WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultraluminous infrared starburst

  1. A Polarimetric Search for Hidden Quasars in Three Radio-selected Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.D.; Brotherton, M.S.; Stanford, S.A.; Breugel, W. van; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Antonucci, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out a spectropolarimetric search for hidden broad-line quasars in three ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) discovered in the positional correlations between sources detected in deep radio surveys and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog. Only the high-ionization Seyfert 2 galaxy TF J1736+1122 is highly polarized, displaying a broad-line spectrum visible in polarized light. The other two objects, TF J1020+6436 and FF J1614+3234, display spectra dominated by a population of young (A type) stars similar to those of open-quotes E+Aclose quotes galaxies. They are unpolarized, showing no sign of hidden broad-line regions. The presence of young starburst components in all three galaxies indicates that the ULIRG phenomenon encompasses both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst activity, but the most energetic ULIRGs do not necessarily harbor open-quotes buried quasars.close quotes We find that a luminous infrared galaxy is most likely to host an obscured quasar if it exhibits a high-ionization ([O iii] λ5007/Hβ approx-gt 5) spectrum typical of a 'classic' Seyfert 2 galaxy with little or no Balmer absorption lines, is 'ultraluminous' (L IR approx-gt 10 12 L circle-dot ), and has a 'warm' IR color (f 25 /f 60 approx-gt 0.25). The detection of hidden quasars in this group but not in the low-ionization, starburst-dominated ULIRGs (classified as LINERs or H ii galaxies) may indicate an evolutionary connection, with the latter being found in younger systems. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  2. Infrared emission and extragalactic starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the belief that recent star formation plays a significant role in determining many of the infrared properties of galaxies. Pertinent types of infrared observations and the infrared properties of starbursts are briefly summarized. Recently developed models which describe the evolution of starbursts are also considered. (U.K.)

  3. SPITZER INFRARED LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Maiolino, Roberto; Nakagawa, Takao

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution infrared 5-35 μm spectroscopy of 17 nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z 12 L sun , are found in eight sources. We combine these results with those of our previous research to investigate the energy function of buried AGNs in a complete sample of optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs in the local universe at z < 0.3 (85 sources). We confirm a trend that we previously discovered: that buried AGNs are more common in galaxies with higher infrared luminosities. Because optical Seyferts also show a similar trend, we argue more generally that the energetic importance of AGNs is intrinsically higher in more luminous galaxies, suggesting that the AGN-starburst connections are luminosity dependent. This may be related to the stronger AGN feedback scenario in currently more massive galaxy systems, as a possible origin of the galaxy downsizing phenomenon.

  4. Study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the mid-infrared with the ISOCAM instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the mid-infrared between 3 and 16 μm with the ISOCAM instrument. The study of nearby prototypical galaxies such as NGC 1068 and M 82 lead me to decompose the emission into three components. The star forming regions are characterized by (1) the infrared bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 μm originating from the photo-dissociation regions and also by (2) a continuum at 15 μm produced by the very small grains in HII regions. I show that AGNs have (3) strong continuum with an important contribution between 3 and 10 μm arising from hot dust heated to high temperatures of the order of 1000 K. I present two diagnostic diagrams based on the spectral properties of the three components allowing me to distinguish AGNs from starburst regions. In interacting galaxies, I show that some extra-nuclear regions harboring starburst activity can dominate the emission at 15 μm as in the Cartwheel and the Antennae galaxies. Using mid-infrared spectral features, I also define two prototypes of ultra-luminous galaxies dominated either by starburst activity in the case of Arp 220 or by the AGN in the Super-Antennae galaxy (IRAS 19254-7245). I explain how this diagram and the selection criteria evolve according to redshift. Finally, I show how we can develop new diagnostics using filters of the IRAC instrument on board the next infrared space observatory SIRTF. (author) [fr

  5. RADIO AND MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF COMPACT STARBURSTS: DISTANCING THEMSELVES FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Condon, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Evans, A. S., E-mail: emurphy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures and 1.4 to 8.44 GHz radio spectral indices with 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption features for a sample of 36 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We find that galaxies having small 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EQWs), which signal the presence of weak PAH emission and/or an excess of very hot dust, also have flat spectral indices. The three active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified through their excessively large 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures are also identified as AGN via their small 6.2 {mu}m PAH EQWs. We also find that the flattening of the radio spectrum increases with increasing silicate optical depth, 8.44 GHz brightness temperature, and decreasing size of the radio source even after removing potential AGN, supporting the idea that compact starbursts show spectral flattening as the result of increased free-free absorption. These correlations additionally suggest that the dust obscuration in these galaxies must largely be coming from the vicinity of the compact starburst itself, and is not distributed throughout the (foreground) disk of the galaxy. Finally, we investigate the location of these infrared-bright systems relative to the main sequence (star formation rate versus stellar mass) of star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We find that the radio spectral indices of galaxies flatten with increasing distance above the main sequence, or in other words, with increasing specific star formation rate. This indicates that galaxies located above the main sequence, having high specific star formation rates, are typically compact starbursts hosting deeply embedded star formation that becomes more optically thick in the radio and infrared with increased distance above the main sequence.

  6. Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, L.K.; Willner, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Total far-infrared luminosities have been calculated from measured IRAS fluxes for a sample of optically selected galaxies and for a comparison sample of spiral galaxies. The starburst galaxies are notably more luminous in the far-infrared and have higher dust color temperatures than the comparison galaxies. The far-infrared light dominates the total luminosity of the starburst galaxies, and a significant amount of dust must be present. The far-infrared emission correlates well with total blue luminosity, nuclear blue luminosity, and nuclear H-alpha luminosity. The dust that produces the far-infrared light is probably heated predominantly by B rather than by O stars. 30 references

  7. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (The Superantennae): X-Ray Emission from the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (TAU = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Kalpha line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe K line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of approximately 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is approximately 6 x 10(exp 40) erg per second if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  8. THE MERGER-TRIGGERED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CONTRIBUTION TO THE ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY POPULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, A. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been thought that there is a connection between ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), quasars, and major mergers. Indeed, simulations show that major mergers are capable of triggering massive starbursts and quasars. However, observations by the Herschel Space Observatory suggest that, at least at high redshift, there may not always be a simple causal connection between ULIRGs and mergers. Here, we combine an evolving merger-triggered active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity function with a merger-triggered starburst model to calculate the maximum contribution of major mergers to the ULIRG population. We find that major mergers can account for the entire local population of ULIRGs hosting AGNs and ∼25% of the total local ULIRG luminosity density. By z ∼ 1, major mergers can no longer account for the luminosity density of ULIRGs hosting AGNs and contribute ∼<12% of the total ULIRG luminosity density. This drop is likely due to high-redshift galaxies being more gas rich and therefore able to achieve high star formation rates through secular evolution. Additionally, we find that major mergers can account for the local population of warm ULIRGs. This suggests that selecting high-redshift warm ULIRGs will allow for the identification of high-redshift merger-triggered ULIRGs. As major mergers are likely to trigger very highly obscured AGNs, a significant fraction of the high-redshift warm ULIRG population may host Compton thick AGNs.

  9. Are starburst galaxies proton calorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2018-03-01

    Several starburst galaxies have been observed in the GeV and TeV bands. In these dense environments, gamma-ray emission should be dominated by cosmic ray (CR) interactions with the interstellar medium (pcrpism → π0 → γγ). Indeed, starbursts may act as proton `calorimeters' where a substantial fraction of CR energy input is emitted in gamma-rays. Here, we build a one-zone, `thick-target' model implementing calorimetry and placing a firm upper bound on gamma-ray emission from CR interactions. The model assumes that CRs are accelerated by supernovae (SNe), and all suffer nuclear interactions rather than escape. Our model has only two free parameters: the CR proton acceleration energy per SN ɛcr, and the proton injection spectral index s. We calculate the pionic gamma-ray emission from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and derive thick-target parameters for six galaxies with Fermi, H.E.S.S., and/or VERITAS data. Our model provides good fits for the M82 and NGC 253, and yields ɛcr and s values suggesting that SN CR acceleration is similar in starbursts and in our Galaxy. We find that these starbursts are indeed nearly if not fully proton calorimeters. For NGC 4945 and NGC 1068, the models are consistent with calorimetry but are less well-constrained due to the lack of TeV data. However, the Circinus galaxy and the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 exceed our pionic upper-limit; possible explanations are discussed.

  10. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-infrared Properties of Post-starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Lanz, Lauranne; Lacy, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; French, K. Decker; Ciesla, Laure; Appleton, Philip N.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Crossett, Jacob; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kriek, Mariska; Medling, Anne M.; Mulchaey, John S.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of “E+A” identified post-starburst galaxies, including a deep analysis of 190 post-starbursts detected in the 2 μm All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog. The post-starburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone. Furthermore, we find that post-starbursts occupy a distinct region of [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broadband photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of post-starbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that the mid-infrared (4-12 μm) properties of post-starbursts are consistent with either 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended post-starburst galaxies with 22 μm emission detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥slant 3 requires a hot dust component to produce their observed rising mid-infrared SED between 12 and 22 μm. The composite SED of WISE 22 μm non-detections (S/N systems. This could mean that including selections capable of identifying AGNs as part of a search for transitioning and post-starburst galaxies would create a more complete census of the transition pathways taken as a galaxy quenches its star formation.

  11. CO LINE EMISSION FROM COMPACT NUCLEAR STARBURST DISKS AROUND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J. N.; Ballantyne, D. R., E-mail: jarmour3@gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    There is substantial evidence for a connection between star formation in the nuclear region of a galaxy and growth of the central supermassive black hole. Furthermore, starburst activity in the region around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) may provide the obscuration required by the unified model of AGNs. Molecular line emission is one of the best observational avenues to detect and characterize dense, star-forming gas in galactic nuclei over a range of redshift. This paper presents predictions for the carbon monoxide (CO) line features from models of nuclear starburst disks around AGNs. These small-scale ({approx}< 100 pc), dense and hot starbursts have CO luminosities similar to scaled-down ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and quasar host galaxies. Nuclear starburst disks that exhibit a pc-scale starburst and could potentially act as the obscuring torus show more efficient CO excitation and higher brightness temperature ratios than those without such a compact starburst. In addition, the compact starburst models predict strong absorption when J{sub Upper} {approx}> 10, a unique observational signature of these objects. These findings allow for the possibility that CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) could be used to determine if starburst disks are responsible for the obscuration in z {approx}< 1 AGNs. Directly isolating the nuclear CO line emission of such compact regions around AGNs from galactic-scale emission will require high-resolution imaging or selecting AGN host galaxies with weak galactic-scale star formation. Stacking individual CO SLEDs will also be useful in detecting the predicted high-J features.

  12. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 statistical analysis, and fit an exponential curve to the data to describe the expected amount of decrease in SFR seen for a U/LIRG in my sample over a given change in starburst age. Finally, I find evidence that the stellar mass and starburst mass fractions influence whether a U/LIRG in my sample will have a strong AGN and SFR, respectively. I compare the SFR-Mstar relationship seen in my sample with those predicted by models and found from previous observations. I find that the U/LIRGs with older starbursts (>125 Myr) agree with previous results, while those with younger starbursts show a large dispersion in Mstar. I conclude that this is supporting evidence that the star formation histories and timescales at which the IR power sources in U/LIRGs evolve

  13. GOODS-HERSCHEL AND CANDELS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Dickinson, Mark; Alexander, David M.; Bell, Eric F.; Dahlen, Tomas; Lotz, Jennifer; Elbaz, David; Wiklind, Tommy; Faber, S. M.; Aussel, Herve; Bethermin, Matthieu; Bournaud, Frederic; Dannerbauer, Helmut; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Altieri, Bruno; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha; Davé, Romeel; Dunlop, James

    2012-01-01

    Using deep 100 and 160 μm observations in GOODS-South from GOODS-Herschel, combined with high-resolution HST/WFC3 near-infrared imaging from CANDELS, we present the first detailed morphological analysis of a complete, far-infrared (FIR) selected sample of 52 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L IR > 10 12 L ☉ ) at z ∼ 2. We also make use of a comparison sample of galaxies with lower IR luminosities but with the same redshift and H-band magnitude distribution. Our visual classifications of these two samples indicate that the fractions of objects with disk and spheroid morphologies are roughly the same but that there are significantly more mergers, interactions, and irregular galaxies among the ULIRGs (72 +5 –7 % versus 32 ± 3%). The combination of disk and irregular/interacting morphologies suggests that early-stage interactions, minor mergers, and disk instabilities could play an important role in ULIRGs at z ∼ 2. We compare these fractions with those of a z ∼ 1 sample selected from GOODS-H and COSMOS across a wide luminosity range and find that the fraction of disks decreases systematically with L IR while the fraction of mergers and interactions increases, as has been observed locally. At comparable luminosities, the fraction of ULIRGs with various morphological classifications is similar at z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 1, though there are slightly fewer mergers and slightly more disks at higher redshift. We investigate the position of the z ∼ 2 ULIRGs, along with 70 z ∼ 2 LIRGs, on the specific star formation rate versus redshift plane, and find 52 systems to be starbursts (i.e., they lie more than a factor of three above the main-sequence relation). We find that many of these systems are clear interactions and mergers (∼50%) compared to only 24% of systems on the main sequence relation. If irregular disks are included as potential minor mergers, then we find that up to ∼73% of starbursts are involved in a merger or interaction at some level

  14. GOODS-HERSCHEL AND CANDELS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Lotz, Jennifer [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Elbaz, David; Wiklind, Tommy [Joing ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Faber, S. M.; Aussel, Herve; Bethermin, Matthieu; Bournaud, Frederic; Dannerbauer, Helmut [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McIntosh, Daniel H. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Altieri, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Conselice, Christopher J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dave, Romeel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, James, E-mail: jeyhan@noao.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-20

    Using deep 100 and 160 {mu}m observations in GOODS-South from GOODS-Herschel, combined with high-resolution HST/WFC3 near-infrared imaging from CANDELS, we present the first detailed morphological analysis of a complete, far-infrared (FIR) selected sample of 52 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) at z {approx} 2. We also make use of a comparison sample of galaxies with lower IR luminosities but with the same redshift and H-band magnitude distribution. Our visual classifications of these two samples indicate that the fractions of objects with disk and spheroid morphologies are roughly the same but that there are significantly more mergers, interactions, and irregular galaxies among the ULIRGs (72{sup +5}{sub -7}% versus 32 {+-} 3%). The combination of disk and irregular/interacting morphologies suggests that early-stage interactions, minor mergers, and disk instabilities could play an important role in ULIRGs at z {approx} 2. We compare these fractions with those of a z {approx} 1 sample selected from GOODS-H and COSMOS across a wide luminosity range and find that the fraction of disks decreases systematically with L{sub IR} while the fraction of mergers and interactions increases, as has been observed locally. At comparable luminosities, the fraction of ULIRGs with various morphological classifications is similar at z {approx} 2 and z {approx} 1, though there are slightly fewer mergers and slightly more disks at higher redshift. We investigate the position of the z {approx} 2 ULIRGs, along with 70 z {approx} 2 LIRGs, on the specific star formation rate versus redshift plane, and find 52 systems to be starbursts (i.e., they lie more than a factor of three above the main-sequence relation). We find that many of these systems are clear interactions and mergers ({approx}50%) compared to only 24% of systems on the main sequence relation. If irregular disks are included as potential minor mergers, then we find that up to {approx

  15. STAR FORMATION RATES FOR STARBURST GALAXIES FROM ULTRAVIOLET, INFRARED, AND RADIO LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Weedman, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of star formation rates (SFR) determined from mid-infrared 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminosity [SFR(PAH)], from 1.4 GHz radio luminosity [SFR(radio)], and from far-ultraviolet luminosity [SFR(UV)] for a sample of 287 starburst galaxies with z ν (7.7 μm)] - 42.57 ± 0.2, for SFR in M sun yr -1 and νL ν (7.7 μm) the luminosity at the peak of the 7.7 μm PAH feature in erg s -1 , is found to agree with SFR(radio). Comparing with SFR(UV) determined independently from ultraviolet observations of the same sources with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission (not corrected for dust extinction), the median log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = 1.67, indicating that only 2% of the ultraviolet continuum typically escapes extinction by dust within a starburst. This ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) depends on infrared luminosity, with the form log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = (0.53 ± 0.05)log [νL ν (7.7 μm)] - 21.5 ± 0.18, indicating that more luminous starbursts are also dustier. Using our adopted relation between νL ν (7.7 μm) and L ir , this becomes log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)]= (0.53 ± 0.05)log L ir - 4.11 ± 0.18, for L ir in L sun . Only blue compact dwarf galaxies show comparable or greater SFR(UV) compared to SFR(PAH). We also find that the ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) is similar to that in infrared-selected starbursts for a sample of Markarian starburst galaxies originally selected using optical classification, which implies that there is no significant selection effect in SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) using starburst galaxies discovered by Spitzer. These results indicate that SFRs determined with ultraviolet luminosities require dust corrections by a factor of ∼10 for typical local starbursts but this factor increases to >700 for the most luminous starbursts at z ∼ 2.5. Application of this factor explains why the most luminous starbursts discovered by Spitzer at z ∼ 2.5 are optically faint; with this amount of extinction, the optical magnitude of a starburst

  16. ALMA INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC EMISSION LINES IN THE AGN-HOSTING ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551−4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551−4250 at HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground ( v = 0) and vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO{sup +} v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v {sub 2} = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μ m spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO{sup +} and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v {sub 2} = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational ( J -level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO{sup +} flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO{sup +}.

  17. ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES IN THE WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong; Fang, Guanwen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs

  18. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously......] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths....

  19. Star-forming Galaxies as AGN Imposters? A Theoretical Investigation of the Mid-infrared Colors of AGNs and Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas P.; Secrest, Nathan J.

    2018-05-01

    We conduct for the first time a theoretical investigation of the mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) produced by dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an extreme starburst. These models employ an integrated modeling approach using photoionization and stellar population synthesis models in which both the line and emergent continuum is predicted from gas exposed to the ionizing radiation from a young starburst and an AGN. In this work, we focus on the infrared colors from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, predicting the dependence of the colors on the input radiation field, the interstellar medium conditions, the obscuring column, and the metallicity. We find that an extreme starburst can mimic an AGN in two band mid-infrared color cuts employed in the literature. However, the three-band color cuts employed in the literature require starbursts with extremely high ionization parameters or gas densities. We show that the extreme mid-infrared colors seen in some blue compact dwarf galaxies are not due to metallicity but rather a combination of high ionization parameters and high column densities. Based on our theoretical calculations, we present a theoretical mid-infrared color cut that will exclude even the most extreme starburst that we have modeled in this work. The theoretical AGN demarcation region presented here can be used to identify elusive AGN candidates for future follow-up studies with the James Webb Space Telescope. The full suite of simulated SEDs are available online.

  20. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Carr, J.; Joy, M.; Gaffney, N.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there

  1. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan F.; Carr, John; Joy, Marshall; Gaffney, Niall

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy of the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P. R.; Puxley, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present 1.2 to 2.2 micron spectra of the nucleus of Henize 2 to 10, taken at United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) with the cool grating spectrometer 2 (CGS 2). This galaxy displays strong line emission from interstellar H (+) (1.282 and 2.166 microns) and (Fe (+)) (1.256 and 1.644 microns), in common with other star-forming galaxy nuclei. However, the 1 to 0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen at 2.122 micron is not detected - the upper limit of 0.15 (3 sigma) for the value of the flux ratio I sub 1-os(1)/I sub Br gamma is much lower than the typical values of 0.4 to 0.9 measured in a sample of 28 non-interacting starburst galaxies. From the Pa beta/Br gamma line ratio researchers derive a total extinction of A sub v approx. 4 mag. The de-reddened H (+) and (Fe (+) line fluxes are used to estimate the total ionizing luminosity and the average supernova rate in the central 150 pc of He 2 to 10. By comparison of these estimates with existing Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and radio continuum data, researchers are able to set limits on the range of stellar masses present in this unevolved (less than 10(exp 7) year old) starburst nucleus. Possible reasons for the low H2/H+ line ratios observed in young starburst systems (He 2 to 10, NGC 7714, IIZw40; e.g., Moorwood and Oliva 1988) are briefly discussed.

  3. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, 0858 Oslo (Norway); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  4. THE ROLE OF STARBURST-ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS COMPOSITES IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY MERGERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the fraction of starbursts, starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) composites, Seyferts, and low-ionization narrow emission-line region galaxies (LINERs) as a function of infrared luminosity (L IR ) and merger progress for ∼500 infrared (IR)-selected galaxies. Using the new optical classifications afforded by the extremely large data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the fraction of LINERs in IR-selected samples is rare ( IR > 10 12 L sun ), starburst-AGN composite galaxies dominate at early-intermediate stages of the merger, and AGN galaxies dominate during the final merger stages. Our results are consistent with models for IR-luminous galaxies where mergers of gas-rich spirals fuel both starburst and AGN, and where the AGN becomes increasingly dominant during the final merger stages of the most luminous IR objects.

  5. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  6. Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-05-01

    I will review observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources (ULXs; Lx > 1E39 erg/s), in particular those observations that have helped reveal the nature of these curious objects. Some recent observations suggest that ULXs are a heterogenous class. Although ULX phenomenology is not fully understood, I will present some examples from the (possibly overlapping) sub-classes. Since ULXs are the most luminous objects in starburst galaxies, they, and ``normal'' luminous black-hole high-mass X-ray binaries are intimately tied to the global galaxian X-ray-star-formation connection. Further work is needed to understand how ULXs form, and how they are associated with the putative population of intermediate-mass black holes.

  7. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  9. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 μm data on 20 luminous z ∼ 2 starbursts with S 1.2 m m > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S 350 μ m > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 μm-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T 1 ≅ 35.5 ± 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10 12.9±0.1 L sun for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at ≅4 x 10 10 M sun , assuming κ 850 μ m = 0.15 m 2 kg -1 and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply ∼>2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 μm flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z ∼ 1.5-2.5.

  10. POST-STARBURST TIDAL TAILS IN THE ARCHETYPICAL ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY Arp 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Ideue, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Nagao, T.; Murayama, T.; Koda, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220, the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy in the local universe. Our sensitive Hα imaging has newly revealed large-scale Hα absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger. One is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly revealed in our deep optical imaging. The size of the Hα absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc × 7.5 kpc, and the observed Hα equivalent widths are ∼2 Å ± 0.2 Å. The sizes of the northern and southern Hα-absorption tidal tails are ∼5 kpc × 10 kpc and ∼6 kpc × 20 kpc, respectively. The observed Hα equivalent widths range from 4 Å to 7 Å. In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, causing the two tails. This favors Arp 220 as a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies arising from a compact group of galaxies. Taking our new results into account, we discuss a star formation history in the last 1 Gyr in Arp 220.

  11. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during

  12. STELLAR POPULATION GRADIENTS IN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR GAS INFLOW TIMESCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Martin, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Using longslit, optical spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies, we measure the evolution in the star formation intensity during galactic mergers. In individual galaxies, we resolve kiloparsec scales allowing comparison of the nucleus, inner disk, and outer disk. We find that the strength of the Hβ absorption line increases with the projected distance from the center of the merger, typically reaching about 9 A around 10 kpc. At these radii, the star formation intensity must have rapidly decreased about 300-400 Myr ago; only stellar populations deficient in stars more massive than Type A produce such strong Balmer absorption. In contrast, we find the star formation history in the central kiloparsec consistent with continuous star formation. Our measurements indicate that gas depletion occurs from the outer disk inward during major mergers. This result is consistent with merger-induced gas inflow and empirically constrains the gas inflow timescale. Numerical simulations accurately calculate the total amount of infalling gas but often assume the timescale for infall. These new measurements are therefore central to modeling merger-induced star formation and active galactic nucleus activity.

  13. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  14. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J.S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts. 68 refs

  15. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J. S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts.

  16. The Frequency of Circumnuclear Starbursts in Seyfert Galaxies --- Testing the Starburst-AGN Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.; Heckman, T. M.

    We obtained sub-arcsecond medium resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of nearby bright Seyfert galaxies (8 Seyfert 1s, 11 Seyfert 2s) using the KeckII telescope. The stellar absorption lines present in the spectra were used in conjunction with population synthesis models to determine the age of the circumnuclear stellar population. Initial analysis of a sub-sample of the Seyfert galaxies has provided no evidence for a connection between the age of the circumnuclear stellar population and the Seyfert type. The derived ages for the circumnuclear stellar population are in the range of 10 Myr to < 0.5 Gyr assuming an instantaneous starburst (using the STARBURST99 models).

  17. LUMINOUS BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS A FUNCTION OF GALAXY INFRARED LUMINOSITY REVEALED THROUGH SPITZER LOW-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 5-35 μm low-resolution spectroscopic energy diagnostics of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z> 0.15, classified optically as non-Seyferts. Based on the equivalent widths of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and the optical depths of silicate dust absorption features, we searched for signatures of intrinsically luminous, but optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs. We then combined the results with those of non-Seyfert ULIRGs at z IR 12 L sun . We found that the energetic importance of buried AGNs clearly increases with galaxy infrared luminosity, becoming suddenly discernible in ULIRGs with L IR > 10 12 L sun . For ULIRGs with buried AGN signatures, a significant fraction of infrared luminosities can be accounted for by the detected buried AGN and modestly obscured (A V < 20 mag) starburst activity. The implied masses of spheroidal stellar components in galaxies for which buried AGNs become important roughly correspond to the value separating red massive and blue less-massive galaxies in the local universe. Our results may support the widely proposed AGN-feedback scenario as the origin of galaxy downsizing phenomena, where galaxies with currently larger stellar masses previously had higher AGN energetic contributions and star formation originating infrared luminosities, and have finished their major star formation more quickly, due to stronger AGN feedback.

  18. IRAS observations of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.

    1987-01-01

    Far infrared properties of Starburst galaxies were analyzed using IRAS observations at 25, 60, and 100 micrometers. Seventy-nine of 102 Starburst galaxies from the list of Balzano were detected. These galaxies have high IR luminosities of up to a few 10 to the 12th power L sub 0 and concentrate in a small area of the IR color - color diagram. The IR power law spectral indices, alpha, lie within the ranges -2.5 < alpha(60,25)< -1.5 and -1.5 < alpha(100,60)< 0. These observed indices can be interpreted in terms of a cold disk component and a warm component. More than 80% of the 60 micrometer emission comes from the warm component. The fraction of the 60 micrometer emission attributable to the warm component can be used as an activity indicator

  19. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Markarian 273: Mapping High-Velocity Gas Flows and an Off-Nucleus Seyfert 2 Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina; Arribas; Borne

    1999-12-10

    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-based system is used to map the extended ionized regions and gas flows in Mrk 273, one of the closest ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The Hbeta and [O iii] lambda5007 maps show the presence of two distinct regions separated by 4&arcsec; (3.1 kpc) along position angle (P.A.) 240 degrees. The northeastern region coincides with the optical nucleus of the galaxy and shows the spectral characteristics of LINERs. The southwestern region is dominated by [O iii] emission and is classified as a Seyfert 2. Therefore, in the optical, Mrk 273 is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy with a LINER nucleus and an extended off-nucleus Seyfert 2 nebula. The kinematics of the [O iii] ionized gas shows (1) the presence of highly disturbed gas in the regions around the LINER nucleus, (2) a high-velocity gas flow with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.4x103 km s-1, and (3) quiescent gas in the outer regions (at 3 kpc). We hypothesize that the high-velocity flow is the starburst-driven superwind generated in an optically obscured nuclear starburst and that the quiescent gas is directly ionized by a nuclear source, similar to the ionization cones typically seen in Seyfert galaxies.

  20. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  1. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY HALOS AROUND HIGH-z RADIO GALAXIES: A FEEDBACK MECHANISM POWERED BY FAR-INFRARED STARBURSTS OR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blundell, Katherine M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z {approx} 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L {sub X} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and sizes of {approx}60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the {approx}60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z {approx} 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z {approx} 3.6 radio galaxies, which are {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter in the far-infrared than those at z {approx} 3.8, also have {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z {approx}> 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes {approx}<100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on {approx}100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly{alpha} emission line

  2. Starburst to Quiescent from HST/ALMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Guijarro, C.; Toft, S.; Karim, A.

    2018-01-01

    Dust-enshrouded, starbursting, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z ≥ 3 have been proposed as progenitors of z ≥ 2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs). To test this connection, we present a detailed spatially resolved study of the stars, dust, and stellar mass in a sample of six submillimeter...... (β) maps with the FIR dust continuum to study the infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV)–β relation. The SMGs display systematically higher IRX values than expected from the nominal trend, demonstrating that the FIR and UV emissions are spatially disconnected. Finally, we show that the SMGs fall...... on the mass–size plane at smaller stellar masses and sizes than the cQGs at z = 2. Taking into account the expected evolution in stellar mass and size between z = 4.5 and z = 2 due to the ongoing starburst and mergers with minor companions, this is in agreement with a direct evolutionary connection between...

  3. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ALL-SKY LIRG SURVEY: COMPARISON OF ULTRAVIOLET AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Justin H.; Armus, Lee; Surace, Jason A.; Petric, Andreea; Bridge, Carrie; Haan, Sebastian; Inami, Hanae; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Chan, Ben H. P.; Madore, Barry F.; Evans, Aaron S.; Kim, Dong-Chan; Sanders, David B.; Appleton, Phil; Frayer, David T.; Lord, Steven; Schulz, Bernhard; Bothun, Greg; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Melbourne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) consists of a complete sample of 202 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). The galaxies span the full range of interaction stages, from isolated galaxies to interacting pairs to late stage mergers. We present a comparison of the UV and infrared properties of 135 galaxies in GOALS observed by GALEX and Spitzer. For interacting galaxies with separations greater than the resolution of GALEX and Spitzer (∼2''-6''), we assess the UV and IR properties of each galaxy individually. The contribution of the FUV to the measured star formation rate (SFR) ranges from 0.2% to 17.9%, with a median of 2.8% and a mean of 4.0% ± 0.4%. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the GOALS sample is extremely high, with a median value (3.9 x 10 -10 yr -1 ) that is comparable to the highest SSFRs seen in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample. We examine the position of each galaxy on the IR excess-UV slope (IRX-β) diagram as a function of galaxy properties, including IR luminosity and interaction stage. The LIRGs on average have greater IR excesses than would be expected based on their UV colors if they obeyed the same relations as starbursts with L IR 11 L sun or normal late-type galaxies. The ratio of L IR to the value one would estimate from the IRX-β relation published for lower luminosity starburst galaxies ranges from 0.2 to 68, with a median value of 2.7. A minimum of 19% of the total IR luminosity in the RBGS is produced in LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies with red UV colors (β>0). Among resolved interacting systems, 32% contain one galaxy which dominates the IR emission while the companion dominates the UV emission. Only 21% of the resolved systems contain a single galaxy which dominates both wavelengths.

  4. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of starbursts : from Spitzer-IRS to JWST-MIRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of star-forming regions and starburst galaxies are unique tracers of the star formation processes in these environments, since they contain information on the escaping and processed photons emitted by newly formed massive stars. Understanding these internal

  5. After the Fall: The Dust and Gas in E+A Post-starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smercina, A.; Smith, J. D. T.; Dale, D. A.; French, K. D.; Croxall, K. V.; Zhukovska, S.; Togi, A.; Bell, E. F.; Crocker, A. F.; Draine, B. T.; Jarrett, T. H.; Tremonti, C.; Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The traditional picture of post-starburst galaxies as dust- and gas-poor merger remnants, rapidly transitioning to quiescence, has been recently challenged. Unexpected detections of a significant interstellar medium (ISM) in many post-starburst galaxies raise important questions. Are they truly quiescent, and if so, what mechanisms inhibit further star formation? What processes dominate their ISM energetics? We present an infrared spectroscopic and photometric survey of 33 E+A post-starbursts selected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, aimed at resolving these questions. We find compact, warm dust reservoirs with high PAH abundances and total gas and dust masses significantly higher than expected from stellar recycling alone. Both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/total infrared (TIR) and dust-to-burst stellar mass ratios are seen to decrease with post-burst age, indicative of the accumulating effects of dust destruction and an incipient transition to hot, early-type ISM properties. Their infrared spectral properties are unique, with dominant PAH emission, very weak nebular lines, unusually strong H2 rotational emission, and deep [C II] deficits. There is substantial scatter among star formation rate (SFR) indicators, and both PAH and TIR luminosities provide overestimates. Even as potential upper limits, all tracers show that the SFR has typically experienced a decline of more than two orders of magnitude since the starburst and that the SFR is considerably lower than expected given both their stellar masses and molecular gas densities. These results paint a coherent picture of systems in which star formation was, indeed, rapidly truncated, but in which the ISM was not completely expelled, and is instead supported against collapse by latent or continued injection of turbulent or mechanical heating. The resulting aging burst populations provide a “high-soft” radiation field that seemingly dominates the E+A galaxies’ unusual ISM energetics.

  6. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  7. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Sanders, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in HI, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal far-infrared radiation and non-thermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher far-infrared luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, we conclude that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties

  8. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. I. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EIGHTEEN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Dolphin, Andrew; Hidalgo-RodrIguez, Sebastian; Holtzman, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We use archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of resolved stellar populations to derive the star formation histories (SFHs) of 18 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies. In this first paper, we present the observations, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and the SFHs of the 18 starburst galaxies, based on a homogeneous approach to the data reduction, differential extinction, and treatment of photometric completeness. We adopt a star formation rate (SFR) threshold normalized to the average SFR of the individual system as a metric for classifying starbursts in SFHs derived from resolved stellar populations. This choice facilitates finding not only the currently bursting galaxies but also 'fossil' bursts increasing the sample size of starburst galaxies in the nearby (D 100 Myr temporal baseline is thus fundamental to any starburst definition or identification method. The longer lived bursts rule out rapid 'self-quenching' of starbursts on global scales. The bursting galaxies' gas consumption timescales are shorter than the Hubble time for all but one galaxy confirming the short-lived nature of starbursts based on fuel limitations. Additionally, we find that the strength of the Hα emission usually correlates with the CMD-based SFR during the last 4-10 Myr. However, in four cases, the Hα emission is significantly less than what is expected for models of starbursts; the discrepancy is due to the SFR changing on timescales of a few Myr. The inherently short timescale of the Hα emission limits identifying galaxies as starbursts based on the current characteristics which may or may not be representative of the recent SFH of a galaxy.

  9. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references

  10. Extended mid-infrared emission from VV 114: Probing the birth of a ULIRG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, E.; Charmandaris, V.; Laurent, O.; Mirabel, I. F.; Gallais, P.; Sauvage, M.; Vigroux, L.; Cesarsky, C.

    2002-08-01

    We present our 5-16 mu m spectro-imaging observations of VV 114, an infrared luminous early-stage merger of two galaxies VV 114E and VV 114W, taken with the ISOCAM camera on-board the Infrared Space Observatory. We find that only 40% of the mid-infrared (MIR) flux is associated with a compact nuclear region of VV 114E, while the rest of the emission originates from a rather diffuse component extended over several kpc in the regions between VV 114E and VV 114W. This is in stark contrast with the very compact MIR starbursts usually seen in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. A secondary peak of MIR emission is associated with an extra-nuclear star forming region of VV 114W which displays the largest Hα equivalent width in the whole system. Comparing our data with the distribution of the molecular gas and cold dust, as well as with radio observations, it becomes evident that the conversion of molecular gas into stars can be triggered over large areas at the very first stages of an interaction. This extended star formation along with the extreme nuclear starburst observed in VV 114E can easily lead to the heating of dust grains found in the tidally disturbed disks of the progenitor galaxies and subsequently traced via their MIR emission. The presence of a very strong continuum at the 5-6.5 mu m range in the spectrum of VV 114E indicates that an enshrouded active galactic nucleus (AGN) may contribute to ~ 40% of its MIR flux. We finally note that the relative variations in the UV to radio spectral properties between VV 114E and VV 114W provide evidence that the extinction-corrected star formation rate of similar objects at high z, such as those detected in optical deep surveys, cannot be accurately derived from their rest-frame UV properties. Based on observations with the ISO satellite, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation

  11. Optical and near-infrared IFU spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the AGN-starburst galaxy NGC 7582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; May, D.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Menezes, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    NGC 7582 is an SB(s)ab galaxy which displays evidences of simultaneous nuclear activity and star formation in its centre. Previous optical observations revealed, besides the H II regions, an ionization cone and a gas disc in its central part. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images in both optical and infrared bands show the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a few compact structures that are possibly associated with young stellar clusters. In order to study in detail both the AGN and evidence for star formation, we analyse optical (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) and near-infrared (Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) archival data cubes. We detected five nebulae with strong He II λ4686 emission in the same region where an outflow is detected in the [O III] λ5007 kinematic map. We interpreted this result as clouds that are exposed to high-energy photons emerging from the AGN throughout the ionization cone. We also detected Wolf-Rayet features which are related to emission of one of the compact clusters seen in the HST image. Broad Hα and Br γ components are detected at the position of the nucleus. [Fe II] λ1.644 μm, H2λ2.122 μm and Br γ flux maps show two blobs, one north and the other south from the nucleus, that seem to be associated with five previously detected mid-infrared sources. Two of the five He II nebulae are partially ionized by photons from starbursts. However, we conclude that the main source of excitation of these blobs is the AGN jet/disc. The jet orientation indicates that the accretion disc is nearly orthogonal to the dusty torus.

  12. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY FROM SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  13. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  14. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  15. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  16. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential

  17. Cold Molecular Gas Along the Merger Sequence in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takuji; Komugi, Shinya; Matsuhara, Hideo; Armus, Lee; Inami, Hanae; Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kohno, Kotaro; Evans, Aaron S.; Arimatsu, Ko

    2017-08-01

    We present an initial result from the 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of 79 galaxies in 62 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (LIRG and ULIRG) systems obtained using the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. This is a systematic 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. The molecular gas mass of the sample is in the range 2.2× {10}8{--}7.0× {10}9 {M}⊙ within the central several kiloparsecs subtended by the 15\\prime\\prime beam. A method to estimate the size of a CO gas distribution is introduced, which is combined with the total CO flux in the literature. This method is applied to part of our sample, and we find that the median CO radius is 1-4 kpc. From the early stage to the late stage of mergers, we find that the CO size decreases while the median value of the molecular gas mass in the central several-kiloparsec region is constant. Our results statistically support a scenario where molecular gas inflows toward the central region from the outer disk to replenish gas consumed by starburst, and that such a process is common in merging LIRGs.

  18. A composite plot of far-infrared versus radio luminosity, and the origin of far-infrared luminosity in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopp, H.M.; Alexander, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a composite plot of far-infrared versus radioluminosity for late-type galaxies, Seyferts, quasars and radio galaxies. The most striking result is that the radio and far-infrared luminosities of radio-quiet quasars are correlated and follow the same correlation as normal star-forming galaxies and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, whereas the radio-loud quasars have luminosities in both bands similar to those of radio galaxies. We conclude that the far-infrared emission from radio-quiet quasars is from star-forming host galaxies and not from active galactic nuclei. The far-infrared radio plot may be a powerful discriminator between host galaxy type. (author)

  19. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  20. X-Rays from NGC 3256: High-Energy Emission in Starburst Galaxies and Their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Edward C.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Helfand, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The infrared-luminous galaxy NGC 3256 is a classic example of a merger-induced nuclear starburst system. We find here that it is the most X-ray-luminous star-forming galaxy yet detected (L 0.5-10keV =1.6x10 42 ergs s-1). Long-slit optical spectroscopy and a deep, high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image show that the starburst is driving a ''superwind'' which accounts for ∼20% of the observed soft X-ray emission. Analysis of X-ray spectral data from ASCA indicates this gas has a characteristic temperature of kT≅0.3 keV. Our model for the broadband X-ray emission of NGC 3256 contains two additional components: a warm thermal plasma (kT≅0.8 keV) associated with the central starburst, and a hard power-law component with an energy index of α X ≅0.7. We discuss the energy budget for the two thermal plasmas and find that the input of mechanical energy from the starburst is more than sufficient to sustain the observed level of emission. We also examine possible origins for the power-law component, concluding that neither a buried AGN nor the expected population of high-mass X-ray binaries can account for this emission. Inverse Compton scattering, involving the galaxy's copious flux of infrared photons and the relativistic electrons produced by supernovae, is likely to make a substantial contribution to the hard X-ray flux. Such a model is consistent with the observed radio and IR fluxes and the radio and X-ray spectral indices. We explore the role of X-ray-luminous starbursts in the production of the cosmic X-ray background radiation. The number counts and spectral index distribution of the faint radio source population, thought to be dominated by star-forming galaxies, suggest that a significant fraction of the hard X-ray background could arise from starbursts at moderate redshift. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  1. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z –1 , and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s –1 ) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  2. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN NGC 4631

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Roberto; Ghosh, Kajal K.

    2009-01-01

    We have re-examined the most luminous X-ray sources in the starburst galaxy NGC 4631, using XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT data. The most interesting source is a highly variable supersoft ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). We suggest that its bolometric luminosity ∼ a few 10 39 erg s -1 in the high/supersoft state: this is an order of magnitude lower than estimated in previous studies, thus reducing the need for extreme or exotic scenarios. Moreover, we find that this source was in a noncanonical low/soft (kT ∼ 0.1-0.3 keV) state during the Chandra observation. By comparing the high and low state, we argue that the spectral properties may not be consistent with the expected behavior of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that recurrent super-Eddington outbursts with photospheric expansion from a massive white dwarf (M wd ∼> 1.3 M sun ), powered by nonsteady nuclear burning, may be a viable possibility, in alternative to the previously proposed scenario of a super-Eddington outflow from an accreting stellar-mass black hole. The long-term average accretion rate required for nuclear burning to power such white-dwarf outbursts in this source and perhaps in other supersoft ULXs is ∼(5-10) x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 : this is comparable to the thermal-timescale mass transfer rate invoked to explain the most luminous hard-spectrum ULXs (powered by black hole accretion). The other four most luminous X-ray sources in NGC 4631 (three of which can be classified as ULXs) appear to be typical accreting black holes, in four different spectral states: high/soft, convex-spectrum, power-law with soft excess, and simple power-law. None of them require masses ∼>50 M sun .

