WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultrahigh resolution spect

  1. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  2. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  3. Interactions of collimation, sampling and filtering on spect spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The major factors which affect the spatial resolution of single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) include collimation, sampling and filtering. A theoretical formulation is presented to describe the relationship between these factors and their effects on the projection data. Numerical calculations were made using commercially available SPECT systems and imaging parameters. The results provide an important guide for proper selection of the collimator-detector design, the imaging and the reconstruction parameters to avoid unnecessary spatial resolution degradation and aliasing artifacts in the reconstructed image. In addition, the understanding will help in the fair evaluation of different SPECT systems under specific imaging conditions

  4. Pinhole SPECT: high resolution imaging of brain tumours in small laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschim, M.; Bokulic, T.; Kusic, Z.; Strand, S.E.; Erlandsson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The performance properties of pinhole SPECT and the application of this technology to evaluate radionuclide uptake in brain in small laboratory animals were investigated. System sensitivity and spatial resolution measurements of a rotating scintillation camera system were made for a low energy pinhole collimator equipped with 2.0 mm aperture pinhole insert. Projection data were acquired at 4 degree increments over 360 degrees in the step and shoot mode using a 4.5 cm radius of rotation. Pinhole planar and SPECT imaging were obtained to evaluate regional uptake of Tl-201, Tc-99m-MIBI, Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-DTPA in tumor and control regions of the brain in a primary brain tumor model in Fisher 344 rats. Pinhole SPECT images were reconstructed using a modified cone- beam algorithm developed from a two dimensional fan-beam filtered backprojection algorithm. The reconstructed transaxial resolution of 2.8 FWHM and system sensitivity of 0.086 c/s/kBq with the 2.0 mm pinhole collimator aperture were measured. Tumor to non-tumor uptake ratios at 19-28 days post tumor cell inoculation varied by a factor > 20:1 on SPECT images. Pinhole SPECT provides an important new approach for performing high resolution imaging: the resolution properties of pinhole SPECT are superior to those which have been achieved with conventional SPECT or PET imaging technologies. (author)

  5. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  6. High-resolution tomography of positron emitters with clustered pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goorden, Marlies C; Beekman, Freek J [Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.c.goorden@tudelft.nl

    2010-03-07

    State-of-the-art small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) enables sub-half-mm resolution imaging of radio-labelled molecules. Due to severe photon penetration through pinhole edges, current multi-pinhole SPECT is not suitable for high-resolution imaging of photons with high energies, such as the annihilation photons emitted by positron emitting tracers (511 keV). To deal with this edge penetration, we introduce here clustered multi-pinhole SPECT (CMP): each pinhole in a cluster has a narrow opening angle to reduce photon penetration. Using simulations, CMP is compared with (i) a collimator with traditional pinholes that is currently used for sub-half-mm imaging of SPECT isotopes (U-SPECT-II), and (ii), like (i) but with collimator thickness adapted to image high-energy photons (traditional multi-pinhole SPECT, TMP). At 511 keV, U-SPECT-II is able to resolve the 0.9 mm rods of an iteratively reconstructed Jaszczak-like capillary hot rod phantom, and while TMP only leads to small improvements, CMP can resolve rods as small as 0.7 mm. Using a digital tumour phantom, we show that CMP resolves many details not assessable with standard USPECT-II and TMP collimators. Furthermore, CMP makes it possible to visualize uptake of positron emitting tracers in sub-compartments of a digital mouse striatal brain phantom. This may open up unique possibilities for analysing processes such as those underlying the function of neurotransmitter systems. Additional potential of CMP may include (i) the imaging of other high-energy single-photon emitters (e.g. I-131) and (ii) localized imaging of positron emitting tracers simultaneously with single photon emitters, with an even better resolution than coincidence PET.

  7. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  8. Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, P. R.; Chen, Y.; Aguirre, A. D.; Schneider, K.; Hsiung, P.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Madden, K.; Schmitt, J.; Goodnow, J.; Petersen, C.

    2004-10-01

    A distally actuated, rotational-scanning micromotor endoscope catheter probe is demonstrated for ultrahigh-resolution in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The probe permits focus adjustment for visualization of tissue morphology at varying depths with improved transverse resolution compared with standard OCT imaging probes. The distal actuation avoids nonuniform scanning motion artifacts that are present with other probe designs and can permit a wider range of imaging speeds. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic imaging is demonstrated in a rabbit with micromotor endoscope catheter probe promises to improve OCT imaging performance in future endoscopic imaging applications.

  9. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  10. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging by combination of parallel and tilted detector heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Wataru; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Morimoto, Yuichi; Kobashi, Keiji; Ueno, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To improve the spatial resolution of brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we propose a new brain SPECT system in which the detector heads are tilted towards the rotation axis so that they are closer to the brain. In addition, parallel detector heads are used to obtain the complete projection data set. We evaluated this parallel and tilted detector head system (PT-SPECT) in simulations. In the simulation study, the tilt angle of the detector heads relative to the axis was 45°. The distance from the collimator surface of the parallel detector heads to the axis was 130 mm. The distance from the collimator surface of the tilted detector heads to the origin on the axis was 110 mm. A CdTe semiconductor panel with a 1.4 mm detector pitch and a parallel-hole collimator were employed in both types of detector head. A line source phantom, cold-rod brain-shaped phantom, and cerebral blood flow phantom were evaluated. The projection data were generated by forward-projection of the phantom images using physics models, and Poisson noise at clinical levels was applied to the projection data. The ordered-subsets expectation maximization algorithm with physics models was used. We also evaluated conventional SPECT using four parallel detector heads for the sake of comparison. The evaluation of the line source phantom showed that the transaxial FWHM in the central slice for conventional SPECT ranged from 6.1 to 8.5 mm, while that for PT-SPECT ranged from 5.3 to 6.9 mm. The cold-rod brain-shaped phantom image showed that conventional SPECT could visualize up to 8-mm-diameter rods. By contrast, PT-SPECT could visualize up to 6-mm-diameter rods in upper slices of a cerebrum. The cerebral blood flow phantom image showed that the PT-SPECT system provided higher resolution at the thalamus and caudate nucleus as well as at the longitudinal fissure of the cerebrum compared with conventional SPECT. PT-SPECT provides improved image resolution at not only upper but also at

  11. Effective of deep breath-hold SPECT in torso area. Examination concerning improvement of resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Horiuchi, Shoji; Hayashi, Masuo; Sugibayashi, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    The routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) gives images with reduced resolution of internal organs like diaphragm due to breathing movements. In the present study, authors developed a breath-hold (BH) SPECT method where SPECT projection data were acquired during BH, and examined its usefulness. Equipments used were all Toshiba's dual-detector SPECT system E.CAM, image processor GMS-5500 A/PI, fusion software ART, and CT scanner Aquillion/M8. SPECT data were alternatively acquired at steps during BH and free breath (FB), for an entire step-and-shoot SPECT cycle, and acquisition time for 1 step (view) was set to be 10-15 sec depending on the subject's BH ability. Data from BH and FB views were extracted to get respective SPECT images. An evaluation was first done for a phantom simulating the breathing lung, an elliptical acrylic shell where a balloon connected with an ambu bag was placed. Two point sources of 99m Tc (14 MBq) were attached on the balloon. The phantom study revealed BH method did not give any artifacts. Clinically, 201 Tl-SPECT images of patients with lung tumors were compared for resolution between BH and FB and for their accuracy of registration by superimposing on CT images. Such results were observed as that, when FB gave two regions of Tl accumulation, BH, one region agreeing with the one lesion in the CT image, and that, when Tl accumulation was visualized in BH, but not in FB due to its overlapping with the liver area. Thus BH method could reduce respiratory motion artifacts to improve resolution, and was thought applicable to other imaging methods. (R.T.)

  12. Feasibility of a CdTe-based SPECT for high-resolution low-dose small animal imaging: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S-J; Yu, A R; Lee, Y-J; Kim, Y-S; Kim, H-J

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems based on pixelated semiconductors such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) are in development to study small animal models of human disease. In an effort to develop a high-resolution, low-dose system for small animal imaging, we compared a CdTe-based SPECT system and a conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In addition, we investigated the radiation absorbed dose and calculated a figure of merit (FOM) for both SPECT systems. Using the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system, we achieved a spatial resolution of 1.66 mm at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance, and a resolution of 2.4-mm hot-rods. Using the newly-developed CdTe-based SPECT system, we achieved a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm FWHM at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance, and a resolution of 1.7-mm hot-rods. The sensitivities at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance were 115.73 counts/sec/MBq and 83.38 counts/sec/MBq for the CdTe-based SPECT and conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT systems, respectively. To compare quantitative measurements in the mouse brain, we calculated the CNR for images from both systems. The CNR from the CdTe-based SPECT system was 4.41, while that from the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system was 3.11 when the injected striatal dose was 160 Bq/voxel. The CNR increased as a function of injected dose in both systems. The FOM of the CdTe-based SPECT system was superior to that of the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system, and the highest FOM was achieved with the CdTe-based SPECT at a dose of 40 Bq/voxel injected into the striatum. Thus, a CdTe-based SPECT system showed significant improvement in performance compared with a conventional system in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and CNR, while reducing the radiation dose to the small animal subject. Herein, we discuss the feasibility of a CdTe-based SPECT system for high-resolution

  13. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  14. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. State-of-the-art of small animal imaging with high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaus, S.; Wirrwar, A.; Antke, C.; Kley, K.; Mueller, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    During the recent years, in vivo imaging of small animals using SPECT has become of growing relevance. Along with the development of dedicated high-resolution small animal SPECT cameras, an increasing number of conventional clinical scanners has been equipped with single or multipinhole collimators. This paper reviews the small animal tomographs, which are operating at present and compares their performance characteristics. Furthermore, we describe the in vivo imaging studies, which have been performed so far with the individual scanners and survey current approaches to optimize molecular imaging with small animal SPECT. (orig.)

  16. High resolution SPECT imaging for visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity using a SPECT/CT scanner dedicated for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Izumi O.; Tani, Kotaro; Tsuda, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Tumor interiors are never homogeneous and in vivo visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity would be an innovation that contributes to improved cancer therapy. But, conventional nuclear medicine tests have failed to visualize heterogeneity in vivo because of limited spatial resolution. Recently developed single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scanners dedicated for small animal imaging are of interest due to their excellent spatial resolution of 111 In and simulations of actual small animal imaging. The optimal conditions obtained were validated by in vivo imaging of sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Larger number of counts must be obtained within limited acquisition time to visualize tumor heterogeneity in vivo in animal imaging, compared to cases that simply detect tumors. At an acquisition time of 30 min, better image quality was obtained with pinhole apertures diameter of 1.4 mm than of 1.0 mm. The obtained best spatial resolution was 1.3 mm, it was acceptable for our purpose, though a little worse than the best possible performance of the scanner (1.0 mm). Additionally, the reconstruction parameters, such as noise suppression, voxel size, and iteration/subset number, needed to be optimized under the limited conditions and were different from those found under the ideal condition. The minimal radioactivity concentration for visualization of heterogeneous tumor interiors was estimated to be as high as 0.2-0.5 MBq/mL. Liposomes containing 111 In met this requirement and were administered to tumor-bearing mice. SPECT imaging successfully showed heterogeneous 111 In distribution within the tumors in vivo with good spatial resolution. A threshold of 0.2 MBq/g for clear visualization of tumor heterogeneity was validated. Autoradiograms obtained ex vivo of excised tumors confirmed that the in vivo SPECT images accurately depicted the heterogeneous intratumoral accumulation of liposomes. Intratumoral heterogeneity was successfully visualized under the optimized

  17. Effect of an elliptical orbit on SPECT resolution and image uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, S.; Salem, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of elliptical motion on SPECT resolution and detector flood correction as implemented in a Technicare Omega 500. Bringing the detector closer to the object improves detector resolution in each view, which results in improved resolution in the reconstructed image. In the Omega 500 the elliptical orbit is realized by a succession of translational and rotational motions of the detector head. This introduces motion of the detector center relative to the object center. Statistical fluctuations in the flood correction matrix due to the finite acquisition time result in ring artifacts for the circular orbit. The relative center motion of an elliptical orbit results in an averaging of the flood correction noise and a significant reduction in artifacts. These two aspects of SPECT spatial resolution and flood correction response improvement in elliptical orbit have been analyzed through computer simulations for point sources and a uniform activity 20 x 30 cm ellipse. Results compared a 35 cm diameter circular orbit to a 35 x 25 cm elliptical orbit

  18. Resolution improvement and noise reduction in human pinhole SPECT using a multi-ray approach and the SHINE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seret, A.; Vanhove, C.; Defrise, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This work aimed at quantifying the gains in spatial resolution and noise that could be achieved when using resolution modelling based on a multi-ray approach and additionally the Statistical and Heuristic Noise Extraction (SHINE) method in human pinhole single photon emission tomography (PH-SPECT). Methods: PH-SPECT of two line phantoms and one homogeneous cylinder were recorded using parameters suited for studies of the human neck area. They were reconstructed using pinhole dedicated ordered subsets expectation maximisation algorithm including a resolution recovery technique based on 7 or 21 rays. Optionally, the SPECT data were SHINE pre-processed. Transverse and axial full widths at half-maximum (FWHM) were obtained from the line phantoms. The noise was quantified using the coefficient of variation (COV) derived from the uniform phantom. Two human PH-SPECT studies of the thyroid (a hot nodule and a very low uptake) were processed with the same algorithms. Results: Depending on the number of iterations, FWHM decreased by 30 to 50% when using the multi-ray approach in the reconstruction process. The SHINE method did not affect the resolution but decreased the COV by at least 20% and by 45% when combined with the multi-ray method. The two human studies illustrated the gain in spatial resolution and the decrease in noise afforded both by the multi-ray reconstruction and the SHINE method. Conclusion: Iterative reconstruction with resolution modelling allows to obtain high resolution human PH-SPECT studies with reduced noise content. The SHINE method affords an additional noise reduction without compromising the resolution. (orig.)

  19. Design and Implementation of Wideband Exciter for an Ultra-high Resolution Airborne SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system with better than 0.1 m resolution, a wideband Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM pulse compression exciter with 14.8 GHz carrier and 3.2 GHz bandwidth is designed and implemented. The selection of signal generation scheme and some key technique points for wideband LFM waveform is presented in detail. Then, an acute test and analysis of the LFM signal is performed. The final airborne experiments demonstrate the validity of the LFM source which is one of the subsystems in an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system.

  20. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  1. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F.

    2009-05-01

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a β-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s-1 MBq-1 per head (99mTc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s-1 MBq-1), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s-1 MBq-1 (CS: 141 s-1 MBq-1). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s-1. The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  2. Evaluation of distance-dependent resolution compensation in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, D.P.; Barnden, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Conventional SPECT reconstruction assumes that the volume of response for each collimator hole is a cylinder, but due to the finite depth of the holes, the volume of response is actually cone shaped. This leads to a loss of resolution as the distance from the collimator face is increased. If distance-dependent resolution compensation (DRC) is incorporated into an iterative reconstruction algorithm, then some of the lost resolution can be recovered (T Yokoi, H Shinohara and H Onishi. 2002, Ann Nuc Med, 16, 11-18). ORC has recently been included in some commercial reconstruction software, and the aim of this study was to assess whether the significantly increased reconstruction processing time can be justified for clinical or for research purposes. HMPAO brain scans from 104 healthy subjects were reconstructed using iterative OSEM, with and without ORC. A voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) technique was used for gain correction in the scans. A Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analysis found the statistical strength of the SPECT aging effect increased when the non-DRC image set was compared to the images with ORC, probably due to improvement in the imaging of partial volume effects when the interhemispheric fissure and sulci enlarge with age (L Barnden, S Behin Ain, R Kwiatek, R Casse and L Yelland. 2005, Nuc Med Comm, 26, 497-503). It was concluded that the use of ORC is justified for research purposes, but may not be for routine clinical use. (author)

  3. Motivation for an SSC detector with ultra-high resolution photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.F.; Kane, G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that incorporating ultra-high resolution photon detection into a general purpose detector for the SSC will be extremely difficult. The authors will argue that the physics signals that could be missed without such resolution are of such importance that a special purpose detector designed specifically for photon final state modes should be constructed, if sufficient resolution cannot be achieved with general purpose detectors. The potentially great value of these signals as a probe of extremely high mass scales is stressed

  4. Comparison between high-resolution computed tomography and 99mTc-technegas SPECT pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Satoru; Satoh, Katashi; Takahashi, Kazue

    1996-01-01

    Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-technegas was recently introduced for clinical imaging of lung ventilation. This method has been found to be useful in emergencies, to be more suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) than other agents used in ventilation scintigraphy, and could reveal abnormalities in ventilation more easily than high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in pulmonary emphysema. We compared 99m Tc-technegas SPECT with HRCT in six regions: the right upper, middle, and lower lobes, the left upper lobe, the lingula, and the left lower lobe, in 15 patients with pulmonary emphysema. Patients with centrilobular emphysema tended to show stronger changes in upper lobes than in lower lobes on both 99m Tc-technegas SPECT and HRCT. Some regions showed no change on HRCT but various changes on 99m Tc-SPECT. Patients with panlobular emphysema showed severe changes on 99m Tc-SPECT in lower lung fields in which well-demarcated areas of low attenuation were not seen on HRCT. We conclude that 99m Tc-SPECT is useful for detecting early changes and panlobular changes in pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  5. of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Activity by the Fusion of High-Resolution SPECT and Morphological Imaging Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Fujii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to clearly visualize heterogeneous distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF activity in tumor tissues in vivo. Methods. We synthesized of 125I-IPOS, a 125I labeled chimeric protein probe, that would visualize HIF activity. The biodistribution of 125I-IPOS in FM3A tumor-bearing mice was evaluated. Then, the intratumoral localization of this probe was observed by autoradiography, and it was compared with histopathological findings. The distribution of 125I-IPOS in tumors was imaged by a small animal SPECT/CT scanner. The obtained in vivo SPECT-CT fusion images were compared with ex vivo images of excised tumors. Fusion imaging with MRI was also examined. Results. 125I-IPOS well accumulated in FM3A tumors. The intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS by autoradiography was quite heterogeneous, and it partially overlapped with that of pimonidazole. High-resolution SPECT-CT fusion images successfully demonstrated the heterogeneity of 125I-IPOS distribution inside tumors. SPECT-MRI fusion images could give more detailed information about the intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. Conclusion. High-resolution SPECT images successfully demonstrated heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. SPECT-CT fusion images, more favorably SPECT-MRI fusion images, would be useful to understand the features of heterogeneous intratumoral expression of HIF activity in vivo.

  6. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Cheng, Bin; Liu, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Lin; He, Jr-Hau; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  7. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  8. Advantage of fan beam collimators for contrast recovery of hyperfixation in clinical SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, P.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the collimator on the contrast recovery of hyperfixation was studied using a dual-headed single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) system with standard clinical acquisition parameters. Three parallel collimator sets and two fan beam collimator sets were tested with a Jaszczak phantom. The six spheres of the phantom were filled with 99m Tc, and four background levels were progressively obtained by adding radioactivity to the cylinder of the phantom, providing four hyperfixation levels. The effects of angular sampling and reconstruction filters have been tested. The statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). This study demonstrates the advantage of ultra-high resolution fan beam collimators for contrast recovery of hyperfixation with SPECT when using 64 projections over 360 degree, in particular when the contrast is low. The authors also demonstrate that fan beam collimators permit smaller size hyperfixation detection

  9. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhi, S; Peterson, T E; Metzler, S D; Wilson, D W

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source-collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging.

  10. Ultrahigh resolution radiation imaging system using an optical fiber structure scintillator plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-02-16

    High resolution imaging of radiation is required for such radioisotope distribution measurements as alpha particle detection in nuclear facilities or high energy physics experiments. For this purpose, we developed an ultrahigh resolution radiation imaging system using an optical fiber structure scintillator plate. We used a ~1-μm diameter fiber structured GdAlO 3 :Ce (GAP) /α-Al 2 O 3 scintillator plate to reduce the light spread. The fiber structured scintillator plate was optically coupled to a tapered optical fiber plate to magnify the image and combined with a lens-based high sensitivity CCD camera. We observed the images of alpha particles with a spatial resolution of ~25 μm. For the beta particles, the images had various shapes, and the trajectories of the electrons were clearly observed in the images. For the gamma photons, the images also had various shapes, and the trajectories of the secondary electrons were observed in some of the images. These results show that combining an optical fiber structure scintillator plate with a tapered optical fiber plate and a high sensitivity CCD camera achieved ultrahigh resolution and is a promising method to observe the images of the interactions of radiation in a scintillator.

  11. A small-animal imaging system capable of multipinhole circular/helical SPECT and parallel-hole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jianguo; Bradley, Eric L.; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Saha, Margaret S.; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system equipped with parallel-hole and multipinhole collimators and capable of circular or helical SPECT. Copper-beryllium parallel-hole collimators suitable for imaging the ∼35 keV photons from the decay of 125 I have been built and installed to achieve useful spatial resolution over a range of object-detector distances and to reduce imaging time on our dual-detector array. To address the resolution limitations in the parallel-hole SPECT and the sensitivity and limited field of view of single-pinhole SPECT, we have incorporated multipinhole circular and helical SPECT in addition to expanding the parallel-hole SPECT capabilities. The pinhole SPECT system is based on a 110 mm diameter circular detector equipped with a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array (1x1x5 mm 3 /pixel). The helical trajectory is accomplished by two stepping motors controlling the rotation of the detector-support gantry and displacement of the animal bed along the axis of rotation of the gantry. Results obtained in SPECT studies of various phantoms show an enlarged field of view, very good resolution and improved sensitivity using multipinhole circular or helical SPECT. Collimators with one, three and five, 1-mm-diameter pinholes have been implemented and compared in these tests. Our objective is to develop a system on which one may readily select a suitable mode of either parallel-hole SPECT or pinhole circular or helical SPECT for a variety of small animal imaging applications

  12. Determination of hyperactive areas of Cortex Cerebri with using brain SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the ability to apply of SPECT technique to determination of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. Analysis included 50 patients (mean aged 44 - 58). Brain SPECT scanning was performed after 1 hour after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of ethylcisteinate dimmer labeled 99m Technetium (99mTc-ECD) with the use one-head gamma camera with a low-energy, ultra-high resolution collimator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using specialised software. In 20 cases normal biodistribution of the radiotracer was observed (hyperactive areas in cerebellum and occiput). In patients with psychiatric and neurological disturbances hyperactive areas were visualized in 25 cases in temporal lobes, in 4 cases in parietal lobes and in 1 patient in frontal area and basal ganglia. It is concluded that a number of factors limit the wide-scale use of SPECT, including the sophistication of imaging equipment (single-head cameras are inferior to the newer multihead units) and the experience of the physicians interpreting the scans and utilizing the data. In many diseases physicians do not know which areas of the patient's brain according disorders. Brain SPECT study can be a very useful tool to evaluation of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. This technique visualization of cortex cerebri completes standard analysis of disorders of brain activity

  13. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chung; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  14. CT-based attenuation correction and resolution compensation for I-123 IMP brain SPECT normal database: a multicenter phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Ichihara, Takashi; Uno, Masaki; Ishiguro, Masanobu; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Sakuma, Hajime; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2018-03-19

    Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings. The proposed acquisition and processing protocols were those routinely used at each participating center with additional triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction (SC) and computed tomography (CT) based attenuation correction (CTAC). A multicenter phantom study was conducted on six imaging systems in five centers, with either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT, and two brain phantoms. The gray/white matter I-123 activity ratio in the brain phantoms was 4, and they were enclosed in either an artificial adult male skull, 1300 Hounsfield units (HU), a female skull, 850 HU, or an acrylic cover. The cut-off frequency of the Butterworth filters was adjusted so that the spatial resolution was unified to a 17.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), that of the lowest resolution system. The gray-to-white matter count ratios were measured from SPECT images and compared with the actual activity ratio. In addition, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation images were calculated after normalization and anatomical standardization to evaluate the variability of the NDB. The gray-to-white matter count ratio error without SC and attenuation correction (AC) was significantly larger for higher bone densities (p correction. The proposed protocol showed potential for constructing an appropriate common NDB from SPECT images with SC, AC and spatial resolution compensation.

  15. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  16. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  17. Design and development of a high resolution animal SPECT scanner dedicated for rat and mouse imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajedi, Salar; Zeraatkar, Navid; Moji, Vahideh; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Arabi, Hossein; Teymoorian, Behnoosh; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Reza Ay, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    A dedicated small-animal SPECT system, HiReSPECT, was designed and developed to provide a high resolution molecular imaging modality in response to growing research demands. HiReSPECT is a dual-head system mounted on a rotating gantry. The detection system is based on pixelated CsI(Na) scintillator crystals coupled to two Hamamatsu H8500 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes in each head. Also, a high resolution parallel-hole collimator is applied to every head. The dimensions of each head are 50 mm×100 mm, enabling sufficient transaxial and axial fields-of-view (TFOV and AFOV), respectively, for coverage of the entire mouse in single-bed position imaging. However, a 50 mm TFOV is not sufficient for transaxial coverage of rats. To address this, each head can be rotated by 90 degrees in order to align the larger dimension of the heads with the short body axis, allowing tomographic data acquisition for rats. An innovative non-linear recursive filter was used for signal processing/detection. Resolution recovery was also embedded in the modified Maximum-Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction code to compensate for Collimator-Detector Response (CDR). Moreover, an innovative interpolation algorithm was developed to speed up the reconstruction code. The planar spatial resolution at the head surface and the image spatial resolutions were 1.7 mm and 1.2–1.6 mm, respectively. The measurements followed by post-processing showed that the observed count rate at 20% count loss is about 42 kcps. The system sensitivity at the collimator surface for heads 1 and 2 were 1.32 cps/µCi and 1.25 cps/µCi, respectively. The corresponding values were 1.18 cps/µCi and 1.02 cps/µCi at 8 cm distance from the collimator surfaces. In addition, whole-body scans of mice demonstrated appropriate imaging capability of the HiReSPECT

  18. Quantitative accuracy of serotonergic neurotransmission imaging with high-resolution 123I SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging can be used to study the role of regional abnormalities of neurotransmitter release in various mental disorders and to study the mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs or drugs' abuse. We examine the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility that can be achieved with high-resolution SPECT of serotonergic neurotransmission. Method: Binding potential (BP) of 123 I labeled tracer specific for midbrain SERT was assessed in 20 healthy persons. The effects of scatter, attenuation, partial volume, misregistration and statistical noise were estimated using phantom and human studies. Results: Without any correction, BP was underestimated by 73%. The partial volume error was the major component in this underestimation whereas the most critical error for the reproducibility was misplacement of region of interest (ROI). Conclusion: The proper ROI registration, the use of the multiple head gamma camera with transmission based scatter correction introduce more relevant results. However, due to the small dimensions of the midbrain SERT structures and poor spatial resolution of SPECT, the improvement without the partial volume correction is not great enough to restore the estimate of BP to that of the true one. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of ultrahigh energy resolution gamma spectrometers for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, O.B.; Velazquez, M.; Dreyer, J.G.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing superconducting ultrahigh resolution gamma-detectors for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials, and specifically for spent fuel characterization in nuclear safeguards. The detectors offer an energy resolution below 100 eV FWHM at 100 keV, and can therefore significantly increase the precision of NDA at low energies where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement when using germanium detectors. They also increase the peak-to-background ratio and thus improve the detection limits for weak gamma emissions from the fissile Pu and U isotopes at low energy in the presence of an intense Compton background from the fission products in spent fuel. Here we demonstrate high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of our superconducting Gamma detectors, and discuss their relevance for measuring actinides in spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  20. Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography for encapsulation quality inspection

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, Jakub

    2011-08-28

    We present the application of ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of thin, protective films used in printed electronics. Two types of sample were investigated: microscopy glass and organic field effect transistor (OFET) structure. Samples were coated with thin (1-3 μm) layer of parylene C polymer. Measurements were done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti: sapphire femtosecond laser, photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. Submicron resolution offered by the UHR-OCT system applied in the study enables registration of both interfaces of the thin encapsulation layer. Complete, volumetric characterisation of protective layers is presented, demonstrating possibility to use OCT for encapsulation quality inspection. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  1. Visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoju; Zhan, Qiuqiang; Zhao, Yuxiang; Wu, Ruitao; Liu, Jing; He, Sailing

    2016-01-25

    Further development of multiphoton microscopic imaging is confronted with a number of limitations, including high-cost, high complexity and relatively low spatial resolution due to the long excitation wavelength. To overcome these problems, for the first time, we propose visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging by using a common cost-effective 730-nm laser diode to excite the prepared Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (Nd(3+)-UCNPs). An ordinary multiphoton scanning microscope system was built using a visible CW diode laser and the lateral imaging resolution as high as 161-nm was achieved via the four-photon upconversion process. The demonstrated large saturation excitation power for Nd(3+)-UCNPs would be more practical and facilitate the four-photon imaging in the application. A sample with fine structure was imaged to demonstrate the advantages of visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals. Combining the uniqueness of UCNPs, the proposed visible-to-visible four-photon imaging would be highly promising and attractive in the field of multiphoton imaging.

  2. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Wu, Chao [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Petrov, Artiom D. [University of California, Irvine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  3. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Wu, Chao; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Petrov, Artiom D.; Beekman, Freek J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic Microcalorimeter (MMC) Gamma Detectors with Ultra-High Energy Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The goal of this LCP is to develop ultra-high resolution gamma detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material, and implement several geometry and design changes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers, and by developing a cryogenic Compton veto to reduce the spectral background. Since best MMC performance requires detector operation at ~10 mK, we will purchase a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature <10 mK and adapt it for MMC operation. The detector performance will be tested with radioactive sources of interest to the safeguards community.

  5. USING A MICRO-UAV FOR ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION MULTI-SENSOR OBSERVATIONS OF ANTARCTIC MOSS BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lucieer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to use an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for mapping moss beds in Antarctica. Mosses can be used as indicators for the regional effects of climate change. Mapping and monitoring their extent and health is therefore important. UAV aerial photography provides ultra-high resolution spatial data for this purpose. We developed a technique to extract an extremely dense 3D point cloud from overlapping UAV aerial photography based on structure from motion (SfM algorithms. The combination of SfM and patch-based multi-view stereo image vision algorithms resulted in a 2 cm resolution digital terrain model (DTM. This detailed topographic information combined with vegetation indices derived from a 6-band multispectral sensor enabled the assessment of moss bed health. This novel UAV system has allowed us to map different environmental characteristics of the moss beds at ultra-high resolution providing us with a better understanding of these fragile Antarctic ecosystems. The paper provides details on the different UAV instruments and the image processing framework resulting in DEMs, vegetation indices, and terrain derivatives.

  6. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  7. Introduction of a novel ultrahigh sensitivity collimator for brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Ae, E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu; Kijewski, Marie Foley; Lyon, Morgan C.; Horky, Laura; Moore, Stephen C. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Keijzers, Ronnie; Keijzers, Mark [Nuclear Fields USA, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Noise levels of brain SPECT images are highest in central regions, due to preferential attenuation of photons emitted from deep structures. To address this problem, the authors have designed a novel collimator for brain SPECT imaging that yields greatly increased sensitivity near the center of the brain without loss of resolution. This hybrid collimator consisted of ultrashort cone-beam holes in the central regions and slant-holes in the periphery (USCB). We evaluated this collimator for quantitative brain imaging tasks. Methods: Owing to the uniqueness of the USCB collimation, the hole pattern required substantial variations in collimator parameters. To utilize the lead-casting technique, the authors designed two supporting plates to position about 37 000 hexagonal, slightly tapered pins. The holes in the supporting plates were modeled to yield the desired focal length, hole length, and septal thickness. To determine the properties of the manufactured collimator and to compute the system matrix, the authors prepared an array of point sources that covered the entire detector area. Each point source contained 32 μCi of Tc-99m at the first scan time. The array was imaged for 5 min at each of the 64 shifted locations to yield a 2-mm sampling distance, and hole parameters were calculated. The sensitivity was also measured using a point source placed along the central ray at several distances from the collimator face. High-count projection data from a five-compartment brain phantom were acquired with the three collimators on a dual-head SPECT/CT system. The authors calculated Cramer-Rao bounds on the precision of estimates of striatal and background activity concentration. In order to assess the new collimation system to detect changes in striatal activity, the authors evaluated the precision of measuring a 5% decrease in right putamen activity. The authors also reconstructed images of projection data obtained by summing data from the individual phantom

  8. The current status of SPECT or SPECT/CT in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Yong An [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon Saint Mary' s HospitalThe Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used. In Korea, SPECT/CT was for the first time installed in 2003. SPECT/CT can eliminate many possible pitfalls on SPECT-alone images, making better attenuation correction and thereby improving image quality. Therefore, SPECT/CT is clinically preferred in many hospitals in various aspects. More recently, additional SPECT/CT images taken from the region with equivocal uptake on planar images have been helpful in making precise interpretation as part of their clinical workup in postoperative thyroid cancer patients. SPECT and SPECT/CT have various advantages, but its clinical application has gradually decreased in recent few years. While some researchers investigated the myocardial blood flow with cardiac PET using F-18 FDG or N-13 ammonia, myocardial perfusion SPECT is, at present, the radionuclide imaging study of choice for the risk stratification and guiding therapy in the coronary artery disease patients in Korea. New diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for AD have received increasing attention; nevertheless, brain SPECT will remain the most reliable modality evaluating cerebral perfusion.

  9. Influence of rebinning on the reconstructed resolution of fan-beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koole, M.; D'Asseler, Y.; Staelens, S.; Vandenberghe, S.; Eede, I. van den; Walle, R. van de; Lemahieu, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fan-beam projection data can be rebinned to a parallel-beam geometry. This rebinning operation allows these data to be reconstructed with algorithms for parallel-beam projection data. The advantage of such an operation is that a dedicated projection/backprojection step for fan-beam geometry doesn't need to be developed. In clinical practice bilinear interpolation is often used for this rebinning operation. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the rebinning operation on the resolution properties of the reconstructed SPECT-image. Materials and methods: We have simulated the resolution properties of a fan-beam collimator, used in clinical routine, by means of a dedicated projector operation which models the distance dependent sensitivity and resolution of the collimator. With this projector, we generated noise-free sinograms for a point source located at various distances from the center of rotation. The number of angles of these sinograms varied from 60 to 180, corresponding to a step angle of 6 to 2 degrees. These generated fan-beam projection data were reconstructed directly with a filtered backprojection algorithm for fan-beam projection data, which consists of weighting and filtering the projection data with a ramp filter and of a weighted backprojection. Next, the generated fan-beam projection data were rebinned by means of bilinear interpolation and reconstructed with standard filtered backprojection for parallel-beam data. A two-dimensional Gaussian was fitted to the two point sources, one reconstructed with FBP for fan-beam and one reconstructed with FBP for parallel-beam after rebinning, yielding an estimate for the reconstructed Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) in the radial and tangential direction, for different locations in the field of view. Results: Results show little difference in resolution degradation in the radial direction between direct reconstruction and reconstruction after rebinning. However, significant loss in

  10. Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution

  11. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Ballinger, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  12. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  13. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  14. Development of an ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head GAGG coincidence imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2013-03-01

    A silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for high resolution PET systems due to its small channel size and high gain. Using Si-PMs, it will be possible to develop a high resolution imaging systems. For this purpose, we developed a small field-of-view (FOV) ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system for small animals and plant research. A new scintillator, Ce doped Gd3Al12Ga3O12 (GAGG), was selected because of its high light output and its emission wavelength matched with the Si-PM arrays and contained no radioactivity. Each coincidence imaging block detector consists of 0.5×0.5×5 mm3 GAGG pixels combined with a 0.1-mm thick reflector to form a 20×17 matrix that was optically coupled to a Si-PM array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 1.5-mm thick light guide. The GAGG block size was 12.0×10.2 mm2. Two GAGG block detectors were positioned face to face and set on a flexible arm based detector stand. All 0.5 mm GAGG pixels in the block detectors were clearly resolved in the 2-dimensional position histogram. The energy resolution was 14.4% FWHM for the Cs-137 gamma ray. The spatial resolution was 0.7 mm FWHM measured using a 0.25 mm diameter Na-22 point source. Small animal and plant images were successfully obtained. We conclude that our developed ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system is promising for small animal and plant imaging research.

