watteau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Principle of the thermonuclear fusion by inertial confinement: required characteristics of the deuterium-tritium plasma and of the high power lasers to be used Development of high power lasers: active media used; amplifiers; frequency conversion; beam quality; pulse conditioning; existing large systems. The laser-matter interaction: collision and collective interaction of the laser radiation with matter; transport of the absorbed energy; heating and compression of deuterium-tritium; diagnoses and their comparison with the numerical simulation of the experiment; performances. Conclusions: difficulties to overcome; megajoule lasers; other energy source: particles beams [fr

  14. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  15. Lasers in space.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available cube, laser beam reflectors, placed on the Moon half a century ago. These early achievements will soon be followed by a plethora of experiments involving lasers in low earth orbit (LEO) or at Lagrange points. And not much later, laser communications... will stretch out as far as Mars and beyond. One important low Earth orbit (LEO) application is the removal of space debris by Earth based or LEO relayed lasers as promoted by Phipps et al.3. Another is military communication. The prominent L1 laser space...

  16. Tunable laser applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2008-01-01

    Introduction F. J. Duarte Spectroscopic Applications of Tunable Optical Parametric Oscillators B. J. Orr, R. T. White, and Y. He Solid-State Dye Lasers Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre Tunable Lasers Based on Dye-Doped Polymer Gain Media Incorporating Homogeneous Distributions of Functional Nanoparticles F. J. Duarte and R. O. James Broadly Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers F. J. Duarte Tunable Fiber Lasers T. M. Shay and F. J. Duarte Fiber Laser Overview and Medical Applications

  17. New solid laser: Ceramic laser. From ultra stable laser to ultra high output laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    An epoch-making solid laser is developed. It is ceramic laser, polycrystal, which is produced as same as glass and shows ultra high output. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser crystal and the CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technique realized new ultra high output lasers. Japan has developed various kinds of ceramic lasers, from 10 -2 to 67 x 10 3 w average output, since 1995. These ceramic lasers were studied by gravitational radiation astronomy. The scattering coefficient of ceramic laser is smaller than single crystals. The new fast ignition method is proposed by Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University, Japan. Ultra-intense short pulse laser can inject the required energy to the high-density imploded core plasma within the core disassembling time. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 crystal for laser, ceramic YAG of large caliber for 100 kW, transparent laser ceramic from nano-crystals, crystal grain and boundary layer between grains, the scattering coefficient of single crystal and ceramic, and the derived release cross section of Yb:YAG ceramic are described. (S.Y.)

  18. Advanced lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.; George, E.V.; Haas, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laser drive systems' performance requirements for fusion reactors are developed following a review of the principles of inertial confinement fusion and of the technical status of fusion research lasers (Nd:glass; CO 2 , iodine). These requirements are analyzed in the context of energy-storing laser media with respect to laser systems design issues: optical damage and breakdown, medium excitation, parasitics and superfluorescence depumping, energy extraction physics, medium optical quality, and gas flow. Three types of energy-storing laser media of potential utility are identified and singled out for detailed review: (1) Group VI atomic lasers, (2) rare earth solid state hybrid lasers, and (3) rare earth molecular vapor lasers. The use of highly-radiative laser media, particularly the rare-gas monohalide excimers, are discussed in the context of short pulse fusion applications. The concept of backward wave Raman pulse compression is considered as an attractive technique for this purpose. The basic physics and device parameters of these four laser systems are reviewed and conceptual designs for high energy laser systems are presented. Preliminary estimates for systems efficiencies are given. (Auth.)

  19. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  20. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  1. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  2. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  3. Robot-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeel, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    A robot-laser system is described for providing a laser beam at a desired location, the system comprising: a laser beam source; a robot including a plurality of movable parts including a hollow robot arm having a central axis along which the laser source directs the laser beam; at least one mirror for reflecting the laser beam from the source to the desired location, the mirror being mounted within the robot arm to move therewith and relative thereto to about a transverse axis that extends angularly to the central axis of the robot arm; and an automatic programmable control system for automatically moving the mirror about the transverse axis relative to and in synchronization with movement of the robot arm to thereby direct the laser beam to the desired location as the arm is moved

  4. Laser safety in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1997-05-01

    One of the major causes of anxiety in the dental clinic is the dental handpiece. Because dentists wish to provide a method which can replace the drill there has often been a premature use of the laser in dentistry. Various lasers have been introduced into the clinic before research has shown the laser used is of clinical benefit. Any new treatment method must not compromise the health of the patient being treated. Thus a method of evaluating the clinical abilities of dentists and their understanding the limitations of the laser used must be developed. Dentist must be trained in the basic interaction of the laser on oral tissues. The training has to concentrate on the variation of the laser wavelength absorption in the different tissues of the oral cavity. Because of the differences in the optical properties of these tissues great care must be exercised by practitioners using lasers on patients.