  3. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY ON THE FATE OF IONIZING RADIATION IN LOCAL STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanish, D. J.; Oey, M. S.; Rigby, J. R.; Lee, J. C.; De Mello, D. F.

    2010-01-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation is vital for understanding cosmic ionization, energy budgets in the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and star formation rate indicators. The low observed escape fractions of ionizing radiation have not been adequately explained, and there is evidence that some starbursts have high escape fractions. We examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of local star-forming galaxies, containing 13 local starburst galaxies and 10 of their ordinary star-forming counterparts, to determine if there exist significant differences in the fate of ionizing radiation in these galaxies. We find that the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the SEDs are much larger than any systematic differences between starbursts and non-starbursts. For example, we find no significant differences in the total absorption of ionizing radiation by dust, traced by the 24 μm, 70 μm, and 160 μm MIPS bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope, although the dust in starburst galaxies appears to be hotter than that of non-starburst galaxies. We also observe no excess ultraviolet flux in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer bands that could indicate a high escape fraction of ionizing photons in starburst galaxies. The small Hα fractions of the diffuse, warm ionized medium (WIM) in starburst galaxies are apparently due to temporarily boosted Hα luminosity within the star-forming regions themselves, with an independent, constant WIM luminosity. This independence of the WIM and starburst luminosities contrasts with WIM behavior in non-starburst galaxies and underscores our poor understanding of radiation transfer in both ordinary and starburst galaxies.

  4. Nuclear starburst activity induced by elongated bulges in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Lee, Gwang-Ho; de Grijs, Richard; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-06-01

    We study the effects of bulge elongation on the star formation activity in the centres of spiral galaxies using the data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We construct a volume-limited sample of face-on spiral galaxies with Mr nuclear starbursts using the fibre specific star formation rates derived from the SDSS spectra. We find a statistically significant correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts in the sense that the fraction of nuclear starbursts increases with bulge elongation. This correlation is more prominent for fainter and redder galaxies, which exhibit higher ratios of elongated bulges. We find no significant environmental dependence of the correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts. These results suggest that non-axisymmetric bulges can efficiently feed the gas into the centre of galaxies to trigger nuclear starburst activity.

  5. Starbursts From 30 Doradus to Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grijs, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Starbursts are important features of early galaxy evolution. Many of the distant, high-redshift galaxies we are able to detect are in a starbursting phase, often apparently provoked by a violent gravitational interaction with another galaxy. In fact, if we did not know that major starbursts existed, these conference proceedings testify that we would indeed have difficulties explaining the key properties of the Universe! These conference proceedings cover starbursts from the small-scale star-forming regions in nearby galaxies to galaxy-wide events at high redshifts; one of the major themes of the conference proved to be "scalability", i.e., can we scale up the small-scale events to describe the physics on larger scales. The key outcome of this meeting – and these proceedings – is a resounding "yes" as answer to this fundamental, yet profound question. The enhanced synergy facilitated by the collaboration among observers using cutting-edge ground and space-based facilities, theorists and modellers has made ...

  6. The origins of post-starburst galaxies at z < 0.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, M. M.; Taj Aldeen, L.; Wild, V.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Lahén, N.; Johansson, P. H.; Jimenez, N.; Lucas, W.; Zheng, Y.; Walcher, C. J.; Rowlands, K.

    2018-06-01

    Post-starburst galaxies can be identified via the presence of prominent Hydrogen Balmer absorption lines in their spectra. We present a comprehensive study of the origin of strong Balmer lines in a volume-limited sample of 189 galaxies with 0.01 9.5 and projected axial ratio b/a > 0.32. We explore their structural properties, environments, emission lines, and star formation histories, and compare them to control samples of star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and simulated galaxy mergers. Excluding contaminants, in which the strong Balmer lines are most likely caused by dust-star geometry, we find evidence for three different pathways through the post-starburst phase, with most events occurring in intermediate-density environments: (1) a significant disruptive event, such as a gas-rich major merger, causing a starburst and growth of a spheroidal component, followed by quenching of the star formation (70 per cent of post-starburst galaxies at 9.510.5); (2) at 9.510.5, cyclic evolution of quiescent galaxies which gradually move towards the high-mass end of the red sequence through weak starbursts, possibly as a result of a merger with a smaller gas-rich companion (40 per cent). Our analysis suggests that active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are 'on' for 50 per cent of the duration of the post-starburst phase, meaning that traditional samples of post-starburst galaxies with strict emission-line cuts will be at least 50 per cent incomplete due to the exclusion of narrow-line AGNs.

  7. The Ultraluminous X-Ray Source X-37 Is a Background Quasar in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Christopher, M. H.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2005-10-01

    In this Letter we report that a bright, X-ray source in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9), previously identified as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), is in fact a background quasar. We identify an isolated infrared and optical counterpart within 0.3" +/- 0.5" of the X-ray source X-37. After acquiring an optical spectrum of its counterpart, we use the narrow [O III] and broad Hα emission lines to identify X-37 as a quasar at a redshift of z=0.26. Through a U, V, and Ks photometric analysis, we demonstrate that most of the observable light along this line of sight is from the quasar. We discuss the implications of this discovery and the importance of acquiring spectra for optical and IR counterparts to ULXs.

  8. Correlation between Post-LASIK Starburst Symptom and Ocular Wavefront Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Ji; Mu, Guo-Guang; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang-Yan

    2006-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations in post laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eyes are measured. The data are categorized into reference group and starburst group according to the visual symptoms. Statistic analysis has been made to find the correlation between the ocular wavefront aberrations and the starburst symptom. The rms aberrations of the 3rd and 4th orders for the starburst group are significantly larger than those for the reference group. The starburst symptom shows a strong correlation with vertical coma, total coma, spherical aberrations. For 3-mm pupil size and 5.8-mm pupil size, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the starburst group are lower than those of the reference group, but their visual acuities are close. MTF and PSF analyses are made for two groups, and the results are consistent with the statistical analysis, which means the difference between the two groups is mainly due to the third- and fourth-order Zernike aberrations.

  9. Superwind Outflow in Seyfert Galaxies? : Optical Observations of an Edge-On Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Gallimore, J.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.; Lehnert, M.

    1994-12-01

    Large-scale galactic winds (superwinds) are commonly found flowing out of the nuclear region of ultraluminous infrared and powerful starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae from the nuclear starburst are thought to provide the energy to drive these superwinds. The outflowing gas escapes along the rotation axis, sweeping up and shock-heating clouds in the halo, which produces optical line emission, X-rays and radio synchrotron emission. These features can most easily be studied in edge-on systems, so that the wind emission is not confused by that from the disk. Diffuse radio emission has been found (Baum et al. 1993, ApJ, 419, 553) to extend out to kpc-scales in a number of edge-on Seyfert galaxies. We have therefore launched a systematic search for superwind outflows in Seyferts. We present here narrow-band optical images and optical spectra for a sample of edge-on Seyferts. These data have been used to estimate the frequency of occurence of superwinds. Approximately half of the sample objects show evidence for extended emission-line regions which are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the galaxy disk. It is possible that these emission-line regions may be energized by a superwind outflow from a circumnuclear starburst, although there may also be a contribution from the AGN itself. A goal of this work is to find a diagnostic that can be used to distinguish between large-scale outflows that are driven by starbursts and those that are driven by an AGN. The presence of starburst-driven superwinds in Seyferts, if established, would have important implications for the connection between starburst galaxies and AGN.

  10. High spatial resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of the starburst galaxies NGC3256, IIZw 40 and Henize 2-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Schaerer, D.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sauvage, M.

    Aims. In order to show the importance of high spatial resolution observations of extra-galactic sources when compared to observations obtained with larger apertures such as ISO, we present N-band spectra (8-13 mu m) of some locations in three starburst galaxies. In particular, we show the two

  11. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND INFRARED LUMINOSITIES OF z ≈ 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES FROM Herschel AND Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Armus, Lee; Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Bussmann, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a subset of high-redshift (z ≈ 2) optically-faint ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, e.g., L IR > 10 12 L ☉ ). We present new far-infrared photometry, at 250, 350, and 500 μm (observed-frame), from the Herschel Space Telescope for a large sample of 113 DOGs with spectroscopically measured redshifts. Approximately 60% of the sample are detected in the far-IR. The Herschel photometry allows the first robust determinations of the total infrared luminosities of a large sample of DOGs, confirming their high IR luminosities, which range from 10 11.6 L ☉ IR (8-1000 μm) 13.6 L ☉ . 90% of the Herschel-detected DOGs in this sample are ULIRGs and 30% have L IR > 10 13 L ☉ . The rest-frame near-IR (1-3 μm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Herschel-detected DOGs are predictors of their SEDs at longer wavelengths. DOGs with 'power-law' SEDs in the rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to the QSO-like local ULIRG, Mrk 231. DOGs with a stellar 'bump' in their rest-frame near-IR show observed-frame 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to local star-bursting ULIRGs like NGC 6240. None show 250/24 μm flux density ratios similar to extreme local ULIRG, Arp 220; though three show 350/24 μm flux density ratios similar to Arp 220. For the Herschel-detected DOGs, accurate estimates (within ∼25%) of total IR luminosity can be predicted from their rest-frame mid-IR data alone (e.g., from Spitzer observed-frame 24 μm luminosities). Herschel-detected DOGs tend to have a high ratio of infrared luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (the IR8 = L IR (8-1000 μm)/νL ν (8 μm) parameter of Elbaz et al.). Instead of lying on the z = 1-2 'infrared main sequence' of star-forming galaxies (like typical LIRGs and ULIRGs at those epochs) the DOGs, especially large fractions of the bump sources, tend to lie in the starburst sequence. While, Herschel-detected DOGs are similar to scaled up

  12. Ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2017-06-01

    While ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources (ULSs) bear features for intermediate mass black holes or very massive white dwarfs possibly close to Chandrasekhar mass limit, our recent discovery of processing relativistic baryonic jets from a prototype ULS in M81 demonstrate that they are not IMBHs or WDs, but black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. This discovery strengthens the recent ideas that ULXs are stellar black holes with supercritical accretion, and provides a vivid manifestation of what happens when a black hole devours too much, that is, it will generate thick disk winds and fire out sub-relativistic baryonic jets along the funnel as predicted by recent numerical simulations.

  13. INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ≅ 1.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Lai, K.; Younger, J. D.; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D.; Daddi, E.; Laird, E. S.; Omont, A.; Wu, Y.; Bundy, K.; Cattaneo, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; Dickinson, M.; Egami, E.; Im, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papovich, C.; Rigopoulou, D.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a sample of galaxies chosen to have F 24μm > 0.5 mJy and satisfy a certain IRAC color criterion. Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra yield redshifts, spectral types, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) luminosities, to which we add broadband photometry from optical through IRAC wavelengths, MIPS from 24-160 μm, 1.1 mm, and radio at 1.4 GHz. Stellar population modeling and IRS spectra together demonstrate that the double criteria used to select this sample have efficiently isolated massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.9. This is the first starburst (SB)-dominated ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG) sample at high redshift with total infrared luminosity measured directly from FIR and millimeter photometry, and as such gives us the first accurate view of broadband spectral energy distributions for SB galaxies at extremely high luminosity and at all wavelengths. Similar broadband data are assembled for three other galaxy samples-local SB galaxies, local active galactic nucleus (AGN)/ULIRGs, and a second 24 μm-luminous z ∼ 2 sample dominated by AGN. L PAH /L IR for the new z ∼ 2 SB sample is the highest ever seen, some three times higher than in local SBs, whereas in AGNs this ratio is depressed below the SB trend, often severely. Several pieces of evidence imply that AGNs exist in this SB-dominated sample, except two of which even host very strong AGN, while they still have very strong PAH emission. The Advanced Camera for Surveys images show that most objects have very extended morphologies in the rest-frame ultraviolet band, thus extended distribution of PAH molecules. Such an extended distribution prevents further destruction PAH molecules by central AGNs. We conclude that objects in this sample are ULIRGs powered mainly by SB; and the total infrared luminosity density contributed by this type of objects is 0.9-2.6 x 10 7 L sun Mpc -3 .

  14. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., H{alpha} emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  15. Dust Absorption and the Ultraviolet Luminosity Density at z ~ 3 as Calibrated by Local Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Calzetti, Daniela

    1999-08-01

    We refine a technique to measure the absorption-corrected ultraviolet (UV) luminosity of starburst galaxies using rest-frame UV quantities alone and apply it to Lyman-limit U dropouts at z~3 found in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). The method is based on an observed correlation between the ratio of far-infrared (FIR) to UV fluxes with spectral slope β (a UV color). A simple fit to this relation allows the UV flux absorbed by dust and reprocessed to the FIR to be calculated, and hence the dust-free UV luminosity to be determined. International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra and Infrared Astronomical Satellite fluxes of local starbursts are used to calibrate the FFIR/F1600 versus β relation in terms of A1600 (the dust absorption at 1600 Å) and the transformation from broadband photometric color to β. Both calibrations are almost completely independent of theoretical stellar-population models. We show that the recent marginal and nondetections of HDF U dropouts at radio and submillimeter wavelengths are consistent with their assumed starburst nature and our calculated A1600. This is also true of recent observations of the ratio of optical emission-line flux to UV flux density in the brightest U dropouts. This latter ratio turns out not to be a good indicator of dust extinction. In U dropouts, absolute magnitude M1600,0 correlates with β: brighter galaxies are redder, as is observed to be the case for local starburst galaxies. This suggests that a mass-metallicity relationship is already in place at z~3. The absorption-corrected UV luminosity function of U dropouts extends up to M1600,0~-24 AB mag, corresponding to a star formation rate ~200 \\Mscrsolar yr-1 (H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-3 and q0=0.5 are assumed throughout). The absorption-corrected UV luminosity density at z~3 is ρ1600,0>=1.4×1027 ergs-1 Hz-1 Mpc-1. It is still a lower limit since completeness corrections have not been done and because only galaxies with A1600dropouts. The luminosity-weighted mean dust

  16. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN GALAXY MERGERS AND STARBURST: EVIDENCE FROM THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wentao; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Major mergers and interactions between gas-rich galaxies with comparable masses are thought to be the main triggers of starburst. In this work, we study, for a large stellar mass range, the interaction rate of the starburst galaxies in the local universe. We focus independently on central and satellite star forming galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Here the starburst galaxies are selected in the star formation rate (SFR) stellar mass plane with SFRs five times larger than the median value found for ''star forming'' galaxies of the same stellar mass. Through visual inspection of their images together with close companions determined using spectroscopic redshifts, we find that ∼50% of the ''starburst'' populations show evident merger features, i.e., tidal tails, bridges between galaxies, double cores, and close companions. In contrast, in the control sample we selected from the normal star forming galaxies, only ∼19% of galaxies are associated with evident mergers. The interaction rates may increase by ∼5% for the starburst sample and 2% for the control sample if close companions determined using photometric redshifts are considered. The contrast of the merger rate between the two samples strengthens the hypothesis that mergers and interactions are indeed the main causes of starburst

  17. Spitzer Observations of the X-ray Sources of NGC 4485/90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Gerardo A.; Colbert, E.; Hornschemeier, A.; Malhotra, S.; Roberts, T.; Ward, M.

    2006-06-01

    The mechanism for forming (or igniting) so-called Ultra-Luminous X- ray sources (ULXs) is very poorly understood. In order to investigate the stellar and gaseous environment of ULXs, we have observed the nearby starburst galaxy system NGC 4485/90 with Spitzer's IRAC and IRS instruments. High-quality mid-infrared images and spectra are used to characterize the stellar history of stars near the ULXs, and the ionization state of the surrounding gas. NGC 4485/90 fortuitively hosts six ULXs, and we have analyzed IRAC images and IRS spectra of all six regions. We also observed two "comparison" regions with no X-ray sources. Here we present our preliminary findings on the similarities and differences between the stellar and gaseous components near the ULXs.

  18. Demographics of Starbursts in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.; Heckman, T.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the frequency of circumnuclear starbursts in Seyfert galaxies using medium-resolution H and K band spectroscopy. An unbiased sample of ~20 nearby Seyfert galaxies was observed at the KeckII telescope with an average seeing of ~0.7''. Preliminary analysis shows strong stellar absorption lines for most galaxies in our sample. Comparison of stellar equivalent widths in the H and K band will allow us to determine the average age of the dominating stellar population. Evidence for an age trend with Seyfert type would provide a strong hint toward a starburst/AGN connection.

  19. Radio and infrared observations of (almost) one hundred non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda L.

    1987-01-01

    The 13 cm flux densities of 96 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies were measured at Arecibo Observatory. Far infrared flux densities have been published for 78 of these galaxies in the IRAS catalog. The radio, infrared, and optical fluxes of these galaxies and of a magnitude limited sample of normal galaxies were compared to clarify the nature of the radio emission in Markarian galaxies. It was found that Markarian galaxies of a given apparent magnitude and Hubble type generally have radio fluxes several times higher that the fluxes typical of normal galaxies of the same magnitude and type. Remarkably, the ratio of radio flux to far infrared flux is nearly the same for most of these starburst galaxies and for normal spiral disks. However, the compact and peculiar Markarian galaxies consistently have about 60% more radio flux per unit infrared flux than the other Markarian galaxies and the normal spirals. It is not clear whether this difference reflects a difference in the evolution of the starbursts in these galaxies or whether there is excess radio emission of nonstellar origin.

  20. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  1. Local starburst galaxies and their descendants. Statistics from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Nils; Marquart, Thomas; Way, Michael J.; Blomqvist, Anna; Holst, Emma; Ostlin, Goran; Zackrisson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong interest in the starburst phenomenon in extragalactic astronomy, the concept remains ill-defined. Here we use a strict definition of starburst to examine the statistical properties of starburst galaxies in the local universe. We also seek to establish links between starburst galaxies, post-starburst (hereafter postburst) galaxies, and active galaxies. Data were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. We applied a novel method of treating dust attenuation and derive star formation rates, ages, and stellar masses assuming a two-component stellar population model. Dynamical masses are calculated from the width of the H-alpha line. These masses agree excellently with the photometric masses. The mass (gas+stars) range is approximately 10( exp 9) - 10(exp 11.5) solar mass. As a selection criterion for starburst galaxies, we use, the birthrate parameter, b = SFR/SFR, requiring that b is greater than 3. For postburst galaxies, we use, the equivalent width of Hdelta in absorption with the criterion EW (sub Hdelta_abs) is greater than 6 A. Results. We find that only 1% of star-forming galaxies are starburst galaxies. They contribute 3-6% to the stellar production and are therefore unimportant for the local star formation activity. The median starburst age is 70 Myr roughly independent of mass, indicating that star formation is mainly regulated by local feedback processes. The b-parameter strongly depends on burst age. Values close to b = 60 are found at ages approximately 10 Myr, while almost no starbursts are found at ages greater than 1 Gyr. The median baryonic burst mass fraction of sub-L galaxies is 5% and decreases slowly towards high masses. The median mass fraction of the recent burst in the postburst sample is 5-10%. A smaller fraction of the postburst galaxies, however, originates in non-bursting galaxies. The age-mass distribution of the postburst progenitors (with mass fractions is greater than 3%) is bimodal with a break at logM(solar mass

  2. The essential signature of a massive starburst in a distant quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P; Vanden Bout, P; Carilli, C; Guelin, M

    2003-12-11

    Observations of carbon monoxide emission in high-redshift (zeta > 2) galaxies indicate the presence of large amounts of molecular gas. Many of these galaxies contain an active galactic nucleus powered by accretion of gas onto a supermassive black hole, and a key question is whether their extremely high infrared luminosities result from the active galactic nucleus, from bursts of massive star formation (associated with the molecular gas), or both. In the Milky Way, high-mass stars form in the dense cores of interstellar molecular clouds, where gas densities are n(H2) > 10(5) cm(-3) (refs 1, 2). Recent surveys show that virtually all galactic sites of high-mass star formation have similarly high densities. The bulk of the cloud material traced by CO observations, however, is at a much lower density. For galaxies in the local Universe, the HCN molecule is an effective tracer of high-density molecular gas. Here we report observations of HCN emission from the infrared-luminous 'Cloverleaf' quasar (at a redshift zeta = 2.5579). The HCN line luminosity indicates the presence of 10 billion solar masses of very dense gas, an essential feature of an immense starburst, which contributes, together with the active galactic nucleus it harbours, to its high infrared luminosity.

  3. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  4. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  5. Acceleration of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in starburst superwinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been stubbornly elusive. However, the latest report of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a compelling indication for a possible correlation between the arrival directions of UHECRs and nearby starburst galaxies. We argue that if starbursts are sources of UHECRs, then particle acceleration in the large-scale terminal shock of the superwind that flows from the starburst engine represents the best known concept model in the market. We investigate new constraints on the model and readjust free parameters accordingly. We show that UHECR acceleration above about 1 011 GeV remains consistent with observation. We also show that the model could accommodate hard source spectra as required by Auger data. We demonstrate how neutrino emission can be used as a discriminator among acceleration models.

  6. Observations of Intermediate-mass Black Holes and Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-12-01

    I will review various observations that suggest that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ˜102-104 M⊙ exist in our Universe. I will also discuss some of the limitations of these observations. HST Observations of excess dark mass in globular cluster cores suggest IMBHs may be responsible, and some mass estimates from lensing experiments are nearly in the IMBH range. The intriguing Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs, or IXOs) are off-nuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities LX ≳ 1039 erg s-1. ULXs are typically rare (1 in every 5 galaxies), and the nature of their ultra-luminous emission is currently debated. I will discuss the evidence for IMBHs in some ULXs, and briefly outline some phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss future observations that can be made to search for IMBHs.

  7. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez; Groves, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05 starburst activity and MFIR

  8. Scaling Relations of Starburst-driven Galactic Winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we explore how the velocity of a starburst-driven galactic wind correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) and SFR density. We find strong correlations for neutral and low ionized gas, but no correlation for highly ionized gas. The correlations for neutral and low ionized gas only hold for SFRs below a critical limit set by the mass loading of the starburst, above which point the scaling relations flatten abruptly. Below this point the scaling relations depend on the temperature regime being probed by the absorption line, not on the mass loading. The exact scaling relation depends on whether the maximum or mean velocity of the absorption line is used. We find that the outflow velocity of neutral gas can be up to five times lower than the average velocity of ionized gas, with the velocity difference increasing for higher ionization states. Furthermore, the velocity difference depends on both the SFR and mass loading of the starburst. Thus, absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas cannot easily be used as a proxy for the outflow velocity of the hot gas.

  9. Scaling Relations of Starburst-driven Galactic Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Ryan [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States); Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian, E-mail: rytanner@augusta.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we explore how the velocity of a starburst-driven galactic wind correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) and SFR density. We find strong correlations for neutral and low ionized gas, but no correlation for highly ionized gas. The correlations for neutral and low ionized gas only hold for SFRs below a critical limit set by the mass loading of the starburst, above which point the scaling relations flatten abruptly. Below this point the scaling relations depend on the temperature regime being probed by the absorption line, not on the mass loading. The exact scaling relation depends on whether the maximum or mean velocity of the absorption line is used. We find that the outflow velocity of neutral gas can be up to five times lower than the average velocity of ionized gas, with the velocity difference increasing for higher ionization states. Furthermore, the velocity difference depends on both the SFR and mass loading of the starburst. Thus, absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas cannot easily be used as a proxy for the outflow velocity of the hot gas.

  10. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ∼5.5σ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  11. Embedded clusters in NGC1808 central starburst - Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galliano, E.; Alloin, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the course of a mid-infrared imaging campaign of close-by active galaxies, we discovered the mid-infrared counterparts of bright compact radio sources in the central star-forming region of NGC1808. We aim at confirming that these sources are deeply embedded, young star clusters and at deriving some of their intrinsic properties. To complement the mid-infrared data, we have collected a set of near-infrared data with ISAAC at the VLT: J, Ks, and L' images, as well as low-resolution, long-sli...

  12. DWARF GALAXY STARBURST STATISTICS IN THE LOCAL VOLUME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Akiyama, Sanae; Funes, S. J. Jose G.; Sakai, Shoko

    2009-01-01

    An unresolved question in galaxy evolution is whether the star formation histories (SFHs) of low-mass systems are preferentially dominated by starbursts or modes that are more quiescent and continuous. Here, we quantify the prevalence of global starbursts in dwarf galaxies at the present epoch and infer their characteristic durations and amplitudes. The analysis is based on the Hα component of the 11 Mpc Hα UV Galaxy Survey (11HUGS), which provides Hα and Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging for an approximately volume-limited sample of ∼ 300 star-forming galaxies within 11 Mpc. We first examine the completeness properties of the sample, and then directly tally the number of bursting dwarfs and compute the fraction of star formation that is concentrated in such systems. To identify starbursting dwarfs, we use an integrated Hα equivalent width (EW) threshold of 100 A, which corresponds to a stellar birthrate of ∼ 2.5, and also explore the use of empirical starburst definitions based on σ thresholds of the observed logarithmic EW distributions. Our results are robust to the exact choice of the threshold, and are consistent with a picture where dwarfs that are currently experiencing massive global bursts are just the ∼ 6% tip of a low-mass galaxy iceberg. Moreover, bursts are only responsible for about a quarter of the total star formation in the overall dwarf population, so the majority of stars in low-mass systems are not formed in this mode today. Spirals and irregulars devoid of Hα emission are rare, indicating that the complete cessation of star formation generally does not occur in such galaxies and is not characteristic of the interburst state, at least for the more luminous systems with M B < -15. The starburst statistics presented here directly constrain the duty cycle and the average burst amplitude under the simplest assumptions where all dwarf irregulars share a common SFH and undergo similar burst cycles with equal probability. Uncertainties

  13. An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects....

  14. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nearby starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Reda; Bouchachi, Dallel

    2018-04-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are the most energetic of any subatomic particles ever observed in nature. The quest for their mysterious origin is currently a major scientific challenge. Here we explore the possibility that these particles originate from nearby starburst galaxies, a scenario that matches the recent observation by the Telescope Array experiment of a cosmic-ray hotspot above 57 EeV not far from the direction of the starburst galaxy M82. Specifically, we study the stochastic propagation in space of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays through the state-of-the-art simulation framework CRPropa 3, taking into account all relevant particle interactions as well as deflections by the intervening magnetic fields. To ensure a comprehensive understanding of this model, we consider the energy spectrum, the cosmogenic neutrinos and gamma rays, and the distribution of arrival directions. The starburst galaxy scenario reproduces well observations from both the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatories, making it very attractive for explaining the origin of cosmic rays at the highest energies.

  15. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  16. A dust-obscured massive maximum-starburst galaxy at a redshift of 6.34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A; Bradford, C M; Clements, D L; Dowell, C D; Pérez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Bridge, C; Conley, A; Fu, Hai; Vieira, J D; Wardlow, J; Calanog, J; Cooray, A; Hurley, P; Neri, R; Kamenetzky, J; Aguirre, J E; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Benford, D J; Béthermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Chapman, S C; Cox, P; Dunlop, J S; Earle, L; Farrah, D; Ferrero, P; Franceschini, A; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Gurwell, M A; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hyde, A; Ibar, E; Kovács, A; Krips, M; Lupu, R E; Maloney, P R; Martinez-Navajas, P; Matsuhara, H; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Petitpas, G; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Scott, D; Smith, A J; Staguhn, J G; Streblyanska, A; Thomson, A P; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Zemcov, M; Zmuidzinas, J

    2013-04-18

    Massive present-day early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies probably gained the bulk of their stellar mass and heavy elements through intense, dust-enshrouded starbursts--that is, increased rates of star formation--in the most massive dark-matter haloes at early epochs. However, it remains unknown how soon after the Big Bang massive starburst progenitors exist. The measured redshift (z) distribution of dusty, massive starbursts has long been suspected to be biased low in z owing to selection effects, as confirmed by recent findings of systems with redshifts as high as ~5 (refs 2-4). Here we report the identification of a massive starburst galaxy at z = 6.34 through a submillimetre colour-selection technique. We unambiguously determined the redshift from a suite of molecular and atomic fine-structure cooling lines. These measurements reveal a hundred billion solar masses of highly excited, chemically evolved interstellar medium in this galaxy, which constitutes at least 40 per cent of the baryonic mass. A 'maximum starburst' converts the gas into stars at a rate more than 2,000 times that of the Milky Way, a rate among the highest observed at any epoch. Despite the overall downturn in cosmic star formation towards the highest redshifts, it seems that environments mature enough to form the most massive, intense starbursts existed at least as early as 880 million years after the Big Bang.

  17. Herschel-ATLAS: A Binary HyLIRG Pinpointing a Cluster of Starbursting Protoellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivison, R.J.; Swinbank, A.M.; Smail, Ian; Harris, A. I.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Fu, H.; Kovacs, A.; Krips, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Panchromatic observations of the best candidate hyperluminous infrared galaxies from the widest Herschel extragalactic imaging survey have led to the discovery of at least four intrinsically luminous z = 2.41 galaxies across an ˜100 kpc region-a cluster of starbursting protoellipticals. Via subarcsecond interferometric imaging we have measured accurate gas and star formation surface densities. The two brightest galaxies span 3 kpc FWHM in submillimeter/radio continuum and CO J = 4-3, and double that in CO J = 1-0. The broad CO line is due partly to the multitude of constituent galaxies and partly to large rotational velocities in two counter-rotating gas disks-a scenario predicted to lead to the most intense starbursts, which will therefore come in pairs. The disks have Mdyn of several ×10(sup 11) solar Mass, and gas fractions of 40%. Velocity dispersions are modest so the disks are unstable, potentially on scales commensurate with their radii: these galaxies are undergoing extreme bursts of star formation, not confined to their nuclei, at close to the Eddington limit. Their specific star formation rates place them greater than or approx. equal to 5 × above the main sequence, which supposedly comprises large gas disks like these. Their high star formation efficiencies are difficult to reconcile with a simple volumetric star formation law. N-body and dark matter simulations suggest that this system is the progenitor of a B(inary)-type ˜10(sup 14.6) -solar mass cluster.

  18. The Statistical Properties of Galaxies Containing Ultraluminous X-Ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.; Colbert, E.

    2004-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies containing ultraluminous X-ray objects (ULXs). Our primary goal is to establish the fraction of galaxies containing a ULX as a function of ULX luminosity. Our sample is based on ROSAT HRI observations of galaxies. We find that ~12% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with LX>1039 ergs s-1, and ~1% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with LX>1040 ergs s-1. These ULX frequencies are lower limits, since ROSAT HRI observations would miss absorbed ULXs (i.e., with NH>~1021cm-2) and those within ~10" of the nucleus (due to the positional error circle of the ROSAT HRI). The Hubble type distribution of galaxies with a ULX differs significantly from the distribution of types for nearby Third Reference Catalog galaxies but does not differ significantly from the galaxy type distribution of galaxies observed by the HRI in general. We find no increase in the mean far-infrared (FIR) luminosity or FIR/K-band luminosity ratio for galaxies with a ULX relative to galaxies observed by the HRI in general; however, this result is also most likely biased by the soft bandpass of the HRI and the relatively low number of high star formation rate galaxies observed by the HRI with enough sensitivity to detect a ULX.

  19. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-01-01

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Hα, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Hα and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  20. A combined optical, infrared and radio study of the megamaser galaxy III Zw 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.M.; Axon, D.J.; Cohen, R.J.; Pedlar, A.; Davies, R.D.; Unger, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    III Zw 35 is a pair of galaxies characterized by powerful radio continuum, far-infrared and OH maser radiation. We have made a multi-frequency study of the galaxy pair based on optical, infrared and radio observations. The brighter northern component is identified as an early-type LINER or Seyfert galaxy containing an active nuclear region from which radio continuum, OH maser and thermal dust emission are detected. We propose that the northern component has a compact active nucleus deeply embedded in a highly obscured region of diameter ∼ 210 pc, within which enhanced star-formation occurs. The lower luminosity southern component is of low mass and is undergoing starburst activity over an extended region of diameter ∼ 5.5 kpc. The origin of the starburst and non-thermal activity appears to be an interaction between the two components. (author)

  1. Lots of Small Stars Born in Starburst Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    will quickly affect their environment, but how much? At this moment, nobody knows for sure what determines the actual masses of individual stars that are formed in a very massive and turbulent gas cloud, although some ideas can now be tested with these new observations. The NGC 3603 region The new VLT observations are the key part of a larger research programme that also includes observations of the stellar cluster in the famous Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the NICMOS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), as well as adaptive optics observations with ground-based telescopes of more quiescent, star-forming regions in the Galaxy. However, the team considered the starburst region NGC 3603 as the best target for this kind of investigation. It is situated in the far southern constellation Carina (The Keel) and can only be observed from the South. Moreover, such a study has to focus on the densest part of the cluster that can only be resolved with a very sensitive infrared (IR) instrument under the best seeing conditions. The VLT ANTU telescope and the multi-mode ISAAC facility are ideally suited for this purpose. NGC 3603 is located in the Carina spiral arm in the Milky Way galaxy at a distance of about 20,000 light-years (6 - 7 kpc). It is the only massive, galactic "HII-region" (so denoted by astronomers because part of its hydrogen is ionized) in which a central cluster of strongly UV-radiating stars of types "O" and "B" that ionize the nebula can be studied at visual and near-infrared wavelengths. This is because the line-of-sight is reasonably free of dust in this direction; the dimming in near-infrared radiation due to intervening matter between the nebula and us is only about a factor of 2 (contrary to 80 in visible light). The total mass of the hot O- and B-stars in NGC 3603 is over 2000 solar masses. Together, the more than fifty heavy and bright O-stars in NGC 3603 have about 100 times the ionizing power of the well

  2. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  3. Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, M.J.; Miller Jones, J.C.A.; Markoff, S.; Fender, R.; Henze, M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Roberts, T.P.; Walton, D.; Carpenter, J.; Macquart, J.-P.; Bower, G.C.; Gurwell, G.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Harris, J.; Daniel, M.; Miah, J.; Done, C.; Morgan, J.S.; Dickinson, H.; Charles, P.; Burwitz, V.; Della Valle, M.; Freyberg, M.; Greiner, J.; Hernanz, M.; Hartmann, D.H.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Riffeser, A.; Sala, G.; Seitz, S.; Reig, P.; Rau, A.; Orio, M.; Titterington, D.; Grainge, K.

    2013-01-01

    A subset of ultraluminous X-ray sources (those with luminosities of less than 1040 erg s−1; ref. 1) are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto black holes with masses of ~5-20 , probably by means of an accretion disk2, 3. The X-ray and radio emission are coupled in such Galactic sources;

  4. Recent star formation in interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, R.D.; Wright, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The subset of galaxy-galaxy interactions which have resulted in a merger are, as a class, ultraluminous IR galaxies. Their IR luminosities span a narrow range which overlaps with the most luminous Seyfert galaxies. However, in contrast with Seyfert galaxies, the available optical, IR, and radio properties of mergers show no evidence for a compact non-thermal central source, and are easily understood in terms of a burst of star formation of extraordinary intensity and spatial extent; they are 'super starbursts'. We argue that super starbursts occur in the evolution of most mergers, and discuss the implications of super starbursts for the suggestion that mergers evolve into elliptical galaxies. Finally, we note that merger-induced shocks are likely to leave the gas from both galaxies in dense molecular form which will rapidly cool, collapse, and fragment. Thus a merger might in fact be expected to result in a burst of star formation of exceptional intensity and spatial extent, i.e. a super starburst. (author)

  5. A TALE OF THREE GALAXIES: ANOMALOUS DUST PROPERTIES IN IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013–0739, AND SDSS J0808+3948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    On a galactic scale, the 9.7 μm silicate emission is usually only seen in type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). They usually also display a flat emission continuum at ∼5-8 μm and the absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. In contrast, starburst galaxies, luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, and ultraluminous IR galaxies exhibit a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm silicate absorption features, and strong PAH emission bands. Here, we report the detection of anomalous dust properties by the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph in three galaxies (IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739, and SDSS J0808+3948) which are characterized by the simultaneous detection of a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features, as well as strong PAH emission bands. These apparently contradictory dust IR emission properties are discussed in terms of iron-poor silicate composition, carbon dust deficit, small grain size, and low dust temperature in the young AGN phase of these three galaxies.

  6. ALMA Reveals Weak [N II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z = 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smolčić, Vernesa

    2016-12-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [N II] 205 μm fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z = 5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [C II] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized interstellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]} ratio. We find extremely low [N II] emission compared to [C II] ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}={68}-28+200) from a “typical” ˜ {L}{UV}* star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}≲ 20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations in its ionized-gas fraction across an extended gas reservoir. The extreme SFR, warm and compact dusty starburst AzTEC-3 shows an ionized fraction higher than expected given its SFR surface density ({L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}[{{N}{{II}}]}=22+/- 8) suggesting that [N II] dominantly traces a diffuse ionized medium rather than star-forming H II regions in this type of galaxy. This highest redshift sample of [N II] detections provides some of the first constraints on ionized and neutral gas modeling attempts and on the structure of the interstellar medium at z = 5-6 in “normal” galaxies and starbursts.

  7. Initial mass function for early-type stars in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Anderson, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The IMF slope of early-type stars in starburst galaxies is investigated using IUE observations and a technique that utilizes mass-linewidth relations for early-type stars. Fourteen low-resolution IUE spectra of eight starburst galaxies and three H II region galaxies are used to obtain line-strength ratios Si IV(1400 A)/C IV(1550 A). These are compared to model line ratios, and indicate that the average IMF slope for OB stars in these intense star-formation regions is appreciably flatter than that of the solar neighborhood. 46 references

  8. Direct Measurement of the Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; Rank, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Supernovae play a key role in the dynamics, structure, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The massive stars that end their lives as supernovae live for short times. Many are still associated with dusty star formation regions when they explode, making them difficult to observe at visible wavelengths. In active star forming regions (galactic nuclei and starburst regions), dust extintion is especially severe. Thus, determining the supernova rate in the active star forming regions of galaxies, where the supernova rate can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the average, has proven to be difficult. From observations of SN1987A, we know that the [NiII] 6.63 micron emission line was the strongest line in the infrared spectrum for a period of a year and a half after the explosion. Since dust extintion is much less at 6.63 pm than at visible wavelengths (A(sub 6.63)/A(sub V) = 0.025), the NiII line can be used as a sensitive probe for the detection of recent supernovae. We have observed a sample of starburst galaxies at 6.63 micron using ISOCAM to search for the NiII emission line characteristic of recent supernovae. We did not detect any NiII line emission brighter than a 5sigma limit of 5 mJy. We can set upper limits to the supernova rate in our sample, scaled to the rate in M82, of less than 0.3 per year at the 90% confidence level using Bayesian methods. Assuming that a supernova would have a NiII with the same luminosity as observed in SN1987A, we find less than 0.09 and 0.15 per year at the 50% and 67% confidence levels. These rates are somewhat less if a more normal type II supernovae has a NiII line luminosity greater than the line in SN1987A.

  9. UNVEILING THE σ-DISCREPANCY IN INFRARED-LUMINOUS MERGERS. I. DUST AND DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, Barry; Fischer, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Mergers in the local universe present a unique opportunity for studying the transformations of galaxies in detail. Presented here are recent results, based on multi-wavelength, high-resolution imaging and medium resolution spectroscopy, which demonstrate how star formation and the presence of red supergiants and/or asymptotic giant branch stars have led to a serious underestimation of the dynamical masses of infrared-bright galaxies. The dominance of a nuclear disk of young stars in the near-infrared bands, where dust obscuration does not block their signatures, can severely bias the global properties measured in a galaxy, including mass. This explains why past studies of gas-rich luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies, which have measured dynamical masses using the 1.62 or 2.29 μm CO band heads, have found that these galaxies are forming m m* ellipticals. Moreover, merger remnants, including LIRGs, are placed on the I-band fundamental plane for the first time and appear to be virtually indistinguishable from elliptical galaxies.

  10. Extending pure luminosity evolution models into the mid-infrared, far-infrared and submillimetre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael D.; Shanks, Tom

    2011-07-01

    Simple pure luminosity evolution (PLE) models, in which galaxies brighten at high redshift due to increased star formation rates (SFRs), are known to provide a good fit to the colours and number counts of galaxies throughout the optical and near-infrared. We show that optically defined PLE models, where dust reradiates absorbed optical light into infrared spectra composed of local galaxy templates, fit galaxy counts and colours out to 8 μm and to at least z≈ 2.5. At 24-70 μm, the model is able to reproduce the observed source counts with reasonable success if 16 per cent of spiral galaxies show an excess in mid-IR flux due to a warmer dust component and a higher SFR, in line with observations of local starburst galaxies. There remains an underprediction of the number of faint-flux, high-z sources at 24 μm, so we explore how the evolution may be altered to correct this. At 160 μm and longer wavelengths, the model fails, with our model of normal galaxies accounting for only a few percent of sources in these bands. However, we show that a PLE model of obscured AGN, which we have previously shown to give a good fit to observations at 850 μm, also provides a reasonable fit to the Herschel/BLAST number counts and redshift distributions at 250-500 μm. In the context of a ΛCDM cosmology, an AGN contribution at 250-870 μm would remove the need to invoke a top-heavy IMF for high-redshift starburst galaxies.