  15. Varenicline increases in vivo striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: an ultra-high-resolution pinhole [123I]IBZM SPECT study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Wit, Tim C. de; Bruin, Kora de; Ramakers, Ruud M.; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J.; Brink, Wim van den; Booij, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Ex vivo storage phosphor imaging rat studies reported increased brain dopamine D 2/3 receptor (DRD 2/3 ) availability following treatment with varenicline, a nicotinergic drug. However, ex vivo studies can only be performed using cross-sectional designs. Small-animal imaging offers the opportunity to perform serial assessments. We evaluated whether high-resolution pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in rats was able to reproduce previous ex vivo findings. Methods: Rats were imaged for baseline striatal DRD 2/3 availability using ultra-high-resolution pinhole SPECT (U-SPECT-II) and [ 123 I]IBZM as a radiotracer, and randomized to varenicline (n=7; 2 mg/kg) or saline (n=7). Following 2 weeks of treatment, a second scan was acquired. Results: Significantly increased striatal DRD 2/3 availability was found following varenicline treatment compared to saline (time⁎treatment effect): posttreatment difference in binding potential between groups corrected for initial baseline differences was 2.039 (P=.022), indicating a large effect size (d=1.48). Conclusions: Ultra-high-resolution pinhole SPECT can be used to assess varenicline-induced changes in DRD 2/3 availability in small laboratory animals over time. Future small-animal studies should include imaging techniques to enable repeated within-subjects measurements and reduce the amount of animals.

  16. The effect of acquisition interval and spatial resolution on dynamic cardiac imaging with a stationary SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J; Maddula, R; Clackdoyle, R; DiBella, E; Fu, Z

    2007-01-01

    The current SPECT scanning paradigm that acquires images by slow rotation of multiple detectors in body-contoured orbits around the patient is not suited to the rapid collection of tomographically complete data. During rapid image acquisition, mechanical and patient safety constraints limit the detector orbit to circular paths at increased distances from the patient, resulting in decreased spatial resolution. We consider a novel dynamic rotating slant-hole (DyRoSH) SPECT camera that can collect full tomographic data every 2 s, employing three stationary detectors mounted with slant-hole collimators that rotate at 30 rpm. Because the detectors are stationary, they can be placed much closer to the patient than is possible with conventional SPECT systems. We propose that the decoupling of the detector position from the mechanics of rapid image acquisition offers an additional degree of freedom which can be used to improve accuracy in measured kinetic parameter estimates. With simulations and list-mode reconstructions, we consider the effects of different acquisition intervals on dynamic cardiac imaging, comparing a conventional three detector SPECT system with the proposed DyRoSH SPECT system. Kinetic parameters of a two-compartment model of myocardial perfusion for technetium-99m-teboroxime were estimated. When compared to a conventional SPECT scanner for the same acquisition periods, the proposed DyRoSH system shows equivalent or reduced bias or standard deviation values for the kinetic parameter estimates. The DyRoSH camera with a 2 s acquisition period does not show any improvement compared to a DyRoSH camera with a 10 s acquisition period

  17. The effect of acquisition interval and spatial resolution on dynamic cardiac imaging with a stationary SPECT camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Maddula, R.; Clackdoyle, R.; Di Bella, E.; Fu, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The current SPECT scanning paradigm that acquires images by slow rotation of multiple detectors in body-contoured orbits around the patient is not suited to the rapid collection of tomographically complete data. During rapid image acquisition, mechanical and patient safety constraints limit the detector orbit to circular paths at increased distances from the patient, resulting in decreased spatial resolution. We consider a novel dynamic rotating slant-hole (DyRoSH) SPECT camera that can collect full tomographic data every 2 s, employing three stationary detectors mounted with slant-hole collimators that rotate at 30 rpm. Because the detectors are stationary, they can be placed much closer to the patient than is possible with conventional SPECT systems. We propose that the decoupling of the detector position from the mechanics of rapid image acquisition offers an additional degree of freedom which can be used to improve accuracy in measured kinetic parameter estimates. With simulations and list-mode reconstructions, we consider the effects of different acquisition intervals on dynamic cardiac imaging, comparing a conventional three detector SPECT system with the proposed DyRoSH SPECT system. Kinetic parameters of a two-compartment model of myocardial perfusion for technetium-99m-teboroxime were estimated. When compared to a conventional SPECT scanner for the same acquisition periods, the proposed DyRoSH system shows equivalent or reduced bias or standard deviation values for the kinetic parameter estimates. The DyRoSH camera with a 2 s acquisition period does not show any improvement compared to a DyRoSH camera with a 10 s acquisition period.

  18. Quantification of Iodine-123-FP-CIT SPECT with a resolution-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbeleir, A.A.; Ham, H.R.; Hambye, A.E.; Vervaet, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate quantification of small-sized objects by SPECT is hampered by the partial volume effect. The present work evaluates the magnitude of this phenomenon with Iodine- 123 in phantom studies, and presents a resolution- independent method to quantify striatal I-123 FP-CIT uptake in patients. At first five syringes with internal diameters varying between 9 and 29mm and an anthropomorphic striatal phantom were filled with known concentrations of Iodine-123 and imaged by SPECT using different collimators and radii of rotation. Data were processed with and without scatter correction. From the measured activities, calibration factors were calculated for each specific collimator. Then a resolution-independent method for FP-CIT quantification using large regions of interest was developed and validated in 34 human studies (controls and patients) acquired in 2 different hospitals, by comparing its results to those obtained by a semi- quantitative striatal-to-occipital analysis. Taking the injected activity and decay into account, the measured counts/volume could be converted into absolute tracer concentrations. For the fan-beam, high resolution and medium energy collimators, the measured maximum activity in comparison to the 29 mm-diameter syringe was respectively 38%, 16% and 9% for the 9 mm-diameter syringe and 82%, 80% and 30% for the 16 mm syringe, and not significantly modified after scatter correction. For the anthropomorphic phantom, the error in measurement in % of the true concentration ranged between 0.3-9.5% and was collimator dependent. Medium energy collimators yielded the most homogeneous results. In the human studies, inter- observer variability was 11.4% for the striatal-to-occipital ratio and 3.1% for the resolution-independent method, with correlation coefficients >0.8 between both. The resolution- independent method was 89%-sensitive and 100%-specific to separate the patients without and with abnormal FP-CIT uptake (accuracy: 94%). Also the

  19. HMPAO-SPECT in cerebral seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Reichmann, K.; Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Durwen, H.; Buelau, P.; Elger, C.E.; Rohde, A.; Penin, H.

    1988-01-01

    In nine patients with suspected psychogenic seizures and in three patients with proven epileptic seizures HMPAO-SPECT was performed prior to and during seizure. In the patients with lateron-proven psychogenic seizures no, or only slight, changes of regional cerebral blood flow were found. Patients with proven epilepsy revealed partly normal findings interictally but during seizure a markedly increased circumscript blood flow was found in all patients. Even though PET is superior to SPECT with respect to spatial resolution, in the diagnosis of seizures HMPAO-SPECT has the advantage of enabling injection of the tracer during the seizure and the performance of the SPECT study subsequently. (orig.) [de

  20. Performance of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using Multi-focus Fan Beam Collimator with Resolution Recovery Reconstruction in a Comparison with Conventional SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutomo, Norikazu; Nagaki, Akio; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    IQ-SPECT is an advanced high-speed SPECT modality for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), which uses a multi-focus fan beam collimator with resolution recovery reconstruction. The aim of this study was to compare IQ-SPECT with conventional SPECT in terms of performance, based on standard clinical protocols. In addition, we examined the concordance between conventional and IQ-SPECT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty-three patients, undergoing rest-gated MPI for the evaluation of known or suspected CAD, were enrolled in this study. In each patient, conventional SPECT ( 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, 9.6 min and 201 Tl, 12.9 min) was performed, immediately followed by IQ-SPECT, using a short acquisition time (4.3 min for 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 6.2 min for 201 Tl). A quantitative analysis was performed on an MPI polar map, using a 20-segment model of the left ventricle. An automated analysis by gated SPECT was carried out to determine the left ventricular volume and function including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The degree of concordance between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT images was evaluated according to linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses. The segmental percent uptake exhibited a significant correlation between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT (P<0.05). The mean differences in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin studies were 1.1±6.6% (apex), 2.8±5.7% (anterior wall), 2.9±6.2% (septal wall), 4.9±6.7% (lateral wall), and 1.8±5.6% (inferior wall). Meanwhile, regarding the 201 Tl-SPECT studies, these values were 1.6±6.9%, 2.0±6.6%, 2.1±5.9%, 3.3±7.2%, and 2.4±5.8%, respectively. Although the mean LVEF in IQ-SPECT tended to be higher than that observed in conventional SPECT (conventional SPECT=64.8±11.8% and IQ-SPECT=68.3±12.1% for 99m Tc-tetrofosmin; conventional SPECT= 56.0±11.7% and IQ-SPECT=61.5±12.2% for 201 Tl), quantitative parameters were not significantly different between

  1. A specially designed cut-off gamma camera for high resolution SPECT of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Bergstrand, G.; Bergstedt, H.; Berg, J.; Flygare, O.; Schnell, P.O.; Anderson, N.; Lagergren, C.

    1984-01-01

    A modern gamma camera system for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has been modified in order to optimize examinations of the head. By cutting off a part of the detector housing at one edge, it has been possible to rotate the camera close to the skull, still covering the entire brain and the skull base. The minimum radius of rotation used was thereby reduced, in the mean, from 21.2 cm to 13.0 cm in examination of 18 patients. In combination with an adjustment of the 64 x 64 acquisition matrix to a field of view of 26x26 cm/sup 2/, the spatial resolution improved from 18.6 mm (FWHM) to 12.6 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the conventional LEGP-collimator and to 10.4 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the LEHR-collimator. No other modification than a slight cut of the light guide was made in the internal construction of the camera. Thus, the physical properties of the detector head are not essentially changed from those of a non-modified unit. The improved spatial resolution of the cut-off camera SPECT-system implies certain clinical advantages in studies of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-space and the skull base

  2. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterhuber, A; Povazay, B; Bizheva, K; Hermann, B; Sattmann, H; Stingl, A; Le, T; Seefeld, M; Menzel, R; Preusser, M; Budka, H; Schubert, Ch; Reitsamer, H; Ahnelt, P K; Morgan, J E; Cowey, A; Drexler, W

    2004-01-01

    Novel ultra-broad bandwidth light sources enabling unprecedented sub-2 μm axial resolution over the 400 nm-1700 nm wavelength range have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility for clinical ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) applications. The state-of-the-art light sources described here include a compact Kerr lens mode locked Ti:sapphire laser (λ c = 785 nm, Δλ = 260 nm, P out = 50 mW) and different nonlinear fibre-based light sources with spectral bandwidths (at full width at half maximum) up to 350 nm at λ c = 1130 nm and 470 nm at λ c = 1375 nm. In vitro UHR OCT imaging is demonstrated at multiple wavelengths in human cancer cells, animal ganglion cells as well as in neuropathologic and ophthalmic biopsies in order to compare and optimize UHR OCT image contrast, resolution and penetration depth

  3. Bulk superconducting gap of V_3Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Toyota, N.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V_3Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V_3Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T_c = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  4. Performance characterization of the Inveon preclinical small-animal PET/SPECT/CT system for multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magota, Keiichi; Kubo, Naoki; Kuge, Yuji; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the performance of the Inveon small-animal PET/SPECT/CT system and compared the imaging capabilities of the SPECT and PET components. For SPECT, the energy resolution, tomographic spatial resolution and system sensitivity were evaluated with a 99m Tc solution using a single pinhole collimator. For PET, the spatial resolution, absolute sensitivity, scatter fraction and peak noise equivalent count were evaluated. Phantoms and a normal rat were scanned to compare the imaging capabilities of SPECT and PET. The SPECT spatial resolution was 0.84 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at a radius of rotation of 25 mm using a 0.5-mm pinhole aperture collimator, while the PET spatial resolution was 1.63 mm FWHM at the centre. The SPECT system sensitivity at a radius of rotation of 25 mm was 35.3 cps/MBq (4 x 10 -3 %) using the 0.5-mm pinhole aperture, while the PET absolute sensitivity was 3.2% for 350-650 keV and 3.432 ns. Accordingly, the volume sensitivity of PET was three orders of magnitude higher than that of SPECT. This integrated PET/SPECT/CT system showed high performance with excellent spatial resolution for SPECT and sensitivity for PET. Based on the tracer availability and system performance, SPECT and PET have complementary roles in multimodality small-animal imaging. (orig.)

  5. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  6. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  7. Argentation chromatography coupled to ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry for the separation of a heavy crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnárné Guricza, Lilla; Schrader, Wolfgang

    2017-02-10

    Simplification of highly complex mixtures such as crude oil by using chromatographic methods makes it possible to get more detailed information about the composition of the analyte. Separation by argentation chromatography can be achieved based on the interaction of different strength between the silver ions (Ag + ) immobilized through a spacer on the silica gel surface and the π-bonds of the analytes. Heavy crude oils contain compounds with a high number of heteroatoms (N, O, S) and a high degree of unsaturation thus making them the perfect analyte for argentation chromatography. The direct coupling of argentation chromatography and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry allows to continuously tracking the separation of the many different compounds by retention time and allows sensitive detection on a molecular level. Direct injection of a heavy crude oil into a ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometer showed components with DBE of up to 25, whereas analytes with DBE of up to 35 could be detected only after separation with argentation chromatography. The reduced complexity achieved by the separation helps increasing the information depth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Epstein, P.; Kohn, R.; Antonino, F.; Devore-Best, S.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  9. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  10. Microstructural abnormalities in MEWDS demonstrated by ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, My Hanh T; Witkin, Andre J; Reichel, Elias; Ko, Tony H; Fujimoto, James G; Schuman, Joel S; Duker, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    Histopathological studies of acute multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) have not been reported because of the transient and benign nature of the disease. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT), capable of high resolution in vivo imaging, offers a unique opportunity to visualize retinal microstructure in the disease. UHR-OCT images of the maculae of five patients with MEWDS were obtained and analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, examination, visual field testing, and angiography. UHR-OCT revealed disturbances in the photoreceptor inner/outer segment junction (IS/OS) in each of the five patients (six eyes) with MEWDS. In addition, thinning of the outer nuclear layer was seen in the case of recurrent MEWDS, suggesting that repeated episodes of MEWDS may result in photoreceptor atrophy. Subtle disruptions of the photoreceptor IS/OS are demonstrated in all eyes affected by MEWDS. UHR-OCT may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and monitoring of MEWDS.

  11. Quantifying the benefits of ultrahigh energy resolution for Gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Owen B.; Terracol, Stephane F.; Friedrich, Stephan [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-270, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Cryogenic Gamma-ray spectrometers operating at temperatures of {proportional_to}0.1 K provide an order of magnitude better energy resolution than conventional germanium detectors. Ultra-high energy resolution improves the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials, since a better separation of lines reduces statistical errors as well as systematic errors from background subtraction and efficiency correction. We are developing cryogenic Gamma-spectrometers based on bulk tin absorbers and superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors for nuclear forensics and non-proliferation applications. Here we quantify the improvements in accuracy for isotope analysis with cryogenic detectors in terms of detector performance for different cases of line separation, line intensity ratios and background levels. Precise measurements of isotope ratios are crucial in the context of nuclear attribution, since they provide signatures of composition, age, origin, intended purpose and processing history of illicit nuclear materials. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Atlas-driven scan planning for high-resolution Micro-SPECT data acquisition based on multi-view photographs : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baiker, M.; Vastenhouw, B.; Branderhorst, W.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Beekman, F.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Highly focused Micro-SPECT scanners enable the acquisition of functional small animal data with very high-resolution. To acquire a maximum of emitted photons from a specific structure of interest and at the same time minimize the required acquisition time, typically only a small subvolume of the

  13. Atlas-driven scan planning for high-resolution micro-SPECT data acquisition based on multi-vew photographs : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baiker, M.; Vastenhouw, B.; Branderhorst, S.W.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Beekman, F.J.; Lelieveld, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Highly focused Micro-SPECT scanners enable the acquisition of functional small animal data with very high-resolution. To acquire a maximum of emitted photons from a specific structure of interest and at the same time minimize the required acquisition time, typically only a small subvolume of the

  14. Convergence and resolution recovery of block-iterative EM algorithms modeling 3D detector response in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalush, D.S.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Karimi, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate fast reconstruction algorithms including ordered subsets-EM (OS-EM) and Rescaled Block Iterative EM (RBI-EM) in fully 3D SPECT applications on the basis of their convergence and resolution recovery properties as iterations proceed. Using a 3D computer-simulated phantom consisting of 3D Gaussian objects, we simulated projection data that includes only the effects of sampling and detector response of a parallel-hole collimator. Reconstructions were performed using each of the three algorithms (ML-EM, OS-EM, and RBI-EM) modeling the 3D detector response in the projection function. Resolution recovery was evaluated by fitting Gaussians to each of the four objects in the iterated image estimates at selected intervals. Results show that OS-EM and RBI-EM behave identically in this case; their resolution recovery results are virtually indistinguishable. Their resolution behavior appears to be very similar to that of ML-EM, but accelerated by a factor of twenty. For all three algorithms, smaller objects take more iterations to converge. Next, we consider the effect noise has on convergence. For both noise-free and noisy data, we evaluate the log likelihood function at each subiteration of OS-EM and RBI-EM, and at each iteration of ML-EM. With noisy data, both OS-EM and RBI-EM give results for which the log-likelihood function oscillates. Especially for 180-degree acquisitions, RBI-EM oscillates less than OS-EM. Both OS-EM and RBI-EM appear to converge to solutions, but not to the ML solution. We conclude that both OS-EM and RBI-EM can be effective algorithms for fully 3D SPECT reconstruction. Both recover resolution similarly to ML-EM, only more quickly

  15. Precision mechanical design of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system with CDFDW optics at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D; Stoupin, S; Khachatryan, R; Goetze, K A; Roberts, T; Shvyd'ko, Y; Mundboth, K; Collins, S

    2013-01-01

    There are many scientific applications, especially involving topics related to the equilibrium atomic-scale dynamics of condensed matter, that require both a narrower and a steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than are currently available. To meet these important scientific needs, a prototype of a novel ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system has been designed and constructed at undulator-based beamline 30-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This prototype is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for performing so-called CDFDW angular-dispersive x-ray crystal optics, which include a central ultra-thin CFW crystal and a pair of dispersing elements. The abbreviation CDFDW stands for: C – collimating crystal, D – dispersing-element crystal (two D-crystals are used in each CDFDW), F – anomalous transmission filter, and W – wavelength-selector crystal [1]. The mechanical design of the ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer, as well as the preliminary test results of its precision positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  16. Comparative study between ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm and high spatial frequency algorithm in high-resolution CT of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Jung Kyuk; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1994-01-01

    To date, the high spatial frequency algorithm (HSFA) which reduces image smoothing and increases spatial resolution has been used for the evaluation of parenchymal lung diseases in thin-section high-resolution CT. In this study, we compared the ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm (UHSFA) with the high spatial frequency algorithm in the assessment of thin section images of the lung parenchyma. Three radiologists compared the UHSFA and HSFA on identical CT images in a line-pair resolution phantom, one lung specimen, 2 patients with normal lung and 18 patients with abnormal lung parenchyma. Scanning of a line-pair resolution phantom demonstrated no difference in resolution between two techniques but it showed that outer lines of the line pairs with maximal resolution looked thicker on UHSFA than those on HSFA. Lung parenchymal detail with UHSFA was judged equal or superior to HSFA in 95% of images. Lung parenchymal sharpness was improved with UHSFA in all images. Although UHSFA resulted in an increase in visible noise, observers did not found that image noise interfered with image interpretation. The visual CT attenuation of normal lung parenchyma is minimally increased in images with HSFA. The overall visual preference of the images reconstructed on UHSFA was considered equal to or greater than that of those reconstructed on HSFA in 78% of images. The ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm improved the overall visual quality of the images in pulmonary parenchymal high-resolution CT

  17. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  18. Bulk superconducting gap of V{sub 3}Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T., E-mail: t-sato@arpes.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Souma, S. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakayama, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sugawara, K. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Toyota, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V{sub 3}Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V{sub 3}Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V{sub 3}Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c} = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V{sub 3}Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  19. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, J.G.; Hertrich, T.; Drury, O.B.; Hohne, J.; Friedrich, S.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to ∼3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of ∼2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors

  20. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsahin, D. Uzun; Bläckberg, L.; Fakhri, G. El; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  1. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  2. Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povaay, B.; Müller, André

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion......-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior...... eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness....

  3. Evaluation of TSE- and T1-3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Schulze, D.; Koops, A.; Kemper, J.; Adam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of TSE- and T 1 -3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Materials and methods: Forty artificial cartilage lesions in ten bovine patellae were immersed in a solution of iodinated contrast medium and assessed with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Fat-suppressed TSE images with intermediate- and T 2 -weighting at a slice thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm as well as fat-suppressed T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH images with an effective slice thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm were acquired at 1.5 T. After adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution containing the patellae, the T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH imaging was repeated. Results: All cartilage lesions were visualised and graded with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. The TSE images had a higher sensitivity and a higher inter- and intraobserver kappa compared to the FLASH-sequences (TSE: 70-95%; 0.82-0.83; 0.85-0.9; FLASH: 57.5-85%; 0.53-0.72; 0.73-0.82, respectively). An increase in slice thickness decreased the sensitivity, whereby deep lesions were even reliably depicted on TSE images at a slice thickness of 3 and 4 mm. Adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution increased the sensitivity by 10% with no detectable advantage over the T 2 -weighted TSE images. Conclusion: TSE sequences and application of Gd-DTPA seemed to be superior to T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH sequences without Gd-DTPA in the detection of focal cartilage lesions. The ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT can serve as in vitro reference standard for focal cartilage lesions. (orig.) [de

  4. D-SPECT, a semiconductor camera: Technical aspects and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, C.; Bertrand, S.; Kelly, A.; Veyre, A.; Mestas, D.; Cachin, F.; Motreff, P.; Levesque, S.; Cachin, F.; Askienazy, S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical practice in nuclear medicine has largely changed in the last decade, particularly with the arrival of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. New semiconductor cameras could represent the next evolution in our nuclear medicine practice. Due to the resolution and sensitivity improvement, this technology authorizes fast speed acquisitions, high contrast and resolution images performed with low activity injection. The dedicated cardiology D-SPECT camera (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is based on semiconductor technology and provides an original system for collimation and images reconstruction. We describe here our clinical experience in using the D-SPECT with a preliminary study comparing D-D.P.E.C.T. and conventional gamma camera. (authors)

  5. High-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes using ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Rockberg, Johan; Forsström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies empower numerous important scientific, clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications. Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning...... against unwanted (e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. The latter are typically probed with peptides, but the cost of peptide screening programs tends to prohibit comprehensive specificity analysis. To perform high-throughput, high......-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against...

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning with ictal SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, T.; RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC; Geso, M.; O'Keefe, G.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is motivated by a clinical requirement to utilise ictal SPECT images for target localisation in stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning using the xknife system which only supports CT and MRI images. To achieve this, the SPECT images were converted from raw (pixel data only) format into a part 10 compliant DICOM CT fileset. The minimum requirements for the recasting of a raw format image as DICOM CT or MRI data set are described in detail. The method can be applied to the importation of raw format images into any radiotherapy treatment planning system that supports CT or MRI import. It is demonstrated that the combination of the low spatial resolution SPECT images, depicting functional information, with high spatial resolution MRI images, which show the structural information, is suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  7. Physical factors affecting single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) applied in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.I.; Khalil, W.A.; Hassan, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    many physical factors degrade single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Physical properties important for the assessment of the potential of emission computed tomography implemented by collimated detector systems include sensitivity, statistical and angular sampling requirements, attenuation compensation, resolution, uniformity, and multisection design constraints. SPECT has highlighted the used to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic the need to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic images as major artifacts because it distorts the data obtained at each projection. Also, poor energy resolution translates directly into degraded spatial resolution through reduced ability to reject scattered photons on the basic of pluses height analysis. The aim of this work is study the different and most important acquisition and processing parameters, which affect the quality of the SPECT images. The present study investigates the various parameters effecting SPECT images and experimental results demonstrate that: daily uniformity checks and evaluation are essential to ensure that the SPECT system is working properly. The Core used in the reconstruction process could be correct to avoid data misalignment. 60 mumblers of views gave the best image quality, rather than 20 or 30 views. Time per view (TPV) 30 or 20 sec gave a good image quality, rather than high-resolution collimator, is recommended in order to provide good spatial resolution. On the other hand patient motion could cause serious reconstruction artifacts. A cine display is recommended to identify movement artifacts. In the case of matrix size, matrix 128x128 give the best resolution than matrix 64x64. Energy window width, 15% compared with the standard 20% improved the resolution. Butter worth filter (cut off 0.57 cyc/cm with order 6 ) give the best resolution

  8. The clinical use of brain SPECT imaging in neuropsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Carmichael, Blake

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on brain SPECT imaging in brain trauma, dementia, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain SPECT allows clinicians the ability to view cerebral areas of healthy, low, and excessive perfusion. This information can be correlated with what is known about the function or dysfunction of each area. SPECT has a number of advantages over other imaging techniques, including wider availability, lower cost, and high quality resolution with multi-headed cameras. There are a number of issues that compromise the effective use of SPECT, including low quality of some imaging cameras, and variability of image rendering and readings (Au)

  9. Design of a Multi-Pinhole Collimator for I-123 DaTscan Imaging on Dual-Headed SPECT Systems in Combination with a Fan-Beam Collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael A; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M; Könik, Arda; Zubal, I George; Dey, Joyoni; Licho, Robert

    2016-02-01

    For the 2011 FDA approved Parkinson's Disease (PD) SPECT imaging agent I-123 labeled DaTscan, the volume of interest (VOI) is the interior portion of the brain. However imaging of the occipital lobe is also required with PD for calculation of the striatal binding ratio (SBR), a parameter of significance in early diagnosis, differentiation of PD from other disorders with similar clinical presentations, and monitoring progression. Thus we propose the usage of a combination of a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator on one head of the SPECT system and a fan-beam on the other. The MPH would be designed to provide high resolution and sensitivity for imaging of the interior portion of the brain. The fan-beam collimator would provide lower resolution but complete sampling of the brain addressing data sufficiency and allowing a volume-of-interest to be defined over the occipital lobe for calculation of SBR's. Herein we focus on the design of the MPH component of the combined system. Combined reconstruction will be addressed in a subsequent publication. An analysis of 46 clinical DaTscan studies was performed to provide information to define the VOI, and design of a MPH collimator to image this VOI. The system spatial resolution for the MPH was set to 4.7 mm, which is comparable to that of clinical PET systems, and significantly smaller than that of fan-beam collimators employed in SPECT. With this set, we compared system sensitivities for three aperture array designs, and selected the 3 × 3 array due to it being the highest of the three. The combined sensitivity of the apertures for it was similar to that of an ultra-high resolution fan-beam (LEUHRF) collimator, but smaller than that of a high-resolution fan-beam collimator (LEHRF). On the basis of these results we propose the further exploration of this design through simulations, and the development of combined MPH and fan-beam reconstruction.

  10. Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects [five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)]. T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy

  11. Affordable CZT SPECT with dose-time minimization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, James W.; Harris, Brian W.; Radley, Ian

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE Pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays are used in molecular imaging applications that can enable precision medicine, including small-animal SPECT, cardiac SPECT, molecular breast imaging (MBI), and general purpose SPECT. The interplay of gamma camera, collimator, gantry motion, and image reconstruction determines image quality and dose-time-FOV tradeoffs. Both dose and exam time can be minimized without compromising diagnostic content. METHODS Integration of pixelated CZT detectors with advanced ASICs and readout electronics improves system performance. Because historically CZT was expensive, the first clinical applications were limited to small FOV. Radiation doses were initially high and exam times long. Advances have significantly improved efficiency of CZT-based molecular imaging systems and the cost has steadily declined. We have built a general purpose SPECT system using our 40 cm x 53 cm CZT gamma camera with 2 mm pixel pitch and characterized system performance. RESULTS Compared to NaI scintillator gamma cameras: intrinsic spatial resolution improved from 3.8 mm to 2.0 mm; energy resolution improved from 9.8% to reconstruction, result in minimized dose and exam time. With CZT cost improving, affordable whole-body CZT general purpose SPECT is expected to enable precision medicine applications.

  12. SPECT imaging of 131I (364 keV): importance of collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.P.; Saw, C.B.; Leong, L.K.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    A low sensitivity medium energy collimator (LSMEC) designed with thick septa and long bore (theoretical leakage 131 I for a SPECT system operated in both planar and tomographic imaging modes. The collimator was designed to minimize the influence of photon penetration on spatial resolution, in particular the resolution index FWTM. Overall spatial resolution for the planar imaging mode at 10 cm from the collimator face was found to be 11.6 mm FWHM and 21.6 mm FWTM. The corresponding transverse plane and slice thickness resolution was of the order of 17 mm FWHM and 31 mm FWTM, for a radius of rotation of 16 cm. A SPECT resolution phantom was imaged. Two quadrants of cold rods were well resolved, with rod dimensions of 16 and 12.7 mm respectively, the resolution being comparable to that obtained using 99 Tcsup(m) (140 keV) and a low-energy high-resolution collimator. NEMA sensitivity obtained was 75 cpm/μCi 131 I. The resolution measurements obtained suggest that this collimator should be useful for SPECT imaging with 131 I in either radioimmunoimaging or radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  13. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  14. High and ultra-high resolution metabolite mapping of the human brain using 1H FID MRSI at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassirpour, Sahar; Chang, Paul; Henning, Anke

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a promising technique for mapping the spatial distribution of multiple metabolites in the human brain. These metabolite maps can be used as a diagnostic tool to gain insight into several biochemical processes and diseases in the brain. In comparison to lower field strengths, MRSI at ultra-high field strengths benefits from a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) as well as higher chemical shift dispersion, and hence spectral resolution. This study combines the benefits of an ultra-high field magnet with the advantages of an ultra-short TE and TR single-slice FID-MRSI sequence (such as negligible J-evolution and loss of SNR due to T 2 relaxation effects) and presents the first metabolite maps acquired at 9.4T in the healthy human brain at both high (voxel size of 97.6µL) and ultra-high (voxel size of 24.4µL) spatial resolutions in a scan time of 11 and 46min respectively. In comparison to lower field strengths, more anatomically-detailed maps with higher SNR from a larger number of metabolites are shown. A total of 12 metabolites including glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutathione (GSH) are reliably mapped. Comprehensive description of the methodology behind these maps is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An accurate and efficient system model of iterative image reconstruction in high-resolution pinhole SPECT for small animal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P-C; Hsu, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I-T [Department Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, K M [Medical Engineering Research Division, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cghsu@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-06-15

    Accurate modeling of the photon acquisition process in pinhole SPECT is essential for optimizing resolution. In this work, the authors develop an accurate system model in which pinhole finite aperture and depth-dependent geometric sensitivity are explicitly included. To achieve high-resolution pinhole SPECT, the voxel size is usually set in the range of sub-millimeter so that the total number of image voxels increase accordingly. It is inevitably that a system matrix that models a variety of favorable physical factors will become extremely sophisticated. An efficient implementation for such an accurate system model is proposed in this research. We first use the geometric symmetries to reduce redundant entries in the matrix. Due to the sparseness of the matrix, only non-zero terms are stored. A novel center-to-radius recording rule is also developed to effectively describe the relation between a voxel and its related detectors at every projection angle. The proposed system matrix is also suitable for multi-threaded computing. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed system model is evaluated in a workstation equipped with two Quad-Core Intel X eon processors.

  16. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  17. CBF patterns in different types of headache using 99mTc HMPAO and high resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.; Davies, P.G.; Costa, D.C.; Steiner, T.J.; Rose, F.C.; Jewkes, R.F.; Charing Cross Hospital, London

    1988-01-01

    High resolution SPECT studies have been performed using 99m Tc HMPAO on patients suffering from migraine, cluster headache or chronic tension headache. Reduced uptake of tracer in the right parieto-occipital cortex was seen in 6/8 patients suffering from classical or hemiplegic migraine and 2/10 patients suffering from common migraine. A high uptake of tracer was seen in the temporal muscle of some patients with chronic tension headache. Extracerebral uptake of radioactivity was also seen in the tissue surrounding the brain in a case injected with the HMPAO 45 minutes after it had been prepared and in metastatic skull lesions in patients suffering from cancer of the breast. It is therefore important to use high resolution instrumentation to avoid artifacts when using this technique. (orig.)

  18. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman [Mediso Medical Imaging Systems, Alsotorokvesz 14, H-1022 Budapest (Hungary); Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rieger, Jan [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.UniversityF.F.), Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  19. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo; Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman; Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Rieger, Jan; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  20. Ultra-High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Unilateral Drusen in a 31 Year Old Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carlo, Talisa E; Adhi, Mehreen; Lu, Chen D; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G; Waheed, Nadia K

    We report a case of widespread unilateral drusen in a healthy 31 year old Caucasian woman using multi-modal imaging including ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Dilated fundus exam showed multiple drusen-like lesions in the posterior pole without heme or fluid. Fundus auto fluorescence demonstrated hyperautofluorescent at the deposits. Fluorescein angiography revealed mild hyperfluorescence and staining of the lesions. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) OS showed accumulations in the temporal macula at Bruch's membrane. UHR-OCT provided improved axial resolution compared to the standard 5 μm on the commercial SD-OCT and confirmed the presence of deposits in Bruch's membrane, consistent with drusen. The retinal layers were draped over the excrescences but did not show any disruption.

  1. Advances in SPECT Instrumentation (Including Small Animal Scanners). Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental major efforts have been devoted to the development of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging modality over the last few decades. Recently, a novel surge of interest in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology has occurred, particularly after the introduction of the hybrid SPECT-CT imaging system. This has led to a flourishing of investigations in new types of detectors and collimators, and to more accurate refinement of reconstruction algorithms. Along with SPECT-CT, new, fast gamma cameras have been developed for dedicated cardiac imaging. The existing gap between PET and SPECT in sensitivity and spatial resolution is progressively decreasing, and this trend is particularly apparent in the field of small animal imaging where the most important advances have been reported in SPECT tomographs. An outline of the basic features of SPECT technology, and of recent developments in SPECT instrumentation for both clinical applications and basic biological research on animal models is described. (author)

  2. Partial volume correction in SPECT reconstruction with OSEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Kjell, E-mail: k.erlandsson@ucl.ac.uk [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Thomas, Ben; Dickson, John; Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-21

    SPECT images suffer from poor spatial resolution, which leads to partial volume effects due to cross-talk between different anatomical regions. By utilising high-resolution structural images (CT or MRI) it is possible to compensate for these effects. Traditional partial volume correction (PVC) methods suffer from various limitations, such as correcting a single region only, returning only regional mean values, or assuming a stationary point spread function (PSF). We recently presented a novel method in which PVC was combined with the reconstruction process in order to take into account the distance dependent PSF in SPECT, which was based on filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction. We now present a new method based on the iterative OSEM algorithm, which has advantageous noise properties compared to FBP. We have applied this method to a series of 10 brain SPECT studies performed on healthy volunteers using the DATSCAN tracer. T1-weighted MRI images were co-registered to the SPECT data and segmented into 33 anatomical regions. The SPECT data were reconstructed using OSEM, and PVC was applied in the projection domain at each iteration. The correction factors were calculated by forward projection of a piece-wise constant image, generated from the segmented MRI. Images were also reconstructed using FBP and standard OSEM with and without resolution recovery (RR) for comparison. The images were evaluated in terms of striatal contrast and regional variability (CoV). The mean striatal contrast obtained with OSEM, OSEM-RR and OSEM-PVC relative to FBP were 1.04, 1.42 and 1.53, respectively, and the mean striatal CoV values are 1.05, 1.53, 1.07. Both OSEM-RR and OSEM-PVC results in images with significantly higher contrast as compared to FBP or OSEM, but OSEM-PVC avoids the increased regional variability of OSEM-RR due to improved structural definition.