  5. Lasers in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  6. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  7. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  8. Lasers: principles, applications and energetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subran, C.; Sagaut, J.; Lapointe, S.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the principles of a laser and the properties of the laser beam, the authors describe the following different types of lasers: solid state lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor lasers, dye lasers and gas lasers. Then, their applications are given. Very high energy lasers can reproduce the phenomenon of nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms. (O.M.)

  9. Lasers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.

    2008-05-01

    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  10. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos [Okemos, MI; Lozovoy, Vadim V [Okemos, MI; Comstock, Matthew [Milford, MI

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  11. Designing of Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Al-Awad, F.; Alsous, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we describe the design of the Raman laser pumped by Frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ=532 nm) to generate new laser wavelengths by shifting the frequency of the Nd-YAG laser to Stokes region (λ 1 =683 nm, λ 2 =953.6 nm, λ 3 =1579.5 nm) and Antistokes region (λ ' 1 =435 nm, λ ' 2 =369.9 nm, λ ' 3=319.8 nm). Laser resonator has been designed to increase the laser gain. It consists of two mirrors, the back mirror transmits the pump laser beam (λ=532 nm) through the Raman tube and reflects all other generated Raman laser lines. Four special front mirrors were made to be used for the four laser lines λ 1 =683 nm, λ 2 =953.6 nm and λ ' 1 = 435 nm, λ ' 2 =369.9 nm. The output energy for the lines υ 1 s, υ 2 s, υ 1 as,υ 2 as was measured. The output energy of the Raman laser was characterized for different H 2 pressure inside the tube. (Author)

  12. Laser program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Coleman, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Fusion program are to understand and develop the science and technology of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and to utilize ICF in short- and long-term military applications, and, in the long-term, as a candidate for central-station civilian power generation. In 1984, using the Novette laser system, the authors completed experiments showing the very favorable scaling of laser-plama interactions with short-wavelength laser light. Their Novette experiments have unequivocally shown that short laser wavelength, i.e., less than 1 μm, is required to provide the drive necessary for efficient compression, ignition, and burn of DT fusion fuel. In other experiments with Novette, the authors made the first unambiguous observation of amplified spontaneous emission in the soft x-ray regime. The authors also conducted military applications and weapons physics experiments, which they discuss in detail in the classified volume of our Laser Program Annual Report. In the second thrust, advanced laser studies, they develop and test the concepts, components, and materials for present and future laser systems. Over the years, this has meant providing the technology base and scientific advances necessary to construct and operate a succession of six evermore-powerful laser systems. The latest of these, Nova, a 100-TW/100-kJ-class laser system, was completed in 1984. The Nd:glass laser continues to be the most effective and versatile tool for ICF and weapons physics because of its scalability in energy, the ability to efficiently convert its 1=μm output to shorter wavelengths, its ability to provide flexible, controlled pulse shaping, and its capability to adapt to a variety of irradiation and focusing geometries. For these reasons, many of our advanced laser studies are in areas appropriate to solid state laser technologies

  13. Laser pumped lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the isotope separation laser requirements reveals that high pressure polyatomic molecular gas laser pumped lasers can attain the necessary characteristics including tunability, energy output, pulse width, and repetition rate. The results of a search, made for molecules meeting the appropriate requirements for one of several pump schemes utilizing a CO 2 laser and with output in the 12 μm or 16μm wavelength range, are presented. Several methods of pumping are reviewed and two novel pump schemes are presented. A laser pumped laser device design is given, and operation of this device and associated diagnostic equipment is confirmed by repeating experiments in OCS and NH 3 . The results of OCS laser experiments show that an improvement in pump rate and output per unit length is obtained with the device, using a wedged transverse pumping scheme. A new multi-line laser system in NH 3 pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser is reported. More than forty transitions spanning the wavelength range of 9.2 to 13.8 μm are observed and identified. A strong output at 12.08 μm is one of the closest lines yet found to the required laser isotope separation wavelength. Far infrared emission near 65 μm is observed and is responsible for populating levels which lase in pure ammonia near 12.3 μm. Buffer gas (e.g., N 2 or He) pressures of approximately 40--800 torr cause energy transfer by collision-induced rotationaltransitions from the pumped antisymmetric to the lasing symmetric levels in the nu 2 = 1 band of ammonia. Most of the observed lines are aP(J,K) transitions which originate from the nu 2 /sup s/ band. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the laser output shows that some lines lase at pressures greater than one atmosphere. Transient behavior of the 12.08 μm line is calculated from a simplified analytic model and these calculations are compared to the experimental results

  14. Pattern Laser Annealing by a Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Yoshio; Hoh, Koichiro; Murakami, Koichi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tarui, Yasuo

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary experiments with contact-type pattern laser annealing were made for local polycrystallization of a-Si, local evaporation of a-Si and local formation of Ni-Si alloy. These experiments showed that the mask patterns can be replicated as annealed regions with a resolution of a few microns on substrates. To overcome shortcomings due to the contact type pattern annealing, a projection type reduction pattern laser annealing system is proposed for resistless low temperature pattern forming processes.

  15. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  16. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  17. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  18. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  19. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  20. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10 19 W/cm 2 . In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62 Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10 19 Wcm -2