  11. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  12. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 μm EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 μm emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr –1 . The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact (≤100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 μm and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  13. EXTENDED HCN AND HCO{sup +} EMISSION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicua Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Salter, D.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kepley, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We mapped 3 mm continuum and line emission from the starburst galaxy M82 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We targeted the HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, and HC{sub 3}N lines, but here we focus on the HCN and HCO{sup +} emission. The map covers a field of 1.'2 with an ≈5'' resolution. The HCN and HCO{sup +} observations are short spacings corrected. The molecular gas in M82 had been previously found to be distributed in a molecular disk, coincident with the central starburst, and a galactic scale outflow which originates in the central starburst. With the new short spacings-corrected maps we derive some of the properties of the dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. From the HCN and HCO{sup +} J = (1-0) line emission, and under the assumptions of the gas being optically thin and in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we place lower limits on the amount of dense molecular gas in the base of the outflow. The lower limits are 7 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 21 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, or ≳ 2% of the total molecular mass in the outflow. The kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas outside the central starburst suggests that it is being expelled through chimneys. Assuming a constant outflow velocity, the derived outflow rate of dense molecular gas is ≥0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which would lower the starburst lifetime by ≥5%. The energy required to expel this mass of dense gas is (1-10) × 10{sup 52} erg.

  14. The Dense Molecular Gas and Nuclear Activity in the ULIRG IRAS 13120–5453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C.; Treister, E. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Aalto, S.; Falstad, N.; Muller, S.; Costagliola, F. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 94 Onsala (Sweden); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcalá, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Sliwa, K. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio de Madrid, OAN-IGN, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014-Madrid (Spain); Izumi, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Sakamoto, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, 10617, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Werf, P. van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chu, J. K. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 7 (∼340 GHz) observations of the dense gas tracers HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS in the local, single-nucleus, ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 13120–5453. We find centrally enhanced HCN (4–3) emission, relative to HCO{sup +} (4–3), but do not find evidence for radiative pumping of HCN. Considering the size of the starburst (0.5 kpc) and the estimated supernovae rate of ∼1.2 yr{sup −1}, the high HCN/HCO{sup +} ratio can be explained by an enhanced HCN abundance as a result of mechanical heating by the supernovae, though the active galactic nucleus and winds may also contribute additional mechanical heating. The starburst size implies a high Σ{sub IR} of 4.7 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ⊙} kpc{sup −2}, slightly below predictions of radiation-pressure limited starbursts. The HCN line profile has low-level wings, which we tentatively interpret as evidence for outflowing dense molecular gas. However, the dense molecular outflow seen in the HCN line wings is unlikely to escape the Galaxy and is destined to return to the nucleus and fuel future star formation. We also present modeling of Herschel observations of the H{sub 2}O lines and find a nuclear dust temperature of ∼40 K. IRAS 13120–5453 has a lower dust temperature and Σ{sub IR} than is inferred for the systems termed “compact obscured nuclei (CONs)” (such as Arp 220 and Mrk 231). If IRAS 13120–5453 has undergone a CON phase, we are likely witnessing it at a time when the feedback has already inflated the nuclear ISM and diluted star formation in the starburst/active galactic nucleus core.

  15. STAR CLUSTER DISRUPTION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY MESSIER 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution, multiple-passband Hubble Space Telescope images spanning the entire optical/near-infrared wavelength range, we obtained a statistically complete U-band-selected sample of 846 extended star clusters across the disk of the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Based on a careful analysis of the clusters' spectral energy distributions, we determined their galaxy-wide age and mass distributions. The M82 clusters exhibit three clear peaks in their age distribution, thus defining relatively young, log (t yr –1 ) ≤ 7.5, intermediate-age, log (t yr –1 ) in [7.5, 8.5], and old samples, log (t yr –1 ) ≥ 8.5. Comparison of the completeness-corrected mass distributions offers a firm handle on the galaxy's star cluster disruption history. The most massive star clusters in the young and old samples are (almost) all concentrated in the most densely populated central region, while the intermediate-age sample's most massive clusters are more spatially dispersed, which may reflect the distribution of the highest-density gas throughout the galaxy's evolutionary history, combined with the solid-body nature of the galaxy's central region

  16. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10–1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts’ post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%–10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30–200× boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host’s core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10{sup 9.4}–10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}, consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10{sup 5.5}–10{sup 7.5} M {sub ☉}. Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.

  17. Very Luminous X-ray Point Sources in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Weaver, K. A.; Strickland, D.

    Extranuclear X-ray point sources in external galaxies with luminosities above 1039.0 erg/s are quite common in elliptical, disk and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~ 0.5 and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~0.5 sources per galaxy. These objects may be a new class of object, perhaps accreting intermediate-mass black holes, or beamed stellar mass black hole binaries. Starburst galaxies tend to have a larger number of these intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (IXOs), as well as a large number of lower-luminosity (1037 - 1039 erg/s) point sources. These point sources dominate the total hard X-ray emission in starburst galaxies. We present a review of both types of objects and discuss possible schemes for their formation.

  18. Superwind Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies? : Large-Scale Radio Maps of an Edge-On Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Gallimore, J.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.

    1995-03-01

    Large-scale galactic winds (superwinds) are commonly found flowing out of the nuclear region of ultraluminous infrared and powerful starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae from the nuclear starburst provide the energy to drive these superwinds. The outflowing gas escapes along the rotation axis, sweeping up and shock-heating clouds in the halo, which produces optical line emission, radio synchrotron emission, and X-rays. These features can most easily be studied in edge-on systems, so that the wind emission is not confused by that from the disk. We have begun a systematic search for superwind outflows in Seyfert galaxies. In an earlier optical emission-line survey, we found extended minor axis emission and/or double-peaked emission line profiles in >~30% of the sample objects. We present here large-scale (6cm VLA C-config) radio maps of 11 edge-on Seyfert galaxies, selected (without bias) from a distance-limited sample of 23 edge-on Seyferts. These data have been used to estimate the frequency of occurrence of superwinds. Preliminary results indicate that four (36%) of the 11 objects observed and six (26%) of the 23 objects in the distance-limited sample have extended radio emission oriented perpendicular to the galaxy disk. This emission may be produced by a galactic wind blowing out of the disk. Two (NGC 2992 and NGC 5506) of the nine objects for which we have both radio and optical data show good evidence for a galactic wind in both datasets. We suggest that galactic winds occur in >~30% of all Seyferts. A goal of this work is to find a diagnostic that can be used to distinguish between large-scale outflows that are driven by starbursts and those that are driven by an AGN. The presence of starburst-driven superwinds in Seyferts, if established, would have important implications for the connection between starburst galaxies and AGN.

  19. Quasar Feedback in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy F11119+3257: Connecting the Accretion Disk Wind with the Large-scale Molecular Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Bolatto, A.; Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2017-07-01

    In Tombesi et al., we reported the first direct evidence for a quasar accretion disk wind driving a massive (>100 M ⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow. The target was F11119+3257, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with unambiguous type 1 quasar optical broad emission lines. The energetics of the accretion disk wind and molecular outflow were found to be consistent with the predictions of quasar feedback models where the molecular outflow is driven by a hot energy-conserving bubble inflated by the inner quasar accretion disk wind. However, this conclusion was uncertain because the mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of the outflowing molecular gas were estimated from the optically thick OH 119 μm transition profile observed with Herschel. Here, we independently confirm the presence of the molecular outflow in F11119+3257, based on the detection of ˜±1000 km s-1 blue- and redshifted wings in the CO(1-0) emission line profile derived from deep ALMA observations obtained in the compact array configuration (˜2.″8 resolution). The broad CO(1-0) line emission appears to be spatially extended on a scale of at least ˜7 kpc from the center. Mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of (80-200) {R}7-1 M ⊙ yr-1, (1.5-3.0) {R}7-1 L AGN/c, and (0.15-0.40)% {R}7-1 {L}{AGN}, respectively, are inferred from these data, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor appropriate for a ULIRG (R 7 is the radius of the outflow normalized to 7 kpc, and L AGN is the AGN luminosity). These rates are time-averaged over a flow timescale of 7 × 106 yr. They are similar to the OH-based rates time-averaged over a flow timescale of 4 × 105 yr, but about a factor of 4 smaller than the local (“instantaneous” ≲105 yr) OH-based estimates cited in Tombesi et al. The implications of these new results are discussed in the context of time-variable quasar-mode feedback and galaxy evolution. The need for an energy-conserving bubble to explain the molecular outflow

  20. Sub-arcsecond imaging of Arp 299-A at 150 MHz with LOFAR: Evidence for a starburst-driven outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Olivencia, N.; Varenius, E.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Alberdi, A.; Pérez, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Deller, A.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Moldón, J.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Martí-Vidal, I.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the first sub-arcsecond (0.44 × 0.41 arcsec2) angular resolution image at 150 MHz of the A-nucleus in the luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299, from International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Telescope observations. The most remarkable finding is that of an intriguing two-sided, filamentary structure emanating from the A-nucleus, which we interpret as an outflow that extends up to at least 14 arcsec from the A-nucleus in the N-S direction ( ≈5 kpc deprojected size) and accounts for almost 40% of the extended emission of the entire galaxy system. We also discuss HST/NICMOS [FeII] 1.64 μm and H2 2.12 μm images of Arp 299-A, which show similar features to those unveiled by our 150 MHz LOFAR observations, providing strong morphological support for the outflow scenario. Finally, we discuss unpublished Na I D spectra that confirm the outflow nature of this structure. From energetic arguments, we rule out the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in Arp 299-A as a driver for the outflow. On the contrary, the powerful, compact starburst in the central regions of Arp 299-A provides plenty of mechanical energy to sustain an outflow, and we conclude that the intense supernova (SN) activity in the nuclear region of Arp 299-A is driving the observed outflow. We estimate that the starburst wind can support a mass-outflow rate in the range (11-63 M⊙ yr-1) at speeds of up to 370-890 km s-1, and is relatively young, with an estimated kinematic age of 3-7 Myr. Those results open an avenue to the use of low-frequency (150 MHz), sub-arcsecond imaging with LOFAR to detect outflows in the central regions of local luminous infrared galaxies.

  1. DETERMINING STAR FORMATION RATES FOR INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Weiner, B. J.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Donley, J. L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Blaylock, M.; Marcillac, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that measures of star formation rates (SFRs) for infrared galaxies using either single-band 24 μm or extinction-corrected Paα luminosities are consistent in the total infrared luminosity = L(TIR) ∼ 10 10 L sun range. MIPS 24 μm photometry can yield SFRs accurately from this luminosity upward: SFR(M sun yr -1 ) = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun ) from L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 L sun to 10 11 L sun and SFR = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun )(7.76 x 10 -11 L(24)) 0.048 for higher L(TIR). For galaxies with L(TIR) ≥ 10 10 L sun , these new expressions should provide SFRs to within 0.2 dex. For L(TIR) ≥ 10 11 L sun , we find that the SFR of infrared galaxies is significantly underestimated using extinction-corrected Paα (and presumably using any other optical or near-infrared recombination lines). As a part of this work, we constructed spectral energy distribution templates for eleven luminous and ultraluminous purely star forming infrared galaxies and over the spectral range 0.4 μm to 30 cm. We use these templates and the SINGS data to construct average templates from 5 μm to 30 cm for infrared galaxies with L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 to 10 13 L sun . All of these templates are made available online.

  2. X-rays from spiral and starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    The study of the X-ray properties of normal galaxies as a class was made possible by the launch of the Einstein Observatory in November 1978. The Einstein X-ray observations of well over 100 galaxies have been reported in the literature to date, and data on a similar number can still be found in the Einstein data bank. To mention some of the unexpected results, these observations have led to the discovery of plumes of hot gas ejected by starburst nuclei, and to the study of small active nuclei. Hot X-ray halos have been discovered in early-type galaxies, and provide a potentially very powerful means for measuring their mass. The implications of these results range from new insights on the composition and evolution of X-ray emitting sources in spiral galaxies, and their relationship with star formation activity and cosmic ray production, to the formation of the intracluster medium and the origin of the X-ray background. This paper concentrates on the results of the Einstein observations of spiral and starburst galaxies. (author)

  3. Variations in the 6.2 μm emission profile in starburst-dominated galaxies: a signature of polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelo, Carla M.; Friaça, Amâncio C. S.; Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Analyses of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature profiles, especially the 6.2 μm feature, could indicate the presence of nitrogen incorporated in their aromatic rings. In this work, 155 predominantly starburst-dominated galaxies (including H II regions and Seyferts, for example), extracted from the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph ATLAS project, have their 6.2 μm profiles fitted allowing their separation into the Peeters' A, B, and C classes. 67 per cent of these galaxies were classified as class A, 31 per cent were as class B, and 2 per cent as class C. Currently, class A sources, corresponding to a central wavelength near 6.22 μm, seem only to be explained by polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs), whereas class B may represent a mix between PAHs and PANHs emissions or different PANH structures or ionization states. Therefore, these spectra suggest a significant presence of PANHs in the interstellar medium (ISM) of these galaxies that could be related to their starburst-dominated emission. These results also suggest that PANHs constitute another reservoir of nitrogen in the Universe, in addition to the nitrogen in the gas phase and ices of the ISM.

  4. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, R.; Pietsch, W.; Biermann, P.L.; Kronberg, P.P.; Schmutzler, T.

    1989-01-01

    Long X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82 with the European X-ray satellite EXOSAT are reported. The observations with the low-energy imaging instrument confirm that there is extended X-ray emission from above and below the disk, with an overall extent perpendicular to the disk of almost 6 arcmin corresponding to 6 kpc. One of the best defined X-ray spectra yet of a starburst galaxy is presented. The medium energy instrument measurements can be fitted with a power-law spectrum, consistent with inverse Compton emission, or with thermal emission from optically thin hot gas of a temperature of 9 + 9 or -4 keV. Using, in addition, the earlier Einstein HRI and MPC observations, the possible origin of the X-ray emission is discussed. 31 references

  5. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L IR > 10 11.5 L ☉ ). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L C II /L FIR ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L C II –L FIR relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L C II /L FIR ratio and the far-IR color L 60 /L 100 observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L C II /L FIR at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L C II /L FIR ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L IR /L CO ′ or L IR /M H 2 ), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ∼ 0.3.

  6. Feedback and starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklind, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model of the regulatory coupling between the star formation rate and the molecular gas fraction is presented. The model can in a qualitative way explain both the constant star formation rate observed in most galaxies and the starbursting behaviour seen in some systems. Formation of massive stars are thought to have both a positive and a negative feedback on further stellar formation. A sudden increase in the gas available for star formation will cause a strong increase in the star formation rate lasting for ∼ 3.10 7 yrs. Both the star formation rate and the molecular gas friction will then perform damped oscillations over a period of a few x 10 8 yrs. This general behaviour is valid for a large range of parameter values

  7. Post-Starburst Galaxies At The End of The E+A Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Charles; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Chang, Madeleine; Lyczko, Camilla; Vega Orozco, Cecilia; SDSS-IV Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Post-starburst galaxies, once thought to be rare curiosities, are now recognized to represent a key phase in the galaxy evolution. The post-starburst, or E+A phase, should however not be considered as a single, short-lived phenomenon; rather, it is an extended evolutionary process that occurs a galaxy transitions from an actively star-forming system into a quiescent one. We present a study of nearby galaxies at or near the end of the E+A phase, wherein all star formation has been quenched, the fossilized stellar population of the most recent starburst is highly localized, and the remainder of the galaxy's stellar population is old and quiescent. The luminosity and stellar age distribution of these "end-phase E+As" can provide insights into the evolution of galaxies onto and within the red sequence, from active to passive systems. This work is supported by National Science Foundation grants to CUNY College of Staten Island and the American Museum of Natural History; the College of Staten Island Office of Academic Affairs; the Sherman Fairchild Science Pathways Scholars Program (SP^2) at Barnard College; and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  8. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgarone, E; Zwaan, M A; Godard, B; Bergin, E; Ivison, R J; Andreani, P M; Bournaud, F; Bussmann, R S; Elbaz, D; Omont, A; Oteo, I; Walter, F

    2017-08-24

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH + , is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH + (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH + emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH + absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  9. STAR-FORMING OR STARBURSTING? THE ULTRAVIOLET CONUNDRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Hong, S.; Kennicutt, R.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Portouw, J.; Gordon, K. D.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to starburst galaxies, normal star-forming galaxies have been shown to display a much larger dispersion of the dust attenuation at fixed reddening through studies of the IRX-β diagram (the IR/UV ratio 'IRX' versus the UV color 'β'). To investigate the causes of this larger dispersion and attempt to isolate second parameters, we have used GALEX UV, ground-based optical, and Spitzer infrared imaging of eight nearby galaxies, and examined the properties of individual UV and 24 μm selected star-forming regions. We concentrated on star-forming regions, in order to isolate simpler star formation histories than those that characterize whole galaxies. We find that (1) the dispersion is not correlated with the mean age of the stellar populations; (2) a range of dust geometries and dust extinction curves are the most likely causes for the observed dispersion in the IRX-β diagram, (3) together with some potential dilution of the most recent star-forming population by older unrelated bursts, at least in the case of star-forming regions within galaxies; and (4) we also recover some general characteristics of the regions, including a tight positive correlation between the amount of dust attenuation and the metal content. Although generalizing our results to whole galaxies may not be immediate, the possibility of a range of dust extinction laws and geometries should be accounted for in the latter systems as well.

  10. Hα Emission Line Morphologies in Markarian Starburst Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    images of a sample of optically selected starburst galaxies from the Markar- ian lists. .... to the size of the galaxy and the histograms were sky dominated. .... simplest qualitative method is to visually examine the distribution of the emission line.

  11. Hohlraum Target Alignment from X-ray Detector Images using Starburst Design Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, R.R.; Conder, A.; Edwards, O.; Kroll, J.; Kozioziemski, B.; Mapoles, E.; McGuigan, D.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    2010-01-01

    National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to initiate a fusion reaction. The target container, or hohlraum, must be accurately aligned to an x-ray imaging system to allow careful monitoring of the frozen fuel layer in the target. To achieve alignment, x-ray images are acquired through starburst-shaped windows cut into opposite sides of the hohlraum. When the hohlraum is in alignment, the starburst pattern pairs match nearly exactly and allow a clear view of the ice layer formation on the edge of the target capsule. During the alignment process, x-ray image analysis is applied to determine the direction and magnitude of adjustment required. X-ray detector and source are moved in concert during the alignment process. The automated pointing alignment system described here is both accurate and efficient. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing that enables automation of the starburst pointing alignment.

  12. Wolf-Rayet Stars in Starburst Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Kunth, Daniel; Cervino, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Wolf-Rayet stars have been detected in a large number of galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. All stars initially more massive than a certain, metallicity-dependent, value are believed to experience the Wolf-Rayet phase at the end of their evolution, just before collapsing in supernova explosion. The detection of Wolf-Rayet stars puts therefore important constraints on the evolutionary status of starbursts, the properties of their Initial Mass Functions and their star forma...

  13. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-09-01

    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  14. Infrared Photometric Study of Wolf–Rayet Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. S.; Yang, X. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2018-01-01

    We collected observational data on 781 Wolf–Rayet (WR) galaxies from the literature to photometrically study their infrared properties measured by the 2MASS, WISE, IRAS, AKARI, and Herschel missions. It is found that in the 1–5 μm range the radiations of WR galaxies are dominated by the free–free emissions from the stellar winds and the circumstellar dust from the late-type stars in the host galaxy. In the 5–22 μm range, the radiation of WR galaxies is dominated by the free–free emissions and the synchrotron radiation from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN; but not always present). In the 22–140 μm range, the radiations of WR galaxies are dominated by the free–free emissions and the star formation/starburst activities. In the 250–500 μm range, the radiation of WR galaxies is dominated by the free–free emissions. In addition, the comparison with the non-WR galaxies is made. It is shown that some star formation WR galaxies have redder near-infrared colors than non-WR star-forming galaxies probably due to the gas emission in the near-infrared. In the 2–5 μm region WR galaxies have redder colors due to the thermal emission from circumstellar dust of late-type stars and the enhanced gas emission. In the 5–22 μm region, both WR galaxies and non-WR galaxies have similar behavior, indicative of having similar free–free emission as the dominant radiation. In the 25–140 μm region, both types of galaxies also have similar behavior, indicative of having free–free emission from the stellar winds or the thermal radiation from the starburst/star formation as the dominant radiation.

  15. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-09

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes.

  16. STELLAR POPULATION AND GAS KINEMATICS OF POST-STARBURST QUASARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartim, David; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2018-01-01

    Post-Starburst Quasars (PSQs) are an intriguing set of galaxies that simultaneously host AGNs and post-starburst stellar populations, making them one of the most suitable objects to investigate the nature of the connection between these two components. The simultaneous presence of a post-starburst population and nuclear activity may be explained by two possible scenarios. In the secular evolutionary scenario star formation may cease due to exhaustion of the gas, while in the quenching one it may cease abruptly when the nuclear activity is triggered. In order to test these scenarios we have mapped the star formation history, manifestations of nuclear activity and excitation mechanisms in the central kpc of two nearby PSQs by using GMOS-IFU observations. In these two first exploratory studies, we have found that the young and intermediate age populations are located in a ring at ≈300-500 kpc, with some contribution of the intermediate age component also in the central region. In both of them, the gas outflow does not coincide with the young stellar population ring, which suggests that the ring is not being affected by the AGN feedback, but only the innermost regions. The individual study one of the PSQs of the sample has supported the evolutionary scenario, since the post-starburst population is not located close enough to the nucleus, where the outflow is observed. As a general behaviour, we found that outflows velocity are on the order of ~600-800 km/s and the mass outflow rates of ≈0.03-0.1 M⊙/yr, one order of magnitude greater than the AGN accretion rate, which suggests a scenario where the AGN-driven wind has entrained material from the circumnuclear region. In order to increase the statistical significance of our previous results and to distinguish between the proposed scenarios, we are conducting the same analysis to a wider sample of PSQs, which we hope will indicate more conclusively which is the favored scenario. During the meeting, we will present

  17. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan; Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott; Cooper, Mike; Lidman, Chris; Surace, Jason; Dunne, Loretta; Geach, James; Hayden, Brian; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Huang, Jiasheng; Pope, Alexandra; Smith, Matthew W. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N gal (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10 14 M ⊙ , comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L IR = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10 12 L ⊙ . The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M ⊙ yr −1 . The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times

  18. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3P 1T3 (Canada); Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cooper, Mike [Centre for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Space Science Centre, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunne, Loretta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Geach, James [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hayden, Brian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institute fur Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Huang, Jiasheng [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 011003 (United States); Smith, Matthew W. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-20

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N{sub gal} (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L{sub IR} = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

  19. New insights into the X-ray properties of nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brnadt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Levan, A. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2008-02-01

    We present some preliminary results from new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located near each end of its strong bar, both of which host ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). With the new high-spatial-resolution Chandra imaging, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint ($L(X)~10^39 erg/s), hard central X-ray source surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region. The central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively the emission from X-ray binaries associated with star-formation in the nucleus.

  20. Starburst to Quiescent from HST/ALMA: Stars and Dust Unveil Minor Mergers in Submillimeter Galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guijarro, C.; Toft, S.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Magdis, G. E.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Capak, P. L.; Fraternali, F.; Fujimoto, S.; Riechers, D. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortzen, I.; Hasinger, G.; Hu, E. M.; Jones, G. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, N.; McCracken, H. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Navarrete, F.; Pović, M.; Puglisi, A.; Romano-Díaz, E.; Sheth, K.; Silverman, J. D.; Staguhn, J.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Stockmann, M.; Tanaka, M.; Valentino, F.; van Kampen, E.; Zirm, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dust-enshrouded, starbursting, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z ≥ 3 have been proposed as progenitors of z ≥ 2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs). To test this connection, we present a detailed spatially resolved study of the stars, dust, and stellar mass in a sample of six submillimeter-bright starburst galaxies at z ∼ 4.5. The stellar UV emission probed by HST is extended and irregular and shows evidence of multiple components. Informed by HST, we deblend Spitzer/IRAC data at rest-frame optical, finding that the systems are undergoing minor mergers with a typical stellar mass ratio of 1:6.5. The FIR dust continuum emission traced by ALMA locates the bulk of star formation in extremely compact regions (median r e = 0.70 ± 0.29 kpc), and it is in all cases associated with the most massive component of the mergers (median {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )=10.49+/- 0.32). We compare spatially resolved UV slope (β) maps with the FIR dust continuum to study the infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV)–β relation. The SMGs display systematically higher IRX values than expected from the nominal trend, demonstrating that the FIR and UV emissions are spatially disconnected. Finally, we show that the SMGs fall on the mass–size plane at smaller stellar masses and sizes than the cQGs at z = 2. Taking into account the expected evolution in stellar mass and size between z = 4.5 and z = 2 due to the ongoing starburst and mergers with minor companions, this is in agreement with a direct evolutionary connection between the two populations.

  1. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous x-ray source in the outskirts of circinus observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-N...

  2. COS-burst: Observations of the Impact of Starburst-driven Winds on the Properties of the Circum-galactic Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Timothy; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9AJ (United Kingdom); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bordoloi, Rongmon, E-mail: theckma1@jhu.edu [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    We report on observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) using background quasi-stellar objects to probe the circum-galactic medium (CGM) around 17 low-redshift galaxies that are undergoing or have recently undergone a strong starburst (the COS-Burst program). The sightlines extend out to roughly the virial radius of the galaxy halo. We construct control samples of normal star-forming low-redshift galaxies from the COS/ HST archive that match the starbursts in terms of galaxy stellar mass and impact parameter. We find clear evidence that the CGM around the starbursts differs systematically compared to the control galaxies. The Ly α , Si iii, C iv, and possibly O vi absorption lines are stronger as a function of impact parameter, and the ratios of the equivalent widths of C iv/Ly α and Si iii/Ly α are both higher than in normal star-forming galaxies. We also find that the widths and the velocity offsets (relative to v {sub sys}) of the Ly α absorption lines are significantly larger in the CGM of the starbursts, implying velocities of the absorbing material that are roughly twice the halo virial velocity. We show that these properties can be understood as a consequence of the interaction between a starburst-driven wind and the preexisting CGM. These results underscore the importance of winds driven from intensely star-forming galaxies in helping drive the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They also offer a new probe of the properties of starburst-driven winds and of the CGM itself.

  3. E+A Galaxy Properties and Post-Starburst Galaxy Evolution Data through SDSS-IV MaNGA and Illustris: A Co-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Johnson, Amalya; Kerrison, Nicole; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Melchert, Nancy; Liu, Charles; Sloan Collaboration, SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    E+A galaxies (Elliptical + A-type stars) are post-starburst galaxies that have experienced a sudden quenching phase. Using previous research methods, 39 candidates out of 2,812 galaxies observed, or 1.4%, were selected from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We then identified morphological characteristics of the 39 galaxies including stellar kinematics, Gini coefficient, gas density and distribution and stellar ages. To study the origin of how E+A galaxies evolved to their present state, galaxy simulation data from the Illustris simulation was utilized to identify similar quenched post-starburst candidates. Seven post-starburst candidates were identified through star formation rate histories of Illustris simulated galaxies. The evolution of these galaxies is studied from 0 to 13.8 billion years ago to identify what caused the starburst and quenching of the Illustris candidates. Similar morphological characteristics of Illustris post-starburst candidates are pulled from before, during, and post-starburst and compared to the same morphological characteristics of the E+A galaxies from SDSS-IV MaNGA. The characteristics and properties of the Illustris galaxies are used to identify the possible evolutionary histories of the observed E+A galaxies. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  4. Mid-infrared emission from the local and extragalactic interstellar medium: the Isocam view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Quang-Dan

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis is an attempt to identify the properties of different physical components (UIB, VSG, and so on) which can be observed by the camera embarked in the ISO satellite (ISOCAM), and to use these properties to understand the emission of galaxies in the middle infrared. In the first part, the author addresses dusts as they can be seen in the Galaxy interstellar medium. The objective is to obtain some elements of understanding on the different contributions in the middle infrared. This comprised the study of the impulse mechanism, the study of properties of non-identified infrared bands, and the discussion of very small grains visible in the H II regions. The second part reports the interpretation of the emission of galaxies in the middle infrared. This comprises the interpretation of the infrared emission of starburst galaxies, and the discussion of the emission of spiral galaxies and of the way this emission can be understood [fr

  5. Pulsator-like Spectra from Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources and the Search for More Ultraluminous Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintore, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Stella, L.; Israel, G. L.; Wolter, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are a population of extragalactic objects whose luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit for a 10 M ⊙ black hole (BH). Their properties have been widely interpreted in terms of accreting stellar-mass or intermediate-mass BHs. However at least three neutron stars (NSs) have been recently identified in ULXs through the discovery of periodic pulsations. Motivated by these findings we studied the spectral properties of a sample of bright ULXs using a simple continuum model which was extensively used to fit the X-ray spectra of accreting magnetic NSs in the Galaxy. We found that such a model, consisting of a power-law with a high-energy exponential cut-off, fits most of the ULX spectra analyzed here very well, at a level comparable to that of models involving an accreting BH. On these grounds alone we suggest that other non-pulsating ULXs may host NSs. We also found that above 2 keV the spectrum of known pulsating ULXs is harder than that of the majority of the other ULXs of the sample, with only IC 342 X-1 and Ho IX X-1 displaying spectra of comparable hardness. We thus suggest that these two ULXs may host an accreting NS and encourage searches for periodic pulsations in the flux.

  6. Pulsator-like Spectra from Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources and the Search for More Ultraluminous Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintore, F.; Mereghetti, S. [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Zampieri, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Stella, L.; Israel, G. L. [INAF—Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 44, I-00078, Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Wolter, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy)

    2017-02-10

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are a population of extragalactic objects whose luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit for a 10 M {sub ⊙} black hole (BH). Their properties have been widely interpreted in terms of accreting stellar-mass or intermediate-mass BHs. However at least three neutron stars (NSs) have been recently identified in ULXs through the discovery of periodic pulsations. Motivated by these findings we studied the spectral properties of a sample of bright ULXs using a simple continuum model which was extensively used to fit the X-ray spectra of accreting magnetic NSs in the Galaxy. We found that such a model, consisting of a power-law with a high-energy exponential cut-off, fits most of the ULX spectra analyzed here very well, at a level comparable to that of models involving an accreting BH. On these grounds alone we suggest that other non-pulsating ULXs may host NSs. We also found that above 2 keV the spectrum of known pulsating ULXs is harder than that of the majority of the other ULXs of the sample, with only IC 342 X-1 and Ho IX X-1 displaying spectra of comparable hardness. We thus suggest that these two ULXs may host an accreting NS and encourage searches for periodic pulsations in the flux.

  7. eXtragalactic astronomy: the X-games of adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier

    2000-07-01

    Observing active nuclei, Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies, starburst and merging galaxies, is both a challenge and a requirement for adaptive optics. It is a requirement, because models needed to explain the high infrared flux and the physics of these monsters need constraints that come, in part, from the fine details gleaned on high angular resolution images, and it is a challenge because, being distant, these objects are usually faint in apparent visual magnitude, meaning that the wavefront sensors have to operate in a photon starved regime. Many observations have been controversial in the past, and it is always difficult to tell an artifact such as astigmatism from an inner bar. The importance of observing the point spread function is therefore even more crucial than on bright objects, as PSF reconstruction methods 'a la Veran' break down when the photon noise dominates the statistics of the wave front, or when locking the loop on extended objects. Yet, while some cases have been controversial, some very clear and profound results have been obtained in the extragalactic domain, such as the detection of host galaxy to quasars and star formation studies. It turns out that the fundamental prerequisite to such success stories is a stable, well understood and well calibrated PSF.

  8. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband s...

  9. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  10. Chandra Observations of Extended X-Ray Emission in ARP 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. C.; Clements, D. L.; Lamb, S. A.; Shaked, S.; Hearn, N. C.; Colina, L.; Mundell, C.; Borne, K.; Baker, A. C.; Arribas, S.

    2003-01-01

    We resolve the extended X-ray emission from the prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. Extended, faint, edge-brightened, soft X-ray lobes outside the optical galaxy are observed to a distance of 1CL 15 kpc on each side of the nuclear region. Bright plumes inside the optical isophotes coincide with the optical line emission and extend 1 1 kpc from end to end across the nucleus. The data for the plumes cannot be fitted by a single-temperature plasma and display a range of temperatures from 0.2 to 1 keV. The plumes emerge from bright, diffuse circumnuclear emission in the inner 3 kpc centered on the Ha peak, which is displaced from the radio nuclei. There is a close morphological correspondence between the Ha and soft X-ray emission on all spatial scales. We interpret the plumes as a starburst-driven superwind and discuss two interpretations of the emission from the lobes in the context of simulations of the merger dynamics of Arp 220.

  11. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-04

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.

  12. GeV Observations of star-forming glaxies with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /DESY, Zeuthen; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Caliandro, G.A.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Cameron, R.A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Caraveo, P.A.; /Brera Observ. /AIM, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /George Mason U. /Artep Inc. /Natl. Res. Coun., Wash., D.C. /Artep Inc. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Buenos Aires, IAFE /NASA, Goddard /Perugia U. /ASDC, Frascati /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Swedish Acad. Sci. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /AIM, Saclay /Alabama U., Huntsville /INFN, Padua /CSIC, Catalunya /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Kyoto U. /NASA, Goddard /Ohio State U., CCAPP /Iceland U.; /more authors..

    2012-08-07

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values lesssim 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = –4.3 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ⊙ yr–1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10–6 ph cm–2 s–1 sr–1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

  13. New constraints on the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies using ionization-parameter mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (≳3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (≲5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  14. THE DRIVING MECHANISM OF STARBURSTS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyssier, Romain; Chapon, Damien; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of a major merger of disk galaxies, and study the interstellar medium (ISM) dynamics and star formation (SF) properties. High spatial and mass resolutions of 12 pc and 4 x 10 4 M sun allow us to resolve cold and turbulent gas clouds embedded in a warmer diffuse phase. We compare lower-resolution models, where the multiphase ISM is not resolved and is modeled as a relatively homogeneous and stable medium. While merger-driven bursts of SF are generally attributed to large-scale gas inflows toward the nuclear regions, we show that once a realistic ISM is resolved, the dominant process is actually gas fragmentation into massive and dense clouds and rapid SF therein. As a consequence, SF is more efficient by a factor of up to ∼10 and is also somewhat more extended, while the gas density probability distribution function rapidly evolves toward very high densities. We thus propose that the actual mechanism of starburst triggering in galaxy collisions can only be captured at high spatial resolution and when the cooling of gas is modeled down to less than 10 3 K. Not only does our model reproduce the properties of the Antennae system, but it also explains the 'starburst mode' recently revealed in high-redshift mergers compared to quiescent disks.

  15. THE GEOMETRY OF THE INFRARED AND X-RAY OBSCURER IN A DUSTY HYPERLUMINOUS QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrah, Duncan; Harris, Kathryn [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, Murray [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kunimoto, Michelle; Clements, David L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Arévalo, Patricia [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, David R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Steven [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, Finn [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, William [EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile); Fabian, Andrew, E-mail: farrah@vt.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-01

    We study the geometry of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscurer in IRAS 09104+4109, an IR-luminous, radio-intermediate FR-I source at z = 0.442, using infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel , X-ray data from NuSTAR , Swift , Suzaku , and Chandra , and an optical spectrum from Palomar. The infrared data imply a total rest-frame 1–1000 μ m luminosity of 5.5 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup −1} and require both an AGN torus and a starburst model. The AGN torus has an anisotropy-corrected IR luminosity of 4.9 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup −1} and a viewing angle and half-opening angle both of approximately 36° from pole-on. The starburst has a star formation rate of (110 ± 34) M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and an age of <50 Myr. These results are consistent with two epochs of luminous activity in IRAS 09104+4109: one approximately 150 Myr ago, and one ongoing. The X-ray data suggest a photon index of Γ ≃ 1.8 and a line-of-sight column density of N {sub H} ≃ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}. This argues against a reflection-dominated hard X-ray spectrum, which would have implied a much higher N {sub H} and luminosity. The X-ray and infrared data are consistent with a bolometric AGN luminosity of L {sub bol} ∼ (0.5–2.5) × 10{sup 47} erg s{sup −1}. The X-ray and infrared data are further consistent with coaligned AGN obscurers in which the line of sight “skims” the torus. This is also consistent with the optical spectra, which show both coronal iron lines and broad lines in polarized but not direct light. Combining constraints from the X-ray, optical, and infrared data suggest that the AGN obscurer is within a vertical height of 20 pc, and a radius of 125 pc, of the nucleus.

  16. The Geometry of the Infrared and X-Ray Obscurer in a Dusty Hyperluminous Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrah, Duncan; Balokovic, Mislav; Stern, Daniel; Harris, Kathryn; Kunimoto, Michelle; Walton, Dominc J.; Alexander, David M.; Arevalo, Patricia; Ballantyne, David R.; Bauer, Franz E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscurer in IRAS 09104+4109, an IR-luminous, radio-intermediate FR-I source at z = 0.442, using infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, X-ray data from NuSTAR, Swift, Suzaku, and Chandra, and an optical spectrum from Palomar. The infrared data imply a total rest-frame 1-1000 micron luminosity of 5.5 × 10(exp 46) ergs/s and require both an AGN torus and a starburst model. The AGN torus has an anisotropy-corrected IR luminosity of 4.9 × 10(exp 46) ergs/s and a viewing angle and half-opening angle both of approximately 36deg from pole-on. The starburst has a star formation rate of (110 +/- 34) Stellar Mass/yr and an age of <50 Myr. These results are consistent with two epochs of luminous activity in IRAS 09104+4109: one approximately 150 Myr ago, and one ongoing. The X-ray data suggest a photon index of Gamma approx. =l 1.8 and a line-of-sight column density of N(sub H) approx. = 5 × 10(exp 23) sq cm. This argues against a reflection-dominated hard X-ray spectrum, which would have implied a much higher N(sub H) and luminosity. The X-ray and infrared data are consistent with a bolometric AGN luminosity of L(sub bol) approx.(0.5-2.5) ×10(exp 47) ergs/s. The X-ray and infrared data are further consistent with co-aligned AGN obscurers in which the line of sight "skims" the torus. This is also consistent with the optical spectra, which show both coronal iron lines and broad lines in polarized but not direct light. Combining constraints from the X-ray, optical, and infrared data suggest that the AGN obscurer is within a vertical height of 20 pc, and a radius of 125 pc, of the nucleus.

  17. 3D-HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED, LOW-METALLICITY STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 1.847

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Erb, Dawn K.; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 ± 100 and 520 ± 40 Å, respectively. The source has a stellar mass ∼10 8 M ☉ , sSFR ∼ 100 Gyr –1 , and detection of [O III] λ4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size r e ∼300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey.

  18. THE NATURE OF Lyα BLOBS: POWERED BY EXTREME STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model for the observed Lyα blobs (LABs) within the context of the standard cold dark matter model. In this model, LABs are the most massive halos with the strongest clustering (protoclusters) undergoing extreme starbursts in the high-z universe. Aided by calculations of detailed radiative transfer of Lyα photons through ultrahigh resolution (159 pc), large-scale (≥30 Mpc) adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with galaxy formation, this model is shown to be able to, for the first time, reproduce simultaneously the global Lyα luminosity function and the luminosity-size relation of the observed LABs. Physically, a combination of dust attenuation of Lyα photons within galaxies, clustering of galaxies, and the complex propagation of Lyα photons through the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium gives rise to the large sizes and the irregular isophotal shapes of LABs that are frequently observed. A generic and unique prediction of this model is that there should be strong far-infrared (FIR) sources within each LAB with the most luminous FIR source likely representing the gravitational center of the protocluster, not necessarily the apparent center of the Lyα emission of the LAB or the most luminous optical source. Upcoming ALMA observations should unambiguously test this prediction. If verified, LABs will provide very valuable laboratories for studying the formation of galaxies in the most overdense regions of the universe at a time when the global star formation was the most vigorous

  19. The Nature of Lyα Blobs: Powered by Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-10-01

    We present a new model for the observed Lyα blobs (LABs) within the context of the standard cold dark matter model. In this model, LABs are the most massive halos with the strongest clustering (protoclusters) undergoing extreme starbursts in the high-z universe. Aided by calculations of detailed radiative transfer of Lyα photons through ultrahigh resolution (159 pc), large-scale (>=30 Mpc) adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with galaxy formation, this model is shown to be able to, for the first time, reproduce simultaneously the global Lyα luminosity function and the luminosity-size relation of the observed LABs. Physically, a combination of dust attenuation of Lyα photons within galaxies, clustering of galaxies, and the complex propagation of Lyα photons through the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium gives rise to the large sizes and the irregular isophotal shapes of LABs that are frequently observed. A generic and unique prediction of this model is that there should be strong far-infrared (FIR) sources within each LAB with the most luminous FIR source likely representing the gravitational center of the protocluster, not necessarily the apparent center of the Lyα emission of the LAB or the most luminous optical source. Upcoming ALMA observations should unambiguously test this prediction. If verified, LABs will provide very valuable laboratories for studying the formation of galaxies in the most overdense regions of the universe at a time when the global star formation was the most vigorous.

  20. Angular correlation between IceCube high-energy starting events and starburst sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: moharana.reetanjali@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2016-12-01

    Starburst galaxies and star-forming regions in the Milkyway, with high rate of supernova activities, are candidate sources of high-energy neutrinos. Using a gamma-ray selected sample of these sources we perform statistical analysis of their angular correlation with the four-year sample of high-energy starting events (HESE), detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We find that the two samples (starburst galaxies and local star-forming regions) are correlated with cosmic neutrinos at ∼ (2–3)σ (pre-trial) significance level, when the full HESE sample with deposited energy ∼> 20 TeV is considered. However when we consider the HESE sample with deposited energy ∼> 60 TeV, which is almost free of atmospheric neutrino and muon backgrounds, the significance of correlation decreased drastically. We perform a similar study for Galactic sources in the 2nd Catalog of Hard Fermi -LAT Sources (2FHL, >50 GeV) catalog as well, obtaining ∼ (2–3)σ (pre-trial) correlation, however the significance of correlation increases with higher cutoff energy in the HESE sample for this case. We also fit available gamma-ray data from these sources using a pp interaction model and calculate expected neutrino fluxes. We find that the expected neutrino fluxes for most of the sources are at least an order of magnitude lower than the fluxes required to produce the HESE neutrinos from these sources. This puts the starburst sources being the origin of the IceCube HESE neutrinos in question.