  3. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS) in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Thissen, Roland; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis; Vuitton, Véronique

    2016-03-24

    It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks ("seeds") for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

  4. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping of 123I-IMP SPECT in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Akimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    123 I-iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (IMP SPECT) is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow. However, application of IMP SPECT to patients with brain tumors has been rarely reported. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that shows delayed IMP uptake. The relatively low spatial resolution of SPECT is a clinical problem in diagnosing brain tumors. We examined anatomically standardized statistical mapping of IMP SPECT in patients with brain lesions. This study included 49 IMP SPECT images for 49 patients with brain lesions: 20 PCNSL, 1 Burkitt's lymphoma, 14 glioma, 4 other tumor, 7 inflammatory disease and 3 without any pathological diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis of PCNSL. After intravenous injection of 222 MBq of 123 I-IMP, early (15 minutes) and delayed (4 hours) images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine. All SPECT data were transferred to a newly developed software program iNeurostat+ (Nihon Medi-physics). SPECT data were anatomically standardized on normal brain images. Regions of increased uptake of IMP were statistically mapped on the tomographic images of normal brain. Eighteen patients showed high uptake in the delayed IMP SPECT images (16 PCNSL, 2 unknown). Other tumor or diseases did not show high uptake of delayed IMP SPECT, so there were no false positives. Four patients with pathologically proven PCNSL showed no uptake in original IMP SPECT. These tumors were too small to detect in IMP SPECT. However, statistical mapping revealed IMP uptake in 18 of 20 pathologically verified PCNSL patients. A heterogeneous IMP uptake was seen in homogenous tumors in MRI. For patients with a hot IMP uptake, statistical mapping showed clearer uptake. IMP SPECT is a sensitive test to diagnose of PCNSL, although it produced false negative results for small posterior fossa tumor. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping is therefore considered to be a useful method for improving the diagnostic

  5. Tc-99m TRODAT-1 and I-123 IBZM SPECT in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.S.; Lin, J.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Chen, C.Y.; Ting, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tc-99m TRODAT-1 and I-123 IBZM are potential agents for dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor (DR) SPECT, respectively. Mainly involving pre-synaptic neurons, Parkinson's disease (PD) could be differentiated from other movement disorders such as essential tremor and secondary parkinsonism using TRODAT-1 and IBZM SPECT. This study further investigates the value of TRODAT/ IBZM-specific uptake ratios (SUR) of striatum (ST) and putamrn (PU) in evaluating early PD. Methods and Materials: A total of 13 subjects (8 H and Y stage 1, 5 stage II and 5 age-matched controls) were studied. Tc-99m TRODAT-1 (925 MBq) and then I-123 IBZM (259 MBq) SPECT were performed separately within a month using a dual-head camera equipped with an ultra-high resolution fan beam collimator (Helix SPX, Elscint). Ratios of SURs of TRODAT-1 vs. IBZM (RSUR) were measured. Results: Significant differences in averaged SUR of TRODAT-1 were found among controls and patients with stages I and II (2.03, 1.69 and 1.27, p<0.01 respectively). The averaged SUR of IBZM, however, was significantly decreased only in the contralateral ST of the stage II patients. There was a significant decrease of RSUR of ST and PU in diseased groups especially in the contralateral side. Notably, less overlap in putaminal RSURs between diseased groups, either ipisilaterally or contralaterally, and controls was found. Conclusion: The function of DR might be preserved in early PD. The better discrimination of diseased groups from controls using putaminal RSUR might be due to up-regulated DR, which provided a clue to differentiating idiopathic PD from other parkinsonism at the early stage

  6. SPECT data acquisition and image reconstruction in a stationary small animal SPECT/MRI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Chen, Si; Yu, Jianhua; Meier, Dirk; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate data acquisition strategies and image reconstruction methods for a stationary SPECT insert that can operate inside an MRI scanner with a 12 cm bore diameter for simultaneous SPECT/MRI imaging of small animals. The SPECT insert consists of 3 octagonal rings of 8 MR-compatible CZT detectors per ring surrounding a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator sleeve. Each pinhole is constructed to project the field-of-view (FOV) to one CZT detector. All 24 pinholes are focused to a cylindrical FOV of 25 mm in diameter and 34 mm in length. The data acquisition strategies we evaluated were optional collimator rotations to improve tomographic sampling; and the image reconstruction methods were iterative ML-EM with and without compensation for the geometric response function (GRF) of the MPH collimator. For this purpose, we developed an analytic simulator that calculates the system matrix with the GRF models of the MPH collimator. The simulator was used to generate projection data of a digital rod phantom with pinhole aperture sizes of 1 mm and 2 mm and with different collimator rotation patterns. Iterative ML-EM reconstruction with and without GRF compensation were used to reconstruct the projection data from the central ring of 8 detectors only, and from all 24 detectors. Our results indicated that without GRF compensation and at the default design of 24 projection views, the reconstructed images had significant artifacts. Accurate GRF compensation substantially improved the reconstructed image resolution and reduced image artifacts. With accurate GRF compensation, useful reconstructed images can be obtained using 24 projection views only. This last finding potentially enables dynamic SPECT (and/or MRI) studies in small animals, one of many possible application areas of the SPECT/MRI system. Further research efforts are warranted including experimentally measuring the system matrix for improved geometrical accuracy, incorporating the co

  7. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  8. Wavy Architecture Thin-Film Transistor for Ultrahigh Resolution Flexible Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir Nabil; Kutbee, Arwa Talal; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Ooi, Boon S.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor's width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate. Operation of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based TFTs is shown down to a bending radius of 5 mm with no degradation in the electrical performance or cracks in the gate stack. Finally, flexible low-power LEDs driven by the respective currents of the novel wavy, and conventional coplanar architectures are demonstrated, where the novel architecture is able to drive the LED at 2 × the output power, 3 versus 1.5 mW, which demonstrates the potential use for ultrahigh resolution displays in an area efficient manner.

  9. Wavy Architecture Thin-Film Transistor for Ultrahigh Resolution Flexible Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir Nabil

    2017-11-13

    A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor\\'s width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate. Operation of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based TFTs is shown down to a bending radius of 5 mm with no degradation in the electrical performance or cracks in the gate stack. Finally, flexible low-power LEDs driven by the respective currents of the novel wavy, and conventional coplanar architectures are demonstrated, where the novel architecture is able to drive the LED at 2 × the output power, 3 versus 1.5 mW, which demonstrates the potential use for ultrahigh resolution displays in an area efficient manner.

  10. Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT in Neuropsychiatry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Puri

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT or SPET can now give regional cerebral blood flow images with a resolution approaching that of positron emission tomography (PET. In this paper, the use of high resolution SPECT neuroimaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Korsakoff's psychosis, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, HIV infection and AIDS is reviewed. Finally, further potential research and clinical uses, based on ligand studies, are outlined.

  11. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  12. Interest of hybrid SPECT-CT imaging for diagnosis of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, A.; Farid, K.; Guyot, M.; Jeandot, R.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P.; Clermont, H. de; Dauchy, F.; Dupon, M.; Fernandez, P.

    2008-01-01

    Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computerized Tomography (SPECT-CT) is a new hybrid technique which offers new diagnostic capabilities in daily nuclear medicine practice. This technique not only allows to acquire merged anatomic and functional images in the same time, but also, it increases sensitivity and accuracy of SPECT thanks to attenuation and scattering corrections got from transmission data. Until now, SPECT-CT data have been mainly obtained in oncology and cardiology, but now, many authors use it in many scan studies and particularly for infectious diseases. In inflammatory bowel diseases, SPECT-CT seems to increase diagnostic performances and to modify management of many patients. In suspected vascular sepsis, SPECT-CT could increase sensitivity of white blood cell scintigraphy but also its specificity thanks to spatial resolution of CT. In osteo-articular sepsis, SPECT-CT has the advantage to distinguish osteomyelitis from soft tissue infection and to guide biopsies. Nevertheless, in the light of PET-CT works, SPECT-CT development will probably modify nuclear medicine practice and many studies have to be conducted to highlight consensual procedure guidelines. (authors)

  13. Development of an MR-compatible SPECT system (MRSPECT) for simultaneous data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Mark J.; Ha, Seunghoon; Roeck, Werner W.; Tugan Muftuler, L.; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Meier, Dirk; Patt, Bradley E.; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2010-03-01

    In medical imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide specific functional information while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high spatial resolution anatomical information as well as complementary functional information. In this study, we developed a miniaturized dual-modality SPECT/MRI (MRSPECT) system and demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous SPECT and MRI data acquisition, with the possibility of whole-body MRSPECT systems through suitable scaling of components. For our MRSPECT system, a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) nuclear radiation detector was interfaced with a specialized radiofrequency (RF) coil and placed within a whole-body 4 T MRI system. Various phantom experiments characterized the interaction between the SPECT and MRI hardware components. The metallic components of the SPECT hardware altered the B0 field and generated a non-uniform reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MR images. The presence of a magnetic field generated a position shift and resolution loss in the nuclear projection data. Various techniques were proposed to compensate for these adverse effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that accurate, simultaneous SPECT and MRI data acquisition is feasible, justifying the further development of MRSPECT for either small-animal imaging or whole-body human systems by using appropriate components.

  14. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grova, C [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jannin, P [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Biraben, A [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Buvat, I [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Benali, H [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Bernard, A M [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Scarabin, J M [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gibaud, B [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2003-12-21

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were

  15. Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, John M; Jacob, Robert; Vertenstein, Mariana; Craig, Tony; Loy, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Global climate models need to simulate several small, regional-scale processes which affect the global circulation in order to accurately simulate the climate. This is particularly important in the ocean where small scale features such as oceanic eddies are currently represented with adhoc parameterizations. There is also a need for higher resolution to provide climate predictions at small, regional scales. New high-performance computing platforms such as the IBM BlueGene can provide the necessary computational power to perform ultra-high resolution climate model integrations. We have begun to investigate the scaling of the individual components of the Community Climate System Model to prepare it for integrations on BlueGene and similar platforms. Our investigations show that it is possible to successfully utilize O(32K) processors. We describe the scalability of five models: the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice CodE (CICE), the Community Land Model (CLM), and the new CCSM sequential coupler (CPL7) which are components of the next generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM); as well as the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) which is a dynamical core currently being evaluated within the Community Atmospheric Model. For our studies we concentrate on 1/10 0 resolution for CICE, POP, and CLM models and 1/4 0 resolution for HOMME. The ability to simulate high resolutions on the massively parallel petascale systems that will dominate high-performance computing for the foreseeable future is essential to the advancement of climate science

  16. Ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist: Radiation dose and image quality compared to conventional multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werncke, Thomas, E-mail: Werncke.Thomas@mh-hannover.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Sonnow, Lena; Meyer, Bernhard C. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Lüpke, Matthias [University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Institute for General Radiology and Medical Physics, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover (Germany); Hinrichs, Jan; Wacker, Frank K.; Falck, Christian von [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Objective of this phantom and cadaveric study was to compare the effective radiation dose (ED) and image quality (IQ) between C-arm computed tomography (CACT) using an ultra-high resolution 1 × 1 binning with a standard 16-slice CT (MDCT) arthrography of the wrist. Methods: ED was determined with thermoluminescence dosimetry using an anthropomorphic phantom and different patient positions. Imaging was conducted in 10 human cadaveric wrists after tri-compartmental injection of diluted iodinated contrast material and a wire phantom. IQ of MDCT was compared with CACT reconstructed with a soft (CACT1) and sharp (CACT2) kernel. High and low contrast resolution was determined. Three radiologists assessed IQ of wrist structures and occurrence of image artifacts using a 5-point Likert scale. Results: ED of MDCT was comparable to standard CACT (4.3 μSv/3.7 μSv). High contrast resolution was best for CACT2, decreased to CACT1 and MDCT. Low contrast resolution increased between CACT2 and MDCT (P < 0.001). IQ was best for CACT2 (1.3 ± 0.5), decreased to CACT1 (1.9 ± 0.6) and MDCT (3.5 ± 0.6). Non-compromising artifacts were only reported for CACT. Conclusions: The results of this phantom and cadaveric study indicate that ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist bears the potential to outperform MDCT arthrography in terms of image quality and workflow at the cost of mildly increasing image artifacts while radiation dose to the patient is comparably low for both, MDCT and C-Arm CT.

  17. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of the human brain with phase-cycled balanced steady-state free precession at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineh, Michael M; Parekh, Mansi B; Zaharchuk, Greg; Su, Jason H; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Fischbein, Nancy J; Rutt, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to acquire ultra-high resolution images of the brain using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 7 T and to identify the potential utility of this sequence. Eight volunteers participated in this study after providing informed consent. Each volunteer was scanned with 8 phase cycles of bSSFP at 0.4-mm isotropic resolution using 0.5 number of excitations and 2-dimensional parallel acceleration of 1.75 × 1.75. Each phase cycle required 5 minutes of scanning, with pauses between the phase cycles allowing short periods of rest. The individual phase cycles were aligned and then averaged. The same volunteers underwent scanning using 3-dimensional (3D) multiecho gradient recalled echo at 0.8-mm isotropic resolution, 3D Cube T2 at 0.7-mm isotropic resolution, and thin-section coronal oblique T2-weighted fast spin echo at 0.22 × 0.22 × 2.0-mm resolution for comparison. Two neuroradiologists assessed image quality and potential research and clinical utility. The volunteers generally tolerated the scan sessions well, and composite high-resolution bSSFP images were produced for each volunteer. Rater analysis demonstrated that bSSFP had a superior 3D visualization of the microarchitecture of the hippocampus, very good contrast to delineate the borders of the subthalamic nucleus, and relatively good B1 homogeneity throughout. In addition to an excellent visualization of the cerebellum, subtle details of the brain and skull base anatomy were also easier to identify on the bSSFP images, including the line of Gennari, membrane of Liliequist, and cranial nerves. Balanced steady-state free precession had a strong iron contrast similar to or better than the comparison sequences. However, cortical gray-white contrast was significantly better with Cube T2 and T2-weighted fast spin echo. Balanced steady-state free precession can facilitate ultrahigh-resolution imaging of the brain. Although total imaging times are long, the individually short

  18. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Somogyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks (“seeds” for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

  19. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS) in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Thissen, Roland; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis; Vuitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks (“seeds”) for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. PMID:27023520

  20. Transmission computed tomography data acquisition with a SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, K.L.; Harris, C.C.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Hedlund, L.W.; Floyd, C.E.; Manglos, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Phantom and animal transmission computed tomography (TCT) scans were performed with a camera-based single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to determine system linearity as a function of object density, which is important in the accurate determination of attenuation coefficients for SPECT attenuation compensation. Results from phantoms showed promise in providing a linear relationship in measuring density while maintaining good image resolution. Animal images were essentially free of artifacts. Transmission computed tomography scans derived from a SPECT system appear to have the potential to provide data suitable for incorporation in an attenuation compensation algorithm at relatively low (calculated) radiation doses to the subjects

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-High Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.; Drury, O.B.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background. In order to optimize the detector geometry and to understand the spectral response function Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation package coded in C++, was used to model the detectors. Using a 1 mm 3 Sn absorber and a monochromatic gamma source, different absorber geometries were tested. The simulation was expanded to include the Cu block behind the absorber and four layers of shielding required for detector operation at 0.1 K. The energy spectrum was modeled for an Am-241 and a Cs-137 source, including scattering events in the shielding, and the results were compared to experimental data. For both sources the main spectral features such as the photopeak, the Compton continuum, the escape x-rays and the backscatter peak were identified. Finally, the low energy response of a Pu-239 source was modeled to assess the feasibility of Pu-239 detection in spent fuel. This modeling of superconducting detectors can serve as a guide to optimize the configuration in future spectrometer designs.

  2. The assessment of whole body bone SPECT in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scortechini, Shonika

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To assess the significance and practicability of oncology whole body bone SPECT as part of the standard skeletal survey and its impact on the traditional planar whole body bone imaging protocol. Method: Three consenting oncology patients were injected with a standard adult dose of Tc-99m MOP. Delayed Imaging of whole body sweep and SPECT acquisitions were performed on a Siemens Symbia T6. The patient was positioned supine with arms down with a SPECT scan length covering vortex to thighs. SPECT data was reconstructed and a single whole body zipped file created. Normal SPECT slices along with a cine/MIP of the zipped data were created for review. Results: Both image data sets were reviewed to assess if SPECT provided any further diagnostic clinical information not apparent in planer imaging. In our limited review, whole body SPECT did not add extra value to the planar whole body scans performed; it did however demonstrate vertebral involvement with greater resolution. The processing software and system limitations in seamlessly knitting data sets (creating image artefacts) was a major limiting factor in not pursuing further studies. Conclusion: Both imaging techniques offer differing advantages and limitations, however due to image artefact in the triple knitted SPECT approach with current software technology, it cannot be substituted for whole body imaging at this time.

  3. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  4. The origins of SPECT and SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Brian F. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has a long history of development since its initial demonstration by Kuhl and Edwards in 1963. Although clinical utility has been dominated by the rotating gamma camera, there have been many technological innovations with the recent popularity of organ-specific dedicated SPECT systems. The combination of SPECT and CT evolved from early transmission techniques used for attenuation correction with the initial commercial systems predating the release of PET/CT. The development and acceptance of SPECT/CT has been relatively slow with continuing debate as to what cost/performance ratio is justified. Increasingly, fully diagnostic CT is combined with SPECT so as to facilitate optimal clinical utility. (orig.)

  5. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huellner, Martin W.; Strobel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  6. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huellner, Martin W. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  7. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  8. Development of advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-gonal diverging-collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising diagnosis technique to investigate the dynamic behavior of process media. In the present study, a 12-gonal industrial SPECT system was developed using diverging collimators, and its performance was compared with those of hexagonal and 24-gonal systems. Of all of the systems, the 12-gonal type showed the best performance, providing (1) a detection-efficiency map without edge artifacts, (2) the best image resolution, and (3) reconstruction images that correctly furnish multi-source information. Based on the performance of the three different types of configurations, a SPECT system with 12-gonal type configuration was found most suitable for investigating and visualization of flow dynamics in industrial process systems. - highlights: • Industrial SPECT provides the dynamic behavior of multiphase industrial processes. • The present study compared performance of various industrial SPECT systems. • The 12-gonal SPECT system with diverging-collimator provides the best performance

  9. Implementation and Evaluation of Pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArtain Anne Marie

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this work was to implement Pinhole SPECT into a working Nuclear Medicine department. It has been reported that pinhole SPECT has been successfully performed to visualise pathology in ankle bones using gamma camera and the images were constructed using a standard filtered back-projection algorithm (Bahk YW, 1998). The objective of this study was to produce and evaluate this technique with the equipment available in the nuclear medicine department. The system performance was assessed using both the low-energy high resolution and the pinhole collimators. Phantoms constructed using capillary tubes, filled with technetium 99m (pertechnetate) were imaged in different arrays to identify possible limitations in the reconstruction software. A thyroid phantom with hot and cold inserts was also imaged. Data was acquired in ''tep-and-shoot'' mode as the camera was rotated 180 degrees or 360 degrees around the phantom. Images were reconstructed using standard parallel back-projection algorithm and a weighted backprojection algorithm (Nowak). An attempt was made to process images of the phantom in Matlab using the Iradon function modified by application of a cone-beam type algorithm (Feldkamp L, 1984). Visual comparison of static images between the pinhole and the LEHR collimators showed the expected improved spatial resolution of the pinhole images. Pinhole SPECT images should be reconstructed using the appropriate cone beam algorithm. However, it was established that reconstructing pinhole SPECT images using a standard parallel backprojection algorithm yielded results which were deemed to be clinically useful. The Nowak algorithm results were a distinct improvement on those achieved with the parallel backprojection algorithm. Likewise the results from the cone beam algorithm were better than the former but not as good as those obtained from the Nowak algorithm. This was due to the fact that the cone beam algorithm did not include a weighting factor. Implementation

  10. The Israeli EA-FEL Upgrade Towards Long Pulse Operation for Ultra-High Resolution Single Pulse Coherent Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A; Kanter, M; Kapilevich, B; Litvak, B; Peleg, S; Socol, Y; Volshonok, M

    2005-01-01

    The Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL (EA-FEL) is now being upgraded towards long pulse (1005s) operation and ultra-high resolution (10(-6)) single pulse coherent spectroscopy. We present quantitative estimations regarding the applications of controlled radiation chirp for spectroscopic applications with pulse-time Fourier Transform limited spectral resolution. Additionally, we describe a novel extraction-efficiency-improving scheme based on increase of accelerating voltage (boosting) after saturation is achieved. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is confirmed by theoretical and numerical calculations. The latter are performed using software, based on 3D space-frequency domain model. The presentation provides an overview of the upgrade status: the high-voltage terminal is being reconfigured to accept the accelerating voltage boost system; a new broad band low-loss resonator is being manufactured; multi-stage depressed collector is assembled.

  11. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  12. Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, John M [Computer Science Section, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Jacob, Robert [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Vertenstein, Mariana [Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Craig, Tony [Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Loy, Raymond [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Global climate models need to simulate several small, regional-scale processes which affect the global circulation in order to accurately simulate the climate. This is particularly important in the ocean where small scale features such as oceanic eddies are currently represented with adhoc parameterizations. There is also a need for higher resolution to provide climate predictions at small, regional scales. New high-performance computing platforms such as the IBM BlueGene can provide the necessary computational power to perform ultra-high resolution climate model integrations. We have begun to investigate the scaling of the individual components of the Community Climate System Model to prepare it for integrations on BlueGene and similar platforms. Our investigations show that it is possible to successfully utilize O(32K) processors. We describe the scalability of five models: the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice CodE (CICE), the Community Land Model (CLM), and the new CCSM sequential coupler (CPL7) which are components of the next generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM); as well as the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) which is a dynamical core currently being evaluated within the Community Atmospheric Model. For our studies we concentrate on 1/10{sup 0} resolution for CICE, POP, and CLM models and 1/4{sup 0} resolution for HOMME. The ability to simulate high resolutions on the massively parallel petascale systems that will dominate high-performance computing for the foreseeable future is essential to the advancement of climate science.

  13. Ultra-low noise supercontinuum source for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, I. B.; Maria, M.; Engelsholm, R. D.; Feuchter, T.; Leick, L.; Moselund, P. M.; Podoleanu, A.; Bang, O.

    2018-02-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) sources are of great interest for many applications due to their ultra-broad optical bandwidth, good beam quality and high power spectral density [1]. In particular, the high average power over large bandwidths makes SC light sources excellent candidates for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) [2-5]. However, conventional SC sources suffer from high pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuations as a result of the noise-sensitive nonlinear effects involved in the SC generation process [6-9]. This intensity noise from the SC source can limit the performance of OCT, resulting in a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) [10-12]. Much work has been done to reduce the noise of the SC sources for instance with fiber tapers [7,8] or increasing the repetition rate of the pump laser for averaging in the spectrometer [10,12]. An alternative approach is to use all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fibers [13,14] to generate SC light from well-known coherent nonlinear processes [15-17]. In fact, reduction of SC noise using ANDi fibers compared to anomalous dispersion SC pumped by sub-picosecond pulses has been recently demonstrated [18], but a cladding mode was used to stabilize the ANDi SC. In this work, we characterize the noise performance of a femtosecond pumped ANDi based SC and a commercial SC source in an UHR-OCT system at 1300 nm. We show that the ANDi based SC presents exceptional noise properties compared to a commercial source. An improvement of 5 dB in SNR is measured in the UHR-OCT system, and the noise behavior resembles that of a superluminiscent diode. This preliminary study is a step forward towards development of an ultra-low noise SC source at 1300 nm for ultra-high resolution OCT.

  14. Band-selective excited ultrahigh resolution PSYCHE-TOCSY: fast screening of organic molecules and complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Vemulapalli, Sahithya Phani Babu; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2016-04-01

    Precise assignments of (1) H atomic sites and establishment of their through-bond COSY or TOCSY connectivity are crucial for molecular structural characterization by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy. However, this exercise is often hampered by signal overlap, primarily because of (1) H-(1) H scalar coupling multiplets, even at typical high magnetic fields. The recent developments in homodecoupling strategies for effectively suppressing the coupling multiplets into nice singlets (pure-shift), particularly, Morris's advanced broadband pure-shift yielded by chirp excitation (PSYCHE) decoupling and ultrahigh resolution PSYCHE-TOCSY schemes, have shown new possibilities for unambiguous structural elucidation of complex organic molecules. The superior broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY exhibits enhanced performance over the earlier TOCSY methods, which however warrants prolonged experimental times due to the requirement of large number of dwell increments along the indirect dimension. Herein, we present fast and band-selective analog of the broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY, which is useful for analyzing complex organic molecules that exhibit characteristic yet crowded spectral regions. The simple pulse scheme relies on band-selective excitation (BSE) followed by PSYCHE homodecoupling in the indirect dimension. The BSE-PSYCHE-TOCSY has been exemplified for Estradiol and a complex carbohydrate mixture comprised of six constituents of closely comparable molecular weights. The experimental times are greatly reduced viz., ~20 fold for Estradiol and ~10 fold for carbohydrate mixture, with respect to the broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY. Furthermore, unlike the earlier homonuclear band-selective decoupling, the BSE-PSYCHE-decoupling provides fully decoupled pure-shift spectra for all the individual chemical sites within the excited band. The BSE-PSYCHE-TOCSY is expected to have significant potential for quick screening of complex organic molecules and mixtures at ultrahigh resolution. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  15. Quantification in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena; 2 - quantification in SPECT, problems and correction methods: Attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration; 3 - Synthesis: actual quantification accuracy; 4 - Beyond the activity concentration measurement

  16. Improvements in SPECT technology for cerebral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Advancement in three major areas of SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) technology have resulted in improved image quality for cerebral studies. In the first area, single-crystal camera electronics, extensive use of microprocessors, custom digital circuitry, an data bus architecture have allowed precise external control of all gantry motions and improved signal processing. The new digital circuitry permits energy, uniformity, and linearity corrections to be an integral part of the processing electronics. Calibration of these correlations is controlled by algorithms stored in the camera's memory. The second area of improved SPECT technology is camera collimation and related imaging techniques. In this area, system resolution has been improved without loss of sensitivity by decreasing the air gap between patient and collimator surface. Since cerebral studies characteristically image high-contrast regions less than 1 cm in size, image quality has been improved by increasing collimator resolution even at the expense of sensitivity. Increased resolution also improved image contrast for studies using 123 I-labeled pharmaceuticals with 3% to 4% 124 I contamination. 65 references

  17. Simulation study of the second-generation MR-compatible SPECT system based on the inverted compound-eye gamma camera design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaochun; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present simulation studies for the second-generation MRI compatible SPECT system, MRC-SPECT-II, based on an inverted compound eye (ICE) gamma camera concept. The MRC-SPECT-II system consists of a total of 1536 independent micro-pinhole-camera-elements (MCEs) distributed in a ring with an inner diameter of 6 cm. This system provides a FOV of 1 cm diameter and a peak geometrical efficiency of approximately 1.3% (the typical levels of 0.1%-0.01% found in modern pre-clinical SPECT instrumentations), while maintaining a sub-500 μm spatial resolution. Compared to the first-generation MRC-SPECT system (MRC-SPECT-I) (Cai 2014 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 734 147-51) developed in our lab, the MRC-SPECT-II system offers a similar resolution with dramatically improved sensitivity and greatly reduced physical dimension. The latter should allow the system to be placed inside most clinical and pre-clinical MRI scanners for high-performance simultaneous MRI and SPECT imaging.

  18. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Wang, Shi; Ma, Tianyu; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang

    2015-01-01

    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance

  19. Initial Investigation of preclinical integrated SPECT and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Mark J; Ha, Seunghoon; Roeck, Werner W; Wagenaar, Douglas J; Meier, Dirk; Patt, Bradley E; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2010-02-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide specific functional information while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-spatial resolution anatomical information as well as complementary functional information. In this study, we utilized a dual modality SPECT/MRI (MRSPECT) system to investigate the integration of SPECT and MRI for improved image accuracy. The MRSPECT system consisted of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) nuclear radiation detector interfaced with a specialized radiofrequency (RF) coil that was placed within a whole-body 4 T MRI system. The importance of proper corrections for non-uniform detector sensitivity and Lorentz force effects was demonstrated. MRI data were utilized for attenuation correction (AC) of the nuclear projection data and optimized Wiener filtering of the SPECT reconstruction for improved image accuracy. Finally, simultaneous dual-imaging of a nude mouse was performed to demonstrated the utility of co-registration for accurate localization of a radioactive source.

  20. Anything wrong with brain SPECT? Not really

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Despite increased evidence about the usefulness of Brain SPECT in Neuro-Psychiatry, it continues to represent only a low percentage of Nuclear Medicine procedures. The prevalent perception is that it is an inadequate diagnostic tool, and/or is not changing patient management. There are objective reasons for this, as the lack of awareness by Psychiatrists about the value of SPECT, but most important is the frequently poor quality of images provided. This can be due to inadequate gamma cameras but is mostly due to poor quality software. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT via triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A combination of commercial software and local optimization was used for the final displays as well as for realignment of sequential brain SPECT studies. Results: We found out that 6 basic software improvements are needed to generate a final display where features can be clearly distinguished and which can be also easily assimilated by the referring physician. 1) Color scales: simple and efficient tools needed to generate user friendly and semiquantitative color shades as needed. Unfortunately various color scales may be needed depending on printer and paper used. 2): 3 D displays allowing, multiple standardized thresholdings, any number of groupings, differential coloring (with functional meaning) and adequate labeling. Should be completely or at least mostly automatic. 3) Automatic realignment of sequential studies: such programs exist in various forms (free WWW versions, proprietary Beta versions, etc.) but are still not supplied by the gamma camera vendors for general use. Should provide SPECT -SPECT and SPECT MRI options. 4) Localization of structures and slices a) Triangulation of structures and b) Identification of section location. 5) Graphics improvement for generating any number of optimized summary displays to accompany reports. 6) Availability of voxel based quantification software

  1. Optimizing multi-pinhole SPECT geometries using an analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentmeester, M C M; Have, F van der; Beekman, F J

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art multi-pinhole SPECT devices allow for sub-mm resolution imaging of radio-molecule distributions in small laboratory animals. The optimization of multi-pinhole and detector geometries using simulations based on ray-tracing or Monte Carlo algorithms is time-consuming, particularly because many system parameters need to be varied. As an efficient alternative we develop a continuous analytical model of a pinhole SPECT system with a stationary detector set-up, which we apply to focused imaging of a mouse. The model assumes that the multi-pinhole collimator and the detector both have the shape of a spherical layer, and uses analytical expressions for effective pinhole diameters, sensitivity and spatial resolution. For fixed fields-of-view, a pinhole-diameter adapting feedback loop allows for the comparison of the system resolution of different systems at equal system sensitivity, and vice versa. The model predicts that (i) for optimal resolution or sensitivity the collimator layer with pinholes should be placed as closely as possible around the animal given a fixed detector layer, (ii) with high-resolution detectors a resolution improvement up to 31% can be achieved compared to optimized systems, (iii) high-resolution detectors can be placed close to the collimator without significant resolution losses, (iv) interestingly, systems with a physical pinhole diameter of 0 mm can have an excellent resolution when high-resolution detectors are used

  2. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  3. Ultra-high field MRI: Advancing systems neuroscience towards mesoscopic human brain function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O; Fracasso, A.; Van der Zwaag, W.; Siero, Jeroen C W; Petridou, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image

  4. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  5. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C.; Nguyen, Khoa

    2015-01-01

    level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13 mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise...... datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer......'s disease subjects and elderly controls with 88% accuracy in standard resolution (1 mm) T1 data, significantly outperforming the atlas in FreeSurfer version 5.3 (86% accuracy) and classification based on whole hippocampal volume (82% accuracy)....

  6. A new dynamic myocardial phantom for evaluation of SPECT and PET quantitation in systolic and diastolic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreuille, O. de; Bendriem, B.; Riddell, C.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new dynamic myocardial phantom designed to evaluate SPECT and PET imaging in systolic and diastolic conditions. The phantom includes a thoracic attenuating media and the myocardial wall thickness varying during the scan can be performed. In this study the phantom was used with three different wall thickness characteristic of a systolic, end-diastolic and pathologic end-diastolic condition. The myocardium was filled with 99m Tc, 18 F and Gd and imaged by SPECT, PET and MRI. SPECT attenuation correction was performed using a modified PET transmission. A bull's eyes image was obtained for all data and wall ROI were then drawn for analysis. Using MRI as a reference, error from PET, SPECT and attenuation corrected SPECT were calculated. Systolic PET performances agree with MRI. Quantitation loss due to wall thickness reduction compared to the systole. Attenuation correction in SPECT leads to significant decrease of the error both in systole (from 29% to 14%) and diastole (35% to 22%). This is particularly sensitive for septum and inferior walls. SPECT residual errors (14% in systole and 22% in pathologic end-diastole) are likely caused by scatter, noise and depth dependent resolution effect. The results obtained with this dynamical phantom demonstrate the quantitation improvement achieved in SPECT with attenuation correction and also reinforce the need for variable resolution correction in addition to attenuation correction

  7. Next-generation technologies for spatial proteomics: Integrating ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR imaging mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Rizzo, David G; Moore, Jessica L; Noto, Michael J; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool enabling the visualization of biomolecules in tissue. However, there are unique challenges associated with protein imaging experiments including the need for higher spatial resolution capabilities, improved image acquisition rates, and better molecular specificity. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR IMS platforms as they relate to these challenges. High spatial resolution MALDI-TOF protein images of rat brain tissue and cystic fibrosis lung tissue were acquired at image acquisition rates >25 pixels/s. Structures as small as 50 μm were spatially resolved and proteins associated with host immune response were observed in cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF enables unique applications including megapixel molecular imaging as demonstrated for lipid analysis of cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Additionally, imaging experiments using MALDI FTICR IMS were shown to produce data with high mass accuracy (z 5000) for proteins up to ∼20 kDa. Analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using MALDI FTICR IMS identified specific proteins localized to healthy tissue regions, within the tumor, and also in areas of increased vascularization around the tumor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  9. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  10. Attenuation maps for SPECT determined using cone beam transmission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglos, S.H.; Bassano, D.A.; Duxbury, C.E.; Capone, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring non-uniform attenuation maps, using a cone beam geometry CT scan acquired on a standard rotating gamma camera normally used for SPECT imaging. The resulting map is intended for use in non-uniform attenuation compensation of SPECT images. The method was implemented using a light-weight point source holder attached to the camera. A cone beam collimator may be used on the gamma camera, but the cone beam CT scans may also be acquired without collimator. In either implementation, the advantages include very high efficiency and resolution limited not by the collimator but by the intrinsic camera resolution (about 4 mm). Several phantoms tested the spatial uniformity, noise, linearity as a function of attenuation coefficient, and spatial resolution. Good quality attenuation maps were obtained, at least for the central slices where no truncation was present

  11. Comparison of frequency-distance relationship and Gaussian-diffusion-based methods of compensation for distance-dependent spatial resolution in SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, Vandana; King, Micgael A.; Glick, Stephen J.; Pan, Tin-Su

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to compare resolution recovery versus noise level of two methods for compensation of distance-dependent resolution (DDR) in SPECT imaging. The two methods of compensation were restoration filtering based on the frequency-distance relationship (FDR) prior to iterative reconstruction, and modelling DDR in the projector/backprojector pair employed in iterative reconstruction. FDR restoration filtering was computationally faster than modelling the detector response in iterative reconstruction. Using Gaussian diffusion to model the detector response in iterative reconstruction sped up the process by a factor of 2.5 over frequency domain filtering in the projector/backprojector pair. Gaussian diffusion modelling resulted in a better resolution versus noise tradeoff than either FDR restoration filtering or solely modelling attenuation in the projector/backprojector pair of iterative reconstruction. For the pixel size investigated herein (0.317 cm), accounting for DDR in the projector/backprojector pair by Gaussian diffusion, or by applying a blurring function based on the distance from the face of the collimator at each distance, resulted in very similar resolution recovery and slice noise level. (author)

  12. Evaluation of general-purpose collimators against high-resolution collimators with resolution recovery with a view to reducing radiation dose in myocardial perfusion SPECT: A preliminary phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Saint, Kimberley J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing focus on reducing radiation dose to patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging. This preliminary phantom study aims to evaluate the use of general-purpose collimators with resolution recovery (RR) to allow a reduction in patient radiation dose. Images of a cardiac torso phantom with inferior and anterior wall defects were acquired on a GE Infinia and Siemens Symbia T6 using both high-resolution and general-purpose collimators. Imaging time, a surrogate for administered activity, was reduced between 35% and 40% with general-purpose collimators to match the counts acquired with high-resolution collimators. Images were reconstructed with RR with and without attenuation correction. Two pixel sizes were also investigated. Defect contrast was measured. Defect contrast on general-purpose images was superior or comparable to the high-resolution collimators on both systems despite the reduced imaging time. Infinia general-purpose images required a smaller pixel size to be used to maintain defect contrast, while Symbia T6 general-purpose images did not require a change in pixel size to that used for standard myocardial perfusion SPECT. This study suggests that general-purpose collimators with RR offer a potential for substantial dose reductions while providing similar or better image quality to images acquired using high-resolution collimators.

  13. On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Chen, Bai; Ren, Hugang; Pan, Yingtian

    2009-09-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the cellular details of bladder epithelium embedded in speckle noise can be uncovered with time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (TL-uOCT) by proper time-lapse frame averaging that takes advantage of cellular micromotion in fresh biological tissue ex vivo. Here, spectral-domain 3-D TL-uOCT is reported to further improve the image fidelity, and new experimental evidence is presented to differentiate normal and cancerous nuclei of rodent bladder epithelia. Results of animal cancer study reveal that despite a slight overestimation (e.g., cancerous (e.g., high-grade DN''~13 μm) urothelia, which may potentially be very useful for enhancing the diagnosis of nonpapillary bladder cancer. More animal study is being conducted to examine the utility to differentiate hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ.

  14. Evaluation of attenuation correction, scatter correction and resolution recovery in myocardial Tc-99m MIBI SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Hutton, B.F.; Farlow, D.C.; Campbell- Rodgers, N.; Gruenewald, S.M.; Lau, Y.H. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound and Medical Physics

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The introduction of transmission based attenuation correction (AC) has increased the diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT. The aim of this study is to evaluate recent developments, including scatter correction (SC) and resolution recovery (RR). We reviewed 13 patients who underwent Tc-99m MIBI SPECT (two day protocol) and coronary angiography and 4 manufacturer supplied studies assigned a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients had a mean age of 59 years (range: 41-78). Data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP; method 1), maximum likelihood (ML) incorporating AC (method 2), ADAC software using sinogram based SC+RR followed by ML with AC (method 3) and ordered subset ML incorporating AC,SC and RR (method 4). Images were reported by two of three blinded experienced physicians using a standard semiquantitative scoring scheme. Fixed or reversible perfusion defects were considered abnormal; CAD was considered present with stenoses > 50%. Patients had normal coronary anatomy (n=9), single (n=4) or two vessel CAD (n=4) (four in each of LAD, RCA and LCX). There were no statistically significant differences for any combination. Normalcy rate = 100% for all methods. Physicians graded 3/17 (methods 2,4) and 1/17 (method 3) images as fair or poor in quality. Thus, AC or AC+SC+RR produce good quality images in most patients; there is potential for improvement in sensitivity over standard FBP with no significant change in normalcy or specificity

  15. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  16. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  17. Comparison of planar images and SPECT with bayesean preprocessing for the demonstration of facial anatomy and craniomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.T.; Ortendahl, D.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Faulkner, D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Craniomandiublar disorders involving the facial anatomy may be difficult to demonstrate in planar images. Although bone scanning is generally more sensitive than radiography, facial bone anatomy is complex and focal areas of increased or decreased radiotracer may become obscured by overlapping structures in planar images. Thus SPECT appears ideally suited to examination of the facial skeleton. A series of patients with craniomandibular disorders of unknown origin were imaged using 20 mCi Tc-99m MDP. Planar and SPECT (Siemens 7500 ZLC Orbiter) images were obtained four hours after injection. The SPECT images were reconstructed with a filtered back-projection algorithm. In order to improve image contrast and resolution in SPECT images, the rotation views were pre-processed with a Bayesean deblurring algorithm which has previously been show to offer improved contrast and resolution in planar images. SPECT images using the pre-processed rotation views were obtained and compared to the SPECT images without pre-processing and the planar images. TMJ arthropathy involving either the glenoid fossa or the mandibular condyle, orthopedic changes involving the mandible or maxilla, localized dental pathosis, as well as changes in structures peripheral to the facial skeleton were identified. Bayesean pre-processed SPECT depicted the facial skeleton more clearly as well as providing a more obvious demonstration of the bony changes associated with craniomandibular disorders than either planar images or SPECT without pre-processing

  18. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  19. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  20. Adaptive Autoregressive Model for Reduction of Noise in SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Takalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improved autoregressive modelling (AR to reduce noise in SPECT images. An AR filter was applied to prefilter projection images and postfilter ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM reconstruction images (AR-OSEM-AR method. The performance of this method was compared with filtered back projection (FBP preceded by Butterworth filtering (BW-FBP method and the OSEM reconstruction method followed by Butterworth filtering (OSEM-BW method. A mathematical cylinder phantom was used for the study. It consisted of hot and cold objects. The tests were performed using three simulated SPECT datasets. Image quality was assessed by means of the percentage contrast resolution (CR% and the full width at half maximum (FWHM of the line spread functions of the cylinders. The BW-FBP method showed the highest CR% values and the AR-OSEM-AR method gave the lowest CR% values for cold stacks. In the analysis of hot stacks, the BW-FBP method had higher CR% values than the OSEM-BW method. The BW-FBP method exhibited the lowest FWHM values for cold stacks and the AR-OSEM-AR method for hot stacks. In conclusion, the AR-OSEM-AR method is a feasible way to remove noise from SPECT images. It has good spatial resolution for hot objects.

  1. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as 123 I and 99 Tc m that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  2. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as {sup 123}I and {sup 99}Tc{sup m} that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  3. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 05: Calibration of a SPECT/CT camera for quantitative SPECT with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, Émilie; Montégiani, Jean-François; Després, Philippe; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    While quantitation is the norm in PET, it is not widely available yet in SPECT. This work's aim was to calibrate a commercially available SPECT/CT system to perform quantitative SPECT. Counting sensitivity, dead-time (DT) constant and partial volume effect (PVE) of the system were assessed. A dual-head Siemens SymbiaT6 SPECT/CT camera equipped with low energy high-resolution collimators was studied. 99m Tc was the radioisotope of interest because of its wide usage in nuclear medicine. First, point source acquisitions were performed (activity: 30–990MBq). Further acquisitions were then performed with a uniform Jaszczak phantom filled with water at high activity (25–5000MBq). PVE was studied using 6 hot spheres (diameters: 9.9–31.2 mm) filled with 99m Tc (2.8MBq/cc) in the Jaszczak phantom, which was: (1) empty, (2) water-filled and (3) water-filled with low activity (0.1MBq/cc). The data was reconstructed with the Siemens's Flash3D iterative algorithm with 4 subsets and 8 iterations, attenuation-correction (AC) and scatter-correction (SC). DT modelling was based on the total spectrum counting rate. Sensitivity was assessed using AC-SC reconstructed SPECT data. Sensitivity and DT for the sources were 99.51±1.46cps/MBq and 0.60±0.04µs. For the phantom, sensitivity and DT were 109.9±2.3cps/MBq and 0.62±0.13µs. The recovery-coefficient varied from 5% for the 9.9mm, to 80% for the 31.2mm spheres. With our calibration methods, both sensitivity and DT constant of the SPECT camera had little dependence on the object geometry and attenuation. For small objects of known size, recovery-coefficient can be applied to correct PVE. Clinical quantitative SPECT appears to be possible and has many potential applications

  4. Filters in 2D and 3D Cardiac SPECT Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiac imaging is a noninvasive, sensitive method providing information on cardiac structure and physiology. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT evaluates myocardial perfusion, viability, and function and is widely used in clinical routine. The quality of the tomographic image is a key for accurate diagnosis. Image filtering, a mathematical processing, compensates for loss of detail in an image while reducing image noise, and it can improve the image resolution and limit the degradation of the image. SPECT images are then reconstructed, either by filter back projection (FBP analytical technique or iteratively, by algebraic methods. The aim of this study is to review filters in cardiac 2D, 3D, and 4D SPECT applications and how these affect the image quality mirroring the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT images. Several filters, including the Hanning, Butterworth, and Parzen filters, were evaluated in combination with the two reconstruction methods as well as with a specified MatLab program. Results showed that for both 3D and 4D cardiac SPECT the Butterworth filter, for different critical frequencies and orders, produced the best results. Between the two reconstruction methods, the iterative one might be more appropriate for cardiac SPECT, since it improves lesion detectability due to the significant improvement of image contrast.

  5. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography using cone beam collimation (CB-SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E. Jr.; Manglos, S.H.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A simple and economically practical method of improving the sensitivity of camera-based SPECT was developed using converging (cone-beam) collimation. This geometry is particularly advantageous for SPECT devices using large field-of-view cameras in imaging smaller, centrally located activity distributions. Geometric sensitivities, spatial resolutions, and fields-of-view of a cone-beam collimator having a focal length of 48 cm and a similarly designed parallel hole collimator were compared analytically. At 15 cm from the collimator surface the point-source sensitivity of the cone-beam collimator was 2.4 times the sensitivity of the parallel-hole collimator. SPECT projection data (simulated using Monte Carlo methodology) were reconstructed using a 3-D filtered backprojection algorithm. Cone-beam emission CT (CB-SPECT) seems potentially useful for animal investigations, pediatric studies, and for brain imaging

  7. Comparison of continuous with step and shoot acquisition in SPECT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, L.; Cotterill, T.; Chu, J.M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Following the recent advent of continuous acquisition for performing SPECT scanning, it was decided to compare the commonly used Step and Shoot mode of acquisition with the new continuous acquisition mode. The aim of the study is to assess any difference in resolution from the resulting images acquired using the two modes of acquisition. Sequential series of studies were performed on a SPECT phantom using both modes of acquisition. Separate sets of data were collected for both high resolution parallel hole and ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Clinical data was collected on patients undergoing routine gallium, 99m Tc-MDP bone and 99m Tc-HMPAO brain studies. Separate sequential acquisition in both modes were collected for each patient. The sequence of collection was also alternated. Reconstruction was performed utilising the same parameters for each acquisition. The reconstructed data were assessed visually by blinded observers to detect differences in resolution and image quality. No significant difference in the studies collected by either acquisition modes were detected. The time saved by continuous acquisition could be an advantage

  8. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  9. Validation of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction with the IQ•SPECT System in Small-Heart Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Hiroto; Shibutani, Takayuki; Konishi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Asuka; Hashimoto, Ryosuke; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-09-01

    The IQ•SPECT system, which is equipped with multifocal collimators ( SMART ZOOM) and uses ordered-subset conjugate gradient minimization as the reconstruction algorithm, reduces the acquisition time of myocardial perfusion imaging compared with conventional SPECT systems equipped with low-energy high-resolution collimators. We compared the IQ•SPECT system with a conventional SPECT system for estimating left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with a small heart (end-systolic volume IQ•SPECT. End-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, and LVEF were calculated using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) and cardioREPO software. We compared the LVEF from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT to that from echocardiographic measurements. Results: End-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and LVEF as obtained from conventional SPECT, IQ•SPECT, and echocardiography showed a good to excellent correlation regardless of whether they were calculated using QGS or using cardioREPO. Although LVEF calculated using QGS significantly differed between conventional SPECT and IQ•SPECT (65.4% ± 13.8% vs. 68.4% ± 15.2%) ( P = 0.0002), LVEF calculated using cardioREPO did not (69.5% ± 10.6% vs. 69.5% ± 11.0%). Likewise, although LVEF calculated using QGS significantly differed between conventional SPECT and IQ•SPECT (75.0 ± 9.6 vs. 79.5 ± 8.3) ( P = 0.0005), LVEF calculated using cardioREPO did not (72.3% ± 9.0% vs. 74.3% ± 8.3%). Conclusion: In small-heart patients, the difference in LVEF between IQ•SPECT and conventional SPECT was less when calculated using cardioREPO than when calculated using QGS. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. Characterization of a high-purity germanium detector for small-animal SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Campbell, Desmond L; Hull, Ethan L; Peterson, Todd E

    2011-09-21

    We present an initial evaluation of a mechanically cooled, high-purity germanium double-sided strip detector as a potential gamma camera for small-animal SPECT. It is 90 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with two sets of 16 orthogonal strips that have a 4.5 mm width with a 5 mm pitch. We found an energy resolution of 0.96% at 140 keV, an intrinsic efficiency of 43.3% at 122 keV and a FWHM spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm. We demonstrated depth-of-interaction estimation capability through comparison of pinhole acquisitions with a point source on and off axes. Finally, a flood-corrected flood image exhibited a strip-level uniformity of less than 1%. This high-purity germanium offers many desirable properties for small-animal SPECT.

  11. EGS4CYL a Montecarlo simulation method of a PET or spect equipment at high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriani, S.; Galli, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a Montecarlo simulation method for the simulation of a Pet or Spect equipment. The method is based on the Egs4cyl code. This work has been done in the framework of the Hirespet collaboration, for the developing of an high spatial resolution tomograph, the method will be used for the project of the tomograph. The treated geometry consists of a set of coaxial cylinders, surrounded by a ring of detectors. The detectors have a box shape, a collimator in front of each of them can be included, by means of geometrical constraints to the incident particles. An isotropic source is in the middle of the system. For the particles transport the Egs4code is used, for storing and plotting results the Cern packages Higz and Hbook are used

  12. Use of X-ray CT-defined regions of interest for the determination of SPECT recovery coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.R.; Brown, J.K.; Hasegawa, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    For accurate activity per unit volume measurements in SPECT, recovery coefficients are usually applied based on the size and shape of objects being imaged to properly account for the resolution limitations of the gamma camera. Because of noise and limited spatial resolution, determination of object sizes and boundaries can be difficult using the SPECT images alone. We therefore have developed a technique which determines activity concentrations for SPECT using regions of interest (ROI's) obtained from coregistered X-ray CT images. In this study, experimental phantoms containing cylindrical and spherical objects were imaged on a combined X-ray CT/SPECT system and reconstructed data volumes were registered using the known geometry of the system. ROI's were defined on the registered CT images and used to help quantify activity concentration in localized regions and to measure object volumes. We have derived the recovery curves for these objects and scan technique. We have also tested a technique that demonstrates activity quantitation without the need for object and size dependent recovery coefficients in the case of low background

  13. Evaluating the effect of a third-party implementation of resolution recovery on the quality of SPECT bone scan imaging using visual grading regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter D; Smith, Julie; O'Connor, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits to SPECT bone scan image quality when applying resolution recovery (RR) during image reconstruction using software provided by a third-party supplier. Bone SPECT data from 90 clinical studies were reconstructed retrospectively using software supplied independent of the gamma camera manufacturer. The current clinical datasets contain 120×10 s projections and are reconstructed using an iterative method with a Butterworth postfilter. Five further reconstructions were created with the following characteristics: 10 s projections with a Butterworth postfilter (to assess intraobserver variation); 10 s projections with a Gaussian postfilter with and without RR; and 5 s projections with a Gaussian postfilter with and without RR. Two expert observers were asked to rate image quality on a five-point scale relative to our current clinical reconstruction. Datasets were anonymized and presented in random order. The benefits of RR on image scores were evaluated using ordinal logistic regression (visual grading regression). The application of RR during reconstruction increased the probability of both observers of scoring image quality as better than the current clinical reconstruction even where the dataset contained half the normal counts. Type of reconstruction and observer were both statistically significant variables in the ordinal logistic regression model. Visual grading regression was found to be a useful method for validating the local introduction of technological developments in nuclear medicine imaging. RR, as implemented by the independent software supplier, improved bone SPECT image quality when applied during image reconstruction. In the majority of clinical cases, acquisition times for bone SPECT intended for the purposes of localization can safely be halved (from 10 s projections to 5 s) when RR is applied.

  14. Adaptive Angular Sampling for SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nan; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for performing adaptive angular sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. It allows for a rapid determination of the optimum sampling strategy that minimizes image variance in regions-of-interest (ROIs). The proposed method consists of three key components: (a) a set of close-form equations for evaluating image variance and resolution attainable with a given sampling strategy, (b) a gradient-based algor...

  15. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, Trine; Søgaard, Lise; Mortensen, J

    2005-01-01

    visual defect score (r=0.80, pemphysema (pulmonary function test and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on 81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI...... was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. METHODS: HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed....... The three scans were scored visually as percentage of non-ventilated/diseased lung, and a computer-based objective measure of the ventilated volume in HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT and an emphysema index in HRCT were calculated. RESULTS: We found a good correlation between HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT for both...

  16. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  17. A comparative study of noise in supercontinuum light sources for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria J., Sanjuan-Ferrer,; Bravo Gonzalo, Ivan; Bondu, Magalie

    2017-01-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) light is a well-established technology, which finds applications in several domains ranging from chemistry to material science and imaging systems [1-2]. More specifically, its ultra-wide optical bandwidth and high average power make it an ideal tool for Optical Coherence...... Tomography (OCT). Over the last 5 years, numerous examples have demonstrated its high potential [3-4] in this context. However, SC light sources present pulse-to-pulse intensity variation that can limit the performance of any OCT system [5] by degrading their signal to noise ratio (SNR). To this goal, we...... have studied and compared the noise of several SC light sources and evaluated how their noise properties affect the performance of Ultra-High Resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) at 1300 nm. We have measured several SC light sources with different parameters (pulse length, energy, seed repetition rate, etc.). We...

  18. The role of SPECT-CT in the lymphoscintigraphic identification of sentinel nodes in patients with oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Anders; Von Buchwald, Christian; Mortensen, Jann

    2006-01-01

    SPECT with higher resolution CT scanners are expected to provide more accurate information about the localization of SNs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of combined SPECT-CT in SN identification in the clinically negative neck of patients with OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphoscintigraphy comprising......CONCLUSION: SPECT-CT may improve the localization of sentinel nodes (SNs) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Compared with planar lymphoscintigraphy SPECT-CT detected more SNs and provided additional anatomical and spatial information about their localization. New generation...... planar and SPECT-CT acquisition was performed in 34 consecutive patients with OSCC stage I and II (T1-2N0M0) prior to sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and selective neck dissection. The number of SNs and anatomical location was recorded according to lymphoscintigraphy and operative findings. RESULTS: SNB...

  19. Clinical Performance of an Ultrahigh Resolution Chromosomal Microarray Optimized for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; Twede, Hope; Vanzo, Rena; Harward, Erin; Hensel, Charles H; Martin, Megan M; Page, Stephanie; Peiffer, Andreas; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Serrano, Moises; Wassman, E Robert

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) as detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) significantly contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study summarizes the results of 3.5 years of CMA testing by a CLIA-certified clinical testing laboratory 5487 patients with neurodevelopmental conditions were clinically evaluated for rare copy number variants using a 2.8-million probe custom CMA optimized for the detection of CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We report an overall detection rate of 29.4% in our neurodevelopmental cohort, which rises to nearly 33% when cases with DD/ID and/or MCA only are considered. The detection rate for the ASD cohort is also significant, at 25%. Additionally, we find that detection rate and pathogenic yield of CMA vary significantly depending on the primary indications for testing, the age of the individuals tested, and the specialty of the ordering doctor. We also report a significant difference between the detection rate on the ultrahigh resolution optimized array in comparison to the array from which it originated. This increase in detection can significantly contribute to the efficient and effective medical management of neurodevelopmental conditions in the clinic.

  20. Is SPECT useful in imaging of abdominal inflammatory processes using 99mTc-HMPAO-WBCs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smole, M.S.; Stantic, T.S.; Fettich, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine whether SPECT gives additional information in the assessment of inflammation of the abdominal region with labelled white blood cells as compared with usual planar imaging. Patients And Methods: SPECT and planar imaging was performed in 26 patients with suspected inflammatory process in the abdomen, within three hours after injection of autologous white blood cells labelled with 99m Tc HMPAO. Planar images where acquired as static spot images using high resolution low energy collimator on 256 x 256 matrix. SPECT was performed using the same collimator on 128 x 128 matrix in 128 projections. Filtered back projection was used for reconstruction and volume rendering was performed. Results: The lesions in the abdomen were classified as jejunum, colon ascendents, colon transversum, colon descendents, sigmoid, and lesions outside GIT. All lesions, which were seen on planar images, except one, were also seen on SPECT. Five equivocal lesions seen on planar images were reconfirmed as pathological on SPECT. Additionally SPECT revealed three lesions not seen on planar images. Fourteen lesions were seen by both imaging techniques. All together SPECT improved diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc - HMPAO - WBC scintigraphy in 7/28 patients. Conclusion: more inflammatory lesions in the abdomen are revealed by SPECT and volume rendering, than by planar imaging equivocal lesions seen on planar images can be characterised as positive or negative by SPECT. SPECT artefacts can cause possible false positive results; therefore usual planar imaging cannot be omitted if SPECT is performed

  1. Evaluation of experimental cartilage lesions with ultrahigh-resolution multi-slice-CT in comparison to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Kemper, J.; Begemann, P. G. C.; Habermann, C.R.; Adam, G.; Priemel, M.; Kummer, T.; Amling, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: histologic validation of ultrahigh-resolution multislice (MS)-CT for the evaluation of focal, experimental cartilage lesions with special regard to the subchondral bone. Testing of micro-CT (μCT) as alternative reference standard. Methods: 32 experimental cartilage lesions in bovine patellae were imaged surrounded by air (MS-CT-air) and immersed in a contrast material solution (MS-CT-CM) with MS-CT (collimation 2 x 0,5 mm). After the μCT (8 μm-voxelsite) examination in three specimen and histologic work-up of 29 specimen two radiologist graded the defects on MS-CT images in consensus (subchondral bone involvement yes or no) and results were compared to the results of histomorphometry and μCT. Results: the MS-CT-air and -CM had an accuracy of 94% (30/32) and 88% (28/32), respectively. MS-CT-air led to one false-positive (remaining cartilage: = 0,1 mm) and false-negative result, each. MS-CT-CM showed false-positive results if the remaining cartilage was [de

  2. Absolute quantitative total-body small-animal SPECT with focusing pinholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chao; Have, Frans van der; Vastenhouw, Brendan; Beekman, Freek J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Paans, Anne M.J.

    2010-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT, attenuation of the photon flux on trajectories between source and pinholes affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Previously we introduced iterative methods that compensate for image degrading effects of detector and pinhole blurring, pinhole sensitivity and scatter for multi-pinhole SPECT. The aim of this paper is (1) to investigate the accuracy of the Chang algorithm in rodents and (2) to present a practical Chang-based method using body outline contours obtained with optical cameras. Here we develop and experimentally validate a practical method for attenuation correction based on a Chang first-order method. This approach has the advantage that it is employed after, and therefore independently from, iterative reconstruction. Therefore, no new system matrix has to be calculated for each specific animal. Experiments with phantoms and animals were performed with a high-resolution focusing multi-pinhole SPECT system (U-SPECT-II, MILabs, The Netherlands). This SPECT system provides three additional optical camera images of the animal for each SPECT scan from which the animal contour can be estimated. Phantom experiments demonstrated that an average quantification error of -18.7% was reduced to -1.7% when both window-based scatter correction and Chang correction based on the body outline from optical images were applied. Without scatter and attenuation correction, quantification errors in a sacrificed rat containing sources with known activity ranged from -23.6 to -9.3%. These errors were reduced to values between -6.3 and +4.3% (with an average magnitude of 2.1%) after applying scatter and Chang attenuation correction. We conclude that the modified Chang correction based on body contour combined with window-based scatter correction is a practical method for obtaining small-animal SPECT images with high quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  3. Combining pixel and object based image analysis of ultra-high resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter for habitat mapping in shallow marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Kennedy, David; Monk, Jacquomo; Gaylard, Grace; Young, Mary; Diesing, Markus; Rattray, Alex

    2018-06-01

    Habitat mapping data are increasingly being recognised for their importance in underpinning marine spatial planning. The ability to collect ultra-high resolution (cm) multibeam echosounder (MBES) data in shallow waters has facilitated understanding of the fine-scale distribution of benthic habitats in these areas that are often prone to human disturbance. Developing quantitative and objective approaches to integrate MBES data with ground observations for predictive modelling is essential for ensuring repeatability and providing confidence measures for habitat mapping products. Whilst supervised classification approaches are becoming more common, users are often faced with a decision whether to implement a pixel based (PB) or an object based (OB) image analysis approach, with often limited understanding of the potential influence of that decision on final map products and relative importance of data inputs to patterns observed. In this study, we apply an ensemble learning approach capable of integrating PB and OB Image Analysis from ultra-high resolution MBES bathymetry and backscatter data for mapping benthic habitats in Refuge Cove, a temperate coastal embayment in south-east Australia. We demonstrate the relative importance of PB and OB seafloor derivatives for the five broad benthic habitats that dominate the site. We found that OB and PB approaches performed well with differences in classification accuracy but not discernible statistically. However, a model incorporating elements of both approaches proved to be significantly more accurate than OB or PB methods alone and demonstrate the benefits of using MBES bathymetry and backscatter combined for class discrimination.

  4. SPECT in psychiatry; Die Bedeutung der Hirn-SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, S [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Gruenwald, F [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Danos, P [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany); Walter, H [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Klemm, E [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bruecke, T [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Podreka, I [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Biersack, H J [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1994-10-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den vergangenen 15 Jahren wurde durch verschiedene methodologische Ansaetze versucht, die biologischen Ursachen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen naeher zu erforschen. Als eine bedeutende Methode hat sich dabei die Single-Photonen-Emissions-Computertomographie (SPECT) herausgestellt. Waehrend die SPECT-Untersuchungen bereits Eingang in die Routinediagnostik bei Demenzen vom Alzheimer-Typ gefunden haben, konnten fuer weitere psychiatrische Erkrankungen noch keine eindeutigen Befunde etabliert werden. Mit der SPECT-Methode ist es jedoch gelungen, funktionelle Veraenderungen des Gehirns von psychiatrischen Erkrankungen darzustellen, wie z.B. Schizophrenie, Depression, Angsterkrankungen bzw. Substanzmissbrauch. In Forschungsprotokollen wird durch die SPECT-Methode versucht, abzuklaeren, inwieweit es moeglich ist, innerhalb der Erkrankungsentitaeten psychiatrischer Erkrankungen oder auch diese uebergreifend eine Subklassifizierung zu finden und evtl. Gehirnsysteme ausfindig zu machen, die mit einer spezifischen

  5. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  6. Brain SPECT with 123I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360 0 ) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results. (orig.)

  7. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  8. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 ± 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score ≤2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images (κ = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT (κ = 0.834) and SPECT-CT (κ = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  9. Stereotactic imaging for radiotherapy: accuracy of CT, MRI, PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Christian P; Hipp, Peter; Henze, Marcus; Echner, Gernot; Hoess, Angelika; Schad, Lothar; Hartmann, Guenther H

    2003-01-01

    CT, MRI, PET and SPECT provide complementary information for treatment planning in stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic correlation of these images requires commissioning tests to confirm the localization accuracy of each modality. A phantom was developed to measure the accuracy of stereotactic localization for CT, MRI, PET and SPECT in the head and neck region. To this end, the stereotactically measured coordinates of structures within the phantom were compared with their mechanically defined coordinates. For MRI, PET and SPECT, measurements were performed using two different devices. For MRI, T1- and T2-weighted imaging sequences were applied. For each measurement, the mean radial deviation in space between the stereotactically measured and mechanically defined position of target points was determined. For CT, the mean radial deviation was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. For MRI, the mean deviations ranged between 0.7 ± 0.2 mm and 1.4 ± 0.5 mm, depending on the MRI device and the imaging sequence. For PET, mean deviations of 1.1 ± 0.5 mm and 2.4 ± 0.3 mm were obtained. The mean deviations for SPECT were 1.6 ± 0.5 mm and 2.0 ± 0.6 mm. The phantom is well suited to determine the accuracy of stereotactic localization with CT, MRI, PET and SPECT in the head and neck region. The obtained accuracy is well below the physical resolution for CT, PET and SPECT, and of comparable magnitude for MRI. Since the localization accuracy may be device dependent, results obtained at one device cannot be generalized to others

  10. Viewing the functional consequences of traumatic brain injury by using brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, D; Jobe, T; Devore-Best, S; Davis, G; Epstein, P; Sinha, S; Kohn, R; Craita, I; Liu, P; Chang, Y

    2006-03-01

    High-resolution brain SPECT is increasingly benefiting from improved image processing software and multiple complementary display capabilities. This enables detailed functional mapping of the disturbances in relative perfusion occurring after TBI. The patient population consisted of 26 cases (ages 8-61 years)between 3 months and 6 years after traumatic brain injury.A very strong case can be made for the routine use of Brain SPECT in TBI. Indeed it can provide a detailed evaluation of multiple functional consequences after TBI and is thus capable of supplementing the clinical evaluation and tailoring the therapeutic strategies needed. In so doing it also provides significant additional information beyond that available from MRI/CT. The critical factor for Brain SPECT's clinical relevance is a carefully designed technical protocol, including displays which should enable a comprehensive description of the patterns found, in a user friendly mode.

  11. Small animal SPECT and its place in the matrix of molecular imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R; Kench, Peter; Kassiou, Michael; Banati, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to detect signals that originate from molecules, often in the form of an injected tracer, and observe their interaction with a specific cellular target in vivo. Differences in the underlying physical principles of these measurement techniques determine the sensitivity, specificity and length of possible observation of the signal, characteristics that have to be traded off according to the biological question under study. Here, we describe the specific characteristics of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to other molecular imaging technologies. SPECT is based on the tracer principle and external radiation detection. It is capable of measuring the biodistribution of minute ( -10 molar) concentrations of radio-labelled biomolecules in vivo with sub-millimetre resolution and quantifying the molecular kinetic processes in which they participate. Like some other imaging techniques, SPECT was originally developed for human use and was subsequently adapted for imaging small laboratory animals at high spatial resolution for basic and translational research. Its unique capabilities include (i) the ability to image endogenous ligands such as peptides and antibodies due to the relative ease of labelling these molecules with technetium or iodine (ii) the ability to measure relatively slow kinetic processes (compared with positron emission tomography, for example) due to the long half-life of the commonly used isotopes and (iii) the ability to probe two or more molecular pathways simultaneously by detecting isotopes with different emission energies. In this paper, we review the technology developments and design tradeoffs that led to the current state-of-the-art in SPECT small animal scanning and describe the position SPECT occupies within the matrix of molecular imaging technologies. (topical review)

  12. MediSPECT: Single photon emission computed tomography system for small field of view small animal imaging based on a CdTe hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorsi, R.; Autiero, M.; Celentano, L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe MediSPECT, a new scanner developed at University and INFN Napoli, for SPECT studies on small animals with a small field of view (FOV) and high spatial resolution. The CdTe pixel detector (a 256x256 matrix of 55 μm square pixels) operating in single photon counting for detection of gamma-rays with low and medium energy (e.g. 125 I, 27-35 keV, 99m Tc, 140 keV), is bump bonded to the Medipix2 readout chip. The FOV of the MediSPECT scanner with a coded aperture mask collimator ranges from 6.3 mm (system spatial resolution 110 μm at 27-35 keV) to 24.3 mm. With a 0.30 mm pinhole the FOV ranges from 2.4 to 29 mm (where the system spatial resolution is 1.0 mm at 27-35 keV and 2.0 mm at 140 keV). MediSPECT will be used for in vivo imaging of small organs or tissue structures in mouse, e.g., brain, thyroid, heart or tumor

  13. Joint optimization of collimator and reconstruction parameters in SPECT imaging for lesion quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, Sarah J; Southekal, Sudeepti; Kijewski, Marie Foley; Moore, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining the best possible task performance using reconstructed SPECT images requires optimization of both the collimator and reconstruction parameters. The goal of this study is to determine how to perform this optimization, namely whether the collimator parameters can be optimized solely from projection data, or whether reconstruction parameters should also be considered. In order to answer this question, and to determine the optimal collimation, a digital phantom representing a human torso with 16 mm diameter hot lesions (activity ratio 8:1) was generated and used to simulate clinical SPECT studies with parallel-hole collimation. Two approaches to optimizing the SPECT system were then compared in a lesion quantification task: sequential optimization, where collimation was optimized on projection data using the Cramer–Rao bound, and joint optimization, which simultaneously optimized collimator and reconstruction parameters. For every condition, quantification performance in reconstructed images was evaluated using the root-mean-squared-error of 400 estimates of lesion activity. Compared to the joint-optimization approach, the sequential-optimization approach favoured a poorer resolution collimator, which, under some conditions, resulted in sub-optimal estimation performance. This implies that inclusion of the reconstruction parameters in the optimization procedure is important in obtaining the best possible task performance; in this study, this was achieved with a collimator resolution similar to that of a general-purpose (LEGP) collimator. This collimator was found to outperform the more commonly used high-resolution (LEHR) collimator, in agreement with other task-based studies, using both quantification and detection tasks.

  14. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Sohlberg, Antti; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 and 45 relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with 99m Tc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals. (orig.)

  15. Ultra-High Resolution Spectroscopic Remote Sensing: A Microscope on Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of planetary atmospheres is not complete without studies of all levels of the atmosphere, including the dense cloudy- and haze filled troposphere, relatively clear and important stratosphere and the upper atmosphere, which are the first levels to experience the effects of solar radiation. High-resolution spectroscopy can provide valuable information on these regions of the atmosphere. Ultra-high spectral resolution studies can directly measure atmospheric winds, composition, temperature and non-thermal phenomena, which describe the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere. Spectroscopy in the middle to long infrared wavelengths can also probe levels where dust of haze limit measurements at shorter wavelength or can provide ambiguous results on atmospheric species abundances or winds. A spectroscopic technique in the middle infrared wavelengths analogous to a radio receiver. infrared heterodyne spectroscopy [1], will be describe and used to illustrate the detailed study of atmospheric phenomena not readily possible with other methods. The heterodyne spectral resolution with resolving power greater than 1,000.000 measures the true line shapes of emission and absorption lines in planetary atmospheres. The information on the region of line formation is contained in the line shapes. The absolute frequency of the lines can be measured to I part in 100 ,000,000 and can be used to accurately measure the Doppler frequency shift of the lines, directly measuring the line-of-sight velocity of the gas to --Im/s precision (winds). The technical and analytical methods developed and used to measure and analyze infrared heterodyne measurements will be described. Examples of studies on Titan, Venus, Mars, Earth, and Jupiter will be presented. 'These include atmospheric dynamics on slowly rotating bodies (Titan [2] and Venus [3] and temperature, composition and chemistry on Mars 141, Venus and Earth. The discovery and studies of unique atmospheric phenomena will also be

  16. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro, E. Jr

    2013-01-01

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s -1 ·MBq -1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99m Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity

  17. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, M.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, A.C.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, I.R. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fu, G. [GE Global Research, Schenectady, NY (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bressan, R.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaro, E. Jr [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-06

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s{sup -1}·MBq{sup -1} were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging {sup 99m}Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  18. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The single photon emission microscope (SPEM is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD. Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  19. Brain SPECT with /sup 123/I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Froescher, W.; Kluenenberg, H.

    1983-04-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360/sup 0/) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results.

  20. An atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscope that applies external tensile stress and strain in an ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, D; Kitahara, M; Onishi, K; Sagisaka, K

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with an in situ external stress application capability in order to determine the effects of stress and strain on surface atomistic structures. It is necessary to understand these effects because controlling them will be a key technology that will very likely be used in future nanometer-scale fabrication processes. We used our microscope to demonstrate atomic resolution imaging under external tensile stress and strain on the surfaces of wafers of Si(111) and Si(001). We also successfully observed domain redistribution induced by applying uniaxial stress at an elevated temperature on the surface of a wafer of vicinal Si(100). We confirmed that domains for which an applied tensile stress is directed along the dimer bond become less stable and shrink. This suggests that it may be feasible to fabricate single domain surfaces in a process that controls surface stress and strain

  1. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation and reduction of respiratory motion artifacts in small animal SPECT with GATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-L.; Park, S.-J.; Kim, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of image quality caused by respiration is a major impediment to accurate lesion detection in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of lung motion on image quantification. A small animal SPECT system with NaI(Tl) was modeled in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) simulation for a lung lesion using a 4D mouse whole-body phantom. SPECT images were obtained using 120 projection views acquired from 0 o to 360 o with a 3 o step. Slices were reconstructed using ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) without attenuation correction with five iterations and four subsets. Image quality was compared between the static mode without respiratory motion, and dynamic mode with respiratory motion in terms of spatial resolution was measured by the full width at half maximum (FWHM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The FWHM of the non-gated image and the respiratory gated image were also compared. Spatial resolution improved as activity increased and lesion diameter decreased in the static and dynamic modes. The SNR and CNR increased significantly as lesion activity increased and lesion diameter decreased. Our results show that respiratory motion leads to reduced contrast and quantitative accuracy and that image quantification depends on both the amplitude and the pattern of the respiratory motion. We verified that respiratory motion can have a major effect on the accuracy of measurement of lung lesions and that respiratory gating can reduce activity smearing on SPECT images

  3. Compton camera study for high efficiency SPECT and benchmark with Anger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Létang, J. M.; Ley, J.-L.; Testa, É.