  1. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Groves, B.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05 < z < 0.7), conducting a statistical investigation of the links between radio jet, active galactic nucleus (AGN), starburst activity and MFIR properties. This is part of an ongoing extensive study of powerful radio galaxies that benefits from both complete optical emission line information and a uniquely high detection rate in the far-infrared (far-IR). We find tight correlations between the MFIR and [O III]λ5007 emission luminosities, which are significantly better than those between MFIR and extended radio luminosities, or between radio and [O III] luminosities. Since [O III] is a known indicator of intrinsic AGN power, these correlations confirm AGN illumination of the circumnuclear dust as the primary heating mechanism for the dust producing thermal MFIR emission at both 24 and 70 μm. We demonstrate that AGN heating is energetically feasible, and identify the narrow-line region clouds as the most likely location of the cool, far-IR emitting dust. Starbursts make a major contribution to the heating of the cool dust in only 15%-28% of our targets. We also investigate the orientation dependence of the continuum properties, finding that the broad- and narrow-line objects in our sample with strong emission lines have similar distributions of MFIR luminosities and colors. Therefore our results are entirely consistent with the orientation-based unified schemes for powerful radio galaxies. However, the weak line radio galaxies form a separate class of objects with intrinsically low-luminosity AGNs in which both the optical emission lines and the MFIR continuum are weak.

  2. On the nature of the ultraluminous X-ray transient in Cen~A (NGC 5128)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Finger, Mark H.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Wu, Kinwah

    2005-01-01

    We combine 9 ROSAT, 9 Chandra, and 2 XMM-Newton observations of the Cen~A galaxy to obtain the X-ray light curve of 1RXH J132519.8-430312 (=CXOU J132519.9$-$430317) spanning 1990 to 2003. The source reached a peak 0.1-2.4 keV flux F_X>10^{-12} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} during a 10~day span in 1995 July. The inferred peak isotropic luminosity of the source therefore exceeded 3 10^{39} ergs s^{-1}, which places the source in the class of ultra-luminous X-ray sources. Coherent pulsations at 13.264 Hz ...

  3. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Franca, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Onori, Francesca [Netherlands Institute for Space Research, SRON, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sani, Eleonora [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Vignali, Cristian, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-04-18

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) samples. However, these measurements use the width of the broad line region (BLR) as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N{sub H}=8.5±0.4×10{sup 21}cm{sup -2}) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L{sub 14−195}/ergs{sup −1}) = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A{sub V} = 3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the Hα, HeI, and Paβ lines (FWHM ~1400–2300 km s{sup −1}) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M{sub BH}=10{sup 6.6±0.3}M{sub ⊙}, λ{sub Edd} = 0.01−0.03), obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N{sub H} < 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) AGN.

  4. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband cover...

  5. NUSTAR and Xmm-Newton Observations of the Extreme Ultraluminous X-Ray Source NGC 5907 UlX1: A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ~5 × 1040 erg s–1. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ~4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term...

  6. Hubble space telescope grism spectroscopy of extreme starbursts across cosmic time: The role of dwarf galaxies in the star formation history of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, EPFL, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Charlot, Stephane; Lehnert, Matthew [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedregal, Alejandro [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, on board the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high redshift (z ∼ 1-2). While most high-z surveys are biased toward massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation for about 1000 emission line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. We use the Hα emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to M{sub *} ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 Å. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-M{sub *} sequence with much higher specific SFRs (>10 Gyr{sup –1}). While on-sequence galaxies follow continuous star formation processes, EELGs are thought to be caught during an extreme burst of star formation that can double their stellar mass in a period of less than 100 Myr. The contribution of the starburst population to the total star formation density appears to be larger than what has been reported for more massive galaxies in previous studies. In the complete mass range 8.2 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) <10 and a SFR lower completeness limit of about 2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (10 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2), we find that starbursts having EW{sub rest}(Hα) > 300, 200, and 100 Å contribute up to ∼13%, 18%, and 34%, respectively, to the total SFR of emission-line-selected sample at z ∼ 1-2. The comparison with samples of massive galaxies shows an increase in the contribution of starbursts toward lower masses.

  7. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  8. Pan-STARRS1 DISCOVERY OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AT z Almost-Equal-To 0.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomiuk, L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Berger, E.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Czekala, I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Gezari, S.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Narayan, G.; Stubbs, C. W. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M., E-mail: lchomiuk@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    We present the discovery of two ultraluminous supernovae (SNe) at z Almost-Equal-To 0.9 with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. These SNe, PS1-10ky and PS1-10awh, are among the most luminous SNe ever discovered, comparable to the unusual transients SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6. Like SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6, they show characteristic high luminosities (M{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To -22.5 mag), blue spectra with a few broad absorption lines, and no evidence for H or He. We have constructed a full multi-color light curve sensitive to the peak of the spectral energy distribution in the rest-frame ultraviolet, and we have obtained time series spectroscopy for these SNe. Given the similarities between the SNe, we combine their light curves to estimate a total radiated energy over the course of explosion of (0.9-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. We find photospheric velocities of 12,000-19,000 km s{sup -1} with no evidence for deceleration measured across {approx}3 rest-frame weeks around light curve peak, consistent with the expansion of an optically thick massive shell of material. We show that, consistent with findings for other ultraluminous SNe in this class, radioactive decay is not sufficient to power PS1-10ky, and we discuss two plausible origins for these events: the initial spin-down of a newborn magnetar in a core-collapse SN, or SN shock breakout from the dense circumstellar wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star.

  9. A (Si VI) (1.92 micrometer) coronal line survey of galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Salvati, M.; Oliva, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present the results of a (Si VI) lambda 1.962 emission line survey of active, starburst and IRAS luminous galaxies. The line was only detected in known Seyfert type 1 and 2 nuclei confirming previous suggestions that (Si VI) is related to Seyfert activity. By modeling the formation of (Si VI) and (Fe VIII) lambda 6087 we find further strong evidence that these lines arise in gas photoionized by the active nucleus although collisional ionization e.g. by shock fronts may be important in some galaxies exhibiting (Fe VII) much greater than (Si VI). Our failure to detect (Si VI) in the IRAS ultraluminous galaxies does not exclude the possible presence of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), particularly as some of the known Seyferts were also not detected. Molecular hydrogen lines (a by-product of our spectra) are common in all galaxy types including several IRAS ultraluminous galaxies whose H2 equivalent widths (Wlambda less that 20 A) are 'normal'and much lower than the extreme value (Wlambda approximately = 70 A) found in NGC 6240 and NGC 1275. 'Bare' Seyferts have Wlambda(H2) less than 1 A and a factor greater than or approximately 10 lower than starbursts, and we do not confirm previous claims of H2 line emission in the quasar 3C273. Although the ratio of H2 to (Si VI) emission varies over a wide range it does not appear to provide a useful indicator of activity type or to impose constraints on the He excitation mechanism.

  10. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the...

  11. The Properties of Post-Starburst Quasars Based on Optical Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cales, Sabrina L.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Shang, Zhaohui; Runnoe, Jessie C.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Hiner, Kyle D.; Stoll, R.; Ganguly, Rajib; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of a sample of 38 post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z ~ 0.3, 29 of which have morphological classifications based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) possess the spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations making them potentially useful for studying connections between nuclear activity and host galaxy evolution. We model the spectra in order to determine the ages and masses of the host stell...

  12. Westerlund 1: monolithic formation of a starburst cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Clark, J. Simon; Ritchie, Ben; Goodwin, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Westerlund 1 is in all likelihood the most massive young cluster in the Milky Way, with a mass on the order of 105 Msol. We have been observing its massive star population for ten years, measuring radial velocity changes for a substantial fraction of its OB stars and evolved supergiants. The properties of the evolved population are entirely consisting with a single burst of star formation, in excellent agreement with the results of studies based on the lower-mass population.Here we will present two new studies of the cluster: 1) A direct measurement of its average radial velocity and velocity dispersion based on individual measurements for several dozen stars with constant radial velocity and 2) A search for massive stars in its immediate neighbourhood using multi-object spectroscopy.The results of these two studies show that Westerlund 1 is decidedly subvirial and has a systemic radial velocity significantly different from that of nearby gas, which was assumed to provide a dynamical distance by previous authors. Moreover, the dynamical distance is inconsistent with the properties of the high-mass stellar population. In addition, we find that the cluster is completely isolated, with hardly any massive star in its vicinity that could be associated in terms of distance modulus or radial velocity. The cluster halo does not extend much further than five parsec away from the centre. All these properties are very unusual among starburst clusters in the Local Universe, which tend to form in the context of large star-forming regions.Westerlund 1 is thus the best example we have of a starburst cluster formed monolithically.

  13. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  14. The ultraluminous x-ray sources ngc 1313 x-1 and x-2: a broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR...

  15. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 keV X-ray observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in 2013 September. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV and reveal a very steep high...

  16. 3D-HST Grism Spectroscopy of a Gravitationally Lensed, Low-metallicity Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.847

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Labbé, Ivo; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Patel, Shannon; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; van der Wel, Arjen; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2012-10-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 ± 100 and 520 ± 40 Å, respectively. The source has a stellar mass ~108 M ⊙, sSFR ~ 100 Gyr-1, and detection of [O III] λ4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size re ~300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, program 12328, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  17. Puzzling accretion onto a black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source M 101 ULX-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bregman, Joel N; Bai, Yu; Justham, Stephen; Crowther, Paul

    2013-11-28

    There are two proposed explanations for ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosities in excess of 10(39) erg s(-1). They could be intermediate-mass black holes (more than 100-1,000 solar masses, M sun symbol) radiating at sub-maximal (sub-Eddington) rates, as in Galactic black-hole X-ray binaries but with larger, cooler accretion disks. Alternatively, they could be stellar-mass black holes radiating at Eddington or super-Eddington rates. On its discovery, M 101 ULX-1 had a luminosity of 3 × 10(39) erg s(-1) and a supersoft thermal disk spectrum with an exceptionally low temperature--uncomplicated by photons energized by a corona of hot electrons--more consistent with the expected appearance of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. Here we report optical spectroscopic monitoring of M 101 ULX-1. We confirm the previous suggestion that the system contains a Wolf-Rayet star, and reveal that the orbital period is 8.2 days. The black hole has a minimum mass of 5 M sun symbol, and more probably a mass of 20 M sun symbol-30 M sun symbol, but we argue that it is very unlikely to be an intermediate-mass black hole. Therefore, its exceptionally soft spectra at high Eddington ratios violate the expectations for accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Accretion must occur from captured stellar wind, which has hitherto been thought to be so inefficient that it could not power an ultraluminous source.

  18. Further Wolf-Rayet stars in the starburst cluster Westerlund 1

    OpenAIRE

    Negueruela, I.; Clark, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    We present new low and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations of the Wolf Rayet (WR) star population in the massive starburst cluster Westerlund 1. Finding charts are presented for five new WRs - four WNL and one WCL - raising the current total of known WRs in the cluster to 19. We also present new spectra and correct identifications for the majority of the 14 WR stars previously known, notably confirming the presence of two WNVL stars. Finally we briefly discuss the massive star ...

  19. NGC 985 - Extended ionized regions and the far-infrared luminosity of a ring-shaped Seyfert galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, J.M.; Stanga, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band H-alpha images and long-slit spectroscopy of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 985 are presented. Large-scale extended ionized zones are seen to cover a significant fraction of the ring of this object. These ionized zones are responsible for a considerable fraction (greater than 35 percent) of the far-infrared emission of NGC 985. These ionized zones are interpreted as giant H II region complexes, formed in a recent burst of star formation. It is also argued that that starburst was triggered by a galaxy interaction. 41 refs

  20. The shape of the cosmic X-ray background: nuclear starburst discs and the redshift evolution of AGN obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2018-04-01

    A significant number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are observed to be hidden behind dust and gas. The distribution of material around AGNs plays an important role in modelling the cosmic X-ray background (CXB), especially the fraction of type 2 AGNs (f2). One of the possible explanations for obscuration in Seyfert galaxies at intermediate redshifts is dusty starburst discs. We compute the two-dimensional (2D) hydrostatic structure of 768 nuclear starburst discs (NSDs) under various physical conditions and also the distribution of column density along the line of sight (NH) associated with these discs. Then the NH distribution is evolved with redshift by using the redshift-dependent distribution function of input parameters. Parameter f2 shows a strong positive evolution up to z = 2, but only a weak level of enhancement at higher z. The Compton-thin and Compton-thick AGN fractions associated with these starburst regions increase ∝ (1 + z)δ, where δ is estimated to be 1.12 and 1.45, respectively. The reflection parameter Rf associated with column density NH ≥ 1023.5 cm-2 extends from 0.13 at z = 0 to 0.58 at z = 4. A CXB model employing this evolving NH distribution indicates that more compact (Rout < 120 pc) NSDs provide a better fit to the CXB. In addition to `Seyfert-like' AGNs obscured by nuclear starbursts, we predict that 40-60 per cent of quasars must be Compton-thick to produce a peak of the CXB spectrum within the observational uncertainty. The predicted total number counts of AGNs in 8-24 keV bands are in fair agreement with observations from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR).

  1. Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakos, Karl D.; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schombert, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents new and synthetic narrow band photometry of ellipticals, spirals, Seyferts and interacting galaxies in an attempt to identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue cluster galaxies in distant clusters (the Butcher-Oemler Effect). The properties and distribution of the low redshift sample specifically points to starbursts as the origin of the blue narrow band colors in interacting Arp galaxies.

  2. The ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, Ph. P.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kokomov, A. A.; Hurley, K.; Mangano, V.; Burrows, D. N.; Sbarufatti, B.; Siegel, M. H.; Oates, S.; Cline, T. L.; Krimm, H. A.; Pagani, C.; Mitrofanov, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Konus-WIND during its almost 19 yr of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final Interplanetary Network localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderate peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z = 0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release E iso = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10 54 erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity L iso = (4.7 ± 0.2) × 10 54 erg s –1 . A tail of the soft γ-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. The Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the Swift/Ultraviolet Optical Telescope observed the bright afterglow from 1.2 to 48 days after the burst and revealed no evidence of a jet break. The post-break scenario for the afterglow is preferred from our analysis, with a hard underlying electron spectrum and interstellar-medium-like circumburst environment implied. We conclude that, among the multiple reasons investigated, the tight collimation of the jet must have been a key ingredient to produce this unusually bright burst. The inferred jet opening angle of 1.°7-3.°4 results in reasonable values of the collimation-corrected radiated energy and the peak luminosity, which, however, are still at the top of their distributions for such tightly collimated events. We estimate a detection horizon for a similar ultraluminous GRB of z ∼ 7.5 for Konus-WIND and z ∼ 12 for the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, which stresses the importance of GRBs as probes of the early Universe.

  3. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, David

    2012-01-01

    More than ten years ago, the discovery of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has opened up an entirely new field in astrophysics. Many ideas were developed to explain the nature of these sources, like their emission mechanism, mass, and origin, without any strong conclusions. Their discovery boosted the fields of X-ray binaries, accretion physics, stellar evolution, cosmology, black hole formation and growth, due to the concept of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). Since their discovery is related to the domain of X-ray astrophysics, there have been very few studies made in other wavelengths. This thesis focuses on the multiwavelength nature of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes from various aspects, which help to overcome some difficulties we face today. First, I investigated the accretion signatures of a putative intermediate-mass black hole in a particular globular cluster. To this purpose, I characterized the nature of the innermost X-ray sources in the cluster. Then I calculated an upper limit on the mass of the black hole by studying possible accretion efficiencies and rates based on the dedicated X-ray and radio observations. The accreting properties of the source was described with standard spherical accretion and in the context of inefficient accretion. Secondly, I attempted to dynamically measure the mass of the black hole in a particular ULX via optical spectroscopy. I discovered that a certain emission line has a broad component that markedly shifts in wavelength. I investigated the possibility whether this line originates in the accretion disk, and thus might trace the orbital motion of the binary system. I also characterized the parameters of the binary system, such as the mass function, possible orbital separation, the size of the line-emitting region, and an upper limit on the mass of the black hole. Then I studied the environment of a number of ULXs that are associated with large-scale optical and radio nebulae. I

  4. Cosmic ray driven outflows in an ultraluminous galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akimi; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2018-06-01

    In models of galaxy formation, feedback driven both by supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus is not efficient enough to quench star formation in massive galaxies. Models of smaller galaxies have suggested that cosmic rays (CRs) play a major role in expelling material from the star-forming regions by diffusing SN energy to the lower density outskirts. We therefore run gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a galaxy contained in a halo with 5 × 1012 M⊙ that resembles a local ultraluminous galaxy, including both SN thermal energy and a treatment of CRs using the same diffusion approximation as Salem & Bryan. We find that CR pressure drives a low-density bubble beyond the edge of the shell swept up by thermal pressure, but the main bubble driven by SN thermal pressure overtakes it later, which creates a large-scale biconical outflow. CRs diffusing into the disc are unable to entrain its gas in the outflows, yielding a mass-loading rate of only ˜ 0.1 per cent with varied CR diffusion coefficients. We find no significant difference in mass-loading rates in SN-driven outflows with or without CR pressure. Our simulations strongly suggest that it is hard to drive a heavily mass-loaded outflow with CRs from a massive halo potential, although more distributed star formation could lead to a different result.

  5. The first high resolution image of coronal gas in a starbursting cool core cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Galaxy clusters represent a unique laboratory for directly observing gas cooling and feedback due to their high masses and correspondingly high gas densities and temperatures. Cooling of X-ray gas observed in 1/3 of clusters, known as cool-core clusters, should fuel star formation at prodigious rates, but such high levels of star formation are rarely observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a leading explanation for the lack of star formation in most cool clusters, and AGN power is sufficient to offset gas cooling on average. Nevertheless, some cool core clusters exhibit massive starbursts indicating that our understanding of cooling and feedback is incomplete. Observations of 10^5 K coronal gas in cool core clusters through OVI emission offers a sensitive means of testing our understanding of cooling and feedback because OVI emission is a dominant coolant and sensitive tracer of shocked gas. Recently, Hayes et al. 2016 demonstrated that synthetic narrow-band imaging of OVI emission is possible through subtraction of long-pass filters with the ACS+SBC for targets at z=0.23-0.29. Here, we propose to use this exciting new technique to directly image coronal OVI emitting gas at high resolution in Abell 1835, a prototypical starbursting cool-core cluster at z=0.252. Abell 1835 hosts a strong cooling core, massive starburst, radio AGN, and at z=0.252, it offers a unique opportunity to directly image OVI at hi-res in the UV with ACS+SBC. With just 15 orbits of ACS+SBC imaging, the proposed observations will complete the existing rich multi-wavelength dataset available for Abell 1835 to provide new insights into cooling and feedback in clusters.

  6. MID- AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuta, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT nine-month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 μm band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over three orders of magnitude (42 λ (9, 18 μm) < 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 μm. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 μm in the averaged infrared spectral energy distribution from heavy obscured 'new type' AGNs with small scattering fractions in the X-ray spectra. This could be attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission feature, suggesting that their host galaxies have strong starburst activities.

  7. Chandra reveals a black hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. P.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraordinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly discuss the nature of the hard X-ray variability, and the origin of the extreme radio and optical luminosity of MF 16 in light of this identification.

  8. Infrared galaxies evolution. From cosmological observations with ISO to a mid-infrared to sub-millimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, Herve

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at λ=170 μm with the Infrared Space Observatory whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modelling of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. The FIRBACK survey covers 3. 89 Sq. Deg. in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at σc=45 mJy. I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4σ) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4 % at 170 μm. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non-negligible part lies above redshift 1. I have developed a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data: deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 μm and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at L=2.0*10"1"1 Redshift distributions are in agreement with available observations. Predictions are

  9. Ultraluminous X-ray sources as neutrino pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2018-05-01

    The classical limit on the accretion luminosity of a neutron star is given by the Eddington luminosity. The advanced models of accretion on to magnetized neutron stars account for the appearance of magnetically confined accretion columns and allow the accretion luminosity to be higher than the Eddington value by a factor of tens. However, the recent discovery of pulsations from ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in NGC 5907 demonstrates that the accretion luminosity can exceed the Eddington value up to by a factor of 500. We propose a model explaining observational properties of ULX-1 in NGC 5907 without any ad hoc assumptions. We show that the accretion column at extreme luminosity becomes advective. Enormous energy release within a small geometrical volume and advection result in very high temperatures at the bottom of accretion column, which demand to account for the energy losses due to neutrino emission which can be even more effective than the radiation energy losses. We show that the total luminosity at the mass accretion rates above 1021 g s-1 is dominated by the neutrino emission similarly to the case of core-collapse supernovae. We argue that the accretion rate measurements based on detected photon luminosity in case of bright ULXs powered by neutron stars can be largely underestimated due to intense neutrino emission. The recently discovered pulsating ULX-1 in galaxy NGC 5907 with photon luminosity of {˜ } 10^{41} {erg s^{-1}} is expected to be even brighter in neutrinos and is thus the first known Neutrino Pulsar.

  10. The Occurence of Nuclear Starbursts in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2001-05-01

    Medium resolution H and K band spectra with high angular reesolution were obtained for a small sample of nearby Seyfert galaxies using NIRSPEC at the Keck telescope. Recent studies with medium resolution have found evidence for a lack of powerful starbursts in Seyfert1 galaxies. Differences between the two Seyfert types might provide a challenge for the unified scheme proposed for Seyfert galaxies. A preliminary analysis indicates that most of the Seyfert1 galaxies do indeed show signs of circumnuclar star formation. Detailed modelling using population synthesis in conjunction with NIR spectral synthesis will allow to estimate the age, star formation history and mass of these stellar population.

  11. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and similar to 20 off-nuclear point sources......, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...

  12. A Massive Star Census of the Starburst Cluster R136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul

    2012-10-01

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive census of the most massive stars in the central parsec {4"} of the starburst cluster, R136, which powers the Tarantula Nebula in the LMC. R136 is both sufficiently massive that the upper mass function is richly populated and young enough that its most massive stars have yet to explode as supernovae. The identification of very massive stars in R136, up to 300 solar masses, raises general questions of star formation, binarity and feedback in young massive clusters. The proposed STIS spectral survey of 36 stars more massive than 50 solar masses within R136 is ground-breaking, of legacy value, and is specifically tailored to a} yield physical properties; b} detect the majority of binaries by splitting observations between Cycles 19 and 20; c} measure rotational velocities, relevant for predictions of rotational mixing; d} quantify mass-loss properties for very massive stars; e} determine surface compositions; f} measure radial velocities, relevant for runaway stars and cluster dynamics; g} quantify radiative and mechanical feedback. This census will enable the mass function of very massive stars to be measured for the first time, as a result of incomplete and inadequate spectroscopy to date. It will also perfectly complement our Tarantula Survey, a ground-based VLT Large Programme, by including the most massive stars that are inaccessible to ground-based visual spectroscopy due to severe crowding. These surveys, together with existing integrated UV and optical studies will enable 30 Doradus to serve as a bona-fide template for unresolved extragalactic starburst regions.

  13. Mid-Infrared Silicate Dust Features in Seyfert 1 Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grant D.; Levenson, N. A.; Sirocky, M. M.; Uddin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate dust emission dominates the mid-infrared spectra of galaxies, and the dust produces two spectral features, at 10 and 18 μm. These features' strengths (in emission or absorption) and peak wavelengths reveal the geometry of the dust distribution, and they are sensitive to the dust composition. We examine mid-infrared spectra of 32 Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the spectra, we typically find the shorter-wavelength feature in emission, at an average peak wavelength of 10.0 μm, although it is known historically as the "9.7 μm" feature. In addition, peak wavelength increases with feature strength. The 10 and 18 μm feature strengths together are sensitive to the dust geometry surrounding the central heating engine. Numerical calculations of radiative transfer distinguish between clumpy and smooth distributions, and we find that the surroundings of these AGN (the obscuring "tori" of unified AGN schemes) are clumpy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features are associated with star formation, and we find strong PAH emission (luminosity ≥ 1042 erg/s) in only four sources, three of which show independent evidence for starbursts. We will explore the effects of luminosity on dust geometry and chemistry in a comparison sample of quasars. We acknowledge work supported by the NSF under grant number 0237291.

  14. A Massive, Cooling-Flow-Induced Starburst in the Core of a Highly Luminous Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster s lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L(sub 2-10 keV) = 8.2 10(exp 45) erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (M(sub cool) = 3820 +/- 530 Stellar Mass/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Stellar Mass/ yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.

  15. Dust extinction and X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 1482

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagshette, N. D.; Pandge, M. B.; Pandey, S. K.; Patil, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results based on multiwavelength imaging observations of the prominent dust lane starburst galaxy NGC 1482 aimed to investigate the extinction properties of dust existing in the extreme environment. (B-V) colour-index map derived for the starburst galaxy NGC 1482 confirms two prominent dust lanes running along its optical major axis and are found to extend up to ˜11 kpc. In addition to the main lanes, several filamentary structures of dust originating from the central starburst are also evident. Though, the dust is surrounded by exotic environment, the average extinction curve derived for this target galaxy is compatible with the Galactic curve, with RV = 3.05, and imply that the dust grains responsible for the optical extinction in the target galaxy are not really different than the canonical grains in the Milky Way. Our estimate of total dust content of NGC 1482 assuming screening effect of dust is ˜2.7 × 105 M⊙, and provide lower limit due to the fact that our method is not sensitive to the intermix component of dust. Comparison of the observed dust in the galaxy with that supplied by the SNe to the ISM, imply that this supply is not sufficient to account for the observed dust and hence point towards the origin of dust in this galaxy through a merger like event. Our multiband imaging analysis reveals a qualitative physical correspondence between the morphologies of the dust and Hα emission lines as well as diffuse X-ray emission in this galaxy. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of the hot gas along outflows exhibit a gradient in the temperature. Similar gradient was also noticed in the measured values of metallicity, indicating that the gas in the halo is not yet enriched. High resolution, 2-8 keV Chandra image reveals a pair of point sources in the nuclear region with their luminosities equal to 2.27 × 1039 erg s-1 and 9.34 × 1039 erg s-1, and are in excess of the Eddington-limit of 1.5 M⊙ accreting source. Spectral analysis of these

  16. SHAKEN, NOT STIRRED: THE DISRUPTED DISK OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the recent history of the nearby Sculptor Group spiral NGC 253, which is one of the nearest starburst galaxies. Bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are traced out to projected distances of ∼22-26 kpc (∼13-15 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, in the sense that the projected density of AGB stars in the northeast portion of the disk between 10 and 20 kpc from the galaxy center is ∼0.5 dex higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. A large population of red supergiants is also found in the northeast portion of the disk and, with the exception of the central 2 kpc, this area appears to have been the site of the highest levels of star-forming activity in the galaxy during the past ∼0.1 Gyr. It is argued that such high levels of localized star formation may have produced a fountain that ejected material from the disk, and the extraplanar H I detected by Boomsma et al. may be one manifestation of such activity. Diffuse stellar structures are found in the periphery of the disk, and the most prominent of these is to the south and east of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars, including cool C stars that are identified based on their J - K colors, are detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane, and these are part of a diffusely distributed, flattened extraplanar component. Comparisons between observed and model luminosity functions suggest that the extraplanar regions contain stars that formed throughout much of the age of the universe. Additional evidence of a diffuse, extraplanar stellar component that contains moderately young stars comes from archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer images. It is suggested that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter with a now defunct companion. This encounter introduced asymmetries that remain to this day, and the projected distribution of stars in and

  17. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO + . Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO + in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO + in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO + emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction

  18. Radio identifications of UGC galaxies - starbursts and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Broderick, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    New and previously published observational data on galaxies with declination less than +82 deg from the Uppsala General Catalog (Nilson, 1973) are compiled in extensive tables and characterized in detail. Optical positions are confirmed by measurement of Palomar Sky Survey O prints, and radio identifications for 176 galaxies are made on the basis of 1.4-GHz Green Bank sky maps or 1.49-GHz observations obtained with the C configuration of the VLA in November-December 1986; contour maps based on the latter observations are provided. Radio-selected and IR-selected galaxy populations are found to be similar (and distinct from optically selected populations), and three radio/IR criteria are developed to distinguish galaxies powered by starbursts from those with supermassive black holes or other monster energy sources. 197 references

  19. Direction of Wolf-Rayet stars in a very powerful far-infrared galaxy - Direct evidence for a starburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armus, L.; Heckman, T.M.; Miley, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Spectra covering the wavelength range 4476-7610 A are presented for the powerful far-infrared galaxy IRAS 01003-2238. The broad emission band centered at a rest wavelength of roughly 4660 A, and other broad weaker features are interpreted, as arising from the combined effect of approximately 100,000 late Wolf-Rayet stars of the WN subtype. This represents perhaps the most direct evidence to date for the presence of a large number of hot massive stars in the nucleus of a very powerful far-infrared galaxy. The high number of Wolf-Rayet stars in relation to the number of O-type stars may be interpreted as arguing against continuous steady state star formation in 01003-2238, in favor of a recent burst of star formation occurring approximately 100 million yrs ago. 24 references

  20. {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th St, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Meier, David [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Pl, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Murphy, Eric [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas, E-mail: m.jimenez@zah.uni-heidelberg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure {sup 13}CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of {sup 12}CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  1. "1"3CO/C"1"8O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly; Krumholz, Mark R.; Usero, Antonio; Hughes, Annie; Kramer, Carsten; Meier, David; Murphy, Eric; Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure "1"3CO(1-0)/C"1"8O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of "1"2CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved "1"3CO/C"1"8O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  2. The Broadband XMM-Newton and NuSTAR X-ray Spectra of Two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in the Galaxy IC 342

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bachetti, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present results for two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being $1.04+0.0...

  3. Black hole growth and starburst activity at z = 0.6-4 in the Chandra Deep Field South. Host galaxies properties of obscured AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Merloni, A.; Civano, F.; Fontana, A.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    Aims: The co-evolution of host galaxies and the active black holes which reside in their centre is one of the most important topics in modern observational cosmology. Here we present a study of the properties of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the CDFS 1 Ms observation and their host galaxies. Methods: We limited the analysis to the MUSIC area, for which deep K-band observations obtained with ISAAC@VLT are available, ensuring accurate identifications of the counterparts of the X-ray sources as well as reliable determination of photometric redshifts and galaxy parameters, such as stellar masses and star formation rates. In particular, we: 1) refined the X-ray/infrared/optical association of 179 sources in the MUSIC area detected in the Chandra observation; 2) studied the host galaxies observed and rest frame colors and properties. Results: We found that X-ray selected (LX ⪆ 1042 erg s-1) AGN show Spitzer colors consistent with both AGN and starburst dominated infrared continuum; the latter would not have been selected as AGN from infrared diagnostics. The host galaxies of X-ray selected obscured AGN are all massive (Mast > 1010 M_⊙) and, in 50% of the cases, are also actively forming stars (1/SSFR mass up to a value of 30% at z > 1 and Mast > 3 × 1011 M_⊙, a fraction significantly higher than in the local Universe for AGN of similar luminosities. Tables [see full textsee full textsee full text] and [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. H I observations of the nearest starburst galaxy NGC 253 with the SKA precursor KAT-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, D. M.; Carignan, C.; Elson, E. C.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Heald, G. H.

    2015-07-01

    We present H I observations of the Sculptor group starburst spiral galaxy NGC 253, obtained with the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). KAT-7 is a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT, under construction. The short baselines and low system temperature of the telescope make it very sensitive to large-scale, low-surface-brightness emission. The KAT-7 observations detected 33 per cent more flux than previous Very Large Array observations, mainly in the outer parts and in the halo for a total H I mass of 2.1 ± 0.1 × 109 M⊙. H I can be found at large distances perpendicular to the plane out to projected distances of ˜9-10 kpc away from the nucleus and ˜13-14 kpc at the edge of the disc. A novel technique, based on interactive profile fitting, was used to separate the main disc gas from the anomalous (halo) gas. The rotation curve (RC) derived for the H I disc confirms that it is declining in the outer parts, as seen in previous optical Fabry-Perot measurements. As for the anomalous component, its RC has a very shallow gradient in the inner parts and turns over at the same radius as the disc, kinematically lagging by 100 km s-1. The kinematics of the observed extra-planar gas is compatible with an outflow due to the central starburst and galactic fountains in the outer parts. However, the gas kinematics shows no evidence for inflow. Analysis of the near-IR WISE data, shows clearly that the star formation rate is compatible with the starburst nature of NGC 253.

  5. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.

  6. Spectral state transitions of the Ultraluminous X-ray Source IC 342 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, H.; Kaaret, P.; Lang, C.; Feng, H.; Grisé, F.; Miller, N.; Cseh, D.; Corbel, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2014-10-01

    We observed the Ultraluminous X-ray Source (ULX) IC 342 X-1 simultaneously in X-ray and radio with Chandra and the JVLA to investigate previously reported unresolved radio emission coincident with the ULX. The Chandra data reveal a spectrum that is much softer than observed previously and is well modelled by a thermal accretion disc spectrum. No significant radio emission above the rms noise level was observed within the region of the ULX, consistent with the interpretation as a thermal state though other states cannot be entirely ruled out with the current data. We estimate the mass of the black hole using the modelled inner disc temperature to be 30 M_{⊙} ≲ M√{cosi}≲ 200 M_{⊙} based on a Shakura-Sunyaev disc model. Through a study of the hardness and high-energy curvature of available X-ray observations, we find that the accretion state of X-1 is not determined by luminosity alone.

  7. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Marvil, Josh [Department of Physics, New Mexico Tech., 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Walter, Fabian, E-mail: akepley@nrao.edu [Max Planck Institute fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO{sup +}. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO{sup +} in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO{sup +} emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  8. The Secrets of the Nearest Starburst Cluster. I. Very Large Telescope/ISAAC Photometry of NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandl, Bernhard; Zinnecker, Hans; Grebel, Eva K.

    2004-08-01

    VLT/ISAAC JHKL photometry with subarcsecond resolution of the dense, massive starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC forming the core of the NGC 3603 giant molecular cloud is analyzed to reveal characteristics of the stellar population in unprecedented detail. The color-magnitude plane features a strong pre-main-sequence/main-sequence (PMS/MS) transition region, including the PMS/MS transition point, and reveals a secondary sequence for the first time in a nearby young starburst cluster. Arguments for a possible binary nature of this sequence are given. The resolved PMS/MS transition region allows isochrone fitting below the hydrogen-burning turn-on in NGC 3603 YC, yielding an independent estimate of global cluster parameters. A distance modulus of 13.9 mag, equivalent to d=6.0+/-0.3 kpc, is derived, as well as a line-of-sight extinction of AV=4.5+/-0.6 toward PMS stars in the cluster center. The interpretation of a binary candidate sequence suggests a single age of 1 Myr for NGC 3603 YC, providing evidence for a single burst of star formation without the need to employ an age spread in the PMS population, as argued for in earlier studies. Disk fractions are derived from L-band excesses, indicating a radial increase in the disk frequency from 20% to 40% from the core to the cluster outskirts. The low disk fraction in the cluster core, as compared to the 42% L-band excess fraction found for massive stars in the Trapezium cluster of a comparably young age, indicates strong photoevaporation in the cluster center. The estimated binary fraction of 30%, as well as the low disk fraction, suggest strong impacts on low-mass star formation due to stellar interactions in the dense starburst. The significant differences between NGC 3603 YC and less dense and massive young star clusters in the Milky Way reveal the importance of using local starbursts as templates for massive extragalactic star formation. Based on observations obtained at the ESO VLT on Paranal, Chile, under programs 63.I

  9. H I observations of the nearest starburst galaxy NGC 253 with the SKA precursor KAT-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucero, D. M.; Carignan, C.; Elson, E. C.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Heald, G. H.

    We present H I observations of the Sculptor group starburst spiral galaxy NGC 253, obtained with the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). KAT-7 is a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT, under construction. The short baselines and low system temperature of the telescope make it very

  10. On the Magnetic Field of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsar M82 X-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-04-01

    The discovery of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsar M82 X-2 has stimulated lively discussion on the nature of the accreting neutron star. In most of the previous studies the magnetic field of the neutron star was derived from the observed spin-up/down rates based on the standard thin, magnetized accretion disk model. However, under super-Eddington accretion the inner part of the accretion disk becomes geometrically thick. In this work we consider both radiation feedback from the neutron star and the sub-Keplerian rotation in a thick disk and calculate the magnetic moment–mass accretion rate relations for the measured rates of spin change. We find that the derived neutron star's dipole magnetic field depends on the maximum accretion rate adopted, but is likely ≲10{sup 13} G. The predicted accretion rate change can be used to test the proposed models by comparison with observations.

  11. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  12. ALMA MULTI-LINE IMAGING OF THE NEARBY STARBURST NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David S. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura K. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto D.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ott, Jürgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Weiß, Axel [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zwaan, Martin A., E-mail: dmeier@nmt.edu [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We present spatially resolved (∼50 pc) imaging of molecular gas species in the central kiloparsec of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, based on observations taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A total of 50 molecular lines are detected over a 13 GHz bandwidth imaged in the 3 mm band. Unambiguous identifications are assigned for 27 lines. Based on the measured high CO/C{sup 17}O isotopic line ratio (≳350), we show that {sup 12}CO(1-0) has moderate optical depths. A comparison of the HCN and HCO{sup +} with their {sup 13}C-substituted isotopologues shows that the HCN(1-0) and HCO{sup +}(1-0) lines have optical depths at least comparable to CO(1-0). H{sup 13}CN/H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (and H{sup 13}CN/HN{sup 13}C) line ratios provide tighter constraints on dense gas properties in this starburst. SiO has elevated abundances across the nucleus. HNCO has the most distinctive morphology of all the bright lines, with its global luminosity dominated by the outer parts of the central region. The dramatic variation seen in the HNCO/SiO line ratio suggests that some of the chemical signatures of shocked gas are being erased in the presence of dominating central radiation fields (traced by C{sub 2}H and CN). High density molecular gas tracers (including HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CN) are detected at the base of the molecular outflow. We also detect hydrogen β recombination lines that, like their α counterparts, show compact, centrally peaked morphologies, distinct from the molecular gas tracers. A number of sulfur based species are mapped (CS, SO, NS, C{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}CS, and CH{sub 3}SH) and have morphologies similar to SiO.

  13. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  14. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

  15. High resolution radio observations of nuclear and circumnuclear regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA, CSIC), PO Box 3004, 18080-Granada (Spain); Colina, L [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia - IEM, CSIC, C, Serrano 115, 28005 Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, J M [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE, CSIC) and IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: antxon@iaa.es, E-mail: torres@iaa.es, E-mail: colina@damir.iem.csic.es, E-mail: torrelle@ieec.fcr.es

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution radio observations of the nuclear region of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) have shown that its radio structure consists of a compact high surface-brightness central radio source immersed in a diffuse low brightness circumnuclear halo. While the central component could be associated with an AGN or compact star-forming regions where radio supernovae are exploding, it is well known that the circumnuclear regions host bursts of star-formation. The studies of radio supernovae can provide essential information about stellar evolution and CSM/ISM properties in regions hidden by dust at optical and IR wavelengths. In this contribution, we show results from radio interferometric observations from NGC 7469, IRAS 18293-3413 and IRAS 17138-1017 where three extremely bright radio supernovae have been found. High-resolution radio observations of these and other LIRGs would allow us to determine the core-collapse supernova rate in them as well as their star-formation rate.

  16. EXTREME DUST DISKS IN Arp 220 AS REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-10

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83{sub −38}{sup +65} (calibration) {sub −34}{sup +0} (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT{sup 4})=14.3±0.2{sub −0.7}{sup +0} in units of L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick.

  17. Study and use of an infrared camera optimized for ground based observations in the 10 micron wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, Sophie

    1991-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the 10 micron atmospheric window provide very important information for many of astrophysical topics. But because of the very large terrestrial photon background at that wavelength, ground based observations have been impeded. On the other band, the ground based telescopes offer a greater angular resolution than the spatially based telescopes. The recent development of detector arrays for the mid infrared range made easier the development of infrared cameras with optimized detectors for astronomical observations from the ground. The CAMIRAS infrared camera, built by the 'Service d'Astrophysique' in Saclay is the instrument we have studied and we present its performances. Its sensitivity, given for an integration time of one minute on source and a signal to noise ratio of 3, is 0.15 Jy for punctual sources, and 20 mJy arcs"-"2 for extended sources. But we need to get rid of the enormous photon background so we have to find a better way of observation based on modulation techniques as 'chopping' or 'nodding'. Thus we show that a modulation about 1 Hz is satisfactory with our detectors arrays without perturbing the signal to noise ratio. As we have a good instrument and because we are able to get rid of the photon background, we can study astronomical objects. Results from a comet, dusty stellar disks, and an ultra-luminous galaxy are presented. (author) [fr

  18. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically x-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt, W. N.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    -ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may...

  19. Analysis of Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Time Lag in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zi-Jian; Xiao, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Yan, Lin-Li; Qu, Jin-Lu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-Cui; Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lizijian@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-10

    We investigated the power density spectrum (PDS) and time lag of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed by XMM-Newton . We determined the PDSs for each ULX and found that five of them show intrinsic variability due to obvious quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of mHz–1 Hz, consistent with previous reports. We further investigated these five ULXs to determine their possible time lag. The ULX QPOs exhibit a soft time lag that is linearly related to the QPO frequency. We discuss the likelihood of the ULX QPOs being type-C QPO analogs, and the time lag models. The ULXs might harbor intermediate-mass black holes if their QPOs are type-C QPO analogs. We suggest that the soft lag and the linearity may be due to reverberation.

  20. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  1. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Väisänen, Petri; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Escala, Andres; Kankare, Erkki; Mattila, Seppo; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 μm PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observations of IRAS 19115-2124, aka the Bird, which is an intriguing triple encounter. The third component is a minor one, but, nevertheless, is the source of 3/4 of the SFR of the whole system. Gas inflows and outflows are detected in their nuclei locations. Finally, we briefly report on our on-going NIR adaptive optics imaging survey of several dozen LIRGs. We have detected highly obscured core-collapse SNe in the central kpc, and discuss the statistics of 'missing SNe' due to dust extinction. We are also determining the characteristics of hundreds of super star clusters in and around the core regions of LIRGs, as a function of host-galaxy properties.