    2017-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system’s geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years. In this study we compare a commercial SPECT-Anger device, the General Electric HealthCare Infinia system with a High Energy General Purpose (HEGP) collimator, and the Compton camera prototype under development by the French collaboration CLaRyS, through Monte Carlo simulations (GATE—GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission—version 7.1 and GEANT4 version 9.6, respectively). Given the possible introduction of new radio-emitters at higher energies intrinsically allowed by the Compton camera detection principle, the two detectors are exposed to point-like sources at increasing primary gamma energies, from actual isotopes already suggested for nuclear medicine applications. The Compton camera prototype is first characterized for SPECT application by studying the main parameters affecting its imaging performance: detector energy resolution and random coincidence rate. The two detector performances are then compared in terms of radial event distribution, detection efficiency and final image, obtained by gamma transmission analysis for the Anger system, and with an iterative List Mode-Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-MLEM) algorithm for the Compton reconstruction. The results show for the Compton camera a detection efficiency increased by a factor larger than an order of magnitude with respect to the Anger camera, associated with an enhanced spatial resolution for energies beyond 500 keV. We discuss the advantages of Compton camera application

  4. Serial SPECT in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Machiko; Ushiku, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    We performed serial single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-Iodoamphetamine to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 15 children with partial epilepsy. SPECT showed focal changes in 14 cases. Ten cases had abnormalities in the initial SPECT and another four cases in the second test. The cases with normal rCBF in initial SPECT had been tested in an early phase after the onset, and then decreased rCBF were observed in the second SPECT. The cases with both abnormal rCBF in the initial SPECT and improved rCBF in the second SPECT showed good prognosis in clinico-electrophysiological evolutions. In cases with abnormal changes of rCBF in the second SPECT, clinical prognosis was found to be not so good. These findings suggest that serial SPECT may be used to follow the course of epilepsy. (author)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in SPECT pattern in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart-Jankowska, D.; Junik, R.; Sowinski, J.; Gembicki, M.; Wender, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SPECT examination in Parkinson's disease with (17 cases) and without (7 cases) dementia and in various clinical stages of the disease. The patients underwent SPECT examination 5-40 min after intravenous application of HMPAO (Ceretec, Amersham) with 740 Mbq (20 mCi) pertechnate 99m Tc. SPECT was performed with a Siemens Diacam single-head rotating gamma camera coupled to a high resolution collimator and Icon computer system provided by the manufacturer. The results were defined in relative values of ROI in relation to cerebellum. Patients with Parkinson's disease showed hypoperfusion in cerebral lobes and in deep cerebral structures including the basal ganglia. Regional perfusion deficit in SPECT was seen with and without associated dementia and already in early stage of the disease. Parkinson's disease is provoked by the lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system leading to domination of extrapyramidal symptoms. There are many indications that also the neurotransmitters associated with cognitive functions as acetylcholine demonstrate some abnormalities. However, only in some cases of Parkinson's disease dementia is the dominating symptom. Our results of regional cerebral blood flow testify that in Parkinson's disease the dysfunction of the central nervous system is more diffuse than has previously been suggested. (author)

  6. GATE simulation of a LYSO-based SPECT imager: Validation and detector optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suying; Zhang, Qiushi; Xie, Zhaoheng; Liu, Qi; Xu, Baixuan; Yang, Kun; Li, Changhui; Ren, Qiushi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a small animal SPECT system that is based on cerium doped lutetium–yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillation crystal, position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) and parallel hole collimator. Spatial resolution test and animal experiment were performed to demonstrate the imaging performance of the detector. Preliminary results indicated a spatial resolution of 2.5 mm at FWHM that cannot meet our design requirement. Therefore, we simulated this gamma camera using GATE (GEANT 4 Application for Tomographic Emission) aiming to make detector spatial resolution less than 2 mm. First, the GATE simulation process was validated through comparison between simulated and experimental data. This also indicates the accuracy and effectiveness of GATE simulation for LYSO-based gamma camera. Then the different detector sampling methods (crystal size with 1.5, and 1 mm) and collimator design (collimator height with 30, 34.8, 38, and 43 mm) were studied to figure out an optimized parameter set. Detector sensitivity changes were also focused on with different parameters set that generated different spatial resolution results. Tradeoff curves of spatial resolution and sensitivity were plotted to determine the optimal collimator height with different sampling methods. Simulation results show that scintillation crystal size of 1 mm and collimator height of 38 mm, which can generate a spatial resolution of ∼1.8 mm and sensitivity of ∼0.065 cps/kBq, can be an ideal configuration for our SPECT imager design

  7. High resolution separations of charge variants and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates using ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, W Hampton; He, Yan; Mellors, J Scott; Batz, Nicholas G; Ramsey, J Michael; Jorgenson, James W

    2017-11-10

    Ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength has been applied to the separation of the charge variants, drug conjugates, and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies. Samples composed of many closely related species are difficult to resolve and quantify using traditional analytical instrumentation. High performance instrumentation can often save considerable time and effort otherwise spent on extensive method development. Ideally, the resolution obtained for a given CE buffer system scales with the square root of the applied voltage. Currently available commercial CE instrumentation is limited to an applied voltage of approximately 30kV and a maximum electric field strength of 1kV/cm due to design limitations. The instrumentation described here is capable of safely applying potentials of at least 120kV with electric field strengths over 2000V/cm, potentially doubling the resolution of the best conventional CE buffer/capillary systems while decreasing analysis time in some applications. Separations of these complex mixtures using this new instrumentation demonstrate the potential of ultra-high voltage CE to identify the presence of previously unresolved components and to reduce analysis time for complex mixtures of antibody variants and drug conjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Collimator Influential Parameter on SPECT Image Quality: a Monte Carlo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banari Bahnamiri Sh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining high quality images in Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT device is the most important goal in nuclear medicine. Because if image quality is low, the possibility of making a mistake in diagnosing and treating the patient will rise. Studying effective factors in spatial resolution of imaging systems is thus deemed to be vital. One of the most important factors in SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine is the use of an appropriate collimator for a certain radiopharmaceutical feature in order to create the best image as it can be effective in the quantity of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM which is the main parameter in spatial resolution. Method: In this research, the simulation of the detector and collimator of SPECT imaging device, Model HD3 made by Philips Co. and the investigation of important factors on the collimator were carried out using MCNP-4c code. Results: The results of the experimental measurments and simulation calculations revealed a relative difference of less than 5% leading to the confirmation of the accuracy of conducted simulation MCNP code calculation. Conclusion: This is the first essential step in the design and modelling of new collimators used for creating high quality images in nuclear medicine

  9. Distinguishing d- and l-aspartic and isoaspartic acids in amyloid β peptides with ultrahigh resolution ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueyun; Deng, Liulin; Baker, Erin S; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Smith, Richard D

    2017-07-11

    While α-linked amino acids in the l-form are exclusively utilized in mammalian protein building, β-linked and d-form amino acids also have important biological roles. Unfortunately, the structural elucidation and separation of these different amino acid types in peptides has been analytically challenging to date due to the numerous isomers present, limiting our knowledge about their existence and biological roles. Here, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution ion mobility spectrometry platform coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to separate amyloid β (Aβ) peptides containing l-aspartic acid, d-aspartic acid, l-isoaspartic acid, and d-isoaspartic acid residues which span α- and β-linked amino acids in both d- and l-forms. The results illustrate how IMS-MS could be used to better understand age-related diseases or protein folding disorders resulting from amino acid modifications.

  10. Ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic wave generation for acoustic charge transport in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, B.; van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Santos, P.V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate piezo-electrical generation of ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon substrates, using high-resolution UV-based nanoimprint lithography, hydrogen silsequioxane planarization, and metal lift-off. Interdigital transducers were fabricated on a ZnO layer sandwiched between

  11. Design and evaluation of two multi-pinhole collimators for brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Mok, Greta S P

    2017-10-01

    SPECT is a powerful tool for diagnosing or staging brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) but is limited by its inferior resolution and sensitivity. At the same time, pinhole SPECT provides superior resolution and detection efficiency trade-off as compared to the conventional parallel-hole collimator for imaging small field-of-view (FOV), which fits for the case of brain imaging. In this study, we propose to develop and evaluate two multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator designs to improve the imaging of cerebral blood flow and striatum. We set the target resolutions to be 12 and 8 mm, respectively, and the FOV at 200 mm which is large enough to cover the whole brain. The constraints for system optimization include maximum and minimum detector-to-center-of-FOV (CFOV) distances of 344 and 294 mm, respectively, and minimal radius-of-rotation (ROR) of 135 mm to accommodate patients' shoulder. According to the targeted FOV, resolutions, and constraints, we determined the pinhole number, ROR, focal length, aperture acceptance angle, and aperture diameter which maximized the system sensitivity. We then assessed the imaging performance of the proposed MPH and standard low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimators using analytical simulations of a digital NCAT brain phantom with 99m Tc-HMPAO/ 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 distributions; Monte Carlo simulations of a hot-rod phantom; and a Defrise phantom using GATE v6.1. Projections were generated over 360° and reconstructed using the 3D MPH/LEHR OS-EM methods with up to 720 updates. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) was calculated over the cerebral and striatal regions extracted from the reconstructed images for 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 simulations, respectively, and average normalized standard deviation (NSD) based on 20 noise realizations was assessed on selected uniform 3D regions as the noise index. Visual assessment and image profiles were applied to the results of Monte Carlo

  12. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  13. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  14. Set-up of a high-resolution 300 mK atomic force microscope in an ultra-high vacuum compatible "3He/10 T cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwörden, H. von; Ruschmeier, K.; Köhler, A.; Eelbo, T.; Schwarz, A.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2016-01-01

    The design of an atomic force microscope with an all-fiber interferometric detection scheme capable of atomic resolution at about 500 mK is presented. The microscope body is connected to a small pumped "3He reservoir with a base temperature of about 300 mK. The bakeable insert with the cooling stage can be moved from its measurement position inside the bore of a superconducting 10 T magnet into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the tip and sample can be exchanged in situ. Moreover, single atoms or molecules can be evaporated onto a cold substrate located inside the microscope. Two side chambers are equipped with standard surface preparation and surface analysis tools. The performance of the microscope at low temperatures is demonstrated by resolving single Co atoms on Mn/W(110) and by showing atomic resolution on NaCl(001).

  15. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  16. Development of novel emission tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Geng

    In recent years, small animals, such as mice and rats, have been widely used as subjects of study in biomedical research while molecular biology and imaging techniques open new opportunities to investigate disease model. With the help of medical imaging techniques, researchers can investigate underlying mechanisms inside the small animal, which are useful for both early diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Based on tracer principle single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has increased popularity in small animal imaging due to its higher spatial resolution and variety of single-photon emitting radionuclides. Since the image quality strongly depends on the detector properties, both scintillation and semiconductor detectors are under active investigation for high resolution X-ray and gamma ray photon detection. The desired detector properties include high intrinsic spatial resolution, high energy resolution, and high detection efficiency. In this thesis study, we have made extensive efforts to develop novel emission tomography system, and evaluate the use of both semiconductor and ultra-high resolution scintillation detectors for small animal imaging. This thesis work includes the following three areas. Firstly, we have developed a novel energy-resolved photon counting (ERPC) detector. With the benefits of high energy resolution, high spatial resolution, flexible detection area, and a wide dynamic range of 27--200keV, ERPC detector is well-suited for small animal SPECT applications. For prototype ERPC detector excellent imaging (˜350microm) and spectroscopic performance (4keV Co-57 122keV) has been demonstrated in preliminary study. Secondly, to further improve spatial resolution to hundred-micron level, an ultra-high resolution Intensified EMCCD (I-EMCCD) detector has been designed and evaluated. This detector consists of the newly developed electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) sensor, columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, and an electrostatic de-magnifier (DM) tube

  17. Elemental Composition Analysis to Investigate NOx Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol from α-Pinene Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Babar, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for 20-70% of atmospheric fine aerosol. NOx plays crucial roles in SOA formation and consequently affects the composition and yield of SOA. SOA component speciation is incomplete due to its complex composition of polar oxygenated and multifunctional species. In this study, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) was applied to improve the understanding of NOx effects on biogenic SOA formation by identifying the elemental composition of SOA. Additional research aim was to investigate oligomer components that are considered as a driving force for SOA formation and growth. In this study α-pinene SOA from photochemical reaction was examined. SOA formation was performed in the absence and presence of NOx at dry condition (grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-01350000).

  18. A lateral chromatic aberration correction system for ultrahigh-definition color video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takayuki; Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Ryohei; Mitani, Kohji; Nojiri, Yuji

    2006-02-01

    We have developed color camera for an 8k x 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition video system, which is called Super Hi- Vision, with a 5x zoom lens and a signal-processing system incorporating a function for real-time lateral chromatic aberration correction. The chromatic aberration of the lens degrades color image resolution. So in order to develop a compact zoom lens consistent with ultrahigh-resolution characteristics, we incorporated a real-time correction function in the signal-processing system. The signal-processing system has eight memory tables to store the correction data at eight focal length points on the blue and red channels. When the focal length data is inputted from the lens control units, the relevant correction data are interpolated from two of eights correction data tables. This system performs geometrical conversion on both channels using this correction data. This paper describes that the correction function can successfully reduce the lateral chromatic aberration, to an amount small enough to ensure the desired image resolution was achieved over the entire range of the lens in real time.

  19. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  20. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT or SPECT/CT for lung function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Vera; Heimann, Uwe; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Kroencke, Thomas J; Maurer, Martin H; Doellinger, Felix; Geisel, Dominik; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Schreiter, Nils F

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of attenuation correction (AC) of V/P SPECT images for patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-one patients (mean age 67.6 years) with pulmonary emphysema who underwent V/P SPECT/CT were included. AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images were compared visually and semiquantitatively. Visual comparison of AC/non-AC images was based on a 5-point likert scale. Semiquantitative comparison assessed absolute counts per lung (aCpLu) and lung lobe (aCpLo) for AC/non-AC images using software-based analysis; percentage counts (PC = (aCpLo/aCpLu) × 100) were calculated. Correlation between AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images was analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient; differences were tested for significance with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Visual analysis revealed high conformity for AC and non-AC V/P SPECT images. Semiquantitative analysis of PC in AC/non-AC images had an excellent correlation and showed no significant differences in perfusion (ρ = 0.986) or ventilation (ρ = 0.979, p = 0.809) SPECT/CT images. AC of V/P SPECT images for lung lobe-based function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema do not improve visual or semiquantitative image analysis.

  1. Wide beam reconstruction for half-dose or half-time cardiac gated SPECT acquisitions: optimization of resources and reduction in radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcassa, Claudio; Campini, Riccardo; Zoccarato, Orazio; Calza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A new iterative reconstruction algorithm (WBR trademark) has been recently proposed for cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The WBR trademark technology is designed to reduce noise, improving lesion identification without affecting the image resolution, allowing SPECT studies with reduced count statistic. This allows for either half-time (HT) or half-dose (HD) cardiac SPECT, with image quality and quantitative data comparable to standard-time (ST) or standard-dose (SD) SPECT. Few data exist on the comparison between conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and this new algorithm in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of FBP and WBR trademark. Phantoms studies were performed to compare spatial resolution and contrast recovery with FBP, ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and WBR trademark. A group of 92 patients, with different cardiac pathology, scheduled for a stress-rest SPECT were studied: 52 patients (group A) were injected with a SD of tracer and underwent both ST and HT SPECT; 40 patients (group B) were injected with a half dose of tracer and underwent ST SPECT and immediately after an additional SPECT at double time/projection (DT), to compensate for the low count statistic. A 2-day 99m Tc-sestamibi protocol was used in all patients. SD/ST and HD/DT SPECT were reconstructed with a conventional FBP; SD/HT and HD/ST SPECT were reconstructed with WBR trademark. The summed stress score (SSS) and summed rest score (SRS) were calculated; the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was automatically derived. In group A (SD), no significant differences were observed between ST FBP SPECT and HT WBR trademark in SSS (11.1 and 11.7, respectively) and SRS (9.4 and 10.3, respectively, NS). LVEF on rest acquisitions was also comparable (50% on ST SPECT and 49% on HT SPECT, NS); LVEF on post-stress studies in HT SPECT (46%) was lower than ST SPECT (50%), although not statistically significant. In

  2. Wide beam reconstruction for half-dose or half-time cardiac gated SPECT acquisitions: optimization of resources and reduction in radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcassa, Claudio [S. Maugeri Fnd, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Veruno, Cardiology Department (Italy); Campini, Riccardo; Zoccarato, Orazio; Calza, Paolo [S. Maugeri Fnd, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Veruno, Nuclear Medicine Department (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A new iterative reconstruction algorithm (WBR trademark) has been recently proposed for cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The WBR trademark technology is designed to reduce noise, improving lesion identification without affecting the image resolution, allowing SPECT studies with reduced count statistic. This allows for either half-time (HT) or half-dose (HD) cardiac SPECT, with image quality and quantitative data comparable to standard-time (ST) or standard-dose (SD) SPECT. Few data exist on the comparison between conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and this new algorithm in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of FBP and WBR trademark. Phantoms studies were performed to compare spatial resolution and contrast recovery with FBP, ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and WBR trademark. A group of 92 patients, with different cardiac pathology, scheduled for a stress-rest SPECT were studied: 52 patients (group A) were injected with a SD of tracer and underwent both ST and HT SPECT; 40 patients (group B) were injected with a half dose of tracer and underwent ST SPECT and immediately after an additional SPECT at double time/projection (DT), to compensate for the low count statistic. A 2-day {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi protocol was used in all patients. SD/ST and HD/DT SPECT were reconstructed with a conventional FBP; SD/HT and HD/ST SPECT were reconstructed with WBR trademark. The summed stress score (SSS) and summed rest score (SRS) were calculated; the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was automatically derived. In group A (SD), no significant differences were observed between ST FBP SPECT and HT WBR trademark in SSS (11.1 and 11.7, respectively) and SRS (9.4 and 10.3, respectively, NS). LVEF on rest acquisitions was also comparable (50% on ST SPECT and 49% on HT SPECT, NS); LVEF on post-stress studies in HT SPECT (46%) was lower than ST SPECT (50%), although not statistically significant

  3. 'Motion frozen' quantification and display of myocardial perfusion gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomka, P.J.; Hurwitz, G.A.; Baddredine, M.; Baranowski, J.; Aladl, U.E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Gated SPECT imaging incorporates both functional and perfusion information of the left ventricle (LV). However perfusion data is confounded by the effect of ventricular motion. Most existing quantification paradigms simply add all gated frames and then proceed to extract the perfusion information from static images, discarding the effects of cardiac motion. In an attempt to improve the reliability and accuracy of cardiac SPECT quantification we propose to eliminate the LV motion prior to the perfusion quantification via automated image warping algorithm. Methods: A pilot series of 14 male and 11 female gated stress SPECT images acquired with 8 time bins have been co-registered to the coordinates of the 3D normal templates. Subsequently the LV endo and epi-cardial 3D points (300-500) were identified on end-systolic (ES) and end-diastolic (ED) frames, defining the ES-ED motion vectors. The nonlinear image warping algorithm (thin-plate-spline) was then applied to warp end-systolic frame was onto the end-diastolic frames using the corresponding ES-ED motion vectors. The remaining 6 intermediate frames were also transformed to the ED coordinates using fractions of the motion vectors. Such warped images were then summed to provide the LV perfusion image in the ED phase but with counts from the full cycle. Results: The identification of the ED/ES corresponding points was successful in all cases. The corrected displacement between ED and ES images was up to 25 mm. The summed images had the appearance of the ED frames but have been much less noisy since all the counts have been used. The spatial resolution of such images appeared higher than that of summed gated images, especially in the female scans. These 'motion frozen' images could be displayed and quantified as regular non-gated tomograms including polar map paradigm. Conclusions: This image processing technique may improve the effective image resolution of summed gated myocardial perfusion images used for

  4. Frequencies and implications of discordant findings of interictal SPECT and itcal SPECT in patients with intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Jeong, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interictal SPECT could be used at best as a reference image to ictal SPECT, and cause sometimes confusion if it had given unexplained discordant findings from ictal SPECT. We investigated implications of discordant findings which occurred in 26 among 268 which found their epileptogenic zones using ictal EEG and/or operative outcome. Sensitivity of interictal SPECT was only 36%. Among these 268, 69 patients had no structural lesions on MR, 14 of whom had decreased perfusion on interictal SPECT (8 trues and 6 falses (adjacent or contralateral)). Structural lesion were found in 199 on MR, 103 of whom had decreased perfusion (89 trues and 14 falses). Among 26 having discordant cases, 10 interictal SPECT were proved wrong after operation and/or invasive EEG and the other 16 were on speculation using PET and ictal EEG. Ictal hyperperfusion was observed in 14 patients in these interictal SPECT. Six ictal studies were found postictal accompanied by contralateral propagation or not. Two patients had dual pathology, and the remaining 2 unknown. Interictal SPECT was done on the 2nd day after ictal study(24), the 3rd day (18), the 4th day(16), the 5th day (23). Four among 24 interictal studies (17%) of the 2nd day and the other 4 among 57 of 3rd to 5th day revealed ictal hyperperfusion on interictal SPECT. Six interictal studies (2.7% among 221) acquired on the indifferent day showed also ictal hyperperfusion. We could suggest that the next day is not desirable for interictal SPECT after ictal study, as ictal hyperperfusion on interictal study confounded more than postictal findings of ictal SPECT in the discrete localization than reassuring ictal study

  5. Frequencies and implications of discordant findings of interictal SPECT and itcal SPECT in patients with intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D S; Lee, S K; Jeong, J K; Lee, M C; Ko, C S [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Interictal SPECT could be used at best as a reference image to ictal SPECT, and cause sometimes confusion if it had given unexplained discordant findings from ictal SPECT. We investigated implications of discordant findings which occurred in 26 among 268 which found their epileptogenic zones using ictal EEG and/or operative outcome. Sensitivity of interictal SPECT was only 36%. Among these 268, 69 patients had no structural lesions on MR, 14 of whom had decreased perfusion on interictal SPECT (8 trues and 6 falses (adjacent or contralateral)). Structural lesion were found in 199 on MR, 103 of whom had decreased perfusion (89 trues and 14 falses). Among 26 having discordant cases, 10 interictal SPECT were proved wrong after operation and/or invasive EEG and the other 16 were on speculation using PET and ictal EEG. Ictal hyperperfusion was observed in 14 patients in these interictal SPECT. Six ictal studies were found postictal accompanied by contralateral propagation or not. Two patients had dual pathology, and the remaining 2 unknown. Interictal SPECT was done on the 2nd day after ictal study(24), the 3rd day (18), the 4th day(16), the 5th day (23). Four among 24 interictal studies (17%) of the 2nd day and the other 4 among 57 of 3rd to 5th day revealed ictal hyperperfusion on interictal SPECT. Six interictal studies (2.7% among 221) acquired on the indifferent day showed also ictal hyperperfusion. We could suggest that the next day is not desirable for interictal SPECT after ictal study, as ictal hyperperfusion on interictal study confounded more than postictal findings of ictal SPECT in the discrete localization than reassuring ictal study.

  6. Crystals of DhaA mutants from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 diffracted to ultrahigh resolution: crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Koudelakova, Tana; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Pavlova, Martina; Damborsky, Jiri; Kuta Smatanova, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Three mutants of the haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA derived from R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 were crystallized and diffracted to ultrahigh resolution. The enzyme DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 belongs to the haloalkane dehalogenases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of haloalkanes to the corresponding alcohols. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variants can be used to detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Three mutants named DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 were constructed in order to study the importance of tunnels connecting the buried active site with the surrounding solvent to the enzymatic activity. All protein mutants were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of DhaA04 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , while the crystals of the other two mutants DhaA14 and DhaA15 belonged to the triclinic space group P1. Native data sets were collected for the DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 mutants at beamline X11 of EMBL, DESY, Hamburg to the high resolutions of 1.30, 0.95 and 1.15 Å, respectively

  7. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT thalamic blood flow study in migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijian; Steiner, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The changes of blood flow in the thalamic of migraineurs by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging are investigated. 60 cases with migraine were performed by Novo 810 high-resolution SPECT 30 minutes after injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO. The quantitative analysis of SPECT data was based on the irregular ROI% uptake normalized to total slice method. There were significantly increased mean % uptake values in migraine with aura (259.1 +-17.1), and more significantly in those who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura (263.8 +- 17.2), compared to that of migraine without aura (249.1 +- 14.9), but there were not statistically significant difference between migraine with only visual disturbance during aura (255.1 +- 16.4) and without aura. The possible explanations for the increased mean % uptake values in migraineurs who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura are: (1) the reactive postischemic hyperemia. (2) excepting thalamus, the regional blood flow was decreased. (3) the secondary phenomenon to the various neurogenic and chemical stimuli

  8. Impact of SPECT/CT in imaging inflammation and infection; Wertigkeit der SPECT/CT fuer die nuklearmedizinische Entzuendungsdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kuwert, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik

    2011-03-15

    Even today infection remains a significant concern, and the diagnosis and localization of infectious foci is an important health issue. As an established infection-imaging modality, nuclear medicine plays a vital health-care role in the diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of this condition. Several techniques in nuclear medicine significantly aid infection diagnosis, including triple-phase bone scanning, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET and imaging with {sup 111}In-oxine-, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Each radiopharmaceutical has specific advantages and disadvantages that makes it suitable to diagnose different infectious processes (e.g., soft-tissue sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, osteomyelitis, occult fever, fever of unknown origin, and infections commonly found in immuno-compromised patients). However, their clinical applications may be limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and the lack of anatomic landmarks of a highly specific tracer with only scarce background uptake to use as a framework for orientation. Anatomic imaging modalities such as CT provide a high-quality assessment of structural abnormalities related to infection, but these structural abnormalities may be unspecific. Furthermore, to detect infection before anatomical changes are present, functional imaging could have some advantages over anatomical imaging. Scintigraphic studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity to an infectious process. Diagnosis and precise delineation of infection may be challenging in certain clinical scenarios, rendering decisions concerning further patient management difficult. The SPECT/CT-technology combines the acquisition of SPECT and CT data with the same imaging device enabling perfect overlay of anatomical and functional images. SPECT/CT imaging data has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical settings such as indeterminate findings in bone scintigraphy, orthopaedic disorders, endocrine, and neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore

  9. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  10. Enhanced Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA Peak Detection and Identification with Ultra-High Resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS: Potential Application for Investigation of Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying non-annotated peaks may have a significant impact on the understanding of biological systems. In silico methodologies have focused on ESI LC/MS/MS for identifying non-annotated MS peaks. In this study, we employed in silico methodology to develop an Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA workflow using enhanced mass spectrometric data acquired with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS to determine the identity of non-annotated metabolites. The higher resolution of the GC-Orbitrap/MS, together with its wide dynamic range, resulted in more IROA peak pairs detected, and increased reliability of chemical formulae generation (CFG. IROA uses two different 13C-enriched carbon sources (randomized 95% 12C and 95% 13C to produce mirror image isotopologue pairs, whose mass difference reveals the carbon chain length (n, which aids in the identification of endogenous metabolites. Accurate m/z, n, and derivatization information are obtained from our GC/MS workflow for unknown metabolite identification, and aids in silico methodologies for identifying isomeric and non-annotated metabolites. We were able to mine more mass spectral information using the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth protocol (Qiu et al. Anal. Chem 2016 with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS, using 10% ammonia in methane as the CI reagent gas. We identified 244 IROA peaks pairs, which significantly increased IROA detection capability compared with our previous report (126 IROA peak pairs using a GC-TOF/MS machine. For 55 selected metabolites identified from matched IROA CI and EI spectra, using the GC-Orbitrap/MS vs. GC-TOF/MS, the average mass deviation for GC-Orbitrap/MS was 1.48 ppm, however, the average mass deviation was 32.2 ppm for the GC-TOF/MS machine. In summary, the higher resolution and wider dynamic range of the GC-Orbitrap/MS enabled more accurate CFG, and the coupling of accurate mass GC/MS IROA methodology with in silico fragmentation has great

  11. Enhanced Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) Peak Detection and Identification with Ultra-High Resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS: Potential Application for Investigation of Model Organism Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunping; Moir, Robyn D; Willis, Ian M; Seethapathy, Suresh; Biniakewitz, Robert C; Kurland, Irwin J

    2018-01-18

    Identifying non-annotated peaks may have a significant impact on the understanding of biological systems. In silico methodologies have focused on ESI LC/MS/MS for identifying non-annotated MS peaks. In this study, we employed in silico methodology to develop an Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) workflow using enhanced mass spectrometric data acquired with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS to determine the identity of non-annotated metabolites. The higher resolution of the GC-Orbitrap/MS, together with its wide dynamic range, resulted in more IROA peak pairs detected, and increased reliability of chemical formulae generation (CFG). IROA uses two different 13 C-enriched carbon sources (randomized 95% 12 C and 95% 13 C) to produce mirror image isotopologue pairs, whose mass difference reveals the carbon chain length (n), which aids in the identification of endogenous metabolites. Accurate m/z, n, and derivatization information are obtained from our GC/MS workflow for unknown metabolite identification, and aids in silico methodologies for identifying isomeric and non-annotated metabolites. We were able to mine more mass spectral information using the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth protocol (Qiu et al. Anal. Chem 2016) with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS, using 10% ammonia in methane as the CI reagent gas. We identified 244 IROA peaks pairs, which significantly increased IROA detection capability compared with our previous report (126 IROA peak pairs using a GC-TOF/MS machine). For 55 selected metabolites identified from matched IROA CI and EI spectra, using the GC-Orbitrap/MS vs. GC-TOF/MS, the average mass deviation for GC-Orbitrap/MS was 1.48 ppm, however, the average mass deviation was 32.2 ppm for the GC-TOF/MS machine. In summary, the higher resolution and wider dynamic range of the GC-Orbitrap/MS enabled more accurate CFG, and the coupling of accurate mass GC/MS IROA methodology with in silico fragmentation has great potential in

  12. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  13. Monte Carlo Optimization of Crystal Configuration for Pixelated Molecular SPECT Scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahani, Hojjat [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, Gholamreza [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali-Asl, Alireza [Radiation Medicine Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ay, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mohammadreza_ay@sina.tums.ac.ir [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Resolution-sensitivity-PDA tradeoff is the most challenging problem in design and optimization of pixelated preclinical SPECT scanners. In this work, we addressed such a challenge from a crystal point-of-view by looking for an optimal pixelated scintillator using GATE Monte Carlo simulation. Various crystal configurations have been investigated and the influence of different pixel sizes, pixel gaps, and three scintillators on tomographic resolution, sensitivity, and PDA of the camera were evaluated. The crystal configuration was then optimized using two objective functions: the weighted-sum and the figure-of-merit methods. The CsI(Na) reveals the highest sensitivity of the order of 43.47 cps/MBq in comparison to the NaI(Tl) and the YAP(Ce), for a 1.5×1.5 mm{sup 2} pixel size and 0.1 mm gap. The results show that the spatial resolution, in terms of FWHM, improves from 3.38 to 2.21 mm while the sensitivity simultaneously deteriorates from 42.39 cps/MBq to 27.81 cps/MBq when pixel size varies from 2×2 mm{sup 2} to 0.5×0.5 mm{sup 2} for a 0.2 mm gap, respectively. The PDA worsens from 0.91 to 0.42 when pixel size decreases from 0.5×0.5 mm{sup 2} to 1×1 mm{sup 2} for a 0.2 mm gap at 15° incident-angle. The two objective functions agree that the 1.5×1.5 mm{sup 2} pixel size and 0.1 mm Epoxy gap CsI(Na) configuration provides the best compromise for small-animal imaging, using the HiReSPECT scanner. Our study highlights that crystal configuration can significantly affect the performance of the camera, and thereby Monte Carlo optimization of pixelated detectors is mandatory in order to achieve an optimal quality tomogram. - Highlights: • We optimized pixelated crystal configuration for the purpose of molecular SPECT imaging. • The weighted-sum and the figure-of-merit methods were used in order to search for an optimal crystal configuration. • The higher the pixel size, the poorer the resolution and simultaneously the higher the sensitivity and the PDA. • The

  14. Monte Carlo Optimization of Crystal Configuration for Pixelated Molecular SPECT Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahani, Hojjat; Raisali, Gholamreza; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Resolution-sensitivity-PDA tradeoff is the most challenging problem in design and optimization of pixelated preclinical SPECT scanners. In this work, we addressed such a challenge from a crystal point-of-view by looking for an optimal pixelated scintillator using GATE Monte Carlo simulation. Various crystal configurations have been investigated and the influence of different pixel sizes, pixel gaps, and three scintillators on tomographic resolution, sensitivity, and PDA of the camera were evaluated. The crystal configuration was then optimized using two objective functions: the weighted-sum and the figure-of-merit methods. The CsI(Na) reveals the highest sensitivity of the order of 43.47 cps/MBq in comparison to the NaI(Tl) and the YAP(Ce), for a 1.5×1.5 mm"2 pixel size and 0.1 mm gap. The results show that the spatial resolution, in terms of FWHM, improves from 3.38 to 2.21 mm while the sensitivity simultaneously deteriorates from 42.39 cps/MBq to 27.81 cps/MBq when pixel size varies from 2×2 mm"2 to 0.5×0.5 mm"2 for a 0.2 mm gap, respectively. The PDA worsens from 0.91 to 0.42 when pixel size decreases from 0.5×0.5 mm"2 to 1×1 mm"2 for a 0.2 mm gap at 15° incident-angle. The two objective functions agree that the 1.5×1.5 mm"2 pixel size and 0.1 mm Epoxy gap CsI(Na) configuration provides the best compromise for small-animal imaging, using the HiReSPECT scanner. Our study highlights that crystal configuration can significantly affect the performance of the camera, and thereby Monte Carlo optimization of pixelated detectors is mandatory in order to achieve an optimal quality tomogram. - Highlights: • We optimized pixelated crystal configuration for the purpose of molecular SPECT imaging. • The weighted-sum and the figure-of-merit methods were used in order to search for an optimal crystal configuration. • The higher the pixel size, the poorer the resolution and simultaneously the higher the sensitivity and the PDA. • The higher the pixel gap, the

  15. Set-up of a high-resolution 300 mK atomic force microscope in an ultra-high vacuum compatible {sup 3}He/10 T cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwörden, H. von; Ruschmeier, K.; Köhler, A.; Eelbo, T.; Schwarz, A., E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Wiesendanger, R. [Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The design of an atomic force microscope with an all-fiber interferometric detection scheme capable of atomic resolution at about 500 mK is presented. The microscope body is connected to a small pumped {sup 3}He reservoir with a base temperature of about 300 mK. The bakeable insert with the cooling stage can be moved from its measurement position inside the bore of a superconducting 10 T magnet into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the tip and sample can be exchanged in situ. Moreover, single atoms or molecules can be evaporated onto a cold substrate located inside the microscope. Two side chambers are equipped with standard surface preparation and surface analysis tools. The performance of the microscope at low temperatures is demonstrated by resolving single Co atoms on Mn/W(110) and by showing atomic resolution on NaCl(001).

  16. Can perfusion SPECT aid CTPA interpretation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradinscak, D. J.; Roach, P.; Bailey, E.; Kueh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Objective: To determine whether fusion of perfusion SPECT and CTPA improves the diagnostic accuracy of CTPA. Methods: 35 patients with suspected PE who underwent both CTPA and SPECT V/Q within 48 hours were included. Of these, the majority (n=30) had PE as determined by the V/Q SPECT scan and the others (n=5) were negative for PE. The clinical reports of CTPA were reviewed and pulmonary emboli tabulated based on anatomical location. A second radiologist, blinded to the results of the clinical read and the V/Q SPECT scan, reviewed the CTPA with and without perfusion SPECT fusion for assistance. Results: A total 57 PE were reported on the clinical reports and 60 PE identified on the blinded read. Fused CTPA/perfursion SPECT images identified a further 5 PE not identified on the clinical read (8% increase) and 2 PE not identified on the blinded read (3% increase). The additional emboli detected resulted in a change in final diagnosis from PE negative to PE positive in 2 patients (6%) compared with the clinical read and 1 patient (3%) compared with the blinded read without SPECT fusion. Conclusion: Fused CTPA-SPECT perfusion improves the sensitivity of CTPA for the detection of PE in a small number of patients. Fused data may help guide the radiologist to identify sites of PE on CTPA.

  17. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  18. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1994-01-01

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  19. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M.; Mouden, Mohamed [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Timmer, Jorik R.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, p<0.001). Stress SPECT was more frequently abnormal in patients with LBBB (82 % vs. 46 %, p<0.001). After reviewing stress and rest images, SPECT was normal in 43 % of the patients with LBBB, compared to 77 % of the patients without LBBB (p<0.001). Sixty-four of the 124 patients with LBBB and abnormal stress-rest SPECT underwent CCTA (52 %), which could exclude obstructive CAD in 46 of the patients (72 %). Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT is not the optimal imaging protocol in patients with LBBB, as the majority of these patients have potentially false-positive stress SPECT. First-line testing using CCTA may be more appropriate in low- to intermediate-risk patients with LBBB. (orig.)

  20. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.

  1. Methods of gated-blood-pool-spect data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosa, I.; Mester, J.; Tanaka, M.; Csernay, L.; Mate, E.; Szasz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Three techniques of gated SPECT were evaluated. The methods of Integral SPECT (ISPECT), enddyastole-endsystole SPECT (ED-ES SPECT) and Fourier SPECT were adapted and developed on the Hungarian nuclear medicine data processing system microSEGAMS. The methods are based on data reduction before back projection which results in processing times acceptable for the clinical routine. The clinical performance of the introduced techniques was tested in 10 patients with old posterior myocardial infarction and in 5 patients without cardiac disease. The left ventricular ejection faction determined by ISPECT correlated well with the planar values. The correlation coefficient was 0.89. The correlation coefficient of EF values determined by ED-ES SPECT and planar radionuclide ventriculography was lower (0.70). For the identification of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities ED-ES SPECT and Fourier SPECT exhibited a favourable performance, but ISPECT only moderate suitability. In the detection of regional phase delay Fourier-SPECT demonstrated higher sensitivity than the planar radionuclide ventriculography. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Feasibility study of a novel general purpose CZT-based digital SPECT camera: initial clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, Elinor; Beilin, Leonid; Stern, Eli; Kenig, Tal; Goldkorn, Ronen; Ben-Haim, Simona

    2018-03-14

    The performance of a prototype novel digital single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera with multiple pixelated CZT detectors and high sensitivity collimators (Digital SPECT; Valiance X12 prototype, Molecular Dynamics) was evaluated in various clinical settings. Images obtained in the prototype system were compared to images from an analog camera fitted with high-resolution collimators. Clinical feasibility, image quality, and diagnostic performance of the prototype were evaluated in 36 SPECT studies in 35 patients including bone (n = 21), brain (n = 5), lung perfusion (n = 3), and parathyroid (n = 3) and one study each of sentinel node and labeled white blood cells. Images were graded on a scale of 1-4 for sharpness, contrast, overall quality, and diagnostic confidence. Digital CZT SPECT provided a statistically significant improvement in sharpness and contrast in clinical cases (mean score of 3.79 ± 0.61 vs. 3.26 ± 0.50 and 3.92 ± 0.29 vs. 3.34 ± 0.47 respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Overall image quality was slightly higher for the digital SPECT but not statistically significant (3.74 vs. 3.66). CZT SPECT provided significantly improved image sharpness and contrast compared to the analog system in the clinical settings evaluated. Further studies will evaluate the diagnostic performance of the system in large patient cohorts in additional clinical settings.

  3. Examination of attenuation correction method for cerebral blood Flow SPECT Using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    Authors developed a software for attenuation correction using MR imaging (MRAC) (Toshiba Med. System Engineer.) based on the idea that precision of AC could be improved by the head contour in MRI T2-weighted images (T2WI) obtained before 123 I-iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement. In the present study, this MRAC was retrospectively evaluated by comparison with the previous standard AC methods derived from transmission CT (TCT) and X-CT which overcoming the problem of sinogram threshold Chang method but still having cost and patient exposure issues. MRAC was essentially performed in the Toshiba GMS5500/PI processor where 3D registration was conducted with images of SPECT and MRI of the same patient. The gamma camera for 123 I-IMP SPECT and 99m TcO 4 - TCT was Toshiba 3-detector GCA9300A equipped with the above processor for MRAC and with low energy high resolution (LEHR) fan beam collimator. Machines for MRI and CT were Siemens-Asahi Meditech. MAGNETOM Symphony 1.5T and SOMATOM plus4, respectively. MRAC was examined in 8 patients with images of T1WI, TCT and SPECT, and in 18 of T2WI, CT and SPECT. Evaluation was made by comparison of attenuation coefficients (μ) by the 4 methods. As a result, the present MRAC was found to be closer to AC by TCT and CT than by the Chang method since MRAC, due to exact imaging of the head contour, was independent on radiation count, and was thought to be useful for improving the precision of CBF SPECT. (K.T.)

  4. Cochlear Implant Electrode Localization Using an Ultra-High Resolution Scan Mode on Conventional 64-Slice and New Generation 192-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Leng, Shuai; Diehn, Felix E; Witte, Robert J; Krecke, Karl N; Grimes, Josh; Koeller, Kelly K; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Lane, John I

    2017-08-01

    A new generation 192-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) clinical scanner provides enhanced image quality and superior electrode localization over conventional MDCT. Currently, accurate and reliable cochlear implant electrode localization using conventional MDCT scanners remains elusive. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with full-length cochlear implant electrodes. Specimens were subsequently scanned with conventional 64-slice and new generation 192-slice MDCT scanners utilizing ultra-high resolution modes. Additionally, all specimens were scanned with micro-CT to provide a reference criterion for electrode position. Images were reconstructed according to routine temporal bone clinical protocols. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to scanner type, reviewed images independently to assess resolution of individual electrodes, scalar localization, and severity of image artifact. Serving as the reference standard, micro-CT identified scalar crossover in one specimen; imaging of all remaining cochleae demonstrated complete scala tympani insertions. The 192-slice MDCT scanner exhibited improved resolution of individual electrodes (p implant imaging compared with conventional MDCT. This technology provides important feedback regarding electrode position and course, which may help in future optimization of surgical technique and electrode design.

  5. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, S.; Gruenwald, F.; Walter, H.; Klemm, E.; Podreka, I.; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [de

  6. Molecular-level evidence provided by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry for oil-derived doc in groundwater at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ananna; Ahmed, Arif; Hur, Manhoi; Thorn, Kevin A.; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter samples extracted from ground water at the USGS Bemidji oil spill site in Minnesota were investigated by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the elemental composition assignments of the samples showed that the score plots for the contaminated sites were well separated from those for the uncontaminated sites. Additionally, spectra obtained from the same sampling site 7 and 19 years after the spill were grouped together in the score plot, strongly suggesting a steady state of contamination within the 12 year interval. The double bond equivalence (DBE) of Ox class compounds was broader for the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the complex nature of oil and the consequent formation of compounds with saturated and/or aromatic structures from the oxygenated products of oil. In addition, Ox class compounds with a relatively smaller number of x (x molecular-level signatures presented here can be a fundamental basis for in-depth analysis of oil contamination.

  7. Incremental value of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT over whole-body planar scintigraphy and SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlic, Mate; Težak, Stanko

    2017-06-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional value of 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT over planar whole-body (WB) scintigraphy and SPECT alone in the detection and accurate localisation of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) lesions. This study included 65 patients with a definitive histological diagnosis of NET prior to scintigraphy. Planar WB scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4 h post-administration of 670 MBq 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC. Additional SPECT images at 10 min after tracer administration were also acquired. Clinical and imaging follow-up findings were considered as the reference standards (minimum follow-up period, 15 months). Patient and lesion-based analyses of the efficacies of the imaging modalities were performed. While 38 patients exhibited metastasis of NETs, 27 presented no evidence of metastasis. Upon patient-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT/CT were found to be 88.9 and 79.3 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of WB scintigraphy, 4h-SPECT, and SPECT/CT were 72.3, 73.8, and 84.6 %, respectively. The area under curve (AUC) value for SPECT/CT (0.84) was the highest, followed by those for 4h-SPECT (0.75) and WB scintigraphy (0.74). The accuracy and AUC values of SPECT/CT were significantly better compared to those of WB scintigraphy (p < 0.001), 10 min-SPECT (p < 0.001), and 4 h-SPECT (p = 0.001). The findings of SPECT/CT led to the change in treatment plan of 11 patients (16.9 %). The sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of SPECT/CT in the evaluation of NET lesions outperforms planar WB imaging or SPECT alone.

  8. Comparison of ventilation-perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) versus dual-energy CT perfusion and angiography (DECT) after 6 months of pulmonary embolism (PE) treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysman, M., E-mail: marc.meysman@uzbrussel.be [Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Everaert, H., E-mail: nucgeth@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Buls, N., E-mail: nico.buls@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Nieboer, K., E-mail: koenraad.nieboer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Mey, J. de, E-mail: Johan.deMey@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Incomplete resolution of pulmonary emboli occurs frequently. • Residual V/Q-SPECT defects correspond in the majority of cases with defects seen on DECT. • Some (11.1%) defects on V/Q-SPECT are not present on comparable DECT images. - Abstract: Background: The natural evolution of treated symptomatic pulmonary embolism shows often incomplete resolution of pulmonary thrombi. The prevalence of perfusion defects depend on the image modality used. This study directly compares V/Q SPECT with DECT. Methods: A single-center prospective observational cohort study of patients with intermediate risk PE, reassessed at the end of treatment with V/Q SPECT. Abnormal V/Q SPECT images were compared with DECT. Results: We compared DECT en V/Q SPECT in 28 consecutive patients with persistent V/Q mismatch on V/Q SPECT, 13 men and 15 woman, mean age 60 (+17), range 23–82 year. One patient was excluded from the final analysis due to inferior quality DECT. In 18/27 (66.7%) the results were concordant between CTPA (persistent embolus visible), DECT (segmentary defects on iodine map) and V/Q SPECT (segmentary ventilation–perfusion mismatch). In 3/18 (11.1% of the total group) the partialy matched V/Q SPECT defect could be explained on DECT lung images by lung infarction. In 6/27 (22.1%) only hypoperfusion was seen on DECT iodine map. In 3/27 (11.1%) results were discordant between V/Q SPECT and DECT images. Conclusion: Six months after diagnosis of first or recurrent PE, residual pulmonary perfusion-defects encountered on V/Q-SPECT corresponds in the majority of patients with chronic thromboembolic disease seen on DECT. In 22.1% of patients V/Q SPECT mismatch only corresponds with hypoperfusion on iodine map DECT scan. Some (11.1%) of the chronic thromboembolic lesions seen on V/Q SPECT can not be explained by DECT results.

  9. Assessment of congenital heart disease by a thallium-201 SPECT study in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Iwao; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Taniguchi, Mitsuru; Bunko, Hisashi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Ohno, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of correlation between the right-to-left ventricular systolic pressure ratios (RVp/LVp) and the thallium-201 right-to-left ventricular ( 201 Tl R/L) count ratios was investigated in children with various congenital heart diseases. High-resolution three-headed SPECT system equipped with either parallel-hole or fan-beam collimators was used. In a total of 102 patients, the correlation between RVp/LVp and 201 Tl R/L average count ratios was good in both planar (r=0.89, p=0.0001) and SPECT studies (r=0.80, p=0.0001). Quantitative analysis of myocardial uptake by SPECT demonstrated the characteristic pattern of each disease as well as the differences in the right ventricular overload types. When the linear regression analysis was performed in each heart disease, ventricular septal defect showed most excellent correlation. Complex heart anomalies also showed positive correlation (r=0.51, p=0.05) with RVp/LVp, and it can be used to estimate right ventricular pressure. After surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis, the decrease of 201 Tl R/L count ratio was in accordance with improvement of right ventricular overload. We conclude that 201 Tl SPECT study can be a good indicator for estimation of right ventricular pressure. (author)

  10. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  11. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  12. Development of the new phantom for evaluation of SPECT performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukukita, H.; Oyamada, H.; Nagaiwa, K.; Kawai, H.; Terui, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a new Phantom designed to evaluate the SPECT system performances of rotational gamma cameras. This phantom is composed of 5 parts, and each of them has its own purpose; such as measurements of 1) spatial resolution 2) slice thickness, 3) dose linearity, 4) uniformity, and 5) image distortion. These parts are made of Acrylic (0.8 cm in thickness) and each of them has the same disc-shape, measuring 28.4 cm in inner diameter and 7 cm in inner length. For the large field of view cameras, it is possible to set up-to 4 parts together if necessary. Therefore, 4 different parameters can be obtained at one rotation. The phantom was filled with Tc-99m solution, and SPET data were obtained as follows: for the determination of spatial resolution and slice thickness, 128 linear sampling with every 5 0 angular rotation was performed, and 64 linear sampling with every 10 0 angular rotation for dose linearity uniformity, and image distortion. The values obtained with the phantom were FWHM of 19.1 mm for spatial resolution, FWHM of 19.9 mm for slice thickness, and integral uniformity of 36.4%. For dose linearity a good correlating (r=0.99) was obtained. For image distortion it was easy to detect the misalignment of the electrical and mechanical axes. The authors found that this phantom was a suitable tool as a routine quality control and daily maintenance of SPECT system

  13. Ultrahigh stability of atomically thin metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, C. R.; Huang, K. Q.; Zhao, N. J.; Sun, Y. T.; Bai, H. Y.; Gu, L., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Zheng, D. N., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, W. H., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-07

    We report the fabrication and study of thermal stability of atomically thin ZrCu-based metallic glass films. The ultrathin films exhibit striking dynamic properties, ultrahigh thermal stability, and unique crystallization behavior with discrete crystalline nanoparticles sizes. The mechanisms for the remarkable high stability and crystallization behaviors are attributed to the dewetting process of the ultrathin film. We demonstrated a promising avenue for understanding some fundamental issues such as glassy structure, crystallization, deformation, and glass formation through atomic resolution imaging of the two dimensional like metallic glasses.

  14. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints...... on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act...... as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints....

  15. Formularity: Software for Automated Formula Assignment of Natural and Other Organic Matter from Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolić, Nikola; Liu, Yina; Liyu, Andrey; Shen, Yufeng; Tfaily, Malak M; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Longnecker, Krista; Kuo, Li-Jung; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J

    2017-12-05

    Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS), can resolve thousands of molecular ions in complex organic matrices. A Compound Identification Algorithm (CIA) was previously developed for automated elemental formula assignment for natural organic matter (NOM). In this work, we describe software Formularity with a user-friendly interface for CIA function and newly developed search function Isotopic Pattern Algorithm (IPA). While CIA assigns elemental formulas for compounds containing C, H, O, N, S, and P, IPA is capable of assigning formulas for compounds containing other elements. We used halogenated organic compounds (HOC), a chemical class that is ubiquitous in nature as well as anthropogenic systems, as an example to demonstrate the capability of Formularity with IPA. A HOC standard mix was used to evaluate the identification confidence of IPA. Tap water and HOC spike in Suwannee River NOM were used to assess HOC identification in complex environmental samples. Strategies for reconciliation of CIA and IPA assignments were discussed. Software and sample databases with documentation are freely available.

  16. A Detector for Combined SPECT/CT. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Nagarkar

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Phase I research was to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a high performance SPECT/CT detector module based on a combination of microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an EMCCD readout. We are very pleased to report that our Phase I research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of our approach with a very high degree of success. Specifically, we were able to implement a back-thinned EMCCD with a fiberoptic window which was successfully used to demonstrate the feasibility of near simultaneous radionuclide/CT using the proposed concept. Although significantly limited in imaging area (24 x 24 mm 2 ) and pixel resolution (512 x 512), this prototype has shown exceptional capabilities such as a single optical photon sensitivity, very low noise, an intrinsic resolution of 64 (micro)m for radionuclide imaging, and a resolution in excess of 10 lp/mm for x-ray imaging. Furthermore, the combination of newly developed, thick, microcolumnar CsI and an EMCCD has shown to be capable of operating in a photon counting mode, and that the position and energy information obtained from these data can be used to improve resolution in radionuclide imaging. Finally, the prototype system has successfully been employed for near simultaneous SPECT/CT imaging using both, 125 I and 99m Tc radioisotopes. The tomographic reconstruction data obtained using a mouse heart phantom and other phantoms clearly demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of the detector in small animal research. The following were the objectives specified in the Phase I proposal: (1) In consultation with Professor Hasegawa, develop specifications for the Phase I/Phase II prototype detector; (2) Modify current vapor deposition protocols to fabricate ∼2 mm thick microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillators with excellent columnar structure, high light yield, and high spatial resolution; (3) Perform detailed characterization of the film morphology, light output, and spatial resolution, and use

  17. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung In [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  18. Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography in Steroid Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    The latest version of liquid chromatography is ultra-high performance (or pressure) chromatography (UHPLC). In the technique, short and narrow-bore columns with particle sizes below 3 µm are used. The extremely high pressure used results in very short analysis times, excellent separation, and good resolution. This makes UHPLC a good choice for steroidal analysis. Steroids are a highly interesting area of study; they can be recognized as biomarkers for several diseases and are a relevant topic...

  19. Physical and subjective evaluation of a three-detector (TRIAD 88) SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, M.F.; Mumma, C.G.; Allen, E.W.; Phal, J.J.; Prince, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The three-detector TRIAD 88 is a variable cylindrical FOV whole-body SPECT system designed for both brain as well as body organ imaging. The system performance was assessed in terms of physical indices and clinical quality. Measures of low contrast resolution using contrast-detail curves, high contrast resolution using LSFs and associated frequency descriptors, display characteristics, system sensitivity, energy resolution and uniformity analysis were utilized. In addition, images of Carlson phantom, Hoffman brain phantom and clinical brain images were used to compare two collimators subjectively. Measurements and calculations were obtained for two sets of parallel hole collimators, i.e., LEUR P AR and LEHR P AR. Of special interest is the consistency among the three detectors. The planar and volume sensitivities for the LEUR P AR collimator were about 58% of those of the LEHR P AR collimator. The planar spatial resolution of the two collimators differed by about 14%. The display was characterized by a logistic model H and D curve. The planar contrast-detail curves demonstrated no statistical difference in lesion detectability between the two collimator types, however SPECT phantom and clinical images demonstrated improved performance with the LEUR P AR collimator. Images of Hoffman single slice brain and Carlson phantoms and Tc-99m (HMPAO) brain images demonstrated excellent image quality. There was similarity in performance parameters of the three detector heads. 49 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Anatomy guided automated SPECT renal seed point estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shekhar; Kumar, Sailendra

    2010-04-01

    Quantification of SPECT(Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) images can be more accurate if correct segmentation of region of interest (ROI) is achieved. Segmenting ROI from SPECT images is challenging due to poor image resolution. SPECT is utilized to study the kidney function, though the challenge involved is to accurately locate the kidneys and bladder for analysis. This paper presents an automated method for generating seed point location of both kidneys using anatomical location of kidneys and bladder. The motivation for this work is based on the premise that the anatomical location of the bladder relative to the kidneys will not differ much. A model is generated based on manual segmentation of the bladder and both the kidneys on 10 patient datasets (including sum and max images). Centroid is estimated for manually segmented bladder and kidneys. Relatively easier bladder segmentation is followed by feeding bladder centroid coordinates into the model to generate seed point for kidneys. Percentage error observed in centroid coordinates of organs from ground truth to estimated values from our approach are acceptable. Percentage error of approximately 1%, 6% and 2% is observed in X coordinates and approximately 2%, 5% and 8% is observed in Y coordinates of bladder, left kidney and right kidney respectively. Using a regression model and the location of the bladder, the ROI generation for kidneys is facilitated. The model based seed point estimation will enhance the robustness of kidney ROI estimation for noisy cases.

  1. Mnemonic discrimination relates to perforant path integrity: An ultra-high resolution diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Stark, Craig E L

    2016-03-01

    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20-87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical evaluation of SPECT in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Satoh, Mitsutaka; Kanda, Tetsuro; Nishi, Fumiaki; Yamane, Kanji; Fujimatsu, Masahiko; Edamitsu, Satoshi; Anno, Yasuro; Ohtake, Hisashi.

    1989-01-01

    In 131 patients with cerebrovascular disease, regional cerebral blood flow were determined by 123 I-IMP (N-isopropyl ( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine) or 99m Tc-HM-PAO ( 99m Tc (d, 1)-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime) SPECT and findings were compared with those of X-CT or MRI. The perfusion deficit detected by SPECT was larger than the deficit by X-CT or MRI in every case. The perfusion deficit area was more clearly demonstrated by SPECT than by X-CT or MRI in patients with acute cerebral infarction. The hypoperfusion area determined by 123 I-IMP SPECT was wider than that by 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT. The crossed cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 56 out of 131 cases (43%). The results of operation were quantitatively evaluated by 123 I-IMP SPECT in 25 patients. (author)

  3. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2003-01-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test

  4. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test.

  5. A practical head tracking system for motion correction in neurological SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Eberl, S.; Meikle, S.; Hutton, B.F.; Braun, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Patient motion during data acquisition can degrade the quality of SPECT and PET images. Techniques for motion correction in neurological studies in both modalities based on continuous monitoring of head position have been proposed. However difficulties in developing suitable head tracking systems have so far impeded clinical implementations. We have developed a head tracking system based on the mechanical ADL-1 tracker (Shooting Star Technology, Rosedale, Canada) on a Trionix triple-head SPECT camera A software driver running on a SUN Sparc host computer communicates with the tracker over a serial line providing up to 300 updates per second with angular and positional resolutions of 0.05 degrees and 0.2 mm respectively. The SUN Sparc workstation which acquires the SPECT study also communicates with the tracker, eliminating synchronisation problems. For motion correction, the motion parameters provided by the tracker within its own coordinate system must be converted to the camera's coordinate system. The conversion requires knowledge of the rotational relationships between the two coordinate systems and the displacement of their origins, both of which are determined from a calibration procedure. The tracker has been tested under clinical SPECT imaging conditions with a 3D Hoffman brain phantom. Multiple SPECT acquisitions were performed. After each acquisition the phantom was moved to a new position and orientation. Motion parameters reported by the tracker for each applied movement were compared with those obtained by applying an automated image registration program to the sequential reconstructed studies. Maximum differences were < 0.5 degrees and < 2mm, within the expected errors of the registration procedure. We conclude that this tracking system will be suitable for clinical evaluation of motion correction in SPECT and PET

  6. Aperture correction with an asymmetrically trimmed gaussian weight in SPECT with a fan-beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Ryo; Ogawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the spatial resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired with a fan-beam collimator. The aperture angle of a hole in the fan-beam collimator depends on the position of the collimator. To correct the aperture effect in an iterative image reconstruction, an asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weight was used for a model. To confirm the validity of our method, point source phantoms and brain phantom were used in the simulation, and we applied the method to the clinical data. The results of the simulation showed that the spatial resolution of point sources improved from about 6 to 2 pixels full width at half maximum, and the corrected point sources were isotropic. The results of the simulation with the brain phantom showed that our proposed method could improve the spatial resolution of the phantom, and our method was effective for different fan-beam collimators with different focal lengths. The results of clinical data showed that the quality of the reconstructed image was improved with our proposed method. Our proposed aperture correction method with the asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weighting function was effective in improving the spatial resolution of SPECT images acquired with the fan-beam collimator. (author)

  7. SP-ECT imaging and its physical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Fujimi

    1983-01-01

    Recently, more than a hundred hospitals are provided with SPECT system for clinical examination in Japan. However, a standardization of measuring method and performance test of the systems is ont yet made. We have been studying some basic problems of SPECT system with special phantoms originaly designed by ourselves. We got a conclusion that a standardized phantom is necessary for comparing performances between SPECT systems. In clinical experiences with 3,332 cases, we think that SPECT image combined with conventional image presents much more informations for accurate diagnosis, especially in brain, bone and tumor imagings. Synthesized image of SPECT and XCT, double tracer image and transmission image are useful to visualize the body contour and the clinical diagnosis. (author)

  8. Clinical experience with Tc-99m HM-PAO high resolution SPECT of the brain in patients with cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L.; Devos, P.; Verbruggen, A.; Wilms, G.; Carton, H.; Wils, V.; Bergh, R. van den

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic contribution of brain SPECT imaging with 99m Tc-HMPAO in cerebrovascular disease, we examined 92 stroke cases (144 lesions), 2 hematoma cases and 30 cases with transient neurologic symptoms. Abnormal tracer distribution is visible as zones of either hypoactivity or hyperactivity (border zone hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Remote vascularization changes could also be found (crossed cerebellar diaschisis or ipsilateral cortical perfusion reduction in thalamic or capsula interna lesions). Both X-ray CT and blood flow SPECT have comparable sensitivity in the exploaration of cerebral infarction, with detection in, respectively, 89,5% and 87,5% of the lesions. False negative scintitomographic images are frequently recorded in small lacunar infarcts within the basal ganglia and white matter (capsula interna). Some early infarcts and asymmetry of brain perfusion in patients with transient neurologic symptoms are frequently not detected by CT. An additional advantage of blood flow SPECT is its ability to visualize remote blood flow changes and the changing pattern of vascularization of ischemic lesions and their surrounding areas including hyperemia. (orig.)

  9. Clinical experience with Tc-99m HM-PAO high resolution SPECT of the brain in patients with cerebrovascular accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L.; Devos, P.; Verbruggen, A.; Wilms, G.; Carton, H.; Wils, V.; Bergh, R. van den

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic contribution of brain SPECT imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO in cerebrovascular disease, we examined 92 stroke cases (144 lesions), 2 hematoma cases and 30 cases with transient neurologic symptoms. Abnormal tracer distribution is visible as zones of either hypoactivity or hyperactivity (border zone hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Remote vascularization changes could also be found (crossed cerebellar diaschisis or ipsilateral cortical perfusion reduction in thalamic or capsula interna lesions). Both X-ray CT and blood flow SPECT have comparable sensitivity in the exploaration of cerebral infarction, with detection in, respectively, 89,5% and 87,5% of the lesions. False negative scintitomographic images are frequently recorded in small lacunar infarcts within the basal ganglia and white matter (capsula interna). Some early infarcts and asymmetry of brain perfusion in patients with transient neurologic symptoms are frequently not detected by CT. An additional advantage of blood flow SPECT is its ability to visualize remote blood flow changes and the changing pattern of vascularization of ischemic lesions and their surrounding areas including hyperemia.

  10. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  11. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  12. Experimental MRI-SPECT insert system with Hybrid Semiconductor detectors Timepix for MR animal scanner Bruker 47/20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, J.; Burian, M.; Soukup, P.; Novak, V.; Macko, M.; Jakubek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal medical imaging based on Magnetic Resonance is mainly combinated with one of the scintigraphic method like PET or SPECT. These methods provide functional information whereas magnetic resonance imaging provides high spatial resolution of anatomical information or complementary functional information. Fusion of imaging modalities allows researchers to obtain complimentary information in a single measurement. The combination of MRI with SPECT is still relatively new and challenging in many ways. The main complication of using SPECT in MRI systems is the presence of a high magnetic field therefore (ferro)magnetic materials have to be eliminated. Furthermore the application of radiofrequency fields within the MR gantry does not allow for the use of conductive structures such as the common heavy metal collimators. This work presents design and construction of an experimental MRI-SPECT insert system and its initial tests. This unique insert system consists of an MR-compatible SPECT setup with CdTe pixelated sensors Timepix tungsten collimators and a radiofrequency coil. Measurements were performed on a gelatine and tissue phantom with an embedded radioisotopic source (57Co 122 keV γ ray) inside the RF coil by the Bruker BioSpec 47/20 (4.7 T) MR animal scanner. The project was performed in the framework of the Medipix Collaboration.

  13. Study of factors affecting thyroid volume determination by SPECT and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan

    1992-01-01

    Volumes of 7 thyroid phantoms (12-113.4 ml) and 25 thyroids of hyperthyroid patients were determined using TOSHIBA GCA-901A SPECT scanner. Accuracy of calculated volumes was strongly affected by the spatial resolution, total counts of acquisition and the threshold of background subtraction which depended on the thyroid size and the type of collimator used

  14. Validation of variance reduction techniques in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Marrero, J. P.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gomez Facenda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear medical imaging systems is a widely used method for reproducing their operation in a real clinical environment, There are several Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems in Cuba. For this reason it is clearly necessary to introduce a reliable and fast simulation platform in order to obtain consistent image data. This data will reproduce the original measurements conditions. In order to fulfill these requirements Monte Carlo platform GAMOS (Geant4 Medicine Oriented Architecture for Applications) have been used. Due to the very size and complex configuration of parallel hole collimators in real clinical SPECT systems, Monte Carlo simulation usually consumes excessively high time and computing resources. main goal of the present work is to optimize the efficiency of calculation by means of new GAMOS functionality. There were developed and validated two GAMOS variance reduction techniques to speed up calculations. These procedures focus and limit transport of gamma quanta inside the collimator. The obtained results were asses experimentally in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system. Main quality control parameters, such as sensitivity and spatial resolution were determined. Differences of 4.6% sensitivity and 8.7% spatial resolution were reported against manufacturer values. Simulation time was decreased up to 650 times. Using these techniques it was possible to perform several studies in almost 8 hours each. (Author)

  15. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  16. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  17. Optimisation of conditions for detecting variations in focal activity in SPECT using the rotating gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, P.; Golde, G.; Schneider, R.; Fiegler, W.; Hedde, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The signal to noise ratio (quotient of contrast and mean noise) is a quality parameter for identifying activity gaps during single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Contrast and mean noise level are site-dependent on the reconstruction plane which is influenced in a complex manner by absorption conditions (strong or weak absorption), modes of rotation (full angle or partial angle imaging), interdependencies of opposing partial projections (arithmetic or geometric mean), magnitude of defect (relative to the resolution of the imaging system), geometry of the object to be measured, and scatter. In the present study the authors performed analysis and graphical representation of the SPECT imaging properties on the basis of model calculations illustrated by phantom measurements. The optimal conditions of examination or evaluation and the diagnostic criteria in SPECT of the heart, liver, brain and pelvis are discussed by comparative calculation of signal to noise ratios in defect identification. (orig.)

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Medvedeva, A. A., E-mail: tickayaAA@oncology.tomsk.ru; Zelchan, R. V., E-mail: r.zelchan@yandex.ru; Sinilkin, I. G., E-mail: sinilkinig@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99}mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal {sup 199}Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of {sup 199}Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased {sup 199}Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased {sup 199}Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was 95%. The {sup 199}Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  19. Validity of in vivo [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in detecting MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; de Jeu, Rogier A. M.; de Bruin, Kora; Habraken, Jan B. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system, with [(123)I]beta-CIT as a radiotracer, to detect 3,4-methelenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy')-induced loss of serotonin transporters (SERTs) in the living rat brain. In

  20. SPECT of the brain: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, F.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In both PET and SPECT, most of the studies and the models have been addressed to two organs: brain and heart. So far, brain has certainly been investigated more. The several comparisons between planar scintigraphy and SPECT, between X-ray TCT and SPECT, and also between PET and SPECT, have tended to consider SPECT a cheap but scarcely useful tool for a nuclear medicine section. Again the authors feel that this is due to the fact that SPECT is really a ''physiological tomography'', with little known about its physiology or how it is measured. Thus the present state of the art of SPECT of the brain is characterized by a collection of data and reports on brain imaging and by a slowly growing basic understanding of the utilized modes. The introduction of a new brain-imaging radiopharmaceutical is immediately signaled by its ''first clinical application'' without parallel studies on the kinetics, the metabolic degradation, and the real suitability of the molecule as a tracer for measurement of regional CBF. Only a few attempts seek to narrow this discussion between clinic and biology, and the authors like to emphasize the need for nuclear medicine people to dedicate more time and effort

  1. 123I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in focal epilepsy. In comparison with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Wang Tongge; Huang Li; Michael Cordes

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in diagnosis of focal epilepsy in comparison with 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Methods 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was performed on 40 patients with focal epilepsy. The results were compared with those obtained by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Results: In 40 patients, the sensitivity of Video/EEG monitoring for localization of epileptogenic area was 95% (38/40). The sensitivity of 123 I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT, 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI for localization of epileptogenic area compared with Video/EEG monitoring ('gold standard') was 65.8%(25/38), 55.3%(21/38) and 47.4%(18/38), respectively. The localization of epileptogenic area with 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was in concordance with Video/EEG monitoring in 20 patients, 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in 15 patients and MRI in 16 patients, respectively. The sensitivity of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT combined with MRI for localization of epileptogenic area was 84.2%(32/38). Conclusions: 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT is a useful method in detecting and localizing epileptogenic area. The combination of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT and MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting epileptogenic area

  2. Clinical evaluation of stress thallium spect in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Osamu; Kimura, Nazuna; Soeki; Takeshi; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Thallium SPECT was performed in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 67 cases were after maximal exercise and 74 cases were during coronary vasodilation induced by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) infusion. In patients suspected of angina pectoris, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) were 88%, 78% and 82% for exercise SPECT, and 100%, 72% and 84% for ATP SPECT studies, respectively. In patients with old myocardial infarction, these were 73%, 100% and 88% for exercise SPECT and 71%, 100% and 81% for ATP SPECT. These were 75%, 49% and 60% for treadmill exercise test in the patient group including both angina and myocardial infarction. For detection of diseased vessels, the diagnostic accuracy for left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery lesions was almost equal for ATP and exercise SPECT study, but ATP SPECT study was more sensitive than exercise SPECT study in detection of left circumflex artery lesions. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies occasionally gave false positive results in patients with single-vessel disease. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies underestimated the severity of multi-vessel disease. In general, the results of ATP SPECT imaging were highly concordant with the results of exercise SPECT imaging. ATP stress thallium SPECT imaging provided a safe and highly accurate diagnostic tool for detection of CAD. (author)

  3. Geometric Calibration and Image Reconstruction for a Segmented Slant-Hole Stationary Cardiac SPECT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Yu, Zhicong; Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2015-06-01

    A dedicated stationary cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system with a novel segmented slant-hole collimator has been developed. The goal of this paper is to calibrate this new imaging geometry with a point source. Unlike the commercially available dedicated cardiac SPECT systems, which are specialized and can be used only to image the heart, our proposed cardiac system is based on a conventional SPECT system but with a segmented slant-hole collimator replacing the collimator. For a dual-head SPECT system, 2 segmented collimators, each with 7 sections, are arranged in an L-shaped configuration such that they can produce a complete cardiac SPECT image with only one gantry position. A calibration method was developed to estimate the geometric parameters of each collimator section as well as the detector rotation radius, under the assumption that the point source location is calculated using the central-section data. With a point source located off the rotation axis, geometric parameters for each collimator section can be estimated independently. The parameters estimated individually are further improved by a joint objective function that uses all collimator sections simultaneously and incorporates the collimator symmetry information. Estimation results and images reconstructed from estimated parameters are presented for both simulated and real data acquired from a prototype collimator. The calibration accuracy was validated by computer simulations with an error of about 0.1° for the slant angles and about 1 mm for the rotation radius. Reconstructions of a heart-insert phantom did not show any image artifacts of inaccurate geometric parameters. Compared with the detector's intrinsic resolution, the estimation error is small and can be ignored. Therefore, the accuracy of the calibration is sufficient for cardiac SPECT imaging. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  5. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  6. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering. Radionuklidzisternographie: SPECT- und 3D-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H; Huber, G; Piepgras, U [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hierholzer, J [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Cordes, M [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Belzberg Lab. of Neuroscience

    1991-10-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of {sup 111}In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.).