  2. A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Magdis, Georgios; Hezaveh, Yashar; Le Borgne, Damien; Buat, Véronique; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Lagache, Guilaine; Scott, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 μJy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

  3. Evidence for large-scale winds from starburst galaxies. I. The nature of the ionized gas in M82 and NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccarthy, P.J.; Van breugel, W.; Heckman, T.; Maryland Univ., College Park)

    1987-01-01

    The results of long-slit spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging of M82 and NGC 253, the two nearest examples of FIR luminous galaxies believed to be undergoing intense bursts of star formation, are presented. The profile of the gas pressure in the emission-line filaments in M82 is derived and found to be in good agreement with the model of Chevalier and Clegg (1985) of a supernovae-driven wind from a starburst nucleus. Lower quality data from NGC 253 support the same interpretation. Analysis of the emission-line ratios suggests that the line-emitting gas may be heated by low-velocity shocks, although photoionization from dilute UV radiation from unusually hot stars in the central starburst may also be important. 56 references

  4. The infrared luminosity function of AKARI 90 μm galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2018-03-01

    Local infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) are necessary benchmarks for high-redshift IR galaxy evolution studies. Any accurate IR LF evolution studies require accordingly accurate local IR LFs. We present IR galaxy LFs at redshifts of z ≤ 0.3 from AKARI space telescope, which performed an all-sky survey in six IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm) with 10 times better sensitivity than its precursor Infrared Astronomical Satellite. Availability of 160 μm filter is critically important in accurately measuring total IR luminosity of galaxies, covering across the peak of the dust emission. By combining data from Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 13 (DR 13), six-degree Field Galaxy Survey and the 2MASS Redshift Survey, we created a sample of 15 638 local IR galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, factor of 7 larger compared to previously studied AKARI-SDSS sample. After carefully correcting for volume effects in both IR and optical, the obtained IR LFs agree well with previous studies, but comes with much smaller errors. Measured local IR luminosity density is ΩIR = 1.19 ± 0.05 × 108L⊙ Mpc-3. The contributions from luminous IR galaxies and ultraluminous IR galaxies to ΩIR are very small, 9.3 per cent and 0.9 per cent, respectively. There exists no future all-sky survey in far-IR wavelengths in the foreseeable future. The IR LFs obtained in this work will therefore remain an important benchmark for high-redshift studies for decades.

  5. The ISM in the M82 starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Steven

    1993-01-01

    We have observed (O 1) (63 microns) and (Si 2) (35 microns) in the central 700 pc of the starburst galaxy M82. The luminosities in these transitions are 7.1 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and 6.2 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosity, respectively, which are each approx. 0.15% of the bolometric luminosity from this region. The ratios of (O 1) line luminosity to (O 3), (Si 2) (35 microns), and to bolometric luminosities in M82 are similar to those in M42, M17, and Sgr A. These similarities, and the association of the bulk of the (O 1) and (Si 2) emission with the ionized emission, suggest that the dominant emission mechanism for (O 1) and (Si 2) in M82 is the same as in these Galactic regions, namely warm gas photodissociated by UV flux from the OB stars responsible for the nearby H 2 regions. We argue that shock or x ray heated gas or H 2 plasma is a minor contributor to the intensities of these fine structure lines. Both the (O 1) (53 microns) and the (Si 2) (35 microns) spectrum show an asymmetric line profile indistinguishable in shape from those of the (O 3) (52 and 88 microns) and (N 3) (57 microns) lines and similar to that of the more extended (C 2) 158 micron line measured previously in M82. We detect two distinct velocity components, which we attribute to emission from two regions at either end of the central bar, where the bar connects to an orbiting torus of neutral gas seen in H 1 and CO J = 1-0. We model separately the two velocity components and derive the physical conditions in these two regions. The clouds in these regions are small, R approx. 1-2 pc, have warm neutral gas surfaces, T approx. 200 K, and are concentrated with volume filling factors of approx. 0.02 and area filling factors of 1-5. The entire central region (R approx. 700 pc) is characterized by a large number, approx. 5 x 10(exp 4), of 2 x 10(exp 3) solar mass clouds with surface densities of approx. 3 x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3), illuminated by FUV fluxes 10(exp 4) times the average local

  6. An accreting pulsar with extreme properties drives an ultraluminous x-ray source in NGC 5907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Gian Luca; Belfiore, Andrea; Stella, Luigi; Esposito, Paolo; Casella, Piergiorgio; De Luca, Andrea; Marelli, Martino; Papitto, Alessandro; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Castillo, Guillermo A Rodríguez; Salvetti, David; Tiengo, Andrea; Zampieri, Luca; D'Agostino, Daniele; Greiner, Jochen; Haberl, Frank; Novara, Giovanni; Salvaterra, Ruben; Turolla, Roberto; Watson, Mike; Wilms, Joern; Wolter, Anna

    2017-02-24

    Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies shine brighter than any x-ray source in our Galaxy. ULXs are usually modeled as stellar-mass black holes (BHs) accreting at very high rates or intermediate-mass BHs. We present observations showing that NGC 5907 ULX is instead an x-ray accreting neutron star (NS) with a spin period evolving from 1.43 seconds in 2003 to 1.13 seconds in 2014. It has an isotropic peak luminosity of [Formula: see text]1000 times the Eddington limit for a NS at 17.1 megaparsec. Standard accretion models fail to explain its luminosity, even assuming beamed emission, but a strong multipolar magnetic field can describe its properties. These findings suggest that other extreme ULXs (x-ray luminosity [Formula: see text] 10 41 erg second[Formula: see text]) might harbor NSs. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Discovery of a z = 0.65 post-starburst BAL quasar in the DES supernova fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, Dale; Martini, Paul; Tie, Suk Sien; Lidman, Chris; McMahon, Richard; Banerji, Manda; Davis, Tamara; Peterson, Bradley; Sharp, Rob; Seymour, Nicholas; Childress, Michael; Lewis, Geraint; Tucker, Brad; Yuan, Fang; Abbot, Tim; Abdalla, Filipe; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Camero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Carretero, Jorge; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, Thomas; Eifler, Tim; Finley, David; Flaugher, Brenna; Glazebrook, Karl; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; Gutierrez, Gaston; Hinton, Samuel; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolav; Macaulay, Edward; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Plazas, Andres; Riel, Kevin; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basillio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Robert C.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Uddin, Syed; Walker, Alistair; Zhang, Bonnie

    2017-03-23

    We present the discovery of a z=0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad FeII (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explained by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. The age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.

  8. Molecular clouds in the NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 region: Evidence for a 100 pc-scale cloud-cloud collision triggering the Galactic mini-starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Kohno, Mikito; Yokoyama, Keiko; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Sano, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo

    2018-05-01

    We carried out new CO (J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE in the region of the twin Galactic mini-starbursts NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We detected two velocity molecular components of 12 km s-1 velocity separation, which is continuous over 3° along the plane. In NGC 6334 the two components show similar two-peaked intensity distributions toward the young H II regions and are linked by a bridge feature. In NGC 6357 we found spatially complementary distribution between the two velocity components as well as a bridge feature in velocity. Based on these results we hypothesize that the two clouds in the two regions collided with each other in the past few Myr and triggered the formation of the starbursts over ˜ 100 pc. We suggest that the formation of the starbursts happened toward the collisional region of extent ˜ 10 pc with initial high molecular column densities. For NGC 6334 we present a scenario which includes spatial variation of the colliding epoch due to non-uniform cloud separation. The scenario possibly explains the apparent age differences among the young O stars in NGC 6334, which range from 104 yr to 106 yr; the latest collision happened within 105 yr toward the youngest stars in NGC 6334 I(N) and I which exhibit molecular outflows without H II regions. For NGC 6357 the O stars were formed a few Myr ago, and the cloud dispersal by the O stars is significant. We conclude that cloud-cloud collision offers a possible explanation of the mini-starburst over a 100 pc scale.

  9. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ≈1 billion years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Dominik A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scoville, Nicholas Z. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolčić, Vernesa [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Schinnerer, Eva [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cox, Pierre [ALMA Santiago Central Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander, E-mail: dr@astro.cornell.edu [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} J = 3/2→1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 μm continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Σ{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Σ{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ∼95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  10. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainline, Laura J.; Blain, A. W.; Smail, Ian; Frayer, D. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer-IRAC and MIPS mid-IR observations of a sample of 73 radio-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) with spectroscopic redshifts, the largest such sample published to date. From our data, we find that IRAC colors of SMGs are much more uniform as compared with rest-frame UV and optical colors, and z>1.5 SMGs tend to be redder in their mid-IR colors than both field galaxies and lower-z SMGs. However, the IRAC colors of the SMGs overlap those of field galaxies sufficiently that color-magnitude and color-color selection criteria suggested in the literature to identify SMG counterparts produce ambiguous counterparts within an 8'' radius in 20%-35% of cases. We use a rest-frame J-H versus H-K color-color diagram and a S 24 /S 8.0 versus S 8.0 /S 4.5 color-color diagram to determine that 13%-19% of our sample are likely to contain active galactic nuclei which dominate their mid-IR emission. We observe in the rest-frame JHK colors of our sample that the rest-frame near-IR emission of SMGs does not resemble that of the compact nuclear starburst observed in local ultraluminous IR galaxies and is consistent with more widely distributed star formation. We take advantage of the fact that many high-z galaxy populations selected at different wavelengths are detected by Spitzer to carry out a brief comparison of mid-IR properties of SMGs to UV-selected high-z galaxies, 24 μm-selected galaxies, and high-z radio galaxies, and find that SMGs have mid-IR fluxes and colors which are consistent with being more massive and more reddened than UV-selected galaxies, while the IRAC colors of SMGs are most similar to powerful high-z radio galaxies.

  11. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  12. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Becherini, Y. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J.; Brun, F. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P. [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brun, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bulik, T., E-mail: stefan.ohm@le.ac.uk [Astronomical Observatory, The University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    Very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) data from {gamma}-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE {gamma}-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.14 {+-} 0.18{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F{sub 0} = (9.6 {+-} 1.5{sub stat}(+ 5.7, -2.9){sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE {gamma}-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of {Gamma} 2.24 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.03{sub sys} and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray data results in a differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.34 {+-} 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The {gamma}-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the {gamma}-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  13. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F- 31100 Toulouse (France); Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fabian, A. C., E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  14. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  15. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M K ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency

  16. Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Liming [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan, Lin [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M. [IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) light curves (LCs) of a tidal disruption event candidate in the center of a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy F01004−2237 using archival WISE and NEOWISE data from 2010 to 2016. At the peak of the optical flare, F01004−2237 was IR quiescent. About three years later, its MIR fluxes have shown a steady increase, rising by 1.34 and 1.04 mag in 3.4 and 4.6 μ m up to the end of 2016. The host-subtracted MIR peak luminosity is 2–3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. We interpret the MIR LCs as an infrared echo, i.e., dust reprocessed emission of the optical flare. Fitting the MIR LCs using our dust model, we infer a dust torus of the size of a few parsecs at some inclined angle. The derived dust temperatures range from 590–850 K, and the warm dust mass is ∼7 M {sub ⊙}. Such a large mass implies that the dust cannot be newly formed. We also derive the UV luminosity of 4–11 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. The inferred total IR energy is 1–2 × 10{sup 52} erg, suggesting a large dust covering factor. Finally, our dust model suggests that the long tail of the optical flare could be due to dust scattering.

  17. Powerful warm infrared sources in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS far-infrared sources have been identified with 129 S0, Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies in a statistically complete sample of 738 galaxies brighter than 14.5 mag and smaller than 4.0 arcmin. In most cases, the far-IR colors and the ratios of far-IR flux to radio flux density are those of normal galactic disks and/or starbursts. The most powerful far-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are just as powerful as the strongest far-IR sources in Sb and Sc galaxies. Bright-IR sources in S0 and Sa galaxies are warm; those in Sc galaxies are cool. Sb galaxies have both warm and cool IR sources. Bright warm IR sources occur much more frequently in barred galaxies than in galaxies without bars for types S0, Sa, and Sb. Bright, cool IR sources are found with increasing frequency along the Hubble sequence, regardless of the presence or absence of a bar. At least some S0 galaxies with warm, bright IR sources have peculiar morphologies and ambiguous classifications. 22 references

  18. A RESOLVED MAP OF THE INFRARED EXCESS IN A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY AT z = 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprowski, M. P.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Geach, J. E.; Hine, N. K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Violino, G. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Davies, L. J. M. [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hayashino, T. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Knudsen, K. K. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Kubo, M.; Matsuda, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 226 Physics Building, 835 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Van der Werf, P. P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Yamada, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, 252-5210 Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-09-10

    We have observed the dust continuum of 10 z = 3.1 Lyman break galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at ∼450 mas resolution in Band 7. We detect and resolve the 870 μ m emission in one of the targets with a flux density of S {sub 870} = 192 ± 57 μ Jy, and measure a stacked 3 σ signal of S {sub 870} = 67 ± 23 μ Jy for the remaining nine. The total infrared luminosities are L {sub 8–1000} = (8.4 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 10} L {sub ⊙} for the detection and L {sub 8–1000} = (2.9 ± 0.9) × 10{sup 10} L {sub ⊙} for the stack. With Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys I -band imaging we map the rest-frame UV emission on the same scale as the dust, effectively resolving the “infrared excess” (IRX = L {sub FIR}/ L {sub UV}) in a normal galaxy at z = 3. Integrated over the galaxy we measure IRX = 0.56 ± 0.15, and the galaxy-averaged UV slope is β = −1.25 ± 0.03. This puts the galaxy a factor of ∼10 below the IRX– β relation for local starburst nuclei of Meurer et al. However, IRX varies by more than a factor of 3 across the galaxy, and we conclude that the complex relative morphology of the dust relative to UV emission is largely responsible for the scatter in the IRX– β relation at high- z . A naive application of a Meurer-like dust correction based on the UV slope would dramatically overestimate the total star formation rate, and our results support growing evidence that when integrated over the galaxy, the typical conditions in high- z star-forming galaxies are not analogous to those in the local starburst nuclei used to establish the Meurer relation.

  19. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  20. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Koshida, Shintaro [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Manabe, Sho [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nakashima, Asami, E-mail: tateuchi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  1. Radiation pressure in galactic disks: stability, turbulence, and winds in the single-scattering limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibking, Benjamin D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation force on dust grains may be dynamically important in driving turbulence and outflows in rapidly star-forming galaxies. Recent studies focus on the highly optically-thick limit relevant to the densest ultra-luminous galaxies and super star clusters, where reprocessed infrared photons provide the dominant source of electromagnetic momentum. However, even among starburst galaxies, the great majority instead lie in the so-called "single-scattering" limit, where the system is optically-thick to the incident starlight, but optically-thin to the re-radiated infrared. In this paper we present a stability analysis and multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations exploring the stability and dynamics of isothermal dusty gas columns in this regime. We describe our algorithm for full angle-dependent radiation transport based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. For a range of near-Eddington fluxes, we show that the medium is unstable, producing convective-like motions in a turbulent atmosphere with a scale height significantly inflated compared to the gas pressure scale height and mass-weighted turbulent energy densities of ˜0.01 - 0.1 of the midplane radiation energy density, corresponding to mass-weighted velocity dispersions of Mach number ˜0.5 - 2. Extrapolation of our results to optical depths of 103 implies maximum turbulent Mach numbers of ˜20. Comparing our results to galaxy-averaged observations, and subject to the approximations of our calculations, we find that radiation pressure does not contribute significantly to the effective supersonic pressure support in star-forming disks, which in general are substantially sub-Eddington. We further examine the time-averaged vertical density profiles in dynamical equilibrium and comment on implications for radiation-pressure-driven galactic winds.

  2. A radio monitoring survey of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg s-1. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times over 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is ≈0.15 mJy (4σ) for radio flares and ≈60 μJy for continuous emission. In M 82 two ULXs seem to have coincident compact radio sources, which are probably supernova remnants. No continuous or flaring radio emission has been detected from any other ULX. Thus, ULXs do not generally emit steady-state radio emission above radio powers of 1.5 × 1017 W/Hz. The non-detections of the continuous emission are consistent with beamed or unbeamed radio emission from accreting black holes of ≤ 103 M⊙ based on the radio/X-ray correlation. Other published radio detections (M 82, NGC 5408) are also discussed in this context. Both detections are significantly above our detection limit. If ULXs have flaring radio emission above 4 × 1017 W/Hz we can give an upper limit on the duty cycle of the flares of 6%. This upper limit is in agreement with the observed number of flares in Galactic radio transients. Additionally we present a yet unreported radio double structure in the nearby low-luminosity AGN NGC 4736.

  3. THE OPTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STARBURST GALAXY M82. II. NEBULAR PROPERTIES OF THE DISK AND INNER WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this second paper of the series, we present the results from optical Gemini-North GMOS-IFU and WIYN DensePak IFU spectroscopic observations of the starburst and inner wind zones of M82, with a focus on the state of the T ∼ 10 4 K ionized interstellar medium. Our electron density maps show peaks of a few 1000 cm -3 (implying very high thermal pressures), local small spatial-scale variations, and a falloff in the minor axis direction. We discuss the implications of these results with regards to the conditions/locations that may favor the escape of individual cluster winds that ultimately power the large-scale superwind. Our findings, when combined with the body of literature built up over the last decade on the state of the interstellar medium (ISM) in M82, imply that the starburst environment is highly fragmented into a range of clouds from small/dense clumps with low-filling factors ( e ∼> 10 4 cm -3 ) to larger filling factor, less dense gas. The most compact clouds seem to be found in the cores of the star cluster complexes, whereas the cloud sizes in the inter-complex region are larger. These dense clouds are bathed with an intense radiation field and embedded in an extensive high temperature (T ∼> 10 6 K), X-ray-emitting ISM that is a product of the high star formation rates in the starburst zones of M82. The near-constant state of the ionization state of the ∼10 4 K gas throughout the M82 starburst zone can be explained as a consequence of the small cloud sizes, which allow the gas conditions to respond quickly to any changes. In Paper I, we found that the observed emission lines are composed of multiple components, including a broad (FWHM ∼ 150-350 km s -1 ) feature that we associate with emission from turbulent mixing layers on the surfaces of the gas clouds, resulting from the interaction of the fast wind outflows from the synchrotron self-Comptons. The large number of compact clouds and wind sources provides an ideal environment for broad line

  4. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-01-01

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s –1 lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s –1 across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10 7 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10 5 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ . An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall

  5. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  6. The Exceptional Soft X-Ray Halo of the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, E.; Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Pellegrini, S.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.

    2013-03-01

    We report on a recent ~150 ks long Chandra observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger NGC 6240, which allows a detailed investigation of the diffuse galactic halo. Extended soft X-ray emission is detected at the 3σ confidence level over a diamond-shaped region with projected physical size of ~110 × 80 kpc, and a single-component thermal model provides a reasonably good fit to the observed X-ray spectrum. The hot gas has a temperature of ~7.5 million K, an estimated density of 2.5 × 10-3 cm-3, and a total mass of ~1010 M ⊙, resulting in an intrinsic 0.4-2.5 keV luminosity of 4 × 1041 erg s-1. The average temperature of 0.65 keV is quite high to be obviously related to either the binding energy in the dark-matter gravitational potential of the system or the energy dissipation and shocks following the galactic collision, yet the spatially resolved spectral analysis reveals limited variations across the halo. The relative abundance of the main α-elements with respect to iron is several times the solar value, and nearly constant as well, implying a uniform enrichment by type II supernovae out to the largest scales. Taken as a whole, the observational evidence is not compatible with a superwind originated by a recent, nuclear starburst, but rather hints at widespread, enhanced star formation proceeding at a steady rate over the entire dynamical timescale (~200 Myr). The preferred scenario is that of a starburst-processed gas component gently expanding into, and mixing with, a pre-existing halo medium of lower metallicity (Z ~ 0.1 solar) and temperature (kT ~ 0.25 keV). This picture cannot be probed more extensively with the present data, and the ultimate fate of the diffuse, hot gas remains uncertain. Under some favorable conditions, at least a fraction of it might be retained after the merger completion, and evolve into the hot halo of a young elliptical galaxy.

  7. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources ---Microblazars or Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    In recent years Ultra-Luminous X-Ray sources (ULXs) received wide attention, however, their true nature is not yet understood. Many explanations have been suggested, including intermediate-mass black holes, super-Eddington accretion flows, anisotropic emission, and relativistic beaming of microquasars. We model the logN-logS distribution of ULXs assuming that each neutron star or black hole XRB can be described by an accretion disk plus jet model, where the jet is relativistically beamed. The distribution can be either fit by intermediate-mass black holes or by stellar mass black holes with mildly relativistic jets. Even though the jet is intrinsically weaker than the accretion disk, relativistic beaming can in the latter approach lead to the high fluxes observed. To further explore the possibility of microblazars contributing to the ULX phenomenon, we have embarked on a radio-monitoring study of ULXs in nearby galaxies with the VLA. However, up to now no radio flare has been detected. Using the radio/X-ray correlation the upper limits on the radio flux can be converted into upper limits for the black hole masses of MBH ≲ 10^3 M⊙.

  8. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McDonald, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37-582C, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: jingzhema@ufl.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1}) and SFR surface density Σ{sub SFR} (∼2000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉} originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ{sub SFR} of any known galaxy. This high Σ{sub SFR}, which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  9. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brandt, W. N.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Hezaveh, Y.; Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Malkan, M.; McDonald, M.; Murphy, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M ☉ yr −1 ) and SFR surface density Σ SFR (∼2000 M ☉ yr −1 kpc −2 ) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10 13 L ☉ originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ SFR of any known galaxy. This high Σ SFR , which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  10. Enhanced H2O formation through dust grain chemistry in X-ray exposed environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.

    Context. The ultraluminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231, which shows signs of both black hole accretion and star formation, exhibits very strong water rotational lines between lambda = 200-670 mu m, comparable to the strength of the CO rotational lines. High-redshift quasars also show similar CO and H2O

  11. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  12. Impact of ultraluminous X-ray sources on photoabsorption in the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S.; Khabibullin, I.

    2018-05-01

    In the local Universe, integrated X-ray emission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) is dominated by the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosity ≳1040 erg s-1. Such rare objects probably also dominated the production of X-rays in the early Universe. We demonstrate that a ULX with LX ˜ 1040-1041 erg s-1 (isotropic-equivalent luminosity in the 0.1-10 keV energy band) shining for ˜105 yr (the expected duration of a supercritically accreting phase in HMXBs) can significantly ionize the ISM in its host dwarf galaxy of total mass M ˜ 107-108 M⊙ and thereby reduce its opacity to soft X-rays. As a result, the fraction of the soft X-ray (below 1 keV) radiation from the ULX escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM) can increase from ˜20-50 per cent to ˜30-80 per cent over its lifetime. This implies that HMXBs can induce a stronger heating of the IGM at z ≳ 10 compared to estimates neglecting the ULX feedback on the ISM. However, larger galaxies with M ≳ 3 × 108 M⊙ could not be significantly ionized even by the brightest ULXs in the early Universe. Since such galaxies probably started to dominate the global star formation rate at z ≲ 10, the overall escape fraction of soft X-rays from the HMXB population probably remained low, ≲30 per cent, at these epochs.

  13. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  14. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M ☉ yr –1 ) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10 43 erg s –1 , making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s –1 ), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M H 2 = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10 10 M ☉ , which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ∼30 Myr if

  15. X-Ray Emission from the Nuclear Region of Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Alessandro; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Risaliti, Guido; Wang, Junfeng; Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Maksym, W. Peter; McDowell, Jonathan; Gallagher, Jay

    2017-05-01

    We present an imaging and spectral analysis of the nuclear region of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger of Arp 220, using deep Chandra-ACIS observations summing up to ˜ 300 {{ks}}. Narrowband imaging with subpixel resolution of the innermost nuclear region reveals two distinct Fe-K emitting sources, coincident with the infrared and radio nuclear clusters. These sources are separated by 1‧ (˜380 pc). The X-ray emission is extended and elongated in the eastern (E) nucleus, like the disk emission observed in millimeter radio images, suggesting a starburst dominance in this region. We estimate an Fe-K equivalent width of ≳ 1 {keV} for both sources and observe 2-10 keV luminosities of ˜ 2× {10}40 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1 (western, W) and ˜ 3× {10}40 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1 (E). In the 6-7 keV band the emission from these regions is dominated by the 6.7 keV Fe xxv line, suggesting a contribution from collisionally ionized gas. The thermal energy content of this gas is consistent with the kinetic energy injection in the interstellar medium by SNe II. However, nuclear winds from a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN) (\\upsilon ˜ 2000 {{km}} {{{s}}}-1) cannot be excluded. The 3σ upper limits on the neutral Fe-Kα flux of the nuclear regions correspond to the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosities of < 1× {10}42 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1 (W) and < 0.4× {10}42 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1 (E). For typical AGN spectral energy distributions the bolometric luminosities are < 3× {10}43 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1 (W) and < 8× {10}43 {{erg}} {{{s}}}-1 (E), and black hole masses of < 1× {10}5 {M}⊙ (W) and < 5× {10}5 {M}⊙ (E) are evaluated for Eddington limited AGNs with a standard 10% efficiency.

  16. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Lyα BLOBS AT z ∼ 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M.; Dey, Arjun; Chapman, Scott C.; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Neri, Roberto; Borys, Colin; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki; Tapken, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Lyα nebulae, the so-called Lyα blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z ∼ 3: an Lyα blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 μm detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L FIR = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 10 12 L ☉ , comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 μm measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S 850μm = 16.8 mJy) at the >4σ level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with ∼2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to ≈0.45 mJy beam –1 (3σ). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S ν ΔV ∼ –1 , indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H 2 ) 10 M ☉ . The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12σ), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  17. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  18. THE INNER KILOPARSEC OF Mrk 273 WITH KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Vivian; Sanders, David; Kewley, Lisa [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Medling, Anne; Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwasawa, Kazushi [ICREA and Institut del Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Evans, Aaron [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fazio, Giovanni, E-mail: vivianu@ucr.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nucleus have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the nuclear molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}. The H{sub 2} emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, and an increased flux with negative velocities in the southeast direction; this provides direct evidence for a collimated molecular outflow along the axis of rotation of the disk. The third spatially distinct component appears to the southeast, 640 and 750 pc from the north and southwest nuclei, respectively. This component is faint in continuum emission but shows several strong emission line features, including [Si VI] 1.964 μm which traces an extended coronal-line region. The geometry of the [Si VI] emission combined with shock models and energy arguments suggest that [Si VI] in the southeast component must be at least partly ionized by the SW AGN or a putative AGN in the northern disk, either through photoionization or through shock-heating from strong AGN- and circumnuclear-starburst-driven outflows. This lends support to a scenario in which Mrk 273 may be a dual AGN system.

  19. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  20. HNCO ABUNDANCES IN GALAXIES: TRACING THE EVOLUTIONARY STATE OF STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sergio; Martin-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry in the central regions of galaxies is expected to be strongly influenced by their nuclear activity. To find the best tracers of nuclear activity is of key importance to understand the processes taking place in the most obscured regions of galactic nuclei. In this work, we present multiline observations of CS, C 34 S, HNCO, and C 18 O in a sample of 11 bright galaxies prototypical for different types of activity. The 32 S/ 34 S isotopic ratio is ∼10, supporting the idea of an isotopical 34 S enrichment due to massive star formation in the nuclear regions of galaxies. Although C 32 S and C 34 S do not seem to be significantly affected by the activity type, the HNCO abundance appears highly contrasted among starbursts (SBs). We observed HNCO abundance variations of nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The HNCO molecule is shown to be a good tracer of the amount of molecular material fueling the SB and therefore can be used as a diagnostics of the evolutionary state of a nuclear SB.

  1. The abundance of nitrogen in starburst nucleus galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coziol, R.; Reyes, R. E. Carlos; Considère, S.; Davoust, E.; Contini, T.

    1999-05-01

    We show that the excess of nitrogen emission observed in a large sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs) can only be explained at a given metallicity by an overabundance of nitrogen with respect to normal H ii regions in the disks of late-type spirals. The N/O ratios in the SBNGs are comparable to the values found in the bulges of normal early-type spirals, which suggests that what we observe could be the main production of nitrogen in the bulges of these galaxies. The variation of the N/O ratio as a function of metallicity in SBNGs follows a primary + secondary relation, but the increase of nitrogen does not appear as a continuous process. In SBNGs, nitrogen is probably produced by different populations of intermediate-mass stars, which were formed during past sequences of bursts of star formation. This assumption pushes the origin of the main bursts 2-3 Gyrs back in the past. On a cosmological scale, this time interval corresponds to redshifts z ~ 0.2-0.3, where a significant increase of star formation activity occurred. The origin of the SBNG phenomenon would thus have cosmological implications, it would be related to a more active phase of star formation in the Universe sometime in its recent past. Based on observations obtained at the 193cm telescope of Observatoire de Haute-Provence, operated by INSU (CNRS)

  2. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mink, Selma de [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wofford, Aida [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada, CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Kewley, Lisa, E-mail: pena@stsci.edu, E-mail: leitherer@stsci.edu, E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: awofford@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: lisa.kewley@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-10-01

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. We conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.

  3. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus; Mink, Selma de; Wofford, Aida; Kewley, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. We conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.

  4. Shutting down or powering up a (U)LIRG? Merger components in distinctly different evolutionary states in IRAS 19115-2124 (the Bird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Petri; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Johansson, Peter H.; Ramphul, Rajin; Romero-Cañizales, Cristina; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo

    2017-10-01

    We present new SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) optical long-slit spectroscopy characterizing the history of a nearby merging luminous infrared galaxy, dubbed the Bird (IRAS19115-2124). The NIR line-ratio maps of the IFU data cubes and stellar population fitting of the SALT spectra now allow dating of the star formation (SF) over the triple system uncovered from our previous adaptive optics data. The distinct components separate clearly in line-ratio diagnostic diagrams, both thermal and non-thermal excitation is present. An off-nuclear starburst dominates the current SF of the Bird with 60-70 per cent of the total, with a 4-7 Myr age. The most massive nucleus, in contrast, is quenched with a starburst age of >40 Myr and shows hints of budding active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The secondary massive nucleus is at an intermediate stage. The two major components have signs of an older stellar population, consistent with a starburst triggered 1 Gyr ago in a first encounter. The simplest explanation of the history is that of a triple merger, where the strongly star-forming component has joined later. We detect multiple gas flows. The Bird offers an opportunity to witness multiple stages of galaxy evolution in the same system; triggering as well as very recent quenching of SF, and, perhaps, an early appearance of AGN activity. It also serves as a cautionary note on interpretations of observations with lower spatial resolution and/or without infrared data. At high redshift the system would look like a clumpy starburst with crucial pieces of its puzzle hidden in danger of misinterpretations.

  5. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  6. THE CALIBRATION OF MONOCHROMATIC FAR-INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetti, D.; Wu, S.-Y.; Hong, S.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Hao, C.-N.; Begum, A.; Johnson, B.; Lee, J. C.; Dale, D. A.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Block, M.; Van Zee, L.; Draine, B. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Regan, M.; Moustakas, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Dalcanton, J.; Funes, J.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spitzer data at 24, 70, and 160 μm and ground-based Hα images are analyzed for a sample of 189 nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies to investigate whether reliable star formation rate (SFR) indicators can be defined using the monochromatic infrared dust emission centered at 70 and 160 μm. We compare recently published recipes for SFR measures using combinations of the 24 μm and observed Hα luminosities with those using 24 μm luminosity alone. From these comparisons, we derive a reference SFR indicator for use in our analysis. Linear correlations between SFR and the 70 μm and 160 μm luminosity are found for L(70) ∼> 1.4 x 10 42 erg s -1 and L(160) ∼> 2 x 10 42 erg s -1 , corresponding to SFR ∼> 0.1-0.3 M sun yr -1 , and calibrations of SFRs based on L(70) and L(160) are proposed. Below those two luminosity limits, the relation between SFR and 70 μm (160 μm) luminosity is nonlinear and SFR calibrations become problematic. A more important limitation is the dispersion of the data around the mean trend, which increases for increasing wavelength. The scatter of the 70 μm (160 μm) data around the mean is about 25% (factor ∼2) larger than the scatter of the 24 μm data. We interpret this increasing dispersion as an effect of the increasing contribution to the infrared emission of dust heated by stellar populations not associated with the current star formation. Thus, the 70 (160) μm luminosity can be reliably used to trace SFRs in large galaxy samples, but will be of limited utility for individual objects, with the exception of infrared-dominated galaxies. The nonlinear relation between SFR and the 70 and 160 μm emission at faint galaxy luminosities suggests a variety of mechanisms affecting the infrared emission for decreasing luminosity, such as increasing transparency of the interstellar medium, decreasing effective dust temperature, and decreasing filling factor of star-forming regions across the galaxy. In all cases, the calibrations hold

  7. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES IN XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 AT z = 1.46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Matt; Lloyd-Davies, Ed; Romer, A. Kathy; Hosmer, Mark; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Stanford, S. Adam; Stott, John P.; Collins, Chris A.; Hoyle, Ben; Kay, Scott T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sahlen, Martin; Viana, Pedro T. P.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (IR) observations to explore the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and starburst populations of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 at z = 1.46, one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters known. The high-resolution X-ray imaging reveals that the cluster emission is contaminated by point sources that were not resolved in XMM-Newton observations of the system, and have the effect of hardening the spectrum, leading to the previously reported temperature for this system being overestimated. From a joint spectroscopic analysis of the Chandra and XMM-Newton data, the cluster is found to have temperature T = 4.1 +0.6 -0.9 keV and luminosity L X = (2.92 +0.24 -0.35 ) x 10 44 erg s -1 , extrapolated to a radius of 2 Mpc. As a result of this revised analysis, the cluster is found to lie on the σ v -T relation, but the cluster remains less luminous than would be expected from self-similar evolution of the local L X -T relation. Two of the newly discovered X-ray AGNs are cluster members, while a third object, which is also a prominent 24 μm source, is found to have properties consistent with it being a high-redshift, highly obscured object in the background. We find a total of eight >5σ 24 μm sources associated with cluster members (four spectroscopically confirmed and four selected using photometric redshifts) and one additional 24 μm source with two possible optical/near-IR counterparts that may be associated with the cluster. Examining the Infrared Array Camera colors of these sources, we find that one object is likely to be an AGN. Assuming that the other 24 μm sources are powered by star formation, their IR luminosities imply star formation rates ∼100 M sun yr -1 . We find that three of these sources are located at projected distances of <250 kpc from the cluster center, suggesting that a large amount of star formation may be taking place in the cluster core, in contrast to clusters at low redshift.

  8. Multiband counterparts of two eclipsing ultraluminous X-ray sources in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.; Johnston, H. M.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.; Schwope, A.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Anderson, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    We present the discovery and interpretation of ionized nebulae around two ultraluminous X-ray sources in M 51; both sources share the rare property of showing X-ray eclipses by their companion stars and are therefore prime targets for follow-up studies. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we found an elongated, 100-pc-long emission-line structure associated with one X-ray source (CXOM51 J132940.0+471237; ULX-1 for simplicity), and a more circular, ionized nebula at the location of the second source (CXOM51 J132939.5+471244; ULX-2 for simplicity). We observed both nebulae with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph. From our analysis of the optical spectra, we argue that the gas in the ULX-1 bubble is shock-ionized, consistent with the effect of a jet with a kinetic power of ≈2 × 1039 erg s-1. Additional X-ray photoionization may also be present, to explain the strength of high-ionization lines such as He II λ4686 and [Ne V] λ3426. On the other hand, the emission lines from the ULX-2 bubble are typical for photoionization by normal O stars suggesting that the nebula is actually an H II region not physically related to the ULX but is simply a chance alignment. From archival Very Large Array data, we also detect spatially extended, steep-spectrum radio emission at the location of the ULX-1 bubble (consistent with its jet origin), but no radio counterpart for ULX-2 (consistent with the lack of shock-ionized gas around that source).

  9. RESOLUTION OF THE COMPACT RADIO CONTINUUM SOURCES IN Arp220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batejat, Fabien; Conway, John E.; Hurley, Rossa; Parra, Rodrigo; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2 cm and 3.6 cm wavelength very long baseline interferometry images of the compact radio continuum sources in the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp220. Based on their radio spectra and variability properties, we confirm these sources to be a mixture of supernovae (SNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). Of the 17 detected sources we resolve 7 at both wavelengths. The SNe generally only have upper size limits. In contrast all the SNRs are resolved with diameters ≥0.27 pc. This size limit is consistent with them having just entered their Sedov phase while embedded in an interstellar medium (ISM) of density 10 4 cm -3 . These objects lie on the diameter-luminosity correlation for SNRs (and so also on the diameter-surface brightness relation) and extend these correlations to very small sources. The data are consistent with the relation L∝D -9/4 . Revised equipartition arguments adjusted to a magnetic field to a relativistic particle energy density ratio of 1% combined with a reasonable synchrotron-emitting volume filling factor of 10% give estimated magnetic field strengths in the SNR shells of ∼15-50 mG. The SNR shell magnetic fields are unlikely to come from compression of ambient ISM fields and must instead be internally generated. We set an upper limit of 7 mG for the ISM magnetic field. The estimated energy in relativistic particles, 2%-20% of the explosion kinetic energy, is consistent with estimates from models that fit the IR-radio correlation in compact starburst galaxies.

  10. THE EXCEPTIONAL SOFT X-RAY HALO OF THE GALAXY MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardini, E.; Wang Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pellegrini, S., E-mail: e.nardini@keele.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, v.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-03-10

    We report on a recent {approx}150 ks long Chandra observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger NGC 6240, which allows a detailed investigation of the diffuse galactic halo. Extended soft X-ray emission is detected at the 3{sigma} confidence level over a diamond-shaped region with projected physical size of {approx}110 Multiplication-Sign 80 kpc, and a single-component thermal model provides a reasonably good fit to the observed X-ray spectrum. The hot gas has a temperature of {approx}7.5 million K, an estimated density of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, and a total mass of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, resulting in an intrinsic 0.4-2.5 keV luminosity of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}. The average temperature of 0.65 keV is quite high to be obviously related to either the binding energy in the dark-matter gravitational potential of the system or the energy dissipation and shocks following the galactic collision, yet the spatially resolved spectral analysis reveals limited variations across the halo. The relative abundance of the main {alpha}-elements with respect to iron is several times the solar value, and nearly constant as well, implying a uniform enrichment by type II supernovae out to the largest scales. Taken as a whole, the observational evidence is not compatible with a superwind originated by a recent, nuclear starburst, but rather hints at widespread, enhanced star formation proceeding at a steady rate over the entire dynamical timescale ({approx}200 Myr). The preferred scenario is that of a starburst-processed gas component gently expanding into, and mixing with, a pre-existing halo medium of lower metallicity (Z {approx} 0.1 solar) and temperature (kT {approx} 0.25 keV). This picture cannot be probed more extensively with the present data, and the ultimate fate of the diffuse, hot gas remains uncertain. Under some favorable conditions, at least a fraction of it might be retained after the merger completion

  11. THE EXCEPTIONAL SOFT X-RAY HALO OF THE GALAXY MERGER NGC 6240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, E.; Wang Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.; Pellegrini, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a recent ∼150 ks long Chandra observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger NGC 6240, which allows a detailed investigation of the diffuse galactic halo. Extended soft X-ray emission is detected at the 3σ confidence level over a diamond-shaped region with projected physical size of ∼110 × 80 kpc, and a single-component thermal model provides a reasonably good fit to the observed X-ray spectrum. The hot gas has a temperature of ∼7.5 million K, an estimated density of 2.5 × 10 –3 cm –3 , and a total mass of ∼10 10 M ☉ , resulting in an intrinsic 0.4-2.5 keV luminosity of 4 × 10 41 erg s –1 . The average temperature of 0.65 keV is quite high to be obviously related to either the binding energy in the dark-matter gravitational potential of the system or the energy dissipation and shocks following the galactic collision, yet the spatially resolved spectral analysis reveals limited variations across the halo. The relative abundance of the main α-elements with respect to iron is several times the solar value, and nearly constant as well, implying a uniform enrichment by type II supernovae out to the largest scales. Taken as a whole, the observational evidence is not compatible with a superwind originated by a recent, nuclear starburst, but rather hints at widespread, enhanced star formation proceeding at a steady rate over the entire dynamical timescale (∼200 Myr). The preferred scenario is that of a starburst-processed gas component gently expanding into, and mixing with, a pre-existing halo medium of lower metallicity (Z ∼ 0.1 solar) and temperature (kT ∼ 0.25 keV). This picture cannot be probed more extensively with the present data, and the ultimate fate of the diffuse, hot gas remains uncertain. Under some favorable conditions, at least a fraction of it might be retained after the merger completion, and evolve into the hot halo of a young elliptical galaxy.

  12. CHARACTERIZING THE MID-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SKY WITH WISE AND SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lin; Donoso, E.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, R.; Jarrett, T.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Blain, A. W.; Stanford, S. A.; Wright, E.; Bridge, C.; Riechers, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has completed its all-sky survey in four channels at 3.4-22 μm, detecting hundreds of millions of objects. We merge the WISE mid-infrared data with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and provide a phenomenological characterization of WISE extragalactic sources. WISE is most sensitive at 3.4 μm (W1) and least sensitive at 22 μm (W4). The W1 band probes massive early-type galaxies out to z ∼> 1. This is more distant than SDSS identified early-type galaxies, consistent with the fact that 28% of 3.4 μm sources have faint or no r-band counterparts (r > 22.2). In contrast, 92%-95% of 12 μm and 22 μm sources have SDSS optical counterparts with r ≤ 22.2. WISE 3.4 μm detects 89.8% of the entire SDSS QSO catalog at S/N W1 >7σ, but only 18.9% at 22 μm with S/N W4 > 5σ. We show that WISE colors alone are effective in isolating stars (or local early-type galaxies), star-forming galaxies, and strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs)/QSOs at z ∼ 0.8 and W2 –2 . (2) Selection of dust-obscured, type-2 AGN/QSO candidates. We show that WISE W1 – W2 > 0.8, W2 6 (Vega) colors can be used to identify type-2 AGN candidates. The fraction of these type-2 AGN candidates is one-third of all WISE color-selected AGNs. (3) Selection of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ∼ 2 with extremely red colors, r – W4 > 14 or well-detected 22 μm sources lacking detections in the 3.4 and 4.6 μm bands. The surface density of z ∼ 2 ULIRG candidates selected with r – W4 > 14 is 0.9 ± 0.07 deg –2 at S/N W4 ≥ 5 (the corresponding, lowest flux density of 2.5 mJy), which is consistent with that inferred from smaller area Spitzer surveys. Optical spectroscopy of a small number of these high-redshift ULIRG candidates confirms our selection, and reveals a possible trend that optically fainter or r – W4 redder candidates are at higher redshifts.

  13. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.

    2018-04-01

    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ∼ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ∼ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known ULX pulsars, particularly in light of the recent discovery of a likely proton cyclotron line in another ULX, M51 ULX-8.

  14. AMMONIA AS A TEMPERATURE TRACER IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY MERGER Arp 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Jürgen; Henkel, Christian; Weiß, Axel; Braatz, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ammonia (NH 3 ) and the 1.2 cm radio continuum toward the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Arp 220. We detect the NH 3 (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), and (6,6) inversion lines in absorption against the unresolved, (62 ± 9) mJy continuum source at 1.2 cm. The peak apparent optical depths of the ammonia lines range from ∼0.05 to 0.18. The absorption lines are well described by single-component Gaussians with central velocities in between the velocities of the eastern and western cores of Arp 220. Therefore, the ammonia likely traces gas that encompasses both cores. The absorption depth of the NH 3 (1,1) line is significantly shallower than expected based on the depths of the other transitions. The shallow (1,1) profile may be caused by contamination from emission by a hypothetical, cold (∼ 14 cm –2 . This layer would have to be located behind or away from the radio continuum sources to produce the contaminating emission. The widths of the ammonia absorption lines are ∼120-430 km s –1 , in agreement with those of other molecular tracers. We cannot confirm the extremely large line widths of up to ∼1800 km s –1 previously reported for this galaxy. Using all of the ATCA detections except for the shallow (1,1) line, we determine a rotational temperature of (124 ± 19) K, corresponding to a kinetic temperature of T kin = (186 ± 55) K. Ammonia column densities depend on the excitation temperature. For excitation temperatures of 10 K and 50 K, we estimate N(NH 3 ) = (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10 16 cm –2 and (8.4 ± 0.5) × 10 16 cm –2 , respectively. The relation scales linearly for possible higher excitation temperatures. Our observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para-ammonia ratio of unity, implying that the ammonia formation temperature exceeds ∼30 K. In the context of a model with a molecular ring that connects the two nuclei in Arp

  15. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, P.O. Box 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Colina, Luis [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciencies, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Miralles-Caballero, Daniel [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Väisänen, Petri [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Packham, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Rajpaul, Vinesh [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  16. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: VERY BRIGHT END OF THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z > 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yan, Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Karoji, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    The primary goal of the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) is to find well-screened galaxy candidates at z > 7 (z' dropout) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS). To this end, TENIS provides relatively deep J and K{sub s} data ({approx}25.3 ABmag, 5{sigma}) for an area of 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 0.5 deg. Leveraged with existing data at mid-infrared to optical wavelengths, this allows us to screen for the most luminous high-z objects, which are rare and thus require a survey over a large field to be found. We introduce new color selection criteria to select a z > 7 sample with minimal contaminations from low-z galaxies and Galactic cool stars; to reduce confusion in the relatively low angular resolution Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images, we introduce a novel deconvolution method to measure the IRAC fluxes of individual sources. Illustrating perhaps the effectiveness at which we screen out interlopers, we find only one z > 7 candidate, TENIS-ZD1. The candidate has a weighted z{sub phot} of 7.8, and its colors and luminosity indicate a young (45M years old) starburst galaxy with a stellar mass of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The result matches with the observational luminosity function analysis and the semianalytic simulation result based on the Millennium Simulations, which may over predict the volume density for high-z massive galaxies. The existence of TENIS-ZD1, if confirmed spectroscopically to be at z > 7, therefore poses a challenge to current theoretical models for how so much mass can accumulate in a galaxy at such a high redshift.

  17. 2XMM ultraluminous X-ray source candidates in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Mateos, S.; Heard, V.

    2011-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are some of the most enigmatic X-ray bright sources known to date. It is generally accepted that they cannot host black holes as large as those associated with active galaxies, but they appear to be significantly more luminous than their better understood Galactic X-ray binary (XRB) cousins, while displaying an intriguing combination of differences and similarities with them. Through studying large, representative samples of these sources we may hope to enhance our understanding of them. To this end, we derive a large catalogue of 650 X-ray detections of 470 ULX candidates, located in 238 nearby galaxies, by cross-correlating the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey with the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The presented dedicated catalogue offers a significant improvement over those previously published in terms of both the number and the contribution of background contaminants, e.g. distant quasars, which we estimate to be at most 24 per cent, but more likely ˜17 per cent. To undertake population studies, we define a 'complete' sub-sample of sources compiled from observations of galaxies with sensitivity limits below 1039 erg s-1. The luminosity function of this sample is consistent with a simple power law of form N(>LX) ∝ L-0.96 ± 0.11X. Although we do not find any statistical requirement for a cut-off luminosity of Lc˜ 1040 erg s-1, as has been reported previously, we are not able to rule out its presence. Also, we find that the number of ULXs per unit galaxy mass, Su, decreases with increasing galaxy mass for ULXs associated with spiral galaxies, and is well modelled with a power law of form Su ∝ M-0.64 ± 0.07. This is in broad agreement with previous results, and is likely to be a consequence of the decrease in specific star formation and increase in metallicity with increasing spiral galaxy mass. Su is consistent with being constant with galaxy mass for sources associated with elliptical galaxies, implying this

  18. THE SPATIAL EXTENT OF (U)LIRGs IN THE MID-INFRARED. I. THE CONTINUUM EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIaz-Santos, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Petric, A. O.; Howell, J. H.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Haan, S.; Marshall, J. A.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Veilleux, S.; Bothun, G.; Appleton, P. N.; Evans, A. S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the extended mid-infrared (MIR) emission of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey sample based on 5-15 μm low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. We calculate the fraction of extended emission (FEE) as a function of wavelength for the galaxies in the sample, FEE λ , defined as the fraction of the emission which originates outside of the unresolved component of a source at a given distance. We find that the FEE λ varies from one galaxy to another, but we can identify three general types of FEE λ : one where FEE λ is constant, one where features due to emission lines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appear more extended than the continuum, and a third which is characteristic of sources with deep silicate absorption at 9.7 μm. More than 30% of the galaxies have a median FEE λ larger than 0.5, implying that at least half of their MIR emission is extended. Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) display a wide range of FEE in their warm dust continuum (0 ∼ 13.2 μ m ∼ 13.2 μ m that we find in many LIRGs suggest that the extended component of their MIR continuum emission originates in scales up to 10 kpc and may contribute as much as the nuclear region to their total MIR luminosity. The mean size of the LIRG cores at 13.2 μm is 2.6 kpc. However, once the IR luminosity of the systems reaches the threshold of L IR ∼ 10 11.8 L sun , slightly below the regime of Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), all sources become clearly more compact, with FEE 13.2 μ m ∼ IR ∼> 10 11.25 L sun strongly increases in those classified as mergers in their final stage of interaction. The FEE 13.2 μ m is also related to the contribution of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the MIR emission. Galaxies which are more AGN dominated are less extended, independently of their L IR . We finally find that the extent of the MIR continuum emission is correlated with the far-IR IRAS log(f 60 μ m /f 100 μ m

  19. Luminosity function of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Madore, B.F.; Neugebauer, G.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.; Rice, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a study of the far infrared properties of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey are described. There is a correlation between the infrared luminosity and the infrared to optical luminosity ratio and between the infrared luminosity and the far infrared color temperature in these galaxies. The infrared bright galaxies represent a significant component of extragalactic objects in the local universe, being comparable in space density to the Seyferts, optically identified starburst galaxies, and more numerous than quasars at the same bolometric luminosity. The far infrared luminosity in the local universe is approximately 25% of the starlight output in the same volume

  20. Aspects of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, M.N.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in a multifaceted program to investigate the stellar content and star formation history of actively star-forming galaxies. A large body of stellar spectra have been examined to identify spectral features characteristic of specific stellar types. These spectral diagnostics are then calibrated in terms of temperature (spectral type), gravity (luminosity class) and metallicity. The spectral data is compiled into a stellar library whose members represent specific locations in the HR diagram. Through the use of population synthesis techniques, both optimizing and evolutionary approaches, the stellar luminosity function in composite populations can be determined. Researchers have concentrated on the ultraviolet wavelength region (lambda lambda 1200 to 3200). In the optical, virtually all stars will contribute to the integrated light. In the ultraviolet however, cool stars will produce negligible flux due to their steep ultraviolet-to-visual continua, greatly simplifying the investigation of the hot component in a composite population. The researchers' initial stellar library has been applied to several blue compact galaxies, (BCGs), a class of starburst galaxy which is UV luminous. BCGs possess a complex interstellar medium which affects the emergent stellar continuum in several ways. This presents a challenge to the stellar analysis but affords insight into the properties of the gas and dust from which the massive OB stars have formed. The optimizing synthesis method solves for the stellar luminosity function and extinction simultaneously. This therefore provides an independent measure of the extinction affecting the hot population component. Despite the rise of the reddening law towards the ultraviolet, BCGs are found to be brighter in the ultraviolet than expected

  1. THE CARMA PAIRED ANTENNA CALIBRATION SYSTEM: ATMOSPHERIC PHASE CORRECTION FOR MILLIMETER WAVE INTERFEROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATION TO MAPPING THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY ARP 193

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B. Ashley; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Curley, Roger; Pound, Marc W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Teng, Stacy H.; Teuben, Peter J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Peréz, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lamb, James W.; Woody, David P.; Leitch, Erik M.; Muchovej, Stephen J.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States); Bock, Douglas C.-J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Plambeck, Richard L. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009–2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5 m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1 and 10.4 m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ∼2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator located ≲6° away from the science target. We show that cloud cover does not affect the success of C-PACS. We demonstrate C-PACS in typical use by applying it to the observations of the nearby very luminous infrared galaxy Arp 193 in {sup 12}CO(2-1) at a linear resolution of ≈70 pc (0.″12 × 0.″18), 3 times better than previously published molecular maps of this galaxy. We resolve the molecular disk rotation kinematics and the molecular gas distribution and measure the gas surface densities and masses on 90 pc scales. We find that molecular gas constitutes ∼30% of the dynamical mass in the inner 700 pc of this object with a surface density ∼10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2}; we compare these properties to those of the starburst region of NGC 253.

  2. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Ly{alpha} BLOBS AT z {approx} 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc' h, Emeric [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Chapman, Scott C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Neri, Roberto [IRAM-Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Borys, Colin [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tapken, Christian [Leibnitz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Ly{alpha} nebulae, the so-called Ly{alpha} blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z {approx} 3: an Ly{alpha} blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 {mu}m detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L{sub FIR} = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }, comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 {mu}m measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S{sub 850{mu}m} = 16.8 mJy) at the >4{sigma} level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with {approx}2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to Almost-Equal-To 0.45 mJy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S{sub {nu}}{Delta}V {approx}< 0.25-1.0 Jy km s{sup -1}, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H{sub 2}) < (1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12{sigma}), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  3. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources and their Implication for Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerding, E. G.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Falcke, H.

    2004-05-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These intriguing sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg/sec. Assuming isotropic emission the Eddington Limit suggests that they harbor intermediate mass black holes. Due to the problems of this explanation also other possibilities are currently discussed, among them are anisotropic emission, super-Eddington accretion flows or relativistically beamed emission from microquasars. Detections of compact radio cores at the positions of ULXs would be a direct hint to jet-emission. However, as the ULX phenomenom is connected to star formation we have to assume that they are strongly accreting objects. Thus, similar to their nearest Galactic cousins, the very high state X-ray binaries (see e.g., GRS 1915), ULXs may show radio flares. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times during 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is 0.15 mJy (4 σ ) for flares and 68 μ Jy for continuous emission. In M82 some ULXs seem to be connected to radio supernova remnants. Besides that no flare or continuous emission has been detected. As the timescales of radio flares in ULXs are highly uncertain, it could well be that we have undersampled the lightcurve. However, upper bounds for the probability to detect a flare can be given. The upper limits for the continuous emission are compared with the emission found in NGC 5408 X-1 and with quasars and microquasars. We show that these limits are well in agreement with the microblazar model using the Radio/X-ray correlation of XRBs and AGN. Thus, it could well be that ULXs are microblazers which may be radio loud.

  4. Formation of a Quasar Host Galaxy through a Wet Merger 1.4 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L.; Bertoldi, Frank; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    We present high-resolution Very Large Array imaging of the molecular gas in the host galaxy of the high-redshift quasar BRI 1335-0417 (z = 4.41). Our CO(J = 2→ 1) observations have a linear resolution of 0.15' ' (1.0 kpc) and resolve the molecular gas emission both spatially and in velocity. The molecular gas in BRI 1335-0417 is extended on scales of 5 kpc, and shows a complex structure. At least three distinct components encompassing about two-thirds of the total molecular mass of 9.2 × 1010 M⊙ are identified in velocity space, which are embedded in a structure that harbors about one-third of the total molecular mass in the system. The brightest CO(J = 2→ 1) line emission region has a peak brightness temperature of 61 ± 9 K within 1 kpc diameter, which is comparable to the kinetic gas temperature as predicted from the CO line excitation. This is also comparable to the gas temperatures found in the central regions of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies, which are however much more compact than 1 kpc. The spatial and velocity structure of the molecular reservoir in BRI 1335-0417 is inconsistent with a simple gravitationally bound disk, but resembles a merging system. Our observations are consistent with a major, gas-rich ("wet") merger that both feeds an accreting supermassive black hole (causing the bright quasar activity), and fuels a massive starburst that builds up the stellar bulge in this galaxy. Our study of this z > 4 quasar host galaxy may thus be the most direct observational evidence that wet mergers at high redshift are related to AGN activity.

  5. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  6. Self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres into hierarchically organized nanostructured supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Jung, Euiyeon; Goodman, Matthew D; Schweizer, Kenneth S; Tatsuda, Narihito; Yano, Kazuhisa; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-06

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon electrode containing both nanoscale and microscale porosity, which has been hierarchically organized to provide efficient ion and electron transport. The electrode organization is provided via the colloidal self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres (MSCSs). The periodic close-packing of the MSCSs provides continuous pores inside the 3D structure that facilitate ion and electron transport (electrode electrical conductivity ∼0.35 S m(-1)), and the internal meso- and micropores of the MSCS provide a good specific capacitance. The capacitance of the 3D-ordered porous MSCS electrode is ∼58 F g(-1) at 0.58 A g(-1), 48% larger than that of disordered MSCS electrode at the same rate. At 1 A g(-1) the capacitance of the ordered electrode is 57 F g(-1) (95% of the 0.24 A g(-1) value), which is 64% greater than the capacitance of the disordered electrode at the same rate. The ordered electrode preserves 95% of its initial capacitance after 4000 charging/discharging cycles.

  7. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at λ = 23 μm and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T ∼ 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 μm, [Ar II] 6.9 μm, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 μm were detected in all the starbursts and in ∼80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 μm, 11.3 μm, and 12.7 μm, we find that they are present in ∼80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 μm and 8.6 μm PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 μm/7.7 μm x 11.3 μm/7.7 μm) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules (≥180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 μm) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 μm and 11.3 μm) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 μm and 11.3 μm bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 μm) or neutral (11.3 μm) bands, may be destroyed with the increase of the hardness of the radiation field.

  8. Spatially resolving a starburst galaxy at hard X-ray energies: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA observations of NGC 253

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within...... is detected at E > 40 keV. We report upper limits on diffuse inverse Compton emission for a range of spatial models. For the most extended morphologies considered, these hard X-ray constraints disfavor a dominant inverse Compton component to explain the γ-ray emission detected with Fermi and H.E.S.S. If NGC...

  9. Discovery of a 115 Day Orbital Period in the Ultraluminous X-ray Source NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a 115 day periodicity in SWIFT/XRT monitoring data from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. Our o ngoing campaign samples its X-ray flux approximately twice weekly and has now achieved a temporal baseline of ti 485 days. Periodogram ana lysis reveals a significant periodicity with a period of 115.5 +/- 4 days. The modulation is detected with a significance of 3.2 x 10(exp -4) . The fractional modulation amplitude decreases with increasing e nergy, ranging from 0.13 +/- 0.02 above 1 keV to 0.24 +/- 0.02 below 1 keV. The shape of the profile evolves as well, becoming less sharply peaked at higher energies. The periodogram analysis is consistent wi th a periodic process, however, continued monitoring is required to c onfirm the coherent nature of the modulation. Spectral analysis indic ates that NGC 5408 X-1 can reach 0.3 - 10 keV luminosities of approxi mately 2 x 10 40 ergs/s . We suggest that, like the 62 day period of the ULX in M82 (X41.4-1-60), the periodicity detected in NGC 5408 X-1 represents the orbital period of the black hole binary containing the ULX. If this is true then the secondary can only be a giant or super giant star.

  10. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V ∼ 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age ∼ sun . The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II λ4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be ∼> 10 M sun , even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, ∼> 25 M sun , with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  11. CHARACTERIZING ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES FOR GALAXIES. I. INFLUENCES OF DUST ATTENUATION AND STELLAR POPULATION AGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yewei; Kong Xu; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Hao, Cai-Na; Zhou Xu

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color (or ultraviolet spectral slope), i.e., the IRX-UV (or IRX-β) relation, found in studies of starburst galaxies is a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion and to have a better understanding of the nature of the IRX-UV relation, in this paper, we select five nearby spiral galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each of the galaxies, with a combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to disperse the age effects. At the same time, strong evidence shows the need for more parameters in the interpretation of observational data, such as variations in attenuation/extinction law. Fractional contributions of different components to the integrated luminosities of the galaxies suggest that the integrated measurements of these galaxies, which comprise different populations, would weaken the effect of the age parameter on IRX-UV diagrams. The dependence of the IRX-UV relation on luminosity and radial distance in galaxies presents weak trends, which offers an implication of selective effects. The two-dimensional maps of the UV color and the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio are displayed and show a disparity in the spatial distributions between the two galaxy parameters, which offers a spatial interpretation of the scatter in

  12. Ground based THz Spectroscopy of Obscured Starbursts in the Early Universe enabled by the 2nd generation Redshift (z) & Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon; Nikola, Thomas; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin; Lamarche, Cody James; Higdon, James; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Güesten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Amiri, Mandana; Halpern, Mark; Wiebe, Donald; Hasselfield, Matthew; Ade, Peter; Tucker, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Galaxies were surprisingly dusty in the early Universe, with more than half of the light emitted from stars being absorbed by dust within the system and re-radiated into far infrared (FIR, ~50-150μm) wavelengths. Dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) dominate the co-moving star formation rate density of the Universe that peaks around redshift, z~2, making it compelling to study them in rest frame FIR bands. From galaxies at z > 1, the FIR line emission from abundant ions like [O III], [C II] and [N II], are redshifted into the short sub-mm telluric windows. My thesis work is based on building and deploying the 2nd Generation Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), a long-slit, echelle grating spectrometer optimized to study broad (Δv = 300km/s) spectral lines from galaxies in the 200-650µm telluric windows using TES bolometers. These far-IR lines being extinction free and major coolants of the gas heated by (young) massive stars, are powerful probes of the physical conditions of the gas and the stellar radiation field. I present results from our survey of the [O III] 88µm line in galaxies at redshift, z ~ 2.8 to 4.6, with ZEUS-2 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope. To interpret our observations along with ancillary data from optical to radio facilities, we apply photoionization models for HII regions and Photo Dissociation Region (PDR) models and confirm that the galaxies host substantial ongoing obscured star formation. The presence of doubly ionized oxygen suggests hard radiation fields and hence, elevated ionization parameters that can only be accounted for by a large population of massive stars formed during the ongoing starburst, that contribute a large fraction of the infrared luminosity. This study highlights the use of FIR line emission to trace the assembly of current day massive galaxies, conditions of star formation and details of their stellar populations. The construction and operation of ZEUS-2 were funded by NSF ATI

  13. Ionized Gas Kinematics around an Ultra-luminous X-Ray Source in NGC 5252: Additional Evidence for an Off-nuclear AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5252 contains a recently identified ultra-luminous X-ray (ULX) source that has been suggested to be a possible candidate off-nuclear low-mass active galactic nucleus. We present follow-up optical integral-field unit observations obtained using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs on the Gemini-North telescope. In addition to confirming that the ionized gas in the vicinity of the ULX is kinematically associated with NGC 5252, the new observations reveal ordered motions consistent with rotation around the ULX. The close coincidence of the excitation source of the line-emitting gas with the position of the ULX further suggests that ULX itself is directly responsible for the ionization of the gas. The spatially resolved measurements of [N ii] λ 6584/H α surrounding the ULX indicate a low gas-phase metallicity, consistent with those of other known low-mass active galaxies but not that of its more massive host galaxy. These findings strengthen the proposition that the ULX is not a background source but rather that it is the nucleus of a small, low-mass galaxy accreted by NGC 5252.

  14. THE ANATOMY OF AN EXTREME STARBURST WITHIN 1.3 Gyr OF THE BIG BANG REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Maiolino, R.; Lentati, L. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wagg, J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); McMahon, R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Wolfe, A., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present further analysis of the [C II] 158 {mu}m fine structure line and thermal dust continuum emission from the archetype extreme starburst/active galactic nucleus (AGN) group of galaxies in the early universe, BRI 1202-0725 at z = 4.7, using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The group has long been noted for having a closely separated (26 kpc in projection) FIR-hyperluminous quasar host galaxy and an optically obscured submillimeter galaxy (SMG). A short ALMA test observation reveals a rich laboratory for the study of the myriad processes involved in clustered massive galaxy formation in the early universe. Strong [C II] emission from the SMG and the quasar have been reported earlier by Wagg et al. based on these observations. In this paper, we examine in more detail the imaging results from the ALMA observations, including velocity channel images, position-velocity plots, and line moment images. We present detections of [C II] emission from two Ly{alpha}-selected galaxies in the group, demonstrating the relative ease with which ALMA can detect the [C II] emission from lower star formation rate galaxies at high redshift. Imaging of the [C II] emission shows a clear velocity gradient across the SMG, possibly indicating rotation or a more complex dynamical system on a scale {approx}10 kpc. There is evidence in the quasar spectrum and images for a possible outflow toward the southwest, as well as more extended emission (a {sup b}ridge{sup )}, between the quasar and the SMG, although the latter could simply be emission from Ly{alpha}-1 blending with that of the quasar at the limited spatial resolution of the current observations. These results provide an unprecedented view of a major merger of gas-rich galaxies driving extreme starbursts and AGN accretion during the formation of massive galaxies and supermassive black holes within 1.3 Gyr of the big bang.

  15. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Observations of the Galactic Center: Quantifying the Extreme Ultraviolet/Soft X-ray Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been shown that the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the ionizing stars of H II regions can be estimated by comparing the observed line emission to detailed models. In the Galactic Center (GC), however, previous observations have shown that the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local photon field is strange, producing both very low excitation ionized gas (indicative of ionization by late O stars) and also widespread diffuse emission from atoms too highly ionized to be found in normal H II regions. This paper describes the analysis of all GC spectra taken by Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In it, H II region densities and abundances are described, and serendipitously discovered candidate planetary nebulae, compact shocks, and candidate young stellar objects are tabulated. Models were computed with Cloudy, using SEDs from Starburst99 plus additional X-rays, and compared to the observed mid-infrared forbidden and recombination lines. The ages inferred from the model fits do not agree with recent proposed star formation sequences (star formation in the GC occurring along streams of gas with density enhancements caused by close encounters with the black hole, Sgr A*), with Sgr B1, Sgr C, and the Arches Cluster being all about the same age, around 4.5 Myr old, with similar X-ray requirements. The fits for the Quintuplet Cluster appear to give a younger age, but that could be caused by higher-energy photons from shocks from stellar winds or from a supernova.

  16. ANATOMY OF A POST-STARBURST MINOR MERGER: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH WFC3 STUDY OF NGC 4150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, R. Mark; Kaviraj, Sugata; Silk, Joseph I.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Trauger, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a spatially resolved near-UV/optical study, using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, of NGC 4150, a sub-L * , early-type galaxy (ETG) of around 6 x 10 9 M sun , which has been observed as part of the WFC3 Early-Release Science Programme. Previous work indicates that this galaxy has a large reservoir of molecular hydrogen gas, exhibits a kinematically decoupled core (a likely indication of recent merging) and strong, central Hβ absorption (indicative of young stars). While relatively uninspiring in its optical image, the core of NGC 4150 shows ubiquitous near-UV emission and remarkable dusty substructure. Our analysis shows this galaxy to lie in the near-UV green valley, and its pixel-by-pixel photometry exhibits a narrow range of near-UV/optical colors that are similar to those of nearby E+A (post-starburst) galaxies and lie between those of M83 (an actively star-forming spiral) and the local quiescent ETG population. We parameterize the properties of the recent star formation (RSF; age, mass fraction, metallicity, and internal dust content) in the NGC 4150 pixels by comparing the observed near-UV/optical photometry to stellar models. The typical age of the RSF is around 0.9 Gyr, consistent with the similarity of the near-UV colors to post-starburst systems, while the morphological structure of the young component supports the proposed merger scenario. The typical RSF metallicity, representative of the metallicity of the gas fuelling star formation, is ∼0.3-0.5 Z sun . Assuming that this galaxy is a merger and that the gas is sourced mainly from the infalling companion, these metallicities plausibly indicate the gas-phase metallicity (GPM) of the accreted satellite. Comparison to the local mass-GPM relation suggests (crudely) that the mass of the accreted system is ∼3 x 10 8 M sun , making NGC 4150 a 1:20 minor merger. A summation of the pixel RSF mass fractions indicates that the RSF contributes ∼2%-3% of the

  17. SHOCKED SUPERWINDS FROM THE z {approx} 2 CLUMPY STAR-FORMING GALAXY, ZC406690

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Aerospace Research Laboratories, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Davies, Ric; Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Kurk, Jaron; Wuyts, Stijn; Genel, Shy; Buschkamp, Peter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich CH-8093 (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio; Mancini, Chiara [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova I-35122 (Italy); Bouche, Nicolas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Burkert, Andreas [Department fuer Physik, Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen, D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaOsservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I 50125 Firenze (Italy); Hicks, Erin, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2012-06-20

    We have obtained high-resolution data of the z {approx} 2 ring-like, clumpy star-forming galaxy (SFG) ZC406690 using the VLT/SINFONI with adaptive optics (in K band) and in seeing-limited mode (in H and J bands). Our data include all of the main strong optical emission lines: [O II], [O III], H{alpha}, H{beta}, [N II], and [S II]. We find broad, blueshifted H{alpha} and [O III] emission line wings in the spectra of the galaxy's massive, star-forming clumps ({sigma} {approx} 85 km s{sup -1}) and even broader wings (up to 70% of the total H{alpha} flux, with {sigma} {approx} 290 km s{sup -1}) in regions spatially offset from the clumps by {approx}2 kpc. The broad emission likely originates from large-scale outflows with mass outflow rates from individual clumps that are 1-8 Multiplication-Sign the star formation rate (SFR) of the clumps. Based on emission line ratio diagnostics ([N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}) and photoionization and shock models, we find that the emission from the clumps is due to a combination of photoionization from the star-forming regions and shocks generated in the outflowing component, with 5%-30% of the emission deriving from shocks. In terms of the ionization parameter (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}, based on both the SFR and the O{sub 32} ratio), density (local electron densities of 300-1800 cm{sup -3} in and around the clumps, and ionized gas column densities of 1200-8000 M{sub Sun }pc{sup -2}), and SFR (10-40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), these clumps more closely resemble nuclear starburst regions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and dwarf irregulars than H II regions in local galaxies. However, the star-forming clumps are not located in the nucleus as in local starburst galaxies but instead are situated in a ring several kpc from the center of their high-redshift host galaxy, and have an overall disk-like morphology. The two brightest clumps are quite different in terms of their internal

  18. Swift Detection of a 65 Day X-Ray Period from the Ultraluminous Pulsar NGC 7793 P13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Li, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kong, Albert K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lupin Chun-Che, E-mail: cphu@hku.hk, E-mail: liliray@pa.msu.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-20

    NGC 7793 P13 is an ultraluminous X-ray source harboring an accreting pulsar. We report on the detection of a ∼65 day period X-ray modulation with Swift observations in this system. The modulation period found in the X-ray band is P = 65.05 ± 0.10 days and the profile is asymmetric with a fast rise and a slower decay. On the other hand, the u -band light curve collected by Swift UVOT confirmed an optical modulation with a period of P = 64.24 ± 0.13 days. We explored the phase evolution of the X-ray and optical periodicities and propose two solutions. A superorbital modulation with a period of ∼2700–4700 days probably caused by the precession of a warped accretion disk is necessary to interpret the phase drift of the optical data. We further discuss the implication if this ∼65 day periodicity is caused by the superorbital modulation. Estimated from the relationship between the spin-orbital and orbital-superorbital periods of known disk-fed high-mass X-ray binaries, the orbital period of P13 is roughly estimated as 3–7 days. In this case, an unknown mechanism with a much longer timescale is needed to interpret the phase drift. Further studies on the stability of these two periodicities with a long-term monitoring could help us to probe their physical origins.

  19. Discovery of a highly variable dipping ultraluminous X-ray source in M94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier [CNRS, IRAP, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: dlin@ua.edu [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report the discovery of a new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) 2XMM J125048.6+410743 within the spiral galaxy M94. The source has been observed by ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton on several occasions, exhibiting as a highly variable persistent source or a recurrent transient with a flux variation factor of ≳100, a high duty cycle (at least ∼70%), and a peak luminosity of L {sub X} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} (0.2-10 keV, absorbed). In the brightest observation, the source is similar to typical low-luminosity ULXs, with the spectrum showing a high-energy cutoff but harder than that from a standard accretion disk. There are also sporadical short dips, accompanied by spectral softening. In a fainter observation with L {sub X} ∼ 3.6 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}, the source appears softer and is probably in the thermal state seen in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs). In an even fainter observation (L {sub X} ∼ 9 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}), the spectrum is harder again, and the source might be in the steep-power-law state or the hard state of BHBs. In this observation, the light curve might exhibit ∼7 hr (quasi-)periodic large modulations over two cycles. The source also has a possible point-like optical counterpart from Hubble Space Telescope images. In terms of the colors and the luminosity, the counterpart is probably a G8 supergiant or a compact red globular cluster containing ∼2 × 10{sup 5} K dwarfs, with some possible weak UV excess that might be ascribed to accretion activity. Thus, our source is a candidate stellar-mass BHB with a supergiant companion or with a dwarf companion residing in a globular cluster. Our study supports that some low-luminosity ULXs are supercritically accreting stellar-mass BHBs.

  20. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  1. EXTENDED [C II] EMISSION IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Stacey, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Evans, A. S.; Malhotra, S.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Magdis, G. E.; Elbaz, D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Xu, C. K.; Lu, N.; Howell, J. H.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Meijerink, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ∼1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios ≥4 × 10 –3 , larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] ''deficits'' found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, Σ IR , for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ∼6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and Σ IR with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies

  2. HerMES: The contribution to the cosmic infrared background from galaxies selected by mass and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viero, M. P.; Moncelsi, L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Quadri, R. F. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Arumugam, V.; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conley, A.; Glenn, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Heinis, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Ibar, E. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Marsden, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Oliver, S. J., E-mail: marco.viero@caltech.edu [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-12-10

    We quantify the fraction of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) that originates from galaxies identified in the UV/optical/near-infrared by stacking 81,250 (∼35.7 arcmin{sup –2}) K-selected sources (K {sub AB} < 24.0) split according to their rest-frame U – V versus V – J colors into 72,216 star-forming and 9034 quiescent galaxies, on maps from Spitzer/MIPS (24 μm), Herschel/PACS (100, 160 μm), Herschel/SPIRE (250, 350, 500 μm), and AzTEC (1100 μm). The fraction of the CIB resolved by our catalog is (69% ± 15%) at 24 μm, (78% ± 17%) at 70 μm, (58% ± 13%) at 100 μm, (78% ± 18%) at 160 μm, (80% ± 17%) at 250 μm, (69% ± 14%) at 350 μm, (65% ± 12%) at 500 μm, and (45% ± 8%) at 1100 μm. Of that total, about 95% originates from star-forming galaxies, while the remaining 5% is from apparently quiescent galaxies. The CIB at λ ≲ 200 μm appears to be sourced predominantly from galaxies at z ≲ 1, while at λ ≳ 200 μm the bulk originates from 1 ≲ z ≲ 2. Galaxies with stellar masses log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.5-11 are responsible for the majority of the CIB, with those in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.5-10 bin contributing mostly at λ < 250 μm, and those in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 10-11 bin dominating at λ > 350 μm. The contribution from galaxies in the log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 9.0-9.5 (lowest) and log(M/M {sub ☉}) = 11.0-12.0 (highest) stellar-mass bins contribute the least—both of order 5%—although the highest stellar-mass bin is a significant contributor to the luminosity density at z ≳ 2. The luminosities of the galaxies responsible for the CIB shifts from combinations of 'normal' and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) at λ ≲ 160 μm, to LIRGs at 160 ≲ λ ≲ 500 μm, to finally LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at λ ≳ 500 μm. Stacking analyses were performed using SIMSTACK, a novel algorithm designed to account for possible biases in the stacked flux density due to clustering. It is made available to

  3. A Starburst in the Core of a Galaxy Cluster: the Dwarf Irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marcelo D.; Chanamé, Julio; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2015-09-01

    Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling toward the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster for the first time, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes at a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts, when galaxy-scale interactions were more common. Using the spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and auxiliary Very Large Telescope/FORS1 ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ˜ 4× {10}6 years and stellar masses from a few 1000 up to ˜ 3× {10}4{M}⊙ , slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and initial mass function. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Hα imaging data to determine the current star formation rate in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Γ, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Γ to be among the largest such values available in the literature, consistent with starburst galaxies. Thus a large fraction of the current star formation in NGC 1427A is occurring in star clusters, with the peculiar spatial arrangement of such complexes strongly hinting at the possibility that the starburst is being triggered by the passage of the galaxy through the cluster environment

  4. The Anatomy of an Extreme Starburst within 1.3 Gyr of the Big Bang Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Walter, F.; Maiolino, R.; Wagg, J.; Lentati, L.; McMahon, R.; Wolfe, A.

    2013-02-01

    We present further analysis of the [C II] 158 μm fine structure line and thermal dust continuum emission from the archetype extreme starburst/active galactic nucleus (AGN) group of galaxies in the early universe, BRI 1202-0725 at z = 4.7, using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The group has long been noted for having a closely separated (26 kpc in projection) FIR-hyperluminous quasar host galaxy and an optically obscured submillimeter galaxy (SMG). A short ALMA test observation reveals a rich laboratory for the study of the myriad processes involved in clustered massive galaxy formation in the early universe. Strong [C II] emission from the SMG and the quasar have been reported earlier by Wagg et al. based on these observations. In this paper, we examine in more detail the imaging results from the ALMA observations, including velocity channel images, position-velocity plots, and line moment images. We present detections of [C II] emission from two Lyα-selected galaxies in the group, demonstrating the relative ease with which ALMA can detect the [C II] emission from lower star formation rate galaxies at high redshift. Imaging of the [C II] emission shows a clear velocity gradient across the SMG, possibly indicating rotation or a more complex dynamical system on a scale ~10 kpc. There is evidence in the quasar spectrum and images for a possible outflow toward the southwest, as well as more extended emission (a "bridge"), between the quasar and the SMG, although the latter could simply be emission from Lyα-1 blending with that of the quasar at the limited spatial resolution of the current observations. These results provide an unprecedented view of a major merger of gas-rich galaxies driving extreme starbursts and AGN accretion during the formation of massive galaxies and supermassive black holes within 1.3 Gyr of the big bang. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA

  5. When feedback fails: the scaling and saturation of star formation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Kereš, Dušan

    2018-04-01

    We present a suite of 3D multiphysics MHD simulations following star formation in isolated turbulent molecular gas discs ranging from 5 to 500 parsecs in radius. These simulations are designed to survey the range of surface densities between those typical of Milky Way giant molecular clouds (GMCs) ({˜ } 10^2 {M_{\\odot } pc^{-2}}) and extreme ultraluminous infrared galaxy environments ({˜ } 10^4 {M_{\\odot } pc^{-2}}) so as to map out the scaling of the cloud-scale star formation efficiency (SFE) between these two regimes. The simulations include prescriptions for supernova, stellar wind, and radiative feedback, which we find to be essential in determining both the instantaneous per-freefall (ɛff) and integrated (ɛint) star formation efficiencies. In all simulations, the gas discs form stars until a critical stellar surface density has been reached and the remaining gas is blown out by stellar feedback. We find that surface density is a good predictor of ɛint, as suggested by analytic force balance arguments from previous works. SFE eventually saturates to ˜1 at high surface density. We also find a proportional relationship between ɛff and ɛint, implying that star formation is feedback-moderated even over very short time-scales in isolated clouds. These results have implications for star formation in galactic discs, the nature and fate of nuclear starbursts, and the formation of bound star clusters. The scaling of ɛff with surface density is not consistent with the notion that ɛff is always ˜ 1 per cent on the scale of GMCs, but our predictions recover the ˜ 1 per cent value for GMC parameters similar to those found in spiral galaxies, including our own.

  6. A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausselt, Susanne E; Euler, Thomas; Detwiler, Peter B; Denk, Winfried

    2007-07-01

    Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs) playing a major role. SACs generate larger dendritic Ca(2+) signals when motion is from their somata towards their dendritic tips than for motion in the opposite direction. To study the mechanisms underlying the computation of direction selectivity (DS) in SAC dendrites, electrical responses to expanding and contracting circular wave visual stimuli were measured via somatic whole-cell recordings and quantified using Fourier analysis. Fundamental and, especially, harmonic frequency components were larger for expanding stimuli. This DS persists in the presence of GABA and glycine receptor antagonists, suggesting that inhibitory network interactions are not essential. The presence of harmonics indicates nonlinearity, which, as the relationship between harmonic amplitudes and holding potential indicates, is likely due to the activation of voltage-gated channels. [Ca(2+)] changes in SAC dendrites evoked by voltage steps and monitored by two-photon microscopy suggest that the distal dendrite is tonically depolarized relative to the soma, due in part to resting currents mediated by tonic glutamatergic synaptic input, and that high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels are active at rest. Supported by compartmental modeling, we conclude that dendritic DS in SACs can be computed by the dendrites themselves, relying on voltage-gated channels and a dendritic voltage gradient, which provides the spatial asymmetry necessary for direction discrimination.

  7. A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne E Hausselt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs playing a major role. SACs generate larger dendritic Ca(2+ signals when motion is from their somata towards their dendritic tips than for motion in the opposite direction. To study the mechanisms underlying the computation of direction selectivity (DS in SAC dendrites, electrical responses to expanding and contracting circular wave visual stimuli were measured via somatic whole-cell recordings and quantified using Fourier analysis. Fundamental and, especially, harmonic frequency components were larger for expanding stimuli. This DS persists in the presence of GABA and glycine receptor antagonists, suggesting that inhibitory network interactions are not essential. The presence of harmonics indicates nonlinearity, which, as the relationship between harmonic amplitudes and holding potential indicates, is likely due to the activation of voltage-gated channels. [Ca(2+] changes in SAC dendrites evoked by voltage steps and monitored by two-photon microscopy suggest that the distal dendrite is tonically depolarized relative to the soma, due in part to resting currents mediated by tonic glutamatergic synaptic input, and that high-voltage-activated Ca(2+ channels are active at rest. Supported by compartmental modeling, we conclude that dendritic DS in SACs can be computed by the dendrites themselves, relying on voltage-gated channels and a dendritic voltage gradient, which provides the spatial asymmetry necessary for direction discrimination.

  8. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.

  9. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  10. The SDSS Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Post-Starburst Galaxy at z=0.766

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min-Su; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Falco, Emilio E.; Broadhurst, Tom; Gunn, James E.

    2008-09-30

    We present the first result of a survey for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images. SDSS J082728.70+223256.4 was selected as a lensing candidate using selection criteria based on the color and positions of objects in the SDSS photometric catalog. Follow-up imaging and spectroscopy showed this object to be a lensing system. The lensing galaxy is an elliptical at z = 0.349 in a galaxy cluster. The lensed galaxy has the spectrum of a post-starburst galaxy at z = 0.766. The lensing galaxy has an estimated mass of {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup 12} M{sub {circle_dot}} and the corresponding mass to light ratio in the B-band is {approx} 26 M{sub {circle_dot}}/L{sub {circle_dot}} inside 1.1 effective radii of the lensing galaxy. Our study shows how catalogs drawn from multi-band surveys can be used to find strong galaxy-galaxy lenses having multiple lens images. Our strong lensing candidate selection based on photometry-only catalogs will be useful in future multi-band imaging surveys such as SNAP and LSST.