  7. Design of common software for quality control of SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohua; Gao Ruzhen; Chen Shengzu

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study is to design a common testing system for SPECT quality control according to NEMA standard. Using the system, the performances of different types of SPECT can be tested, so that the acceptance testing, performance comparing and routine quality control for SPECT can be normalized. The system was based on IBM PC series of microcomputer. Testing data are acquired from various types of SPECT, then transferred into IBM PC through interface and tested with an unique testing program. Two parts were included: interface and SPECT testing program. It emphatically studied the managing program of RS232 interface, designing skills and the mathematic patterns of SPECT testing program. The system which was composed of 11 subroutines can be used to measure the performances for both gamma camera and SPECT. The system was tested on OMEGA 500/MCS 560 SPECT and the results showed that it is effective, accurate and easy to use

  8. Examination of statistical noise in SPECT image and sampling pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Tomonori; Kawakami, Kazunori; Teraoka, Satomi; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Statistical noise in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image was examined for its relation with total count and with sampling pitch by simulation and phantom experiment to obtain their projection data under defined conditions. The former SPECT simulation was performed on assumption of a virtual, homogeneous water column (20 cm diameter) as an absorbing mass. In the latter, used were 3D-Hoffman brain phantom (Data Spectrum Corp.) filled with 370 MBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate solution and a facing 2-detector SPECT machine with a low-energy/high-resolution collimator, E-CAM (Siemens). Projected data by the two methods were reconstructed through the filtered back projection to make each transaxial image. The noise was evaluated by vision, by their root mean square uncertainty calculated from average count and standard deviation (SD) in the region of interest (ROI) defined in reconstructed images and by normalized mean squares calculated from the difference between the reference image obtained with common sampling pitch to and all of obtained slices of, the simulation and phantom. As a conclusion, the pitch was recommended to be set in the machine as to approximating the value calculated by the sampling theorem, though the projection counts per one angular direction were smaller with the same total time of data acquisition. (R.T.)

  9. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  10. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  11. Developing a structure-function model for the cryptophyte phycoerythrin 545 using ultrahigh resolution crystallography and ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Alexander B; Marai, Christopher N J; Harrop, Stephen J; Wilk, Krystyna E; Curmi, Paul M G; Scholes, Gregory D

    2004-11-12

    Cryptophyte algae differ from cyanobacteria and red algae in the architecture of their photosynthetic light harvesting systems, even though all three are evolutionarily related. Central to cryptophyte light harvesting is the soluble antenna protein phycoerythrin 545 (PE545). The ultrahigh resolution crystal structure of PE545, isolated from a unicellular cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24, is reported at both 1.1A and 0.97A resolution, revealing details of the conformation and environments of the chromophores. Absorption, emission and polarized steady state spectroscopy (298K, 77K), as well as ultrafast (20fs time resolution) measurements of population dynamics are reported. Coupled with complementary quantum chemical calculations of electronic transitions of the bilins, these enable assignment of spectral absorption characteristics to each chromophore in the structure. Spectral differences between the tetrapyrrole pigments due to chemical differences between bilins, as well as their binding and interaction with the local protein environment are described. Based on these assignments, and considering customized optical properties such as strong coupling, a model for light harvesting by PE545 is developed which explains the fast, directional harvesting of excitation energy. The excitation energy is funnelled from four peripheral pigments (beta158,beta82) into a central chromophore dimer (beta50/beta61) in approximately 1ps. Those chromophores, in turn, transfer the excitation energy to the red absorbing molecules located at the periphery of the complex in approximately 4ps. A final resonance energy transfer step sensitizes just one of the alpha19 bilins on a time scale of 22ps. Furthermore, it is concluded that binding of PE545 to the thylakoid membrane is not essential for efficient energy transfer to the integral membrane chlorophyll a-containing complexes associated with PS-II.

  12. Formularity: Software for Automated Formula Assignment of Natural and Other Organic Matter from Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolic, Nikola; Liu, Yina; Liyu, Andrey V.; Shen, Yufeng; Tfaily, Malak M.; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Longnecker, Krista; Kuo, Li-Jung; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J.

    2017-11-13

    Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, such as Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), can resolve thousands of molecular ions in complex organic matrices. A Compound Identification Algorithm (CIA) was previously developed for automated elemental formula assignment for natural organic matter (NOM). In this work we describe a user friendly interface for CIA, titled Formularity, which includes an additional functionality to perform search of formulas based on an Isotopic Pattern Algorithm (IPA). While CIA assigns elemental formulas for compounds containing C, H, O, N, S, and P, IPA is capable of assigning formulas for compounds containing other elements. We used halogenated organic compounds (HOC), a chemical class that is ubiquitous in nature as well as anthropogenic systems, as an example to demonstrate the capability of Formularity with IPA. A HOC standard mix was used to evaluate the identification confidence of IPA. The HOC spike in NOM and tap water were used to assess HOC identification in natural and anthropogenic matrices. Strategies for reconciliation of CIA and IPA assignments are discussed. Software and sample databases with documentation are freely available from the PNNL OMICS software repository https://omics.pnl.gov/software/formularity.

  13. Nontargeted Screening Method for Illegal Additives Based on Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanqing; Zhou, Zhihui; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Jia; Wu, Zeming; Xu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-09-06

    Identification of illegal additives in complex matrixes is important in the food safety field. In this study a nontargeted screening strategy was developed to find illegal additives based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). First, an analytical method for possible illegal additives in complex matrixes was established including fast sample pretreatment, accurate UHPLC separation, and HRMS detection. Second, efficient data processing and differential analysis workflow were suggested and applied to find potential risk compounds. Third, structure elucidation of risk compounds was performed by (1) searching online databases [Metlin and the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)] and an in-house database which was established at the above-defined conditions of UHPLC-HRMS analysis and contains information on retention time, mass spectra (MS), and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of 475 illegal additives, (2) analyzing fragment ions, and (3) referring to fragmentation rules. Fish was taken as an example to show the usefulness of the nontargeted screening strategy, and six additives were found in suspected fish samples. Quantitative analysis was further carried out to determine the contents of these compounds. The satisfactory application of this strategy in fish samples means that it can also be used in the screening of illegal additives in other kinds of food samples.

  14. Inter-observer variation of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Motoo; Machida, Kikuo; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    SPECT shows characteristic distribution in Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to define inter-observer variations in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Fifty-seven patients, included 19 Alzheimer's disease were collected from four institutions. Five-graded score was used to interprete SPECT in 18 regions. Ten nuclear medicine physicians interpreted SPECT referred with MMSE and clinical information. Among 57 cases 19 Alzheimer's disease were selected in this study. Statistics were performed between SPECT score and MMSE score. In conclusion, inter-observer variation is present in SPECT interpretation. There was a good correlation SPECT and MMSE with proper brain SPECT physicians. They are superior to in the interpretation not only resident, but other specialists. Education in the interpretation of brain SPECT looks important. (author)

  15. Utility of SPECT imaging for determination of vertebral metastases in patients with known primary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.L.; Kahn, D.; Huston, B.; Bevering, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    Determining the etiology of a focal lesion seen on bone scan in patients with primary tumors usually requires the use of other imaging procedures or biopsy. Single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) with high resolution multidetector systems can localize the specific site of a vertebral lesion and in this way potentially differentiate between benign and metastatic disease. SPECT images of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were reviewed for lesion location and intensity by two experienced interpreters. Follow-up data were adequate to ascertain the cause of 71 lesions seen on SPECT in 29 patients. Twenty-six of these lesions were not seen on planar images. Of the 71 lesions, 44 were benign and 27 metastatic. Of the 15 lesions where the pedicle was involved, 11 were found to metastatic. There were a total of 14 facet lesions, 9 of which were present in vertebra with no lesions at sites other than the facets. All 9 of these isolated facet lesions turned out to be benign. Lesion intensity did not distinguish benign from malignant disease. We conclude that SPECT imaging is useful in determining the etiology of focal lesions seen on bone scan in patients with a known primary tumor referred for evaluation of metastatic disease. (orig.)

  16. Intra-operative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    application, 13/492,606 • One travel award to attend WMIC in Dublin (2012) • One class taught as lead instructor ( Mechatronics system ) • Three classes...paraffin- embedded tissue: five years on. Cytometry. 1989;10:229–241. 15. Meng LJ, Fu G, Roy EJ, Suppe B, Chen CT. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for...residual cancer. This grant aims to develop a system to assess tumor margins during surgery, with the eventual goal of reducing re-excision surgery

  17. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  18. Utility of 99mTc-GHA Brain SPECT in the grading of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, B.R.; Kumar, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Brain tumors are of diverse histological types, the most common being derived from glial tissue. The clinical management and prognosis of brain tumor patients is dependent on accurate neuro-pathologic diagnosis and grading. Radiological imaging is not always a good modality for assessing the exact nature and grade of a malignant tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a very high soft tissue resolution and is helpful in classifying the grade of tumor. Radionuclide imaging techniques that can reveal metabolic activity within tumor cells are very helpful in predicting the degree of malignancy. Usefulness of Tl-201 SPECT and FDG PET studies have been widely reported to evaluate malignant lesions by measuring increased regional glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. 99mTc-GHA (Glucoheptonate), more or less analogous to 18F-FDG, may show increased glucose metabolism and help in grading tumors. This study was carried out to determine the utility of 99mTc-GHA SPECT for grading cerebral gliomas. Nineteen patients (12M, 7F) aged 22 to 51 years (36.1 ± 8.3) diagnosed clinically and radiologically to have a brain tumor were evaluated with 99mTc-GHA brain SPECT. All the patients had undergone CT/ MRI examination prior to the brain SPECT study. No patient had undergone surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy before the imaging studies. Brain SPECT was performed twice, i.e 40 min and 3 hours after intravenous administration of 20 mCi of Tc99m-GHA under a dual head SPECT gamma camera (Ecam, Siemens), with a low energy high-resolution collimator. A total of 128 frames of 30 seconds each, 64 per detector, were acquired in 128 x 128 matrix, with 360-degree rotation in step and shoot mode. Reconstruction of the SPECT data was done using standard software. Abnormal concentration of tracer at the tumor site was compared to normal uptake on the contralateral side, and ratios obtained for early (40 min) and delayed (3 hours) uptake of tracer. Retention ratio (RR), a

  19. Post-mortem inference of the human hippocampal connectivity and microstructure using ultra-high field diffusion MRI at 11.7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujoin, Justine; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Boumezbeur, Fawzi; Axer, Markus; Bernard, Jeremy; Poupon, Fabrice; Schmitz, Daniel; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril

    2018-06-01

    The human hippocampus plays a key role in memory management and is one of the first structures affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging provides access to its inner structure in vivo. However, gradient limitations on clinical systems hinder access to its inner connectivity and microstructure. A major target of this paper is the demonstration of diffusion MRI potential, using ultra-high field (11.7 T) and strong gradients (750 mT/m), to reveal the extra- and intra-hippocampal connectivity in addition to its microstructure. To this purpose, a multiple-shell diffusion-weighted acquisition protocol was developed to reach an ultra-high spatio-angular resolution with a good signal-to-noise ratio. The MRI data set was analyzed using analytical Q-Ball Imaging, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), and Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging models. High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging estimates allowed us to obtain an accurate tractography resolving more complex fiber architecture than DTI models, and subsequently provided a map of the cross-regional connectivity. The neurite density was akin to that found in the histological literature, revealing the three hippocampal layers. Moreover, a gradient of connectivity and neurite density was observed between the anterior and the posterior part of the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that ex vivo ultra-high field/ultra-high gradients diffusion-weighted MRI allows the mapping of the inner connectivity of the human hippocampus, its microstructure, and to accurately reconstruct elements of the polysynaptic intra-hippocampal pathway using fiber tractography techniques at very high spatial/angular resolutions.

  20. Evaluation of usefulness of bone SPECT for lumbar spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 99m Tc-MDP SPECT (bone SPECT) for lumbar spondylolysis. We analyzed 11 cases with 17 lesions. All cases were compared using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), planar bone scintigraphy (PBS), and bone SPECT. Four lesions that showed a wide defect on CT were negative on bone SPECT and may have been chronic lesions. Thirteen lesions that were positive on bone SPECT were narrow or showed no defect on CT and may have been early lesions. Two cases showed no defect on CT but were positive on bone SPECT, and one of them progressed to bilateral spondylolysis after one year. This may have been a very early lesion. Thus bone SPECT is useful for the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis, especially in its early stage. (author)

  1. Evaluation of usefulness of bone SPECT for lumbar spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP SPECT (bone SPECT) for lumbar spondylolysis. We analyzed 11 cases with 17 lesions. All cases were compared using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), planar bone scintigraphy (PBS), and bone SPECT. Four lesions that showed a wide defect on CT were negative on bone SPECT and may have been chronic lesions. Thirteen lesions that were positive on bone SPECT were narrow or showed no defect on CT and may have been early lesions. Two cases showed no defect on CT but were positive on bone SPECT, and one of them progressed to bilateral spondylolysis after one year. This may have been a very early lesion. Thus bone SPECT is useful for the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis, especially in its early stage. (author)

  2. Evaluating performance of a pixel array semiconductor SPECT system for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki; Zhao, Songji; Fujiki, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    Small animal imaging has recently been focused on basic nuclear medicine. We have designed and built a small animal SPECT imaging system using a semiconductor camera and a newly designed collimator. We assess the performance of this system for small object imaging. We employed an MGC 1500 (Acrorad Co.) camera including a CdTe semiconductor. The pixel size was 1.4 mm/pixel. We designed and produced a parallel-hole collimator with 20-mm hole length. Our SPECT system consisted of a semiconductor camera with the subject holder set on an electric rotating stage controlled by a computer. We compared this system with a conventional small animal SPECT system comprising a SPECT-2000H scanner with four Anger type cameras and pinhole collimators. The count rate linearity for estimation of the scatter was evaluated for a pie-chart phantom containing different concentrations of 99m Tc. We measured the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the 99m Tc SPECT line source along with scatter. The system volume sensitivity was examined using a flood source phantom which was 35 mm long with a 32-mm inside diameter. Additionally, an in vivo myocardial perfusion SPECT study was performed with a rat. With regards to energy resolution, the semiconductor camera (5.6%) was superior to the conventional Anger type camera (9.8%). In the count rate linearity evaluation, the regression lines of the SPECT values were y=0.019x+0.031 (r 2 =0.999) for our system and y=0.018x+0.060 (r 2 =0.997) for the conventional system. Thus, the scatter count using the semiconductor camera was less than that using the conventional camera. FWHMs of our system and the conventional system were 2.9±0.1 and 2.0±0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, the system volume sensitivity of our system [0.51 kcps/(MBq/ml)/cm] was superior to that of the conventional system [0.44 kcps/(MBq/ml)/cm]. Our system provided clear images of the rat myocardium, sufficient for practical use in small animal imaging. Our SPECT system, utilizing a

  3. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The long-term goal of this research project is to develop methods to improve the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECI) to quantify the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled with clinically relevant radionuclides ( 123 I, 131 I, and 111 In) and with another radionuclide, 211 At, recently used in therapy. We describe here our progress in developing quantitative SPECT methodology for 111 In and 123 I. We have focused our recent research thrusts on the following aspects of SPECT: (1) The development of improved SPECT hardware, such as improved acquisition geometries. (2) The development of better reconstruction methods that provide accurate compensation for the physical factors that affect SPECT quantification. (3) The application of carefully designed simulations and experiments to validate our hardware and software approaches

  4. Importance of SPECT/CT for knee and hip joint prostheses; Stellenwert der SPECT/CT bei Knie- und Hueftgelenkprothesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, K.; Steurer-Dober, I.; Huellner, M.W.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Allgayer, B. [Luzerner Kantonsspital (Switzerland). Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin und Roentgendiagnostik

    2012-07-15

    Complications, such as loosening or infections are common problems after hip or knee arthroplasty. If conventional X-rays are equivocal bone scintigraphy is the classical second-line imaging modality. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) offers metabolic and morphologic information in one imaging step and is becoming increasingly more available in larger hospitals. The SPECT/CT procedure is a promising method and is increasingly being used in daily routine to evaluate joint arthroplasty. The additional benefit compared with classical conventional bone scintigraphy has to be evaluated in further prospective studies. In our hospital SPECT/CT regularly gives important additional information regarding prosthetic joint complications. SPECT/CT is increasingly being used as the second step imaging standard modality if conventional X-rays are equivocal. (orig.) [German] Komplikationen wie Lockerung und Infekt stellen ein haeufiges Problem nach Hueft- und Kniegelenkprothesen dar. Wenn die konventionelle Roentgenaufnahme nicht zum Ziel fuehrt, ist die klassische konventionelle Skelettszintigraphie die am haeufigsten verwendete ''Second-line''-Bildgebung. Die ''single photon emission computed tomography''/CT (SPECT/CT) bietet metabolische und morphologische Informationen bzgl. Prothesenkomplikationen in einem Untersuchungsgang und ist zunehmend in groesseren Kliniken verfuegbar. Die SPECT/CT ist eine viel versprechende Methode und wird im klinischen Alltag bei der Evaluation von Gelenkprothesen zunehmend eingesetzt. Es sind noch mehr prospektive Studien noetig, um die Leistungsfaehigkeit und den Zusatznutzen gegenueber der klassischen Szintigraphie zu evaluieren. In unserer Klinik wird die Knochenszintigraphie bei der Abklaerung von Prothesenkomplikationen zumeist mit einer SPECT/CT kombiniert und liefert regelmaessig wichtige Zusatzinformationen. Die SPECT/CT entwickelt sich zunehmend zum Standard

  5. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging with ultra-high fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windischberger, C.; Schoepf, V.; Sladky, R.; Moser, E.; Fischmeister, F.P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the primary method for non-invasive functional localization in the brain. With the emergence of MR systems with field strengths of 4 Tesla and above, neuronal activation may be studied with unprecedented accuracy. In this article we present different approaches to use the improved sensitivity and specificity for expanding current fMRT resolution limits in space and time based on several 7 Tesla studies. In addition to the challenges that arise with ultra-high magnetic fields possible solutions will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Ultrahigh-speed X-ray imaging of hypervelocity projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Campbell, Larry; Bishel, Ron; Rushing, Rick; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2011-08-01

    High-speed X-ray imaging is an extremely important modality for healthcare, industrial, military and research applications such as medical computed tomography, non-destructive testing, imaging in-flight projectiles, characterizing exploding ordnance, and analyzing ballistic impacts. We report on the development of a modular, ultrahigh-speed, high-resolution digital X-ray imaging system with large active imaging area and microsecond time resolution, capable of acquiring at a rate of up to 150,000 frames per second. The system is based on a high-resolution, high-efficiency, and fast-decay scintillator screen optically coupled to an ultra-fast image-intensified CCD camera designed for ballistic impact studies and hypervelocity projectile imaging. A specially designed multi-anode, high-fluence X-ray source with 50 ns pulse duration provides a sequence of blur-free images of hypervelocity projectiles traveling at speeds exceeding 8 km/s (18,000 miles/h). This paper will discuss the design, performance, and high frame rate imaging capability of the system.

  8. Design consideration on the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, H.; Chida, K.; Mizobuchi, A.; Miyahara, A.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum production for the high-energy heavy-ion accelerator poses special problems concerning beam-gas molecule and beam-wall interactions. In this paper, summary of the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system and design criteria of the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system are presented. On-beam pressure of 4 x 10 -11 Torr is achieved in the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system, of which experiences through the construction and the operation are described and discussed. With emphasis on the application of newly developed technique in the fabrication of vacuum chamber and ultrahigh vacuum pump for the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system. (author)

  9. Filter and slice thickness selection in SPECT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A.; Wilson, G.A.; O'Mara, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of filter and slice thickness in SPECT image reconstruction as function of activity and linear and angular sampling were investigated in phantom and patient imaging studies. Reconstructed transverse and longitudinal spatial resolution of the system were measured using a line source in a water filled phantom. Phantom studies included measurements of the Data Spectrum phantom; clinical studies included tomographic procedures in 40 patients undergoing imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Slices of the phantom and patient images were evaluated for spatial of the phantom and patient images were evaluated for spatial resolution, noise, and image quality. Major findings include; spatial resolution and image quality improve with increasing linear sampling frequencies over the range of 4-8 mm/p in the phantom images, best spatial resolution and image quality in clinical images were observed at a linear sampling frequency of 6mm/p, Shepp and Logan filter gives the best spatial resolution for phantom studies at the lowest linear sampling frequency; smoothed Shepp and Logan filter provides best quality images without loss of resolution at higher frequencies and, spatial resolution and image quality improve with increased angular sampling frequency in the phantom at 40 c/p but appear to be independent of angular sampling frequency at 400 c/p

  10. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  11. Fast GPU-based Monte Carlo code for SPECT/CT reconstructions generates improved 177Lu images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, T; Heydorn Lagerlöf, J; Hemmingsson, J; Marin, I; Svensson, J; Båth, M; Gjertsson, P; Bernhardt, P

    2018-01-04

    Full Monte Carlo (MC)-based SPECT reconstructions have a strong potential for correcting for image degrading factors, but the reconstruction times are long. The objective of this study was to develop a highly parallel Monte Carlo code for fast, ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) reconstructions of SPECT/CT images. The MC code was written in the Compute Unified Device Architecture language for a computer with four graphics processing units (GPUs) (GeForce GTX Titan X, Nvidia, USA). This enabled simulations of parallel photon emissions from the voxels matrix (128 3 or 256 3 ). Each computed tomography (CT) number was converted to attenuation coefficients for photo absorption, coherent scattering, and incoherent scattering. For photon scattering, the deflection angle was determined by the differential scattering cross sections. An angular response function was developed and used to model the accepted angles for photon interaction with the crystal, and a detector scattering kernel was used for modeling the photon scattering in the detector. Predefined energy and spatial resolution kernels for the crystal were used. The MC code was implemented in the OSEM reconstruction of clinical and phantom 177 Lu SPECT/CT images. The Jaszczak image quality phantom was used to evaluate the performance of the MC reconstruction in comparison with attenuated corrected (AC) OSEM reconstructions and attenuated corrected OSEM reconstructions with resolution recovery corrections (RRC). The performance of the MC code was 3200 million photons/s. The required number of photons emitted per voxel to obtain a sufficiently low noise level in the simulated image was 200 for a 128 3 voxel matrix. With this number of emitted photons/voxel, the MC-based OSEM reconstruction with ten subsets was performed within 20 s/iteration. The images converged after around six iterations. Therefore, the reconstruction time was around 3 min. The activity recovery for the spheres in the Jaszczak phantom was

  12. A compact sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with high energy resolution and high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Miyamachi, T; Tomanić, T; Dehm, R; Wulfhekel, W

    2011-10-01

    We designed a scanning tunneling microscope working at sub-Kelvin temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in order to study the magnetic properties on the nanoscale. An entirely homebuilt three-stage cryostat is used to cool down the microscope head. The first stage is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the second stage with liquid (4)He. The third stage uses a closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigerator of a cooling power of 1 mW. A base temperature of 930 mK at the microscope head was achieved using expansion of (4)He, which can be reduced to ≈400 mK when using (3)He. The cryostat has a low liquid helium consumption of only 38 ml/h and standing times of up to 280 h. The fast cooling down of the samples (3 h) guarantees high sample throughput. Test experiments with a superconducting tip show a high energy resolution of 0.3 meV when performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The vertical stability of the tunnel junction is well below 1 pm (peak to peak) and the electric noise floor of tunneling current is about 6fA/√Hz. Atomic resolution with a tunneling current of 1 pA and 1 mV was achieved on Au(111). The lateral drift of the microscope at stable temperature is below 20 pm/h. A superconducting spilt-coil magnet allows to apply an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 3 T at the sample surface. The flux vortices of a Nb(110) sample were clearly resolved in a map of differential conductance at 1.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.21 T. The setup is designed for in situ preparation of tip and samples under UHV condition.

  13. SPECT/CT Fusion in the Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Tamura, Akihisa; Okazaki, Hajime; Kurose, Taichi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kuraoka, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between the diagnostic ability of fused single photon emission computed tomography/ computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images in localization of parathyroid lesions and the size of adenomas or hyperplastic glands. Five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and 4 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were imaged 15 and 120 minutes after the intravenous injection of technetium99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI). All patients underwent surgery and 5 parathyroid adenomas and 10 hyperplastic glands were detected. Pathologic findings were correlated with imaging results. The SPECT/CT fusion images were able to detect all parathyroid adenomas even with the greatest axial diameter of 0.6 cm. Planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging could not detect parathyroid adenomas with an axial diameter of 1.0 to 1.2 cm. Four out of 10 (40%) hyperplastic parathyroid glands were diagnosed, using planar and SPECT imaging and 5 out of 10 (50%) hyperplastic parathyroid glands were localized, using SPECT/CT fusion images. SPECT/CT fusion imaging is a more useful tool for localization of parathyroid lesions, particularly parathyroid adenomas, in comparison with planar and or SPECT imaging

  14. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT images with X-ray CT. Effects of registration errors between X-ray CT and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Motomura, Nobutoku

    2002-01-01

    Attenuation correction with an X-ray CT image is a new method to correct attenuation on SPECT imaging, but the effect of the registration errors between CT and SPECT images is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the registration errors on myocardial SPECT, analyzing data from a phantom and a human volunteer. Registerion (fusion) of the X-ray CT and SPECT images was done with standard packaged software in three dimensional fashion, by using linked transaxial, coronal and sagittal images. In the phantom study, and X-ray CT image was shifted 1 to 3 pixels on the x, y and z axes, and rotated 6 degrees clockwise. Attenuation correction maps generated from each misaligned X-ray CT image were used to reconstruct misaligned SPECT images of the phantom filled with 201 Tl. In a human volunteer, X-ray CT was acquired in different conditions (during inspiration vs. expiration). CT values were transferred to an attenuation constant by using straight lines; an attenuation constant of 0/cm in the air (CT value=-1,000 HU) and that of 0.150/cm in water (CT value=0 HU). For comparison, attenuation correction with transmission CT (TCT) data and an external γ-ray source ( 99m Tc) was also applied to reconstruct SPECT images. Simulated breast attenuation with a breast attachment, and inferior wall attenuation were properly corrected by means of the attenuation correction map generated from X-ray CT. As pixel shift increased, deviation of the SPECT images increased in misaligned images in the phantom study. In the human study, SPECT images were affected by the scan conditions of the X-ray CT. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT with an X-ray CT image is a simple and potentially beneficial method for clinical use, but accurate registration of the X-ray CT to SPECT image is essential for satisfactory attenuation correction. (author)

  15. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  16. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  17. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  18. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  19. Triple Detector SPECT Imaging with 99mTc-DMSA in Adult Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Bea, Woon Gyu; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Myung Hae; Kim, Soon Bae; Park, Su Kil; Park, Jung Sik; Hong, Chang Gi; Cho, Kyung Sik

    1992-01-01

    Although early diagnosis of urinary tract infection is important, the radiologic evaluation is still controversial because of the low sensitivity and the lack of cost-effectiveness. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical utility of high resolution triple head 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging in urinary tract infection. We prospectively performed 99m Tc-DMSA planar and SPECT imaging, ultrasound of kidney (US), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and voiding cystourethrography (VCU) in all 60 adult patients with UTI [26 with first episode of acute pyelonephritis (APN), 22 with recurrent APN, and 12 persistent asymptomatic pyuria] and 25 normal persons. To assess reversibility of the renal cortical defect (RCD), 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT was repeated 1 to 8 months later in those patients with abnormal initial findings. Overall detection rate of 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging was 83% (50/60), but planar, US, IVP and VCU showed abnormal findings in 68%, 28%, 32% and 13%, respectively. 25 out of 27 patients with normal or single RCD were all normal in other radiological studies. Only two patients showed vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on VCU (grade I) and mild hydronephrosis on IVP. But, high proportion of those with multiple RCD showed abnormal findings on US (17/33), IVP (18/33), and VCU (7/33): 67% in any of these 3 studies. Especially, 3 out 7 patients with VUR showed multiple RCD on 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT without any abnormality on IVP or US. 25 normal persons showed normal findings in all studies except one false positive finding on 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging. Follow-up 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT was done in 28 patients (13 with single RCD, 15 with multiple RCD). All 13 patients with single RCD showed improvement. Those with multiple RCD presented improvement in 4, no change in 10, and aggravation in 1 on follow-up studies. With these results, we conclude: 1) 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging is superior to planar imaging, US, IVP or VCU in detection of renal lesion in urinary tract infection. 99m Tc

  20. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.

    2006-01-01

    The application of hybrid SPECT cameras in Nuclear Medicine follows the revolutionary introduction of PET/CT. This review focuses on the advantages and limitations of SPECT/CT in its various clinical indications. It appears that SPECT/CT will be a clear factor of progress for Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  1. Precision Near-Field Reconstruction in the Time Domain via Minimum Entropy for Ultra-High Resolution Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high resolution (UHR radar imaging is used to analyze the internal structure of objects and to identify and classify their shapes based on ultra-wideband (UWB signals using a vector network analyzer (VNA. However, radar-based imaging is limited by microwave propagation effects, wave scattering, and transmit power, thus the received signals are inevitably weak and noisy. To overcome this problem, the radar may be operated in the near-field. The focusing of UHR radar signals over a close distance requires precise geometry in order to accommodate the spherical waves. In this paper, a geometric estimation and compensation method that is based on the minimum entropy of radar images with sub-centimeter resolution is proposed and implemented. Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging is used because it is applicable to several fields, including medical- and security-related applications, and high quality images of various targets have been produced to verify the proposed method. For ISAR in the near-field, the compensation for the time delay depends on the distance from the center of rotation and the internal RF circuits and cables. Required parameters for the delay compensation algorithm that can be used to minimize the entropy of the radar images are determined so that acceptable results can be achieved. The processing speed can be enhanced by performing the calculations in the time domain without the phase values, which are removed after upsampling. For comparison, the parameters are also estimated by performing random sampling in the data set. Although the reduced data set contained only 5% of the observed angles, the parameter optimization method is shown to operate correctly.

  2. Skeletal scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in orthopedic imaging; Knochenszintigrafie und SPECT/CT bei orthopaedischen Fragestellungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeser, B.; Walter, M.; Krause, T. [Inselspital Bern (Switzerland). Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-03-15

    Multi-modality imaging with SPECT-CT in orthopaedics combines the excellent sensitivity of scintigraphy with the morphological information of CT as a key for specific interpretation of findings in bone scans. The result is an imaging modality with the clear potential to prove of value even in a competitive setting dominated by MRI, and to significantly add to diagnostic imaging in orthopaedics. SPECT-CT is of great value in the diagnostic evaluation after fractures, and - in contrast to MRI - it is well suited for imaging in patients with osteosyntheses and metallic implants. In sports medicine, SPECT-CT allows for a sensitive and specific detection of osseous stress reactions before morphological changes become detectable by CT or MRI. In patients with osseous pain syndromes, actively evolving degenerative changes as a cause of pain can be identified and accurately localized. Further, particularly prospective diagnostic studies providing comparative data are needed to strengthen the position of nuclear imaging in orthopaedics and sports medicine and to help implementing SPECT/CT in diagnostic algorithms. (orig.)

  3. Determination of both mechanical and electronic shifts in cone beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianying Li; Jaszczak, R.J.; Huili Wang; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The difference between the displacement of the centre of rotation (mechanical shift, MS) and the electronic centring misalignment (electronic shift, ES) in cone beam SPECT is evaluated. A method is proposed to determine both MS and ES using the centroid of a projected point source sampled over 360 o C and the Marquardt non-linear fitting algorithm. Both shifts are characterized by two orthogonal components. This method is verified using Monte Carlo simulated point source data with different combinations of mechanical and electronic shifts. Both shifts can be determined correctly. The proposed method was also applied to the authors' cone beam SPECT system to determine both shifts as well as the focal length. The determined ES parameters are then used to correct the projections and the MS parameters are incorporated into a reconstruction algorithm. The point source image are reconstructed and the image resolutions with and without the shift corrections are measured. (Author)

  4. Comparison of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the separation of spirostanol saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Yong-Wei; Sun, Qing-Long; Sun, Xin-Guang; Kang, Li-Ping; Yan, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2016-02-20

    Spirostanol saponins are important active components of some herb medicines, and their isolation and purification are crucial for the research and development of traditional Chinese medicines. We aimed to compare the separation of spirostanol saponins by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Four groups of spirostanol saponins were separated respectively by UHPSFC and UHPLC. After optimization, UHPSFC was performed with a HSS C18 SB column or a Diol column and with methanol as the co-solvent. A BEH C18 column and mobile phase containing water (with 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile were used in UHPLC. We found that UHPSFC could be performed automatically and quickly. It is effective in separating the spirostanol saponins which share the same aglycone and vary in sugar chains, and is very sensitive to the number and the position of hydroxyl groups in aglycones. However, the resolution of spirostanol saponins with different aglycones and the same sugar moiety by UHPSFC was not ideal and could be resolved by UHPLC instead. UHPLC is good at differentiating the variation in aglycones, and is influenced by double bonds in aglycones. Therefore, UHPLC and UHPSFC are complementary in separating spirostanol saponins. Considering the naturally produced spirostanol saponins in herb medicines are different both in aglycones and in sugar chains, a better separation can be achieved by combination of UHPLC and UHPSFC. UHPSFC is a powerful technique for improving the resolution when UHPLC cannot resolve a mixture of spirostanol saponins and vice versa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C; Nguyen, Khoa; Player, Christopher M; Player, Allison; Wright, Michelle; Roy, Nicole; Frosch, Matthew P; McKee, Ann C; Wald, Lawrence L; Fischl, Bruce; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-07-15

    Automated analysis of MRI data of the subregions of the hippocampus requires computational atlases built at a higher resolution than those that are typically used in current neuroimaging studies. Here we describe the construction of a statistical atlas of the hippocampal formation at the subregion level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13 mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise delineations were made possible by the extraordinary resolution of the scans. In addition to the subregions, manual annotations for neighboring structures (e.g., amygdala, cortex) were obtained from a separate dataset of in vivo, T1-weighted MRI scans of the whole brain (1mm resolution). The manual labels from the in vivo and ex vivo data were combined into a single computational atlas of the hippocampal formation with a novel atlas building algorithm based on Bayesian inference. The resulting atlas can be used to automatically segment the hippocampal subregions in structural MRI images, using an algorithm that can analyze multimodal data and adapt to variations in MRI contrast due to differences in acquisition hardware or pulse sequences. The applicability of the atlas, which we are releasing as part of FreeSurfer (version 6.0), is demonstrated with experiments on three different publicly available datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer's disease subjects and elderly controls with 88% accuracy in standard resolution (1mm) T1 data, significantly outperforming the atlas in FreeSurfer version 5.3 (86% accuracy) and

  6. Apparent CBF decrease with normal aging due to partial volume effects: MR-based partial volume correction on CBF SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    Several studies using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have shown changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age, which were associated with partial volume effects by some authors. Some studies have also demonstrated gender-related differences in CBF. The present study aimed to examine age and gender effects on CBF SPECT images obtained using the 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer and a SPECT scanner, before and after partial volume correction (PVC) using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-four healthy subjects (29 males and 15 females; age range, 27-64 y; mean age, 50.0 +/- 9.8 y) participated. Each MR image was segmented to yield grey and white matter images and coregistered to a corresponding SPECT image, followed by convolution to approximate the SPECT spatial resolution. PVC-SPECT images were produced using the convoluted grey matter MR (GM-MR) and white matter MR images. The age and gender effects were assessed using SPM99. Decreases with age were detected in the anterolateral prefrontal cortex and in areas along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, bilaterally, in the GM-MR images and the SPECT images. In the PVC-SPECT images, decreases in CBF in the lateral prefrontal cortex lost their statistical significance. Decreases in CBF with age found along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, remained statistically significant, but observation of the spatially normalized MR images suggests that these findings are associated with the dilatation of the lateral sulcus and lateral ventricle, which was not completely compensated for by the spatial normalization procedure. Our present study demonstrated that age effects on CBF in healthy subjects could reflect morphological differences with age in grey matter.

  7. Structural Characterization of Laboratory Made Tholins by IRMPD Action Spectroscopy and Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, R.; Somogyi, A.; Vuitton, V.; Bégué, D.; Lemaire, J.; Steinmetz, V.