  11. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Bastian, N. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, A. C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, C.P. 72840, Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, C., E-mail: westmoquette@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  12. A UNIVERSAL, LOCAL STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALACTIC CLOUDS, NEARBY GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT DISKS, AND STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation laws are rules that relate the rate of star formation in a particular region, either an entire galaxy or some portion of it, to the properties of the gas, or other galactic properties, in that region. While observations of Local Group galaxies show a very simple, local star formation law in which the star formation rate per unit area in each patch of a galaxy scales linearly with the molecular gas surface density in that patch, recent observations of both Milky Way molecular clouds and high-redshift galaxies apparently show a more complicated relationship in which regions of equal molecular gas surface density can form stars at quite different rates. These data have been interpreted as implying either that different star formation laws may apply in different circumstances, that the star formation law is sensitive to large-scale galaxy properties rather than local properties, or that there are high-density thresholds for star formation. Here we collate observations of the relationship between gas and star formation rate from resolved observations of Milky Way molecular clouds, from kpc-scale observations of Local Group galaxies, and from unresolved observations of both disk and starburst galaxies in the local universe and at high redshift. We show that all of these data are in fact consistent with a simple, local, volumetric star formation law. The apparent variations stem from the fact that the observed objects have a wide variety of three-dimensional size scales and degrees of internal clumping, so even at fixed gas column density the regions being observed can have wildly varying volume densities. We provide a simple theoretical framework to remove this projection effect, and we use it to show that all the data, from small solar neighborhood clouds with masses ∼10 3 M ☉ to submillimeter galaxies with masses ∼10 11 M ☉ , fall on a single star formation law in which the star formation rate is simply ∼1% of the molecular gas mass per local

  13. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VII. THE NGC 4214 STARBURST AND THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY ON DWARF MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at M F814W ∼ - 0.2. All of the optical data reach the main-sequence turnoff for stars younger than ∼300 Myr and the blue He-burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ∼75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at present. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many gigayears. As previously noted by others, we also find the galaxy has recently ramped up production consistent with its bright UV luminosity and its population of UV-bright massive stars. In the central field we find UV point sources with F336W magnitudes as bright as -9.9. These are as bright as stars with masses of at least 52-56 M sun and ages near 4 Myr in stellar evolution models. Assuming a standard initial mass function, our CMD is well fitted by an increase in star formation rate beginning 100 Myr ago. The stellar populations of this late-type dwarf are compared with those of NGC 404, an early-type dwarf that is also the most massive galaxy in its local environment. The late-type dwarf appears to have a similar high fraction of ancient stars, suggesting that these dominant galaxies may form at early epochs even if they have low total mass and very different present-day morphologies.

  14. The ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2: A broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: matteo.bachetti@irap.omp.eu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV. The NuSTAR data demonstrate that X-1 has a clear cutoff above 10 keV, whose presence was only marginally detectable with previous X-ray observations. This cutoff rules out the interpretation of X-1 as a black hole in a standard low/hard state, and it is deeper than predicted for the downturn of a broadened iron line in a reflection-dominated regime. The cutoff differs from the prediction of a single-temperature Comptonization model. Further, a cold disk-like blackbody component at ∼0.3 keV is required by the data, confirming previous measurements by XMM-Newton only. We observe a spectral transition in X-2, from a state with high luminosity and strong variability to a lower-luminosity state with no detectable variability, and we link this behavior to a transition from a super-Eddington to a sub-Eddington regime.

  15. THE STAR CLUSTER SYSTEM IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sungsoon; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric study of star clusters in the nearby starburst galaxy M82 based on the UBVI-, YJ- and H-band Hubble Space Telescope images. We find 1105 star clusters with V 0 ≈ 0.45, and a weaker red population. The luminosity function of the disk clusters shows a power-law distribution with a power-law index α = –2.04 ± 0.03, and the scale height of their distribution is h z = 9.''64 ± 0.''40 (164 ± 7 pc), similar to that of the stellar thin disk of M82. We have derived the ages of ∼630 star clusters using the spectral energy distribution fit method by comparing UBVI(YJ)H-band photometric data with the simple stellar population models. The age distribution of the disk clusters shows that the most dominant cluster population has ages ranging from 100 Myr to 1 Gyr, with a peak at about 500 Myr. This suggests that M82 has undergone a disk-wide star formation about 500 Myr ago, probably through the interaction with M81. The brightest star clusters in the nuclear region are much brighter than those in other regions, indicating that more massive star clusters are formed in the denser environments. On the other hand, the colors of the halo clusters are similar to those of globular clusters in the Milky Way, and their ages are estimated to be older than 1 Gyr. These are probably genuine old globular clusters in M82.

  16. MEASURING STAR FORMATION RATES AND FAR-INFRARED COLORS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING THE CO(7–6) AND [N II] 205 μm LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanyao; Zhao, Yinghe; Xu, C. Kevin; Howell, Justin; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Schulz, Bernhard [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Yu; Liu, Lijie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Privon, George C. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 C, Concepción (Chile); Lord, Steven D. [The SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Van der Werf, Paul P., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-20

    To better characterize the global star formation activity in a galaxy, one needs to know not only the star formation rate (SFR) but also the rest-frame, far-infrared color (e.g., the 60–100 μm color, C(60/100)) of the dust emission. The latter probes the average intensity of the dust heating radiation field and scales statistically with the effective SFR surface density in star-forming galaxies including (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs). To this end, here we exploit a new spectroscopic approach involving only two emission lines: CO(7–6) at 372 μm and [N ii] at 205 μm([N ii]{sub 205μm}). For local (U)LIRGs, the ratios of the CO(7–6) luminosity (L{sub CO(7–6)}) to the total infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}; 8–1000 μm) are fairly tightly distributed (to within ∼0.12 dex) and show little dependence on C(60/100). This makes L{sub CO(7–6)} a good SFR tracer, which is less contaminated by active galactic nuclei than L{sub IR} and may also be much less sensitive to metallicity than L{sub CO(1–0)}. Furthermore, the logarithmic [N ii]{sub 205μm}/CO(7–6) luminosity ratio depends fairly strongly (at a slope of ∼ −1.4) on C(60/100), with a modest scatter (∼0.23 dex). This makes it a useful estimator on C(60/100) with an implied uncertainty of ∼0.15 (or ≲4 K in the dust temperature (T{sub dust}) in the case of a graybody emission with T{sub dust} ≳ 30 K and a dust emissivity index β ≥ 1). Our locally calibrated SFR and C(60/100) estimators are shown to be consistent with the published data of (U)LIRGs of z up to ∼6.5.

  17. UGC galaxies stronger than 25 mJy at 4.85 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Frayer, D.T.; Broderick, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 to +75 deg were identified by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmed or rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps and new 4.86 GHz VLA maps having 15 or 18 arcsec resolution, resulting in a sample of 347 nearby radio galaxies plus five new quasar-galaxy pairs. The radio energy sources in UGC galaxies were classified as starbursts or monsters on the basis of their infrared-radio flux ratios, infrared spectral indices, and radio morphologies. The rms scatter in the logarithmic infrared-radio ratio q is not more than 0.16 for starburst galaxies selected at 4.85 GHz. Radio spectral indices were obtained for nearly all of the UGC galaxies, and S0 galaxies account for a disproportionate share of the compact flat-spectrum (alpha less than 0.5) radio sources. The extended radio jets and lobes produced by monsters are preferentially, but not exclusively, aligned within about 30 deg of the optical minor axes of their host galaxies. The tendency toward minor-axis ejection appears to be independent of radio-source size and is strongest for elliptical galaxies. 230 refs

  18. ALMA HCN AND HCO{sup +} J  = 3 − 2 OBSERVATIONS OF OPTICAL SEYFERT AND LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: CONFIRMATION OF ELEVATED HCN-TO-HCO{sup +} FLUX RATIOS IN AGNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of our ALMA observations of three active galactic nucleus (AGN)-dominated nuclei in optical Seyfert 1 galaxies (NGC 7469, I Zw 1, and IC 4329 A) and eleven luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with various levels of infrared estimated energetic contributions by AGNs at the HCN and HCO{sup +} J  = 3 − 2 emission lines. The HCN and HCO{sup +} J  = 3 − 2 emission lines are clearly detected at the main nuclei of all sources, except for IC 4329 A. The vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1f) HCN J  = 3 − 2 and HCO{sup +} J  = 3 − 2 emission lines are simultaneously covered, and HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J  = 3 − 2 emission line signatures are seen in the main nuclei of two LIRGs, IRAS 12112+0305 and IRAS 22491–1808, neither of which shows clear buried AGN signatures in the infrared. If the vibrational excitation is dominated by infrared radiative pumping, through the absorption of infrared 14 μ m photons, primarily originating from AGN-heated hot dust emission, then these two LIRGs may contain infrared-elusive, but (sub)millimeter-detectable, extremely deeply buried AGNs. These vibrationally excited emission lines are not detected in the three AGN-dominated optical Seyfert 1 nuclei. However, the observed HCN v {sub 2} = 1f to v  = 0 flux ratios in these optical Seyferts are still consistent with the intrinsic flux ratios in LIRGs with detectable HCN v {sub 2} = 1f emission lines. The observed HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J  = 3 − 2 flux ratios tend to be higher in galactic nuclei with luminous AGN signatures compared with starburst-dominated regions, as previously seen at J  = 1 − 0 and J  = 4 − 3.

  19. Measures of star formation rates from infrared (Herschel) and UV (GALEX) emissions of galaxies in the HerMES fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat, V.; Giovannoli, E.; Burgarella, D.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Gear, W.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Isaak, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Magdis, G.; Mainetti, G.; Marchetti, L.; Morrison, G. E.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Owen, F. N.; Page, M. J.; Pannella, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rizzo, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sánchez Portal, M.; Schulz, B.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Stevens, J. A.; Strazzullo, V.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Tugwell, K. E.; Vaccari, M.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Vigroux, L.; Wang, L.; Ward, R.; Wright, G.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.

    2010-11-01

    The reliability of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emissions to measure star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies is investigated for a large sample of galaxies observed with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on Herschel as part of the Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) project. We build flux-limited 250-μm samples of sources at redshift z 500 μm. Dust attenuation is discussed on the basis of commonly used diagnostics: the LIR/LUV ratio and the slope, β, of the UV continuum. A mean dust attenuation AUV of mag is measured in the samples. LIR/LUV is found to correlate with LIR. Galaxies with and 0.5 recipe commonly applied to local starbursts is found to overestimate the dust attenuation correction in our galaxy sample by a factor of ~2-3. The SFRs deduced from LIR are found to account for about 90 per cent of the total SFR; this percentage drops to 71 per cent for galaxies with (or ). For these faint objects, one needs to combine UV and IR emissions to obtain an accurate measure of the SFR.

  20. CLUMPY AND EXTENDED STARBURSTS IN THE BRIGHTEST UNLENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Ikarashi, Soh [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Lee, Minju; Saito, Toshiki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Ueda, Junko [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Michiyama, Tomonari; Ando, Misaki, E-mail: d.iono@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-09-20

    The central structure in three of the brightest unlensed z = 3–4 submillimeter galaxies is investigated through 0.″015–0.″05 (120–360 pc) 860 μ m continuum images obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The distribution in the central kiloparsec in AzTEC1 and AzTEC8 is extremely complex, and they are composed of multiple ∼200 pc clumps. AzTEC4 consists of two sources that are separated by ∼1.5 kpc, indicating a mid-stage merger. The peak star formation rate densities in the central clumps are ∼300–3000 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, suggesting regions with extreme star formation near the Eddington limit. By comparing the flux obtained by ALMA and Submillimeter Array, we find that 68%–90% of the emission is extended (≳1 kpc) in AzTEC4 and 8. For AzTEC1, we identify at least 11 additional compact (∼200 pc) clumps in the extended 3–4 kpc region. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the luminosity surface densities observed at ≲150 pc scales are roughly similar to that observed in local ULIRGs, as in the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Between 10% and 30% of the 860 μ m continuum is concentrated in clumpy structures in the central kiloparsec, while the remaining flux is distributed over ≳1 kpc regions, some of which could also be clumpy. These sources can be explained by a rapid inflow of gas such as a merger of gas-rich galaxies, surrounded by extended and clumpy starbursts. However, the cold mode accretion model is not ruled out.

  1. THE XMM-NEWTON LONG LOOK OF NGC 1365: LACK OF A HIGH/SOFT STATE IN ITS ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, R.; Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Bianchi, S.; Kuncic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on our long (∼300 ks) 2007 XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365, we report here on the spectral and timing behavior of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), which had previously reached isotropic X-ray luminosities L X ∼ 4 x 10 40 erg s -1 (0.3-10 keV band). In 2007, they were in a lower state (L X ∼ 5 x 10 39 and 1.5 x 10 39 erg s -1 for X1 and X2, respectively). Their X-ray spectra were dominated by power laws with photon indices Γ ∼ 1.8 and 1.2, respectively. Thus, their spectra were similar to those at their outburst peaks. Both sources have been seen to vary by a factor of 20 in luminosity over the years, but their spectra are always dominated by a hard power law; unlike most stellar-mass black holes, they have never been found in a canonical high/soft state dominated by a standard disk. The lack of a canonical high/soft state seems to be a common feature of ULXs. We speculate that the different kind of donor star and/or a persistently super-Eddington accretion rate during their outbursts may prevent accretion flows in ULXs from settling into steady standard disks.

  2. WITNESSING THE BIRTH OF THE RED SEQUENCE: ALMA HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF [C II] AND DUST IN TWO INTERACTING ULTRA-RED STARBURSTS AT z = 4.425

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Zhang, Z-Y.; Lewis, A.; Maddox, S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ UK (United Kingdom); Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE UK (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Serjeant, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Werf, P. Van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bremer, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Cigan, P.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Physics Department, Blackett Lab, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien (Austria); Ibar, E. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Messias, H., E-mail: ivanoteogomez@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofśica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, OAL, Tapada da Ajuda, PT1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2016-08-10

    Exploiting the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have studied the morphology and the physical scale of the interstellar medium—both gas and dust—in SGP 38326, an unlensed pair of interacting starbursts at z = 4.425. SGP 38326 is the most luminous star bursting system known at z > 4, with a total IR luminosity of L {sub IR} ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ⊙} and a star formation rate of ∼ 4500 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. SGP 38326 also contains a molecular gas reservoir among the most massive yet found in the early universe, and it is the likely progenitor of a massive, red-and-dead elliptical galaxy at z ∼ 3. Probing scales of ∼0.″1 or ∼800 pc we find that the smooth distribution of the continuum emission from cool dust grains contrasts with the more irregular morphology of the gas, as traced by the [C ii] fine structure emission. The gas is also extended over larger physical scales than the dust. The velocity information provided by the resolved [C ii] emission reveals that the dynamics of the two interacting components of SGP 38326 are each compatible with disk-like, ordered rotation, but also reveals an ISM which is turbulent and unstable. Our observations support a scenario where at least a subset of the most distant extreme starbursts are highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies.

  3. Witnessing the Birth of the Red Sequence: ALMA High-resolution Imaging of [C II] and Dust in Two Interacting Ultra-red Starbursts at z = 4.425

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Lewis, A.; Maddox, S.; Riechers, D.; Serjeant, S.; Van der Werf, P.; Biggs, A. D.; Bremer, M.; Cigan, P.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Eales, S.; Ibar, E.; Messias, H.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; van Kampen, E.

    2016-08-01

    Exploiting the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have studied the morphology and the physical scale of the interstellar medium—both gas and dust—in SGP 38326, an unlensed pair of interacting starbursts at z = 4.425. SGP 38326 is the most luminous star bursting system known at z > 4, with a total IR luminosity of L IR ˜ 2.5 × 1013 L ⊙ and a star formation rate of ˜ 4500 M ⊙ yr-1. SGP 38326 also contains a molecular gas reservoir among the most massive yet found in the early universe, and it is the likely progenitor of a massive, red-and-dead elliptical galaxy at z ˜ 3. Probing scales of ˜0.″1 or ˜800 pc we find that the smooth distribution of the continuum emission from cool dust grains contrasts with the more irregular morphology of the gas, as traced by the [C II] fine structure emission. The gas is also extended over larger physical scales than the dust. The velocity information provided by the resolved [C II] emission reveals that the dynamics of the two interacting components of SGP 38326 are each compatible with disk-like, ordered rotation, but also reveals an ISM which is turbulent and unstable. Our observations support a scenario where at least a subset of the most distant extreme starbursts are highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies.

  4. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853 (United States); Decarli, R.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannerbauer, H., E-mail: jhodge@nrao.edu [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ Σ{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.1±1.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago.

  5. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  6. Interfacial exciplex electroluminescence between diamine derivatives with starburst molecular structure and tris(acetylacetonato)-(mono-phenothroline) thulium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hong; Li Wenlian; Su Zisheng; Chu Bei; Bi Defeng; Chen Yiren; Wang Dan; Su Wenming; Li Bin

    2009-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the interfacial exciplex electroluminescence (EL) between tris(acetylacetonato)-(mono-phenothroline) thulium [Tm(AcA) 3 phen] and two diamine derivatives with starburst molecular structure- 4,4',4''-tris[2-naphthyl(phenyl)amino]triphenylamine (2-TNATA) and 4,4',4''-tris[3-methyl-pheny(phenyl)-amino]triphenyl-amine (m-MTDATA), both of which have the same ionization potential (IP) (approximately 5.1 eV). When the Tm-complex and the two diamine derivatives are respectively used as the electron accepter and donors, the two EL devices exhibit different exciplex emissions, which verifies our previously reported opinion regarding the effect of the different substitutes on exciplex emission [W.M. Su, W.L. Li, Q. Xin, Z.S. Su, B. Chu, D.F. Bi, H. He, J.H. Niu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 (2007) 043508]. When the mixture of the two diamine derivatives is used as a donor, a white EL device with the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.277, 0.323) is achieved. The exciplex formation mechanisms of the devices with the two different donors are discussed

  7. A SAMPLE OF SEYFERT-2 GALAXIES WITH ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY-WIDE NARROW-LINE REGIONS: QUASAR LIGHT ECHOES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, M.; Diaz, R.; Levenson, N. A.; Winge, C.; Holhjem, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of Seyfert-2 galaxies in SDSS-DR8 with galaxy-wide, ultraluminous narrow-line regions (NLRs) at redshifts z = 0.2-0.6. With a space density of 4.4 Gpc –3 at z ∼ 0.3, these 'green beans' (GBs) are amongst the rarest objects in the universe. We are witnessing an exceptional and/or short-lived phenomenon in the life cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The main focus of this paper is on a detailed analysis of the GB prototype galaxy J2240–0927 (z = 0.326). Its NLR extends over 26 × 44 kpc and is surrounded by an extended NLR. With a total [O III] λ5008 luminosity of (5.7 ± 0.9) × 10 43 erg s –1 , this is one of the most luminous NLRs known around any type-2 galaxy. Using VLT/XSHOOTER, we show that the NLR is powered by an AGN, and we derive resolved extinction, density, and ionization maps. Gas kinematics is disturbed on a global scale, and high-velocity outflows are absent or faint. This NLR is unlike any other NLR or extended emission line region known. Spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS reveals extended, high-luminosity [O III] emission also in other GBs. WISE 24 μm luminosities are 5-50 times lower than predicted by the [O III] fluxes, suggesting that the NLRs reflect earlier, very active quasar states that have strongly subsided in less than a galaxy's light-crossing time. These light echoes, or ionization echoes, are about 100 times more luminous than any other such echo known to date. X-ray data are needed for photoionization modeling and to verify the light echoes.

  8. Photoionization modeling of the LWS fine-structure lines in IR bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M. L.; Fischer, J.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Wolfire, M. G.

    1997-01-01

    The long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) fine structure line spectra from infrared luminous galaxies were modeled using stellar evolutionary synthesis models combined with photoionization and photodissociation region models. The calculations were carried out by using the computational code CLOUDY. Starburst and active galactic nuclei models are presented. The effects of dust in the ionized region are examined.

  9. The nature of extreme emission line galaxies at z = 1-2: kinematics and metallicities from near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maseda, Michael V.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Momcheva, Ivelina; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Nelson, Erica J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Förster-Schreiber, Natascha M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lundgren, Britt F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Tufts University, Robinson Hall, Room 257, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Patel, Shannon G., E-mail: maseda@mpia.de [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy of a sample of 22 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies at redshifts 1.3 < z < 2.3, confirming that these are low-mass (M{sub *} = 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) galaxies undergoing intense starburst episodes (M{sub *}/SFR ∼ 10-100 Myr). The sample is selected by [O III] or Hα emission line flux and equivalent width using near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey. High-resolution NIR spectroscopy is obtained with LBT/LUCI and VLT/X-SHOOTER. The [O III]/Hβ line ratio is high (≳ 5) and [N II]/Hα is always significantly below unity, which suggests a low gas-phase metallicity. We are able to determine gas-phase metallicities for seven of our objects using various strong-line methods, with values in the range 0.05-0.30 Z{sub ☉} and with a median of 0.15 Z{sub ☉}; for three of these objects we detect [O III] λ4363, which allows for a direct constraint on the metallicity. The velocity dispersion, as measured from the nebular emission lines, is typically ∼50 km s{sup –1}. Combined with the observed star-forming activity, the Jeans and Toomre stability criteria imply that the gas fraction must be large (f{sub gas} ≳ 2/3), consistent with the difference between our dynamical and stellar mass estimates. The implied gas depletion timescale (several hundred Myr) is substantially longer than the inferred mass-weighted ages (∼50 Myr), which further supports the emerging picture that most stars in low-mass galaxies form in short, intense bursts of star formation.

  10. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-03

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  11. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  12. Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2000-08-01

    We report detailed evidence for multiple merger, extended massive star formation, galactic wind, and circular/noncircular motions in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 3256, based on observations of high-resolution imaging (Hubble Space Telescope, ESO NTT), and extensive spectroscopic data (more than 1000 spectra, collected at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre, Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito, Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, and IUE observatories). We find in a detailed morphological study (resolution ~15 pc) that the extended massive star formation process detected previously in NGC 3256 shows extended triple asymmetrical spiral arms (r~5 kpc), emanating from three different nuclei. The main optical nucleus shows a small spiral disk (r~500 pc), which is a continuation of the external one and reaches the very nucleus. The core shows blue elongated structure (50 pc×25 pc) and harbors a blue stellar cluster candidate (r~8 pc). We discuss this complex morphology in the framework of an extended massive star formation driven by a multiple merger process (models of Hernquist et al. and Taniguchi et al.). We study the kinematics of this system and present a detailed Hα velocity field for the central region (40''×40'' rmax~30''~5 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1" and errors of +/-15 km s-1. The color and isovelocity maps show mainly (1) a kinematic center of circular motion with ``spider'' shape, located between the main optical nucleus and the close (5") mid-IR nucleus and (2) noncircular motions in the external parts. We obtained three ``sinusoidal rotation curves'' (from the Hα velocity field) around position angle (P.A.) ~55°, ~90°, and ~130°. In the main optical nucleus we found a clear ``outflow component'' associated with galactic winds plus an ``inflow radial motion.'' The outflow component was also detected in the central and external regions (rstandard models of photoionization, shocks, and starbursts). We present four detailed emission

  13. An Archival Search For Young Globular Clusters in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1995-07-01

    One of the most intriguing results from HST has been the discovery of ultraluminous star clusters in interacting and merging galaxies. These clusters have the luminosities, colors, and sizes that would be expected of young globular clusters produced by the interaction. We propose to use the data in the HST Archive to determine how prevalent this phenomena is, and to determine whether similar clusters are produced in other environments. Three samples will be extracted and studied in a systematic and consistent manner: 1} interacting and merging galaxies, 2} starburst galaxies, 3} a control sample of ``normal'' galaxies. A preliminary search of the archives shows that there are at least 20 galaxies in each of these samples, and the number will grow by about 50 observations become available. The data will be used to determine the luminosity function, color histogram , spatial distribution, and structural properties of the clusters using the same techniques employed in our study of NGC 7252 {``Atoms -for-Peace'' galaxy} and NGC 4038/4039 {``The Antennae''}. Our ultimate goals are: 1} to understand how globular clusters form, and 2} to use the clusters as evolutionary tracers to unravel the histories of interacting galaxies.

  14. Constraints on the OH-to-H Abundance Ratio in Infrared-bright Galaxies Derived from the Strength of the OH 35 μm Absorption Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Myra; Veilleux, Sylvain; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Spoon, Henrik; Sturm, Eckhard

    2018-02-01

    We analyze Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the OH 35 μm feature in 15 nearby (z ≲ 0.06) (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). All objects exhibit OH 35 μm purely in absorption, as expected. The small optical depth of this transition makes the strength of this feature a good indicator of the true OH column density. The measured OH 35 μm equivalent widths imply an average OH column density and a 1-σ standard deviation to the mean of {N}{OH}=1.31+/- 0.22× {10}17 cm‑2. This number is then compared with the hydrogen column density for a typical optical depth at 35 μm of ∼0.5 and gas-to-dust ratio of 125 to derive an OH-to-H abundance ratio of {X}{OH}=1.01+/- 0.15× {10}-6. This abundance ratio is formally a lower limit. It is consistent with the values generally assumed in the literature. The OH 35 μm line profiles predicted from published radiative transfer models constrained by observations of OH 65, 79, 84, and 119 μm in 5 objects (Mrk 231, Mrk 273, IRAS F05189-2524, IRAS F08572+3915, and IRAS F20551-4250) are also found to be consistent with the IRS OH 35 μm spectra.

  15. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L X ≥ 10 40 erg s –1 ). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass ∼10 M ☉ or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the ∼>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow

  16. Testing the Paradigm that Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-11-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish as a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray-luminous objects possess the flattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra bandpass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity >=5 × 1039 erg s-1) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs—i.e., the "simple IMBH model"—is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to a large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find that (1) cool-disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) cool-disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 1039 erg s-1, down to our sample limit of 1038.3 erg s-1. The fact that cool-disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which strong statistical support was never found.

  17. Rise of the Titans: A Dusty, Hyper-luminous “870 μm Riser” Galaxy at z ˜ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Leung, T. K. Daisy; Ivison, Rob J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Lewis, Alexander J. R.; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Oteo, Iván; Clements, Dave L.; Cooray, Asantha; Greenslade, Josh; Martínez-Navajas, Paloma; Oliver, Seb; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Scott, Douglas; Weiss, Axel

    2017-11-01

    We report the detection of ADFS-27, a dusty, starbursting major merger at a redshift of z = 5.655, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). ADFS-27 was selected from Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and APEX/LABOCA data as an extremely red “870 μm riser” (I.e., {S}250μ {{m}}< {S}350μ {{m}}< {S}500μ {{m}}< {S}870μ {{m}}), demonstrating the utility of this technique to identify some of the highest-redshift dusty galaxies. A scan of the 3 mm atmospheric window with ALMA yields detections of CO(J = 5 → 4) and CO(J = 6 → 5) emission, and a tentative detection of H2O(211 → 202) emission, which provides an unambiguous redshift measurement. The strength of the CO lines implies a large molecular gas reservoir with a mass of M gas = 2.5 × 1011 ({α }{CO}/0.8)(0.39/{r}51) M ⊙, sufficient to maintain its ˜2400 M ⊙ yr-1 starburst for at least ˜100 Myr. The 870 μm dust continuum emission is resolved into two components, 1.8 and 2.1 kpc in diameter, separated by 9.0 kpc, with comparable dust luminosities, suggesting an ongoing major merger. The infrared luminosity of L IR ≃ 2.4 × 1013 L ⊙ implies that this system represents a binary hyper-luminous infrared galaxy, the most distant of its kind presently known. This also implies star formation rate surface densities of {{{Σ }}}{SFR}=730 and 750 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc2, consistent with a binary “maximum starburst.” The discovery of this rare system is consistent with a significantly higher space density than previously thought for the most luminous dusty starbursts within the first billion years of cosmic time, easing tensions regarding the space densities of z ˜ 6 quasars and massive quiescent galaxies at z ≳ 3.

  18. NUSTAR AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTREME ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC 5907 ULX1: A VANISHING ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Middleton, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, T. P.; Sutton, A. D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zhang, W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ∼5 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ∼4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC 5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC 5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ∼2 orders of magnitude or more during this ∼4 day window. We argue that this is likely due to a rapid rise in the mass accretion rate, rather than to a transition from an extremely obscured to an unobscured state. During the second epoch we observed the broadband 0.3-20.0 keV X-ray luminosity to be (1.55 ± 0.06) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}, similar to the majority of the archival X-ray observations. The broadband X-ray spectrum obtained from the second epoch is inconsistent with the low/hard accretion state observed in Galactic black hole binaries, but is well modeled with a simple accretion disk model incorporating the effects of photon advection. This strongly suggests that when bright, NGC 5907 ULX1 is a high-Eddington accretor.

  19. Synthesis and luminescent properties of star-burst D-π-A compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: rui.liu@njtech.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhu, Xiaolin [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Yuhao [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chang, Jin [Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St., Brisbane 4000 (Australia); Zhu, Hongjun, E-mail: zhuhjnjut@hotmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ma, Liangwei; Lv, Wangjie; Guo, Jun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Two new star-burst compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms (1a and 1b) were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. Both compounds exhibit strong {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎} transitions in the UV region and intense {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎}/intramolecular charge transfer ({sup 1}ICT) absorption bands in the UV–vis region. Introducing the carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arm on the 1,3,5-triazine core causes a slight bathochromic shift and enhanced molar extinction coefficient of the {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎}/{sup 1}ICT transition band. Both compounds are emissive in solution at room temperature and 77 K, which exhibit pronounced positive solvatochromic effect. The emitting state could be ascribed to {sup 1}ICT state in more polar solvent, and {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎} state in low-polarity solvent. The high emission quantum yields (Φ{sub em}=0.90∼1.0) of 1a and 1b (in hexane and toluene) make them potential candidates as efficient light-emitting materials. The spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations indicate that the photophysical properties of these compounds can be tuned by the carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arm, which would also be useful for rational design of photofunctional materials. - Highlights: • Star-burst compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms. • Photophysical properties of target compounds were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. • The relatively high fluorescence quantum yields make them potential candidates as light-emitting materials.

  20. The low-metallicity starburst NGC346: massive-star population and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2017-08-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is ideal to study young, massive stars at low metallicity. The compact cluster NGC346 contains about half of all O-type stars in the entire SMC. The massive-star population of this cluster powers N66, the brightest and largest HII region in the SMC. We propose to use HST-STIS to slice NGC346 with 20 long-slit exposures, in order to obtain the UV spectra of most of the massive early-type stars of this cluster. Archival data of 13 exposures that cover already a minor part of this cluster will be included in our analyses. Our aim is to quantitatively analyze virtually the whole massive-star population of NGC346. We have already secured the optical spectra of all massive stars in the field with the integral-field spectrograph MUSE at the ESO-VLT. However, for the determination of the stellar-wind parameters, i.e. the mass-loss rates and the wind velocities, ultraviolet spectra are indispensable. Our advanced Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code will be used for modeling the stellar and wind spectra in the course of the analysis. Finally, we will obtain:(a) the fundamental stellar and wind parameters of all stars brighter than spectral type B2V in the field, which, e,g,, will constrain the initial mass function in this young low-metallicity starburst;(b) mass-loss rates of many more OB-type stars at SMC metallicity than hitherto known, allowing to better constrain their metallicity dependence;(c) the integrated feedback by ionizing radiation and stellar winds of the whole massive-star population of NGC346, which will be used as input to model the ecology of the giant HII region N66.These HST UV data will be of high legacy value.

  1. Interfacial exciplex electroluminescence between diamine derivatives with starburst molecular structure and tris(acetylacetonato)-(mono-phenothroline) thulium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Hong [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Li Wenlian [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)], E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.cn; Su Zisheng; Chu Bei; Bi Defeng; Chen Yiren; Wang Dan; Su Wenming; Li Bin [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2009-02-20

    The authors demonstrate the interfacial exciplex electroluminescence (EL) between tris(acetylacetonato)-(mono-phenothroline) thulium [Tm(AcA){sub 3}phen] and two diamine derivatives with starburst molecular structure- 4,4',4''-tris[2-naphthyl(phenyl)amino]triphenylamine (2-TNATA) and 4,4',4''-tris[3-methyl-pheny(phenyl)-amino]triphenyl-amine (m-MTDATA), both of which have the same ionization potential (IP) (approximately 5.1 eV). When the Tm-complex and the two diamine derivatives are respectively used as the electron accepter and donors, the two EL devices exhibit different exciplex emissions, which verifies our previously reported opinion regarding the effect of the different substitutes on exciplex emission [W.M. Su, W.L. Li, Q. Xin, Z.S. Su, B. Chu, D.F. Bi, H. He, J.H. Niu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 (2007) 043508]. When the mixture of the two diamine derivatives is used as a donor, a white EL device with the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.277, 0.323) is achieved. The exciplex formation mechanisms of the devices with the two different donors are discussed.

  2. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties

  3. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada (Spain); Amorín, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Ascasibar, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Papaderos, P., E-mail: jos@iac.es [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  4. EVOLUTION OF THE MOST LUMINOUS DUSTY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.; Houck, James R.

    2009-01-01

    A summary of mid-infrared continuum luminosities arising from dust is given for very luminous galaxies, L IR > 10 12 L sun , with 0.005 0.7 in the 9.7 μm silicate absorption feature (i.e., half of the continuum is absorbed) and having equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature ν (8 μm) for the most luminous obscured AGNs is found to scale as (1+z) 2.6 to z = 2.8. For unobscured AGNs, the scaling with redshift is similar, but luminosities νL ν (8 μm) are approximately three times greater for the most luminous sources. Using both obscured and unobscured AGNs having total infrared fluxes from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, empirical relations are found between νL ν (8 μm) and L IR . Combining these relations with the redshift scaling of luminosity, we conclude that the total infrared luminosities for the most luminous obscured AGNs, L IR (AGN obscured ) in L sun , scale as log L IR (AGN obscured ) = 12.3 ± 0.25 + 2.6(±0.3)log(1+z), and for the most luminous unobscured AGNs, scale as log L IR (AGN1) = 12.6(±0.15) + 2.6(±0.3)log(1+z). We previously determined that the most luminous starbursts scale as log L IR (SB) = 11.8 ± 0.3 + 2.5(±0.3)log(1+z), indicating that the most luminous AGNs are about 10 times more luminous than the most luminous starbursts. Results are consistent with obscured and unobscured AGNs having the same total luminosities with differences arising only from orientation, such that the obscured AGNs are observed through very dusty clouds which extinct about 50% of the intrinsic luminosity at 8 μm. Extrapolations of observable f ν (24 μm) to z = 6 are made using evolution results for these luminous sources. Both obscured and unobscured AGNs should be detected to z ∼ 6 by Spitzer surveys with f ν (24 μm) > 0.3 mJy, even without luminosity evolution for z > 2.5. By contrast, the most luminous starbursts cannot be detected for z > 3, even if luminosity evolution continues beyond z = 2.5.

  5. Lactose-containing starburst dendrimers: influence of dendrimer generation and binding-site orientation of receptors (plant/animal lectins and immunoglobulins) on binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, S; Ortega, P J; Perez, M A; Roy, R; Gabius, H J

    1999-11-01

    Starburst glycodendrimers offer the potential to serve as high-affinity ligands for clinically relevant sugar receptors. In order to define areas of application, their binding behavior towards sugar receptors with differential binding-site orientation but identical monosaccharide specificity must be evaluated. Using poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimers of five generations, which contain the p-isothiocyanato derivative of p-aminophenyl-beta-D-lactoside as ligand group, four different types of galactoside-binding proteins were chosen for this purpose, i.e., the (AB)(2)-toxic agglutinin from mistletoe, a human immunoglobulin G fraction, the homodimeric galectin-1 with its two binding sites at opposite ends of the jelly-roll-motif-harboring protein and monomeric galectin-3. Direct solid-phase assays with surface-immobilized glycodendrimers resulted in obvious affinity enhancements by progressive core branching for the plant agglutinin and less pronounced for the antibody and galectin-1. High density of binding of galectin-3 with modest affinity increases only from the level of the 32-mer onwards points to favorable protein-protein interactions of the monomeric lectin and a spherical display of the end groups without a major share of backfolding. When the inhibitory potency of these probes was evaluated as competitor of receptor binding to an immobilized neoglycoprotein or to asialofetuin, a marked selectivity was detected. The 32- and 64-mers were second to none as inhibitors for the plant agglutinin against both ligand-exposing matrices and for galectin-1 on the matrix with a heterogeneous array of interglycoside distances even on the per-sugar basis. In contrast, a neoglycoprotein with the same end group was superior in the case of the antibody and, less pronounced, monomeric galectin-3. Intimate details of topological binding-site presentation and the ligand display on different generations of core assembly are major operative factors which determine the potential

  6. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  7. A CHANDRA PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY-WIDE X-RAY BINARY EMISSION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS: NEW RESULTS FROM LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Jenkins, L. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Goulding, A. D.; Roberts, T. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Ptak, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present new Chandra observations that complete a sample of seventeen (17) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with D H ∼ 20 cm -2 . The LIRGs in our sample have total infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosities in the range of L IR ∼ (1-8) x 10 11 L sun . The high-resolution imaging and X-ray spectral information from our Chandra observations allow us to measure separately X-ray contributions from active galactic nuclei and normal galaxy processes (e.g., X-ray binaries and hot gas). We utilized total infrared plus UV luminosities to estimate star formation rates (SFRs) and K-band luminosities and optical colors to estimate stellar masses (M * ) for the sample. Under the assumption that the galaxy-wide 2-10 keV luminosity (L gal HX ) traces the combined emission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and low-mass X-ray binaries, and that the power output from these components is linearly correlated with SFR and M * , respectively, we constrain the relation L gal HX = αM * + βSFR. To achieve this, we construct a Chandra-based data set composed of our new LIRG sample combined with additional samples of less actively star-forming normal galaxies and more powerful LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) from the literature. Using these data, we measure best-fit values of α = (9.05 ± 0.37) x 10 28 erg s -1 M -1 sun and β = (1.62 ± 0.22) x 10 39 erg s -1 (M sun yr -1 ) -1 . This scaling provides a more physically meaningful estimate of L gal HX , with ∼0.1-0.2 dex less scatter, than a direct linear scaling with SFR. Our results suggest that HMXBs dominate the galaxy-wide X-ray emission for galaxies with SFR/M * ∼>5.9 x 10 -11 yr -1 , a factor of ∼2.9 times lower than previous estimates. We find that several of the most powerful LIRGs and ULIRGs, with SFR/M * ∼> 10 -9 yr -1 , appear to be X-ray underluminous with respect to our best-fit relation. We argue that these galaxies are likely to contain X-ray binaries residing in compact star-forming regions

  8. RESOLVED DUST EMISSION IN A QUASAR AT z = 3.65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, D. L.; Babbedge, T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Petitpas, G.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Castro-RodrIguez, Nieves; Lonsdale, C.; Surace, J.; Franceschini, A.; Wilkes, B. J.; Smith, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present submillimeter observations of the z= 3.653 quasar SDSS 160705+533558 together with data in the optical and infrared. The object is unusually bright in the far-IR and submillimeter with an IR luminosity of ∼10 14 L sun . We ascribe this luminosity to a combination of active galactic nucleus (AGN) and starburst emission, with the starburst forming stars at a rate of a few thousand solar masses per year. Submillimeter Array imaging observations with a resolution ∼1'' show that the submillimeter (850 μm) emission is extended on scales of 10- 35 kpc and is offset from the optical position by ∼10 kpc. This morphology is dissimilar to that found in submillimeter galaxies, which are generally unresolved or marginally resolved on arcsecond scales, or submillimeter-luminous AGNs where the AGN lies at the peak of the submillimeter or molecular emission. The simplest explanation is that the object is in the early stages of a merger between a gas-rich galaxy, which hosts the starburst, and a gas-poor AGN-host galaxy, which is responsible for the quasar emission. It is also possible that jet-induced star formation might contribute to the unusual morphology.

  9. Nuclear mid-infrared properties of nearby low-luminosity AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D; Duschl, W J; Hönig, S F; Gandhi, P; Smette, A

    2012-01-01

    We present ground-based high-spatial resolution mid-infrared (MIR) observations of 20 nearby low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) with VLT/VISIR and the preliminary analysis of a new sample of 10 low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Gemini/Michelle. LLAGN are of great interest because these objects are the most common among active galaxies, especially in the nearby universe. Studying them in great detail makes it possible to investigate the AGN evolution over cosmic timescale. Indeed, many LLAGN likely represent the final stage of an AGN's lifetime. We show that even at low luminosities and accretion rates nuclear unresolved MIR emission is present in most objects. Compared to lower spatial resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, the high-resolution MIR photometry exhibits significantly lower fluxes and different PAH emission feature properties in many cases. By using scaled Spitzer/IRS spectra of typical starburst galaxies, we show that the star formation contribution to the 12 μm emission is minor in the central parsecs of most LLAGN. Therefore, the observed MIR emission in the VISIR and Michelle data is most likely emitted by the AGN itself, which, for higher luminosity AGN, is interpreted as thermal emission from a dusty torus. Furthermore, the 12 /amemission of the LLAGN is strongly correlated with the absorption corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the MIR- X-ray correlation found previously for AGN is extended to a range from 10 40 to 10 45 erg/s. This correlation is independent of the object type, and in particular the low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Michelle fall exactly on the power-law fit valid for brighter AGN. In addition, no dependency of the MIR-X-ray ratio on the accretion rate is found. These results are consistent with the unification model being applicable even in the probed low-luminosity regime.

  10. Demonstrating a New Census of Infrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6 Revealed with 1034 ALMA Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius R e in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength {R}{{e}({FIR})} obtained from 1627 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1 mm band maps that become public by 2017 July. Our ALMA sample consists of 1034 sources with the star formation rate ˜ 100{--}1000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 and the stellar mass ˜ {10}10{--}{10}11.5 {M}⊙ at z = 0-6. We homogeneously derive {R}{{e}({FIR})} and FIR luminosity L FIR of our ALMA sources via the uv-visibility method with the exponential disk model, carefully evaluating selection and measurement incompletenesses by realistic Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that there is a positive correlation between {R}{{e}({FIR})} and L FIR at the >99% significance level. The best-fit power-law function, {R}{{e}({FIR})}\\propto {L}{FIR}α , provides α =0.28+/- 0.07, and shows that {R}{{e}({FIR})} at a fixed L FIR decreases toward high redshifts. The best-fit α and the redshift evolution of {R}{{e}({FIR})} are similar to those of R e in the rest-frame UV (optical) wavelength {R}{{e}({UV})} ({R}{{e}({Opt}.)}) revealed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) studies. We identify that our ALMA sources have significant trends of {R}{{e}({FIR})}≲ {R}{{e}({UV})} and {R}{{e}({Opt}.)}, which suggests that the dusty starbursts take place in compact regions. Moreover, {R}{{e}({FIR})} of our ALMA sources is comparable to {R}{{e}({Opt}.)} of quiescent galaxies at z ˜ 1-3 as a function of stellar mass, supporting the evolutionary connection between these two galaxy populations. We also investigate rest-frame UV and optical morphologies of our ALMA sources with deep HST images, and find that ˜30%-40% of our ALMA sources are classified as major mergers. This indicates that dusty starbursts are triggered by not only the major mergers but also the other mechanism(s).

  11. Two-dimensional structure and kinematics of a representative sample of low-z ULIRGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Marin, M; Colina, L; Arribas, S

    2008-01-01

    We present the optical INTEGRAL integral field spectroscopy data and Hubble Space Telescope archive images obtained for a representative sample of 22 local Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs L IR >10 12 L o-dot ). The sample has been designed for fulfilling a program aimed at studying the internal structure and kinematics of this type of galaxies. Taking advantage of the two-dimensional nature of the data, we study the structure of the stellar and ionized gas, the internal ionization state and the gas kinematics. In this contribution we present the sample and the most important results obtained so far.

  12. Photographic infrared spectroscopy and near infrared photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swings, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics are tackled in this presentation: spectroscopy and photometry. The following definitions are chosen: photographic infrared spectroscopy (wavelengths Hα<=lambda<1.2 μ); near infrared photometry (wavebands: 1.6 μ<=lambda<=20 μ). Near infrared spectroscopy and photometry of classical and peculiar Be stars are discussed and some future developments in the field are outlined. (Auth.)

  13. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Werf, Paul van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zhaoyinghe@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2017-08-10

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ∼34 pc) observations of the CO (6−5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μ m dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6−5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6−5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ∼10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa- α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ∼ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ∼34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s{sup −1} (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel .

  14. Physical properties of emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2 from near-infrared spectroscopy with Magellan fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, Daniel; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Domínguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick; Blanc, Guillermo; Dressler, Alan [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Malkan, Mathew; Ross, Nathaniel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, Universitey of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Teplitz, Harry [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We present results from near-infrared spectroscopy of 26 emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2.2 and z ∼ 1.5 obtained with the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer on the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope. The sample was selected from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels survey, which uses the near-infrared grism of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to detect emission-line galaxies over 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. Our FIRE follow-up spectroscopy (R ∼ 5000) over 1.0-2.5 μm permits detailed measurements of the physical properties of the z ∼ 2 emission-line galaxies. Dust-corrected star formation rates for the sample range from ∼5-100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} with a mean of 29 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We derive a median metallicity for the sample of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.34 or ∼0.45 Z {sub ☉}. The estimated stellar masses range from ∼10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉}, and a clear positive correlation between metallicity and stellar mass is observed. The average ionization parameter measured for the sample, log U ≈ –2.5, is significantly higher than what is found for most star-forming galaxies in the local universe, but similar to the values found for other star-forming galaxies at high redshift. We derive composite spectra from the FIRE sample, from which we measure typical nebular electron densities of ∼100-400 cm{sup –3}. Based on the location of the galaxies and composite spectra on diagnostic diagrams, we do not find evidence for significant active galactic nucleus activity in the sample. Most of the galaxies, as well as the composites, are offset diagram toward higher [O III]/Hβ at a given [N II]/Hα, in agreement with other observations of z ≳ 1 star-forming galaxies, but composite spectra derived from the sample do not show an appreciable offset from the local star-forming sequence on the [O III]/Hβ versus [S II]/Hα diagram. We infer a high nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio from the composite spectrum, which

  15. THE OPTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE STARBURST GALAXY M82. I. DYNAMICS OF THE DISK AND INNER-WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present Gemini-North GMOS-IFU observations of the central starburst clumps and inner wind of M82, together with WIYN DensePak IFU observations of the inner 2 x 0.9 kpc of the disk. These cover the emission lines of Hα, [N II], [S II], and [S III] at a spectral resolution of 45-80 km s -1 . The high signal-to-noise of the data is sufficient to accurately decompose the emission line profiles into multiple narrow components (FWHM ∼ 30-130 km s -1 ) superimposed on a broad (FWHM ∼ 150-350 km s -1 ) feature. This paper is the first of a series examining the optical structure of M82's disk and inner wind; here we focus on the ionized gaseous and stellar dynamics and present maps of the relevant emission line properties. Our observations show that ionized gas in the starburst core of M82 is dynamically complex with many overlapping expanding structures located at different radii. Localised line splitting of up to 100 km s -1 in the narrow component is associated with expanding shells of compressed, cool, photoionized gas at the roots of the superwind outflow. We have been able to associate some of this inner-wind gas with a distinct outflow channel characterised by its dynamics and gas density patterns, and we discuss the consequences of this discovery in terms of the developing wind outflow. The broad optical emission line component is observed to become increasingly important moving outward along the outflow channel, and in general with increasing height above/below the plane. Following our recent work on the origins of this component, we associate it with turbulent gas in wind-clump interface layers and hence sites of mass loading, meaning that the turbulent mixing of cooler gas into the outflowing hot gas must become increasingly important with height, and provides powerful direct evidence for the existence of mass-loading over a large, spatially extended area reaching far into the inner wind. We discuss the consequences and implications of this. We confirm

  16. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  17. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  18. Starbursts triggered by central overpressure in interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Chanda J.; Das, Mousumi

    1993-01-01

    A triggering mechanism for the origin of enhanced, massive-star formation in the central regions of interacting spiral galaxy pairs is proposed. Our mechanism is based on the detailed evolution of a realistic interstellar medium in a galaxy following an encounter. As a disk giant molecular cloud (GMC) tumbles into the central region following a galaxy encounter, it undergoes a radiative shock compression via the pre-existing high pressure of the central intercloud medium. The shocked outer shell of a GMC becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment thus resulting in a burst of star formation, when the growth time for the gravitational instabilities in the shell becomes smaller than the crossing time of the shock. The resulting values of typical infrared luminosity agree with observations.

  19. Broadband infrared beam splitter for spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyan; Liu, Dingquan; Qin, Yang

    2014-10-01

    A broadband infrared beam splitter (BS) on ZnSe substrate used for the spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder (SIIRS) is studied in the spectral range of 4.44-15 μm. Both broadband antireflection coating and broadband beam-splitter coating in this BS are designed and tested. To optimize the optical properties and the stability of the BS, suitable infrared materials were selected, and improved deposition techniques were applied. The designed structures matched experimental data well, and the properties of the BS met the application specification of SIIRS.

  20. VERY LARGE ARRAY MAPPING OF THE CO(1-0) LINE IN SMM J14011+0252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Chelsea E.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Harris, Andrew I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Thomson, Alasdair P., E-mail: csharon@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: harris@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: at@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-01

    We present high-resolution CO(1-0) observations of the lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J14011+0252 at z = 2.6. Comparison to the previously detected CO(3-2) line gives an intensity ratio of r {sub 3,1} = 0.97 {+-} 0.16 in temperature units, larger than is typical for SMGs but within the range seen in the low-z ultraluminous infrared galaxy population. Combining our new data with previous mid-J CO observations, we perform a single-phase large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis to constrain the physical conditions of the molecular gas. Acceptable models have significant degeneracies between parameters, even when we rule out all models that produce optically thin emission, but we find that the bulk of the molecular gas has T {sub kin} = 20-60 K, n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and N {sub CO}/{Delta}v = 10{sup 17.00{+-}0.25} cm{sup -2} km{sup -1} s. For our best-fit models to self-consistently recover a typical CO-to-H{sub 2} abundance and a plausible degree of virialization, the local velocity gradient in the molecular gas must be substantially larger than its galaxy-wide average. This conclusion is consistent with a scenario in which SMM J14011+0252 has a fairly face-on orientation and a molecular interstellar medium composed of many unresolved clouds. Using previous H{alpha} observations, we find that SMM J14011+0252 has a spatially resolved star formation rate versus molecular gas surface density relation inconsistent with those of 'normal' local star-forming galaxies, even if we adopt a local 'disk-like' CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor as motivated by our LVG analysis. This discrepancy supports the inference of a star formation relation for high-z starbursts distinct from the local relation that is not solely due to differing choices of gas mass conversion factor.

  1. THE ORIGIN AND KINEMATICS OF COLD GAS IN GALACTIC WINDS: INSIGHT FROM NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Akimi; Martin, Crystal L.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; New, Kimberly C. B.; Weaver, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the origin of Na I-absorbing gas in ultraluminous infrared galaxies motivated by the recent observations by Martin of extremely superthermal linewidths in this cool gas. We model the effects of repeated supernova explosions driving supershells in the central regions of molecular disks with M d = 10 10 M sun , using cylindrically symmetric gas dynamical simulations run with ZEUS-3D. The shocked swept-up shells quickly cool and fragment by Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability as they accelerate out of the dense, stratified disks. The numerical resolution of the cooling and compression at the shock fronts determines the peak shell density, and so the speed of R-T fragmentation. We identify cooled shells and shell fragments as Na I-absorbing gas and study its kinematics along various sightlines across the grid. We find that simulations with a numerical resolution of ≤0.2 pc produce multiple R-T fragmented shells in a given line of sight that appear to explain the observed kinematics. We suggest that the observed wide Na I absorption lines, (v) = 320 ± 120 km s -1 , are produced by these multiple fragmented shells traveling at different velocities. We also suggest that some shell fragments can be accelerated above the observed average terminal velocity of 750 km s -1 by the same energy-driven wind with an instantaneous starburst of ∼10 9 M sun . The mass carried by these fragments is only a small fraction of the total shell mass, while the bulk of mass is traveling with velocities consistent with the observed average shell velocity 330 ± 100 km s -1 . Our results show that an energy-driven bubble causing R-T instabilities can explain the kinematics of cool gas seen in the Na I observations without invoking additional physics relying primarily on momentum conservation, such as entrainment of gas by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, ram pressure driving of cold clouds by a hot wind, or radiation pressure acting on dust.

  2. Observations of the impact of starbursts on the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Schommer, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a crucial role in our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and the concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies. Despite the theoretical importance of these outflows, there is a very limited amount of direct observational evidence for their existence. We have therefore begun a detailed multi-wave-band search for outflows in dwarf (MB greater than or = -18) galaxies with extensive recent or ongoing centrally concentrated star formation. We report the first results of this search in the present paper. Observations of the ionized gas in dwarf amorphous galaxies with centrally concentrated populations of massive stars provide evidence for the large-scale expansion of their expansion of their ionized interstellar media. Fabry-Perot H alpha images reveal the presence of kiloparsec-scale 'superbubbles' and filaments which tend to be oriented along the galaxy minor axis. These structures are comparable in size to the chracteristic optical sizes of the galaxies, and dominate the morphology of the galaxies at low surface brightness in H alpha. Since expanding structure of this size and velocity are not observed in all low-mass galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation, we suggest that we are witnessing transient events that likely have a relatively low 'duty cycle' in such galaxies. That is, we argue that the particular galaxies in the present paper have had significantly elevated star formation rates over the past 107-108 yr (i.e., these are starburst or young poststarburst systems). This interpretation is consistent with the optical colors and emission-line properties of these galaxies.

  3. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 Å emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  4. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE CANDIDATE IN NGC 5643

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Moro, A. Del; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Matt, G.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼0.5–100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X–1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X–1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of N H ≳ 5 × 10 24 cm −2 . The range of 2–10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L 2–10,int = (0.8–1.7) × 10 42 erg s −1 , consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X–1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ∼ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3–8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X–1

  5. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  6. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Matt, G.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Rigby, J. R.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (˜0.5-100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X-1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X-1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of NH ≳ 5 × 1024 cm-2. The range of 2-10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L2-10,int = (0.8-1.7) × 1042 erg s-1, consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X-1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ˜ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3-8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X-1.

  7. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  9. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  10. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  11. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  12. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  13. A Micromachined Infrared Senor for an Infrared Focal Plane Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong M. Cho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A micromachined infrared sensor for an infrared focal plane array has been designed and fabricated. Amorphous silicon was used as a sensing material, and silicon nitride was used as a membrane material. To get a good absorption in infrared range, the sensor structure was designed as a l/4 cavity structure. A Ni-Cr film was selected as an electrode material and mixed etching scheme was applied in the patterning process of the Ni-Cr electrode. All the processes were made in 0.5 μm iMEMS fabricated in the Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute (ETRI. The processed MEMS sensor had a small membrane deflection less than 0.15 μm. This small deflection can be attributed to the rigorous balancing of the stresses of individual layers. The efficiency of infrared absorption was more than 75% in the wavelength range of 8 ~ 14 μm. The processed infrared sensor showed high responsivity of ~230 kV/W at 1.0V bias and 2 Hz operation condition. The time constant of the sensor was 8.6 msec, which means that the sensor is suitable to be operated in 30 Hz frame rate.

  14. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  15. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W., E-mail: dwalton@srl.caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  16. Broadband integrated mid infrared light sources as enabling technology for point of care mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0061 Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy Alex...mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid-infrared spectroscopy 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-16-1-4037...Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy ” Date: 16th August 2017 Name

  17. Theoretical modeling of Comptonized X-ray spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow: Origin of hard excess in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaki, Takaaki; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Kawashima, Tomohisa

    2017-12-01

    X-ray continuum spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow are studied by means of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations based on the radiation hydrodynamic simulation data, in which both thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings are taken into account. We compare the calculated spectra of accretion flow around black holes with masses of MBH = 10, 102, 103, and 104 M⊙ for a fixed mass injection rate (from the computational boundary at 103 rs) of 103 LEdd/c2 (with rs, LEdd, and c being the Schwarzschild radius, the Eddington luminosity, and the speed of light, respectively). The soft X-ray spectra exhibit mass dependence in accordance with the standard-disk relation; the maximum surface temperature is scaled as T ∝ M_{ BH}^{ -1/4}. The spectra in the hard X-ray band, by contrast with soft X-ray, look to be quite similar among different models, if we normalize the radiation luminosity by MBH. This reflects that the hard component is created by thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings of soft photons originating from an accretion flow in the overheated and/or funnel regions, the temperatures of which have no dependence on mass. The hard X-ray spectra can be reproduced by a Wien spectrum with the temperature of T ˜ 3 keV accompanied by a hard excess at photon energy above several keV. The excess spectrum can be fitted well with a power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 3. This feature is in good agreement with that of the recent NuSTAR observations of ULXs (ultra-luminous X-ray sources).

  18. IRAS 14348-1447, an Ultraluminous Pair of Colliding, Gas-Rich Galaxies: The Birth of a Quasar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Soifer, B T

    1988-02-05

    Ground-based observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at far-infrared wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of our galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dustenshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected. The derived mass of interstellar molecular hydrogen is 6 x 10(10) solar masses. This value is approximately 20 times that of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way and is similar to the largest masses of atomic hydrogen found in galaxies. A large mass of molecular gas may be a prerequisite for the formation of quasars during strong galactic collisions.

  19. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Frost, Ray L; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; He, Junkai

    2010-12-01

    The structure and thermal stability between typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) and Raman spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy over the temperature range of 300-700°C has been used to characterise the thermal decomposition of both kaolinite and halloysite. Halloysite is characterised by two bands in the water bending region at 1629 and 1648 cm(-1), attributed to structural water and coordinated water in the interlayer. Well defined hydroxyl stretching bands at around 3695, 3679, 3652 and 3625 cm(-1) are observed for both kaolinite and halloysite. The 550°C infrared emission spectrum of halloysite is similar to that of kaolinite in 650-1350 cm(-1) spectral region. The infrared emission spectra of halloysite were found to be considerably different to that of kaolinite at lower temperatures. These differences are attributed to the fundamental difference in the structure of the two minerals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Infrared Astronomy and Star Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is a natural tool to use in studying star formation because infrared light penetrates the surrounding dust and because protostars are expected to emit infrared light. Infrared mapping and photometry have revealed many compact sources, often embedded in more extensive warm dust associated with a molecular cloud core. More detailed study of these objects is now beginning, and traditional interpretations are being questioned. Some compact sources are now thought to be density enhancements which are not self-luminous. Infrared excesses around young stars may not always be caused by circumstellar dust; speckle measurements have shown that at least some of the excess toward T Tauri is caused by an infrared companion. Spectroscopic studies of the dense, star-forming cores and of the compact objects themselves have uncovered a wealth of new phenomena, including the widespread occurence of energetic outflows. New discoveries with IRAS and with other planned infrared telescopes will continue to advance this field. (author)

  1. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE CANDIDATE IN NGC 5643

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Moro, A. Del [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Puccetti, S. [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Ricci, C. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼0.5–100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X–1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X–1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of N{sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}. The range of 2–10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L{sub 2–10,int} = (0.8–1.7) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X–1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ∼ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3–8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X–1.

  2. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  3. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  4. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: songw@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: jfliu@bao.ac.cn [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Based on the recently completed Chandra /ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ( α ∼ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (∼1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (∼0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (∼0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (∼0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D {sub 25} and 2 D {sub 25}, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5 σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M {sub ⊙} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  5. DISCOVERY OF A GALAXY CLUSTER WITH A VIOLENTLY STARBURSTING CORE AT z = 2.506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Elbaz, David; Daddi, Emanuele; Valentino, Francesco; Burg, Remco van der; Zanella, Anita; Ciesla, Laure; Brun, Amandine Le [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Finoguenov, Alexis [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Liu, Daizhong; Tan, Qinghua [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Schreiber, Corentin [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Martín, Sergio [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Strazzullo, Veronica; Pannella, Maurilio [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Gobat, Raphael [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Hoegiro 85, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Sargent, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Shu, Xinwen [Department of Physics, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, 241000 (China); Cappelluti, Nico [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Li, Yanxia, E-mail: tao.wang@cea.fr [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at z {sub spec} = 2.506, which contains 11 massive (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙}) galaxies in the central 80 kpc region (11.6 σ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from H α . The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content, and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass M {sub 200} {sub c} = 10{sup 13.9±0.2} M {sub ⊙}, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only 2 out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80 kpc core reaches ∼3400 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} with a gas depletion time of ∼200 Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction (∼25%, compared to 3%–5% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

  6. Testing Star Formation Laws in a Starburst Galaxy At Redshift 3 Resolved with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, P.; Federrath, C.; da Cunha, E.; Swinbank, A. M.; Dye, S.

    2018-04-01

    Using high-resolution (sub-kiloparsec scale) data obtained by ALMA, we analyze the star formation rate (SFR), gas content and kinematics in SDP 81, a gravitationally-lensed starburst galaxy at redshift 3. We estimate the SFR surface density (ΣSFR) in the brightest clump of this galaxy to be 357^{+135}_{-85} {M_{⊙}} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}, over an area of 0.07 ± 0.02 kpc2. Using the intensity-weighted velocity of CO (5-4), we measure the turbulent velocity dispersion in the plane-of-the-sky and find σv, turb = 37 ± 5 km s-1 for the clump, in good agreement with previous estimates along the line of sight, corrected for beam smearing. Our measurements of gas surface density, freefall time and turbulent Mach number allow us to compare the theoretical SFR from various star formation models with that observed, revealing that the role of turbulence is crucial to explaining the observed SFR in this clump. While the Kennicutt Schmidt (KS) relation predicts an SFR surface density of Σ _{SFR,KS} = 52± 17 {M_{⊙}} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}, the single-freefall model by Krumholz, Dekel and McKee (KDM) predicts Σ _{SFR,KDM} = 106± 37 {M_{⊙ }} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}. In contrast, the multi-freefall (turbulence) model by Salim, Federrath and Kewley (SFK) gives Σ _{SFR,SFK} = 491^{+139 }_{-194} {M_{⊙ }} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}. Although the SFK relation overestimates the SFR in this clump (possibly due to the negligence of magnetic fields), it provides the best prediction among the available models. Finally, we compare the star formation and gas properties of this galaxy to local star-forming regions and find that the SFK relation provides the best estimates of SFR in both local and high-redshift galaxies.

  7. Using CO as a Physical Probe of the SF Activity in the Planck-Herschel Selected Hyper Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Multi-J CO line studies are essential for quantifying the physical properties of the star-forming ISM, yet it is observationally expensive to detect those faint CO emission lines at high redshift. Our eight Planck-Herschel selected galaxies, with apparent LIR > 1013‑14 L⊙, serve as the best laboratories to conduct such a CO spectral line energy distribution analysis at high-z. Using our GBT and LMT (Jup = 1-3) measurements, we trace the bulk molecular gas mass, finding relatively large star formation efficiencies (as traced by the LIR-to-L’CO(1‑0) ratio) consistent with a starburst mode of activity. With our mid-J (Jup = 4-8) CO line measurements, obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope, we find gas excitation conditions ranging from sub-thermal SMGs to highly excited local starbursts out to Jup = 5-8. The consistently high velocity-integrated line intensities at Jup = 5-8 indicates the presence a warm/dense component responsible for exciting the higher-J CO lines, therefore we use coupled non-LTE large velocity gradient and dust radiative transfer models to begin characterising the two-component molecular ISM in these strongly lensed systems.

  8. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  9. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  10. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous X-ray source in the outskirts of Circinus observed with NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Bauer, F. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E > 10 keV) X-rays. Circinus ULX5 is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of ∼5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L∝T {sup 1.70±0.17}, flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of ∼90 M {sub ☉} for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass estimate is

  11. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  12. Infrared emission from protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Shu, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The emergent spectral energy distribution at infrared to radio wavelengths is calculated for the simplest theoretical construct of a low-mass protostar. It is shown that the emergent spectrum in the infrared is insensitive to the details assumed for the temperature profile as long as allowance is made for a transition from optically thick to optically thin conditions and luminosity conservation isenforced at the inner and outer shells. The radiation in the far infrared and submillimeter wavelengths depends on the exact assumptions made for grain opacities at low frequencies. An atlas of emergent spectral energy distributions is presented for a grid of values of the instantaneous mass of the protostar and the mass infall rate. The attenuated contribution of the accretion shock to the near-infrared radiation is considered. 50 references

  13. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration

  14. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  15. Infrared Fe II lines in Eta Carinae and a possible interpretation of infrared excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    The identification of very strong emission lines in the near infrared spectrum of Eta Carinae with newly recognised high-level transitions of Fe II raises the possibility that the infrared excesses of hot emission-line stars may be due to dielectronic recombination of Fe II. Johansson's Fe II lines also need to be considered in the interpretation of the infrared spectra of supernovae. (author)

  16. COMPACT STARBURSTS IN z similar to 3-6 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES REVEALED BY ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar

  17. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  18. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Recent advances in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    A background survey is given of developments in infrared astronomy during the last decade. Advantages obtained in using infrared wavelengths to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and the detectors used for this work are considered. Infrared studies of, among other subjects, the stars, dust clouds, the centre of our galaxy and the 3k cosmic background radiation, are discussed. (UK)

  20. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  1. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.; Soifer, B.T.; Elias, J.H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component

  2. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wanggi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  3. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm –2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions

  4. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE BULGELESS GALAXIES NGC 337 AND ESO 501-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, Garrett; Mathur, Smita; Martini, Paul; Grier, Catherine J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, Linda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: somers@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Hertzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulgeless disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8{sup +4.4}{sub -3.5} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent at 1.5σ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with Γ= 1.18{sup +0.19}{sub -0.11} and N{sub H} = 1.13{sup +7.07}{sub -1.13}×10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of 1.08{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07}×10{sup -12} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Its X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host galaxy's distance, but we argue that its spectrum implies L{sub X} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. An optical counterpart to this object may be present in an Hubble Space Telescope image. We also identify ULX candidates in IC 1291, PGC 3853, NGC 5964, and NGC 2805. We find no evidence of nuclear activity in the galaxies in our sample, placing a flux upper limit of 4 × 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} on putative AGN. Additionally, the Type II-P supernova SN 2011DQ in NGC 337, which exploded two months before our X-ray observation, is undetected.

  5. Infrared observation of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The rocket observation of the near-infrared extragalactic background radiation and its influence on the cosmology are described. The furute plans to observe the near-infrared and far-infrared backgrounds are also presented. (author)

  6. Plasma diagnostics in infrared and far-infrared range for Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Zushi, H.; Hondo, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Sano, F.; Besshou, S.; Suematsu, H.; Motojima, O.; Iiyoshi, A.; Muraoka, K.; Tsukishima, T.; Tsunawaki, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper diagnostics in infrared and far-infrared range for Heliotron E are described: FIR interferometer for measuring electron density profile and ECE for electron temperature profile as routine work, and Fraunhofer diffraction method with a CO 2 laser for density fluctuation and Thomson scattering with a D 2 O laser (λ = 385 μm) for ion temperature, as new methods

  7. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  8. Near-infrared observations of the far-infrared source V region in NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Joyce, R.R.; Simon, M.; Simon, T.

    1982-01-01

    We have observed a very red near-infrared source at the center of NGC 6334 FIRS V, a far-infrared source suspected of variability by McBreen et al. The near-infrared source has deep ice and silicate absorption bands, and its half-power size at 20 μm is approx.15'' x 10''. Over the past 2 years we have observed no variability in the near-infrared flux. We have also detected an extended source of H 2 line emission in this region. The total luminosity in the H 2 v-1--0 S(1) line, uncorrected for extinction along the line of sight, is 0.3 L/sub sun/. Detection of emission in high-velocity wings of the J = 1--0 12 CO line suggests that the H 2 emission is associated with a supersonic gas flow

  9. ULX spectra revisited: Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars as the engines of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Godet, Olivier; Bachetti, Matteo; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Aims: In light of recent discoveries of pulsating ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and recently introduced theoretical schemes that propose neutron stars (NSs) as the central engines of ULXs, we revisit the spectra of eighteen well known ULXs, in search of indications that favour this newly emerging hypothesis. Methods: We examine the spectra from high-quality XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We use a combination of elementary black body and multicolour disk black body (MCD) models, to diagnose the predictions of classic and novel theoretical models of accretion onto NSs. We re-interpret the well established spectral characteristics of ULXs in terms of accretion onto lowly or highly magnetised NSs, and explore the resulting parameter space for consistency. Results: We confirm the previously noted presence of the low-energy (≲6 keV) spectral rollover and argue that it could be interpreted as due to thermal emission. The spectra are well described by a double thermal model consisting of a "hot" (≳1 keV) and a "cool" (≲0.7 keV) multicolour black body (MCB). Under the assumption that the "cool" MCD emission originates in a disk truncated at the neutron star magnetosphere, we find that all ULXs in our sample are consistent with accretion onto a highly magnetised (B ≳ 1012 G) neutron star. We note a strong correlation between the strength of the magnetic field, the temperature of the "hot" thermal component and the total unabsorbed luminosity. Examination of the NuSTAR data supports this interpretation and also confirms the presence of a weak, high-energy (≳15 keV) tail, most likely the result of modification of the MCB emission by inverse Compton scattering. We also note that the apparent high-energy tail, may simply be the result of mismodelling of MCB emission with an atypical temperature (T) versus radius (r) gradient, using a standard MCD model with a fixed gradient of T r-0.75. Conclusions: We have offered a new and robust physical interpretation for

  10. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  11. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  12. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  13. High mass star formation to the extremes: NGC 3603 at high angular resolution in the near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, Dieter E A

    2008-01-01

    High angular resolution observations play a decisive role for our understanding of high mass star formation processes, both within our Galaxy and in extragalactic starburst regions. We take the Galactic starburst template NGC 3603 as paradigm and report here on high angular resolution JHK s L' observations of the enigmatic, highly reddened sources IRS 9A-C in the NGC 3603 region, which were performed with NACO at ESO's Very Large Telescope Yepun. These broad-band imaging data strongly support the classification of IRS 9A-C as high mass protostellar candidates. We also confirm unambiguously the membership of IRS 9A-C with the NGC 3603 region as gas and dust is seen to be stripped off from their circumstellar envelopes by strong stellar winds, originating from the high mass main sequence stars of the nearby OB cluster. The orientation of these gas and dust streamers coincides with that of a very faint, only marginally detected mini-pillar protruding from the adjacent molecular clump NGC 3603 MM 2. The L' data show extended envelopes around IRS 9A-C and reveal sub-structures therein which are indicative for non-spherically distributed material. It seems obvious that protostellar mass outflows are at work to clear cavities along the polar axes of the central protostar, and / or that circumstellar disks are taking shape.

  14. Spectrally-Tunable Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a SPECTRALLY-TUNABLE INFRARED CAMERA based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. This will build on...

  15. Infrared Thermography Characterization of Defects in Seamless Pipes Using an Infrared Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Jae Jung; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Bo Young

    2012-01-01

    Infrared thermography uses infrared energy radiated from any objects above absolute zero temperature, and the range of its application has been constantly broadened. As one of the active test techniques detecting radiant energy generated when energy is applied to an object, ultrasound infrared thermography is a method of detecting defects through hot spots occurring at a defect area when 15-100 kHz of ultrasound is excited to an object. This technique is effective in detecting a wide range affected by ultrasound and vibration in real time. Especially, it is really effective when a defect area is minute. Therefore, this study conducted thermography through lock-in signal processing when an actual defect exists inside the austenite STS304 seamless pipe, which simulates thermal fatigue cracks in a nuclear power plant pipe. With ultrasound excited, this study could detect defects on the rear of a pipe by using an aluminium reflector. Besides, by regulating the angle of the aluminium reflector, this study could detect both front and rear defects as a single infrared thermography image.

  16. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  17. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and

  18. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  19. Spectrophotometric Properties of E+A Galaxies in SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Mariarosa; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Johnson, Amalya; Kerrison, Nicole; Melchert, Nancy; Ojanen, Winonah; Weaver, Olivia; Liu, Charles; SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    Quenched post-starburst galaxies, or E+A galaxies, represent a unique and informative phase in the evolution of galaxies. We used a qualitative rubric-based methodology, informed by the literature, to manually select galaxies from the SDSS-IV IFU survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) using the single-fiber spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8. Of the 2,812 galaxies observed so far in MaNGA, we found 39 galaxies meeting our criteria for E+A classification. Spectral energy distributions of these 39 galaxies from the far-UV to the mid-infrared demonstrate a heterogeneity in our sample emerging in the infrared, indicating many distinct paths to visually similar optical spectra. We used SDSS-IV MaNGA Pipe3D data products to analyze stellar population ages, and found that 34 galaxies exhibited stellar populations that were older at 1 effective radius than at the center of the galaxy. Given that our sample was manually chosen based on E+A markers in the single-fiber spectra aimed at the center of each galaxy, our E+A galaxies may have only experienced their significant starbursts in the central region, with a disk of quenched or quenching material further outward. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  20. Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert and Amorphous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.; Cady, S. L.; Knauth, P.

    2009-03-01

    We look in detail at the thermal infrared and visible to near-infrared spectra of various forms of chert and amorphous silica and compare the spectral variations between samples with variations in physical and chemical characteristics.

  1. Characterizing the origin and impact of the most extreme molecular outflows in the nearby universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowardhan, Avani; Riechers, Dominik A.; Spoon, Henrik; Farrah, Duncan

    2018-01-01

    Observations over the last decade have revealed that feedback in the form of molecular gas outflows is ubiquitous in local ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Such outflows can clear the nuclear environments of gas and dust, quench star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth, and they are a key step in the evolution of dust-obscured AGN to optically luminous quasars. We here present multi-spectral line observations of feedback in the two most powerful molecular gas outflows in the local universe. We spatially resolve the outflows to determine their kinematics and structure and find that they can drive out the molecular gas and quench star formation within ~ few Myr. Applying mid-IR diagnostics to constrain the relative contributions of AGN and nuclear starburst activity, we find that starburst activity plays a significant role in driving the outflow. We discuss the implications for future studies of feedback in the local universe and obscured AGN at high redshift, which is a key target population for JWST and ALMA over the next decade.

  2. X-ray Point Source Populations in Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Weaver, K.; Strickland, D.

    2002-01-01

    The hard-X-ray luminosity of non-active galaxies has been known to be fairly well correlated with the total blue luminosity since the days of the Einstein satellite. However, the origin of this hard component was not well understood. Some possibilities that were considered included X-ray binaries, extended upscattered far-infrared light via the inverse-Compton process, extended hot 107 K gas (especially in ellipitical galaxies), or even an active nucleus. Chandra images of normal, elliptical and starburst galaxies now show that a significant amount of the total hard X-ray emission comes from individual point sources. We present here spatial and spectral analyses of the point sources in a small sample of Chandra obervations of starburst galaxies, and compare with Chandra point source analyses from comparison galaxies (elliptical, Seyfert and normal galaxies). We discuss possible relationships between the number and total hard luminosity of the X-ray point sources and various measures of the galaxy star formation rate, and discuss possible options for the numerous compact sources that are observed.

  3. Infrared observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared energy distributions of the Seyfert galaxies apparently contain three components: a galactic stellar component, a thermal component from heated dust, plus a nonthermal component. The appearance of the infrared energy distribution depends on which component dominates. There is also a correlation observed between the infrared energy distribution and the Khachikian Weedman class. Preliminary data on bright quasars are given. The infrared energy distributions generally increase into the infrared with a power law slope of approximately 1. In detail they differ from power laws with a significant fraction emitting most of their energy near 3μm. No differences in radio loud and radio quiet are obvious from the infrared energy distributions. The variability of the quasars in the infrared is generally correlated with the variability in the visible, although significant exceptions have been observed. (Auth.)

  4. AN ULTRA-DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z = 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that about half of the massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 are in a quiescent phase. Moreover, these galaxies are commonly found to be ultra-compact with half-light radii of ∼1 kpc. We have obtained a ∼29 hr spectrum of a typical quiescent, ultra-dense galaxy at z = 2.1865 with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The spectrum exhibits a strong optical break and several absorption features, which have not previously been detected in z > 2 quiescent galaxies. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution with stellar population synthesis models implies a low star formation rate (SFR) of 1-3 M sun yr -1 , an age of 1.3-2.2 Gyr, and a stellar mass of ∼2 x 10 11 M sun . We detect several faint emission lines, with emission-line ratios of [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [O II]/[O III] typical of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions. Thus, neither the stellar continuum nor the nebular emission implies active star formation. The current SFR is <1% of the past average SFR. If this galaxy is representative of compact quiescent galaxies beyond z = 2, it implies that quenching of star formation is extremely efficient and also indicates that low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) could be common in these objects. Nuclear emission is a potential concern for the size measurement. However, we show that the AGN contributes ∼<8% to the rest-frame optical emission. A possible post-starburst population may affect size measurements more strongly; although a 0.5 Gyr old stellar population can make up ∼<10% of the total stellar mass, it could account for up to ∼40% of the optical light. Nevertheless, this spectrum shows that this compact galaxy is dominated by an evolved stellar population.

  5. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  6. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared

  7. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

    2015-05-01

    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  8. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - hidden quasar or protogalaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan-Robinson, M; Broadhurst, T [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). School of Mathematical Sciences; Lawrence, A [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics; McMahon, R G [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy; Lonsdale, C J [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center; Oliver, S J; Taylor, A N [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). School of Mathematical Sciences; Hacking, P B; Conrow, T [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center; Saunders, W [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Ellis, R S [Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics; Efstathiou, G P [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Condon, J J [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (USA)

    1991-06-27

    During a survey intended to measure redshifts for 1,400 galaxies identified with faint sources detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite, we found an emission-line galaxy at a redshift of 2.286, and with the enormous far-infrared luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 14} times that of the sun (L{sub sun}) The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-{alpha} emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the infrared energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the infrared emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. In either case, this is a remarkable object, and the presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch. (author).

  9. The Contribution of Compton-Thick AGN/ULIRGs to the X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele

    Accretion onto the supermassive black holes located at the centre of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGN) is one of the most efficient power sources in the Universe, and provides a significant contribution to the energy radiated over cosmic times. The spectral shape of the X-ray background and its progressive resolution strongly suggests that most AGN are heavily obscured by large amounts of dust and gas. Their primary radiation field is reprocessed and re-emitted at longer wavelengths, driving a huge IR luminosity. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are the local counterparts of the high-redshift (z sport the typical features of buried AGN in the mid-IR. IRAS 12127 1412 was observed for the first time in the X-rays by our group. Its Chandra spectrum clearly shows the signatures of AGN reflection at 2 10 keV. Similar properties were previously found in IRAS 00182 7112. Our Suzaku observations will allow to pinpont the AGN emission above 10 keV, and will provide fundamental information on the physical and geometrical structure of Compton-thick AGN embedded in a nuclear starburst. These sources are believed to experience the very initial phase of the AGN feedback on the surrounding environment, eventually leading to the formation of powerful optically- bright quasars. Besides this, we stress another remarkable opportunity related to the study of these two ULIRGs. Due to their really unique mid-IR and hard X-ray spectral properties, IRAS 00182 7112 and IRAS 12127 1412 can be considered as representative templates for a significant fraction of the obscured AGN population. Their broadband spectral energy distribution can then be used to calibrate new photometric diagnostics based on mid-IR colors and bolometric corrections, capable of selecting their faint counterparts within the IR deep fields. The wealth of data in the WISE and Spitzer archives will allow a complete census of this AGN subclass. The reflection efficiency inferred from our new Suzaku observations will make

  10. THE BROADBAND XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE GALAXY IC 342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn C. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04{sub −0.06}{sup +0.08}×10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  11. Use of infrared radiation thermometers for temperature control of plastic and paper webs in electric infrared ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Using infrared radiation thermometers in conjunction with infrared heater systems requires special considerations to ensure that accuracy will be achieved. If the thermometer picks up infrared radiation from the heaters, faulty readings can occur. Two methods are generally employed to eliminate this interference. Sight tubes are used to block infrared rays from entering the sensor lens, and a thermometer is chosen which responds to a different wavelength than that being emitted from the infrared heaters. The main types of electric infrared heaters are: (a) screw-in bulbs (shortwave); (b) evacuated tungsten filament tubes (shortwave); (c) quartz tubes (medium wave); (d) quartz panel heaters (medium wave); (e) Ceramic heaters (medium-long wave); (f) metal sheath heaters (medium-long wave). Positioning of a sensor on a production line is dictated by the product being processed and the desired use of the temperature information. The most common location for a sensor is just after the infrared unit. The pyrometer information can be used for setting up the process, for quality control, for heater failure detection, and for control of the heaters. For wide web application in which uniformity across the web is essential, traversing sensors can be used to scan the web to ensure a uniform heating of the product. This information then can be used to control infrared profiling zones which are positioned across the web. In plastics applications, the thermometer most commonly is positioned also at the exit end of the infrared unit. Control functions are similar to those just listed. In some indexing machines, the plastic is sensed while still in the last index station, and the index an be initiated by the thermometer

  12. The infrared retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    As infrared imaging systems have evolved from the first generation of linear devices to the second generation of small format staring arrays to the present 'third-gen' systems, there is an increased emphasis on large area focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multicolour operation and higher operating temperature. In this paper, we discuss how one needs to develop an increased functionality at the pixel level for these next generation FPAs. This functionality could manifest itself as spectral, polarization, phase or dynamic range signatures that could extract more information from a given scene. This leads to the concept of an infrared retina, which is an array that works similarly to the human eye that has a 'single' FPA but multiple cones, which are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that enable the perception of colour. These cones are then coupled with powerful signal processing techniques that allow us to process colour information from a scene, even with a limited basis of colour cones. Unlike present day multi or hyperspectral systems, which are bulky and expensive, the idea would be to build a poor man's 'infrared colour' camera. We use examples such as plasmonic tailoring of the resonance or bias dependent dynamic tuning based on quantum confined Stark effect or incorporation of avalanche gain to achieve embodiments of the infrared retina.

  13. VERY STRONG EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, B.; Bridge, C. [Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Teplitz, H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fosbury, R. A. E. [Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-20

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies

  14. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  15. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  16. Observation of galactic far-infrared ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Oda, Naoki; Okuda, Haruyuki; Sugiyama, Takuya; Sakai, Kiyomi.

    1978-01-01

    Galactic far-infrared was observed to study the spatial distribution of interstellar dust. Far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust distributing throughout the galactic plane. The observation of far-infrared is very important to study the overall structure of the galaxy, that is the structure of the galactic arm and gas distribution. The balloon experiment was conducted on May 25, 1978. The detector was a germanium bolometer cooled by liquid helium. The size of the detector is 1.6 mm in diameter. The geometrical factor was 4 x 10 3 cm 2 sr. The result showed that the longitude distribution of far-infrared at 150 μm correlated with H 166 α recombination line. This indicates that the observed far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust heated by photons of Lyman continuum. (Yoshimori, M.)

  17. The Tully-Fisher relation of the IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, W.; Van Den Broek, A. C.; Baan, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the possible influence on the Tully-Fisher relation of active massive star formation in IRAS galaxies, in order to estimate the contribution of star formation to their near-infrared luminosity. We observed 60 galaxies from the infrared complete so-called IRAS Minisurvey sample in the 21 cm H1 line at Arecibo, determined the near-infrared (H-band) Tully-Fisher relation for the 36 objects in the sample we judged to be usable for this purpose, and compared this relation with that of optically selected normal galaxies. The results show no significant enhancement of the near-infrared luminosities of the IRAS Minisurvey galaxies compared to those of the optically selected normal glaxies. From these results we inferred that in the minisurvey galaxies the average contribution of the active massive star formation to the total near-infrared luminosity is less and that exponential decay times for the starbursts occurring in the Minisurvey galaxies are of the order of 10 Myr. The Tully-Fisher relati