    2011-10-01

    The complex organic material that is found on the surface and within the haze layer of Titan is attributed to chemistry occurring in its thick N2/CH4 atmosphere. Although several groups are producing in various laboratory setting the socalled tholins which have been investigated by using analytical methods including UV/Vis, fluorescence, IR, and MS1-5, these very complex organic mixtures still hold many unanswered questions, especially related to the potentiality for their prebiotic chemistry. In addition to tholins characterization and analysis, we recently investigated quantitatively the hydrolysis kinetics of tholins in pure and NH3 containing water at different temperatures.7-8 Our groups at UJF (Grenoble) and at U of Arizona (Tucson) have been collaborating on mass spectral analyses of tholins samples for several years.9 Here, we report our most recent results on the structural characterization of tholins by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy10 and ultrahigh resolution MS. IRMPD action spectroscopy is a recently developed technique that uses IR photons of variable wavelengths to activate ions trapped inside an ion trap. When photons are absorbed at a given wavelength, the selected ion fragments and this fragmentation is monitored as a function of wavelength, analog to an absorption spectrum (impossible to record otherwise because of the much reduced density). This technique can, therefore, be used to determine IR spectra of ions in the gas phase, and provides with very acute structural information. IRMPD action spectroscopy is often used to distinguish between structural isomers of isobaric ions. The drawback is that it requests for high power lasers. Only two Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are available in the world and allow to record spectra with reasonable resolution (20-25 cm-1). IRMPD action spectra of selected ions from tholins will be presented and discussed together with observed fragmentation processes that reveal structural

  8. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsen, Niels M.; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas; Podoleanu, Adrian; Bang, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints that are light, robust and of lower cost. The robustness of the structure printed is only maintained if each layer printed is properly fused to its previously printed layers. In situations where the printed component has to accomplish a key mechanical role there is a need to characterize its mechanical strength. This may only be revealed by in-depth testing in order to discover unwanted air-gaps in the structure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an in-depth imaging method, that is sensitive to variations in the refractive index and therefore can resolve with high resolution translucid samples. We report on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints.

  9. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging using thallium-201 with a novel multifocal collimator SPECT/CT: IQ-SPECT versus conventional protocols in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Wakabayash, Hiroshi; Okuda, Koichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-06-01

    A novel multifocal collimator, IQ-SPECT (Siemens) consists of SMARTZOOM, cardio-centric and 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction and makes it possible to perform MPI scans in a short time. The aims are to delineate the normal uptake in thallium-201 ((201)Tl) SPECT in each acquisition method and to compare the distribution between new and conventional protocol, especially in patients with normal imaging. Forty patients (eight women, mean age of 75 years) who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging were included in the study. All patients underwent one-day protocol perfusion scan after an adenosine-stress test and at rest after administering (201)Tl and showed normal results. Acquisition was performed on a Symbia T6 equipped with a conventional dual-headed gamma camera system (Siemens ECAM) and with a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator. Imaging was performed with a conventional system followed by IQ-SPECT/computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction was performed with or without X-ray CT-derived attenuation correction (AC). Two nuclear physicians blinded to clinical information interpreted all myocardial perfusion images. A semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion was analyzed by a 17-segment model with a 5-point visual scoring. The uptake of each segment was measured and left ventricular functions were analyzed by QPS software. IQ-SPECT provided good or excellent image quality. The quality of IQ-SPECT images without AC was similar to those of conventional LEHR study. Mid-inferior defect score (0.3 ± 0.5) in the conventional LEHR study was increased significantly in IQ-SPECT with AC (0 ± 0). IQ-SPECT with AC improved the mid-inferior decreased perfusion shown in conventional images. The apical tracer count in IQ-SPECT with AC was decreased compared to that in LEHR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7, p IQ-SPECT was significantly higher than that from the LEHR collimator (p = 0.0009). The images of IQ-SPECT acquired in a short time are equivalent to that of conventional LEHR

  10. Rapid gated Thallium-201 perfusion SPECT - clinically feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.; Wilkinson, D.; Abatti, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Standard dose energy window optimised Thallium-201 (Tl-201) SPECT has about half the counts of a standard dose from Technetium-99m Sestamibi (Tc99m-Mibi) gated perfusion SPECT. This study investigates the clinical feasibility of rapid energy window optimised Tl-201 gated perfusion SPECT (gated-TI) and compares quantitative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and visually assessed image quality for wall motion and thickening to analogous values obtained from Tc99m-Mibi gated perfusion SPECT (gated - mibi). Methods: We studied 60 patients with a rest gated Tl-201 SPECT (100 MBq, 77KeV peak, 34% window, 20 sec/projection) followed by a post stress gated Sestamibi SPECT (1GBq, 140KeV, 20% window, 20 sec/projection) separate dual isotope protocol. LVEF quantitation was performed using commercially available software (SPECTEF, General Electric). Visual grading of image quality for wall thickening and motion was performed using a three-point scale (excellent, good and poor). Results: LVEF for gated Tl-201 SPECT was 59.6 ± 12.0% (Mean ± SD). LVEF for gated Sestamibi SPECT was 60.4 ±11.4% (Mean ± SD). These were not significantly different (P=0.27, T-Test). There was good correlation (r=0.9) between gated-TI and gated-mibi LVEF values. The quality of gated-Tl images was ranked as excellent, good and poor in 12, 50 and 38% of the patients respectively. Image quality was better in gated-mibi SPECT, with ratings of 12, 62 and 26% respectively. Conclusion: Rapid gated Thallium-201 acquisition with energy window optimisation can be effectively performed on majority of patients and offers the opportunity to assess not only myocardial perfusion and function, as with Technetium based agents, but also viability using a single day one isotope protocol

  11. Role of SPECT imaging in symptomatic posterior element lumbar stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of stress injuries of spine is very difficult with conventional radiography. Methods : In a observational study, 132 subjects were recruited (between 8 and 38 years of age, who had lumbar spondylolysis or posterior element stress injuries. All these patients underwent clinical examination followed by plain X-rays, planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT (single photon emission computerised tomography. SPECT scans can identify the posterior element lumbar stress injuries earlier than other imaging modalities. As the lesions evolve and the completed spondylolysis becomes chronic, the SPECT scans tend to revert to normal even though healing of the defect has not occurred. The aim of the study was to determine the time lag after which SPECT imaging tends to be negative. We divided the patients into two groups, one SPECT positive group and the other SPECT negative group. Pre treatment background variables such as age, gender, back pain in extension or flexion, sporting activities, time of onset of symptoms, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were used in a univariate logistic regression model to find the strong predictors of positive SPECT imaging results. Determinants of positivity versus negativity of SPECT were identified by discriminant analysis using multivariate logistic regression. Results : Seventy nine patients had positive SPECT scans whereas 53 patients had negative SPECT scans. Bilateral increased uptake was more common than unilateral uptake. Increased uptake at the L5 lumbar spine was more common (70% in SPECT positive group. Low back pain in extension was significantly more common in SPECT positive subjects. Active sporting individuals had higher probability of having a positive SPECT scan. The mean time lag from the onset of low back pain to SPECT imaging was 7 months in SPECT positive group and 25 months in the SPECT negative group. Multivariate analysis predicted that there is a significant difference in positivity of

  12. Clinical utility of ultrasound and 99mTc sestamibi SPECT/CT for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, C.N.; Salahudeen, H.M.; Lansdown, M.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound and parathyroid scintigraphy using single photon-emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for the preoperative localization of solitary parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who would be suitable for minimally invasive parathyroid surgery. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of 63 consecutive patients with biochemical evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism referred for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma that proceeded to surgery in the same institution. All patients underwent high-resolution ultrasound and Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy with planar and SPECT/CT imaging. The accuracy of preoperative imaging was compared to surgical and histological findings as the reference standard. Results: Fifty-nine patients had solitary parathyroid adenomas, three patients had multiglandular hyperplasia, and one patient had multiple parathyroid adenomas confirmed at surgery and histology. Thirty-five solitary parathyroid adenomas were identified preoperatively with ultrasound (64%) and 53 with SPECT-CT (90%). Concordant ultrasound and SPECT/CT findings were found in 35 cases (59%). An additional three adenomas were found with ultrasound alone and 18 adenomas with SPECT/CT alone. Fifty-one of the 56 adenomas localized using combined ultrasound and SPECT/CT were found at the expected sites during surgery. Combined ultrasound and SPECT/CT has an overall sensitivity of 95% and accuracy of 91% for the preoperative localization of solitary parathyroid adenomas. Conclusions: The combination of ultrasound and SPECT/CT has incremental value in accurately localizing solitary parathyroid adenomas over either technique alone, and allows selection of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who would be suitable for minimally invasive surgery.

  13. Performance of a YSO/LSO detector block for use in a PET/SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlbom, M.; MacDonald, L.R.; Eriksson, L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in using conventional SPECT scintillation cameras for PET imaging, however, the count rate performance is a limiting factor. The modular block detectors used in modem PET systems do not have this limitation. In this work, the performance of a detector block design which would have high resolution and high count rate capabilities in both detection modes is studied. The high light output of LSO (∼5-6 times BGO) would allow the construction of a detector block that would have similar intrinsic resolution characteristics at 140 keV as a conventional high resolution BGO block detector at 511 keV (∼4 mm FWHM). However, the intrinsic radioactivity of LSO prevents the use of this scintillator in single photon counting mode. YSO is a scintillator with higher light output than LSO but worse absorption characteristics than LSO. YSO and LSO could be combined in a phoswich detector block, where YSO is placed in a front layer and is used for low energy (SPECT) imaging and LSO in a second layer is used for PET imaging. Events in the two detector materials can be separated by pulse shape discrimination, since the decay times of the light in YSO and LSO are different (70 and 40 ns, respectively). Although the intrinsic resolution of the block detector with discrete elements is worse than for a NaI camera, this would not be a limiting factor. Simulations of a 20 cm diameter hot spot phantom imaged at different collimator distances using a high resolution collimator and scintillation camera system was compared to a block detector camera. No appreciable difference in resolution was seen in the reconstructed images between the two camera systems, including the ideal situation of zero distance between collimator and phantom

  14. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry study of tricyclazole photodegradation products in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Bolfi, Bianca; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the study of the photodegradation reactions that tricyclazole can naturally undergo, under the action of sunlight, in aqueous solutions of standard tricyclazole and of the commercial BEAM(TM) formulation. The analyses are carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography technique coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of both tricyclazole and BEAM(TM) water solutions undergone to hydrolysis does not evidence new chromatographic peaks with respect to the not treated solutions. On the contrary, analysis of the same samples subjected to sunlight irradiation shows a decreased intensity of tricyclazole signal and the presence of new chromatographic peaks. Two photodegradation products of tricyclazole have been identified, one of which has been also quantified, being the commercial standard available. The pattern is similar for the solutions of the standard fungicide and of the BEAM(TM) formulation. The results obtained from eco-toxicological tests show that toxicity of tricyclazole standard solutions is greater than that of the irradiated ones, whereas toxicity levels of all the BEAM(TM) solutions investigated (non-irradiated, irradiated, and hydrolyzed) are comparable and lower than those shown by tricyclazole standard solutions. Experiments performed in paddy water solution show that there is no difference in the degradation products formed.

  15. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity of the scanner rSPECT: using GAMOS: a Geant4-based framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Arteche, Jossue; Leyva Pernia, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The molecular imaging of cellular processes in vivo using preclinical animal studies and SPECT technique is one of the main reasons for the design of new devices with high spatial resolution. As an auxiliary tool, Monte Carlo simulation has allowed the characterization and optimization of those medical imaging systems effectively. At present there is a new simulation framework called GAMOS (GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations); which code, libraries and particle transport method correspond to those developed by GEANT4 and contains specific applications for nuclear medicine. This tool has been already validated for PET technique by comparison with experimental data, while not yet been done the correct evaluation of GAMOS for SPECT systems. Present work have demonstrated the potential of GAMOS in obtaining simulated realistic data using this nuclear imaging technique. For this purpose, simulation of a novel installation 'rSPECT' ,dedicated to the study of rodents, has been done. The study comprises the collimation and detection geometries and the fundamental characteristics of the previous published experimental measurements for rSPECT installation. Studies have been done using 99mTc and 20% energy window. Sensitivity values obtained by simulation revealed an acceptable agreement with experimental values. Therefore we can conclude that simulation results have shown good agreement with the real data. This fact allowed to estimate the behavior of the new GEANT4 simulation platform 'GAMOS' in SPECT applications and have demonstrated the feasibility of reproducing experimental data. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of SPECT coupled to tomodensitometry (SPECT-CT) in the daily practice of bone scintigraphy at the Nuclear Medical station of Nancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netter, F.; Journo, A.; Mayer, J.C.; Grandpierre, S.; Daragon, N.; Karcher, G.; Olivier, P.; Scigliano, S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SPECT coupled to computed axial tomography (SPECT- CT) in our daily practice of bone scintigraphy. Subjects and methods: SPECT- CT obtained as a complement to the planar bone scintigraphy in 39 patients were studied. Each type of image was retrospectively read by two different observers: a nuclear medicine physician who was unaware of SPECT- CT results analysed planar bone scintigraphy, a second one who was unaware of planar bone scintigraphy results analysed SPECT- CT images. In this population of patients, 17 patients were addressed in an oncologic setting. The 22 other patients were addressed for pain of indeterminate origin without neoplastic context. Results: In 13% of the cases, SPECT- CT specified the precise location of increased uptake foci seen on planar bone scintigraphy. In 38% of cases, SPECT- CT confirmed a diagnosis suspected by the planar bone scintigraphy. In 10% of cases, SPECT- CT established a diagnosis that was uncertain with planar bone scintigraphy. In 26% of cases, SPECT- CT brought no additional information. Finally in 3% of cases, SPECT- CT proved to be more sensitive than planar images. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the utility of SPECT- CT in the daily practice of bone scintigraphy, this complementary imaging study benefited to 74% of our patients. (authors)

  17. Serial cerebral hemodynamic change after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery: evaluated by acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT(acz-SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Jae Seung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Im, Ki Chun; Kim, Euy Nyong; Mun, Dae Hyeog [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated serial cerebral hemodynamic changes after EC-IC bypass surgery in symptomatic pts with atherosclerotic occlusion of internal carotid (lCA) or mid-cerebral artery (MCA) using Acz-SPECT. 25 symptomatic pts (M/F 19/6, 53{+-}10 y) with ICA and MCA occlusion (16 uni - and 9 bilateral) prospectively underwent Acz-SPECT using Tc-99m ECD before and 1 week after EC-IC bypass surgery. Of these, 16 underwent additional f/u Acz-SPECT 5 mo later. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve of MCA territory were evaluated visually and SPECT findings were classified into 4 groups: N/N; R/N; N/R; and R/R (perfusion/perfusion reserve: N = normal, R = reduced). For semiquantitative analysis, all SPECT images were normalized to MNI template and mean counts of MCA territory and cerebellum were obtained by AAL. Cerebral perfusion index (PI =C{sub region}/C{sub cere}) and perfusion reserve index (RI = (PI{sub Acz} - PI{sub basal}) /Pl{sub basal}) were calculated. Preop SPECT findings of ipsilateral MCA in 25 pts were R/N (4%), N/R (12%), and R/R (84% ). Early postop SPECT showed improvement of perfusion (26%) and/or reserve (68%) in ipsilateral MCA. Of 16 pts with 5mo f/u SPECT, 6 (38%) showed further improvement of perfusion or reserve. However, 4 (25%) showed aggravation of perfusion and one of these underwent revision surgery. Preop PI (1.1{+-}0.1) and RI (0.11{+-}0.07) of ipsilateral MCA were significantly lower than those of contralateral hemispheres (p<0.05). After surgery, PIs of bilateral MCA did not change at early postop period but improved in ipsilateral MCA at 5mo. Rls of ipsilateral MCA increased significantly (68%) at early postop period (P<0.001) and then did not changed. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve changed with different manner during 5 mo after bypass surgery and perfusion reserve changed more dramatically than perfusion. Acz-SPECT is a feasible method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamic change after EC-IC bypass surgery.

  18. SPECT in patients with cortical visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, I E; Galetta, S L; Gray, L G; Moster, M; Atlas, S W; Maurer, A H; Alavi, A

    1993-09-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was used to investigate changes in cerebral blood flow in seven patients with cortical visual impairment. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the cause of cortical damage in two patients, cerebral ischemia in two patients and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, status epilepticus and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) each in three separate patients. The SPECT scans of the seven patients were compared to T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans of the brain to determine the correlation between functional and anatomical findings. In six of the seven patients, the qualitative interpretation of the SPECT studies supported the clinical findings (i.e., the visual field defect) by revealing altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the appropriate regions of the visual pathway. MR scans in all of the patients, on the other hand, were either normal or disclosed smaller lesions than those detected by SPECT. We conclude that SPECT may reveal altered rCBF in patients with cortical visual impairment of various etiologies, even when MRI studies are normal or nondiagnostic.

  19. Noninvasive evaluation of ischemic stroke with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, C.R.; Malik, M.M.; Gomez, S.M.; Wingkun, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Technetium Tc 99m DTPA single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scans of 20 patients with acute ischemic stroke were reviewed retrospectively and compared with clinical and radiologic (CT) data. Fourteen of the patients had abnormal SPECT studies. The abnormal findings were demonstrated by static views in eight patients, by the flow study in one patient, and by both sets of images in the other five patients. All abnormalities correlated with the clinical syndrome of presentation, and only two of the patients had no corresponding lesions on CT. Of the six patients with normal SPECT scans, two had abnormal CT studies, and in the other four, no lesions were shown at all. The ability of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA SPECT to display cerebral infarctions appears to be, at best, comparable to that of CT. SPECT also provides qualitative information regarding flow dynamics in the affected hemisphere of some patients (6/20 in our review). This, we believe, represents the objective demonstration of the preexisting insufficient collateral flow in the hemisphere at risk for ischemic stroke

  20. Improved image quality in pinhole SPECT by accurate modeling of the point spread function in low magnification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Francisco; Roé, Nuria; Aguiar, Pablo; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec; Pavía, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery

  1. Improved image quality in pinhole SPECT by accurate modeling of the point spread function in low magnification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain and Servei de Física Mèdica i Protecció Radiològica, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08907 (Spain); Roé, Nuria [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain and Grupo de Imagen Molecular, Instituto de Investigacións Sanitarias de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Galicia 15782 (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 08036, Spain and CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 080836 (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); and Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery

  2. Quantitative assessment of 201TlCl myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa

    1987-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial tomography by SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was performed in comparison with visual evaluation. The method of quantitative analysis has been already reported in our previous paper. In this study, the program of re-standardization in the case of lateral myocardial infarction was added. This program was useful mainly for the evaluation of lesions in the left circumflex coronary artery. Regarding the degree of diagnostic accuracy of myocardial infarction in general, quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images was highest followed by visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images, and visual evaluation of myocardial planar images. However, in the case of anterior myocardial infarction, visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images has almost the same detectability as quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images. In the case of infero-posterior myocardial infarction, quantitative evaluation was superior to visual evaluation. As for specificity, quantitative evaluation of SPECT images was slightly inferior to visual evaluation of SPECT images. An infarction map was made by quantitative analysis and this enabled us to determine the infarction site, extent and degree according to easily recognizable patterns. As a result, the responsible coronary artery lesion could be inferred correctly and the calculated infarction score could be correlated with the residual left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. (author)

  3. Single photon imaging at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: Gloria.Spandre@pi.infn.it; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Baldini, L.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Sgro, C.; Bregeon, J.; Razzano, M.; Pinchera, M. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-06-11

    We present a detection system capable of imaging both single photon/positive ion and multiple coincidence photons/positive ions with extremely high spatial resolution. In this detector the photoelectrons excited by the incoming photons are multiplied by microchannel plate(s) (MCP). The process of multiplication is spatially constrained within an MCP pore, which can be as small as 4 {mu}m for commercially available MCPs. An electron cloud originated by a single photoelectron is then encoded by a pixellated custom analog ASIC consisting of 105 K charge sensitive pixels of 50 {mu}m in size arranged on a hexagonal grid. Each pixel registers the charge with an accuracy of <100 electrons rms. Computation of the event centroid from the readout charges results in an accurate event position. A large number of simultaneous photons spatially separated by {approx}0.4 mm can be detected simultaneously allowing multiple coincidence operation for the experiments where a large number of incoming photons/positive ions have to be detected simultaneously. The experimental results prove that the spatial resolution of the readout system itself is {approx}3 {mu}m FWHM enabling detection resolution better than 6 {mu}m for the small pore MCPs. An attractive feature of the detection system is its capability to register the timing of each incoming photon/positive ion (in single photon detection mode) or of the first incoming particle (for the multiple coincidence detection) with an accuracy of {approx}130 ps FWHM. There is also virtually no dark count noise in the detection system making it suitable for low count rate applications.

  4. Investigation of bio-oil produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of food waste using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Vlaskin, Mikhail; Borisova, Ludmila; Zherebker, Alexander; Perminova, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has revealed that more than 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally every year. The disposal of such huge biomass has become a challenge. In the present paper, we report the production of the bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction of three classes of food waste: meat, cheese and fruits. The highest yield of the bio-oil was observed for meat (∼60%) and cheese (∼75%), while for fruits, it was considerably low (∼10%). The molecular composition of the obtained bio-oil was investigated using ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and was found to be similar to that obtained from algae. Several thousand heteroatom compounds (N, N 2 , ON 2 , etc. classes) were reliably identified from each sample. It was found that bio-oils produced from meat and cheese have many compounds (∼90%) with common molecular formulas, while bio-oil produced from fruits differs considerably (∼30% of compounds are unique).

  5. A priori motion models for four-dimensional reconstruction in gated cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalush, D.S.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Cui, Lin

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the benefit of incorporating a priori assumptions about cardiac motion in a fully four-dimensional (4D) reconstruction algorithm for gated cardiac SPECT. Previous work has shown that non-motion-specific 4D Gibbs priors enforcing smoothing in time and space can control noise while preserving resolution. In this paper, we evaluate methods for incorporating known heart motion in the Gibbs prior model. The new model is derived by assigning motion vectors to each 4D voxel, defining the movement of that volume of activity into the neighboring time frames. Weights for the Gibbs cliques are computed based on these open-quotes most likelyclose quotes motion vectors. To evaluate, we employ the mathematical cardiac-torso (MCAT) phantom with a new dynamic heart model that simulates the beating and twisting motion of the heart. Sixteen realistically-simulated gated datasets were generated, with noise simulated to emulate a real Tl-201 gated SPECT study. Reconstructions were performed using several different reconstruction algorithms, all modeling nonuniform attenuation and three-dimensional detector response. These include ML-EM with 4D filtering, 4D MAP-EM without prior motion assumption, and 4D MAP-EM with prior motion assumptions. The prior motion assumptions included both the correct motion model and incorrect models. Results show that reconstructions using the 4D prior model can smooth noise and preserve time-domain resolution more effectively than 4D linear filters. We conclude that modeling of motion in 4D reconstruction algorithms can be a powerful tool for smoothing noise and preserving temporal resolution in gated cardiac studies

  6. Ictal cerebral perfusion patterns in partial epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sang Eun; Seo, Dae Won; Jeong, Seung Cheol; Yi, Ji Young; Hong, Seung Chyul

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the various ictal perfusion patterns and find the relationships between clinical factors and different perfusion patterns. Interictal and ictal SPECT and SPECT subtraction were performed in 61 patients with partial epilepsy. Both positive images showing ictal hyperperfusion and negative images revealing ictal hypoperfusion were obtained by SPECT subtraction. The ictal perfusion patterns of subtracted SPECT were classified into focal hyperperfusion, hyperperfusion-plus, combined hyperperfusion-hypoperfusion, and focal hypoperfusion only. The concordance rates with epileptic focus were 91.8% in combined analysis of ictal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion images of subtracted SPECT, 85.2% in hyperperfusion images only of subtracted SPECT, and 68.9% in conventional ictal SPECT analysis. Ictal hypoperfusion occurred less frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal hyperperfusion alone was seen only in mesial TLE while lateral temporal hyperperfusion alone was observed only in neocortical TLE. Hippocampal sclerosis had much lower incidence of ictal hypoperfusion than any other pathology. Some patients showed ictal hypoperfusion at epileptic focus with ictal hyperperfusion in the neighboring brain regions where ictal discharges propagated. Hypoperfusion as well as hyperperfusion in ictal SPECT should be considered for localizing epileptic focus. Although the mechanism of ictal hypoperfusion could be an intra-ictal early exhaustion of seizure focus or a steal phenomenon by the propagation of ictal discharges to adjacent brain areas, further study is needed to elucidate it.=20

  7. Ictal cerebral perfusion patterns in partial epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sang Eun; Seo, Dae Won; Jeong, Seung Cheol; Yi, Ji Young; Hong, Seung Chyul [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the various ictal perfusion patterns and find the relationships between clinical factors and different perfusion patterns. Interictal and ictal SPECT and SPECT subtraction were performed in 61 patients with partial epilepsy. Both positive images showing ictal hyperperfusion and negative images revealing ictal hypoperfusion were obtained by SPECT subtraction. The ictal perfusion patterns of subtracted SPECT were classified into focal hyperperfusion, hyperperfusion-plus, combined hyperperfusion-hypoperfusion, and focal hypoperfusion only. The concordance rates with epileptic focus were 91.8% in combined analysis of ictal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion images of subtracted SPECT, 85.2% in hyperperfusion images only of subtracted SPECT, and 68.9% in conventional ictal SPECT analysis. Ictal hypoperfusion occurred less frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal hyperperfusion alone was seen only in mesial TLE while lateral temporal hyperperfusion alone was observed only in neocortical TLE. Hippocampal sclerosis had much lower incidence of ictal hypoperfusion than any other pathology. Some patients showed ictal hypoperfusion at epileptic focus with ictal hyperperfusion in the neighboring brain regions where ictal discharges propagated. Hypoperfusion as well as hyperperfusion in ictal SPECT should be considered for localizing epileptic focus. Although the mechanism of ictal hypoperfusion could be an intra-ictal early exhaustion of seizure focus or a steal phenomenon by the propagation of ictal discharges to adjacent brain areas, further study is needed to elucidate it.

  8. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect’s fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were

  9. Ultra-high temperature direct propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araj, K.J.; Slovik, G.; Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.

    1987-01-01

    Potential advantages of ultra-high exhaust temperature (3000 K - 4000 K) direct propulsion nuclear rockets are explored. Modifications to the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to achieve these temperatures are described. Benefits of ultra-high temperature propulsion are discussed for two missions - orbit transfer (ΔV = 5546 m/s) and interplanetary exploration (ΔV = 20000 m/s). For such missions ultra-high temperatures appear to be worth the additional complexity. Thrust levels are reduced substantially for a given power level, due to the higher enthalpy caused by partial disassociation of the hydrogen propellant. Though technically challenging, it appears potentially feasible to achieve such ultra high temperatures using the PBR

  10. Spectrally Resolved and Functional Super-resolution Microscopy via Ultrahigh-Throughput Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Moon, Seonah; Kenny, Samuel J; Xu, Ke

    2018-03-20

    As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples. In this Account, we summarize the rationale, design, and results of our recent efforts toward the integration of the spectral dimension of single-molecule fluorescence with SMLM to achieve spectrally resolved SMLM (SR-SMLM) and functional SRM ( f-SRM). By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing single-molecule fluorescence on-off switching typical of SMLM, we first showed that in densely labeled (bio)samples it is possible to record the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules synchronously within minutes, giving rise to ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and SR-SMLM. This allowed us to first show statistically that for many dyes, single molecules of the same species exhibit near identical emission in fixed cells. This narrow distribution of emission wavelengths, which contrasts markedly with previous results at solid surfaces, allowed us to unambiguously identify single molecules of spectrally similar dyes. Crosstalk-free, multiplexed SRM was thus achieved for four dyes that were merely 10 nm apart in emission spectrum, with the three-dimensional SRM images of all four dyes being automatically aligned within one image channel. The ability to incorporate single-molecule fluorescence measurement with

  11. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual's T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  12. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual`s T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  13. Atomic-resolution measurements with a new tunable diode laser-based interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, R.M.; Zou, H.; Gonda, S.

    2004-01-01

    is lightweight and is mounted directly on an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope capable of atomic resolution. We report the simultaneous acquisition of an atomic resolution image, while the relative lateral displacement of the tip along the sample distance is measured with the new tunable diode...

  14. 123I-amphetamine-SPECT in the diagnosis of neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Kreiten, K.; Hartmann, A.; Friedrich, G.; Linck, H.A.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Rheinische Landesklinik, Bonn

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to conventional brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT with 123 I-IMP enables visualization of the brain tissue itself. The relevance of this imaging technique was evaluated in 54 patients with cerebral disorders. SPECT of the brain was performed with a rotating gamma camera. In 6 of 24 epileptic patients, SPECT revealed foci consistent with EEG-findings which were, however, not detected by CCT. In 4 of 25 patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypoperfused areas were detected by SPECT despite negative results obtained with CCT. In 50% (10/20) of the patients with cerebrovascular disease, SPECT showed a greater functional extent of the lesions than CCT. In 3 patients with migraine and normal CCT, regional perfusion disturbancers were found. SPECT with 123 I-labeled amphetamines, therefore, enables diagnosis of functional perfusion disorders and metabolic disturbances that are not revealed by CCT. In addition, SPECT can be used to exactly demonstrate the functional extent of lesions detected by CCT. (orig.) [de

  15. 99mTc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    We studied clinical significance of 99m Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in 99m Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the 99m Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with 99m Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, 99m Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author)

  16. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [123I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.-X.; Hwang, J.-J.; Hsieh, J.-F.; Chen, J.-C.; Chou, Y.-T.; Tu, K.-Y.; Wey, S.-P.; Ting Gann

    2004-01-01

    high affinity, high specificity, and favorable kinetics. The time-activity curve showed that the accumulation of the [ 123 I] ADAM in the brain stem reached a maximum between 90 and 100 min postinjection. The microautoradiography provides high-resolution images of the rabbit brain. Our results for the [ 123 I] ADAM biodistribution in the rabbit brains demonstrate that this new radioligand is suitable as a selective SPECT imaging agent for SERTs

  17. Final Progress Report: SPECT Assay of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    During the past project period, we proposed to collaborate closely with DOE's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab or JLab) to design a compact, ultra-high-resolution, high-sensitivity gamma camera for quantifying brain-tumor distributions of I-131. We also proposed to continue our on-going research in developing and evaluating pinhole collimation for quantitative ultra-high-resolution imaging of I-131-labeled MAbs. We have made excellent progress in accomplishing much of the research related to pinhole collimation. Many of the most significant results have been presented in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference proceedings. We have also made good progress in collaborating with JLab's Detector Group in developing a compact, ultra-high-resolution, gamma camera. A prototype I-131 imager was delivered to Duke on May 28, 2003. Our research results are summarized in the following sections. A. JLAB-DUKE DEDICATED BRAIN-TUMOR IMAGING SYSTEM A.1. Determination of Optimal Collimator Design During the current project period a prototype I-131 dedicated brain imager has been designed and built. Computer simulations and analysis of alternate designs were performed at Duke to determine an optimal collimator design. Collimator response was characterized by spatial resolution and sensitivity. Both geometric (non-penetrative) and penetrative sensitivities were considered in selecting an optimal collimator design. Based on these simulation results, two collimator designs were selected and built by external vendors. Initial imaging results were obtained using these collimators. B. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPECT RECONSTRUCTION SOFTWARE FOR JLAB-DUKE CAMERA B.1. Modeling Thick Septa and Collimator Holes: Geometrical-Phantom Study A geometrical phantom was designed to illuminate spatial resolution effects. The phantom includes a uniformly attenuating medium that consists of all voxels within an elliptical cylinder that is centered on the axis of rotation

  18. I-123 Iofetamine SPECT scan in children with neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, J.R.; Konkol, R.J.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    I-123 Iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the brain in 42 patients (ages 14 days to 23 years) was compared with other localizing studies in children with neurological diseases. All had an EEG and at least one imaging study of the brain (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had an EEG within 24-72 hours of the IMP-SPECT scan. Thirty-five (83%) had a history of seizures, and the remainder had other neurological conditions without a history of seizures. In most cases, a normal EEG reading with normal CT or MRI result predicted a normal SPECT study. When the EEG was abnormal the majority of the IMP-SPECT scans were abnormal and localized the abnormality to the same region. A comparison with CT and MRI showed that structural abnormalities involving the cortex were usually well demonstrated with IMP-SPECT imaging. Structural lesions confined to the white matter were generally not detectable with IMP-SPECT. In a few cases, SPECT scans revealed abnormalities in deep brain areas not identified by EEG. IMP-SPECT imaging is a valuable technique for the detection and localization of abnormal cerebral metabolic activity in children with seizure disorders. A correlation with CT or MRI is essential for proper interpretation of abnormalities detected with IMP SPECT imaging

  19. Evaluation of a CZT gamma-ray detection module concept for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemont, Guillaume; Lux, Silvere; Monnet, Olivier; Stanchina, Sylvain; Verger, Loick

    2012-01-01

    CZT detectors are the basic building block of a variety of new SPECT systems. Their modularity allows to adapt system architecture to specific applications such as cardiac, breast, brain or small animal imaging. Thanks to their high quantum yield, these direct conversion detectors exhibit better energy and spatial resolutions than usual scintillation detectors based on NaI(Tl). However, it remains often unclear if SPECT imaging really can take profit of that performance gain. We propose here to conduct a case study based on the latest results obtained in our laboratory with current state of the art ICs and CZT crystals to investigate the system performance of a classical module dimensioning of 5 mm thick CZT with a segmented anode at a 2.5 * 2.5 mm pitch. This dimensioning, though being quite conservative, allows an easy integration in terms of crystal hybridization or PCB layout but still allows to obtain impressive results. Compared with X-ray counting were the only information retrieved is the occurrence of a photon interaction, spectrometric imaging performance is not only determined by photon statistics but also by readout noise, that ultimately limits time, energy and spatial resolutions associated with each photon event. After a first part dealing with the noise performance achieved by integrated circuits and a discussion on the key limiting factors, we present the typical readout architecture used and show how the signal processing is optimized for multiple parameter estimation. In a subsequent part, multi-pixel data acquisition scheme is discussed to show how raw channel data is used to extract photon parameters (energy, time-stamp, and 3D position) while taking into account material non-uniformities. We will show how such data can be used to build images and quantify resulting improvement. Finally, we open the discussion on SPECT collimation and architecture by demonstrating with simulations how a tomographical system dimensioning depends on detector

  20. Dopamine-transporter SPECT and Dopamine-D2-receptor SPECT in basal ganglia diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.; Barthel, H.; Seese, A.; Sabri, O.

    2007-01-01

    The basal ganglia comprise a group of subcortical nuclei, which are essential for motor control. Dysfunction of these areas, especially in dopaminergic transmission, results in disordered movement and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, or Huntington disease. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have enhanced the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, but they much more contribute to the early differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Parkinsonian syndrome in routine care. The present article provides dopamine transporter and D 2 receptor SPECT findings in selected movement disorders. (orig.)

  1. Technical approach to improvement of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi

    1985-01-01

    At present, a large number of SPECT systems are being widely used in Japan, hence, it is reasonable for us to know the physical and imaging characteristics of these SPECT devices, and also to recommend the optimum utility of SPECT systems. For this reason, a survey respect of characteristics of the commercialy available SPECT devices was carried out. In addition to this, various factors which have significant influence over SPECT image quality, such as, data acquisition matrix, reconstruction filter, γ-ray attenuation correction and daily quality control procedure, were also investigated. The materials used for this study are PET/SPECT phantom, Alderson liver phantom filled with Tc-99m solution, and either LFOV-E or ZLC-7500 interfaced to Scintipac 2400 minicomputer with 256 K byte of memory. Following are the results of this study. 1) The suitable data acquisition procedure was 128 x 128 matrix for linear sampling and approximately 64 views for angular sampling. 2) Reconstructed image using pre-processing filter with Wiener and Butterworth filters provided high quality image as compared with the Ramp filter. 3) Weighted backprojection method (WBP) proposed by Tanaka was superior to other methods, such as Sorenson method and Chang method in the object with non-uniform distribution of radionuclide. 4) It was found that uniformity correction of gamma camera and precise adjustment of the center of rotation are most important to maintain the images with a high quality. (author)

  2. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  3. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  4. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C; Bhattacharya, Manojeet

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  5. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in seizure disorders in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vles, J.S.H.; Demandt, E.; Ceulemans, B.; de Roo, M.; Casaer, P.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In 38 children with partial seizures, the EEG, CT and NMR findings were compared to the results obtained with Tc99m HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in order to determine whether SPECT is a useful adjunct to EEG, CT and NMR in this age group. In 3 out of 7 patients with a normal EEG, SPECT showed focal abnormalities. Nine patients whose EEGs did not show adequate lateralization had an abnormal SPECT which revealed a focus. In 14 out of 21 patients with a normal CT, SPECT showed focal changes in 13 patients and diffuse changes in the other one. In 7 out of 12 patients with a normal NMR, SPECT showed focal abnormalities. Although clinical history and a careful description of the seizures are the most valuable information in partial seizure disorders, SPECT imaging gives valuable additional information, which might target treatment. SPECT was superior to CT and NMR with respect to the depiction of some kind of abnormality. (author)

  6. Atlas of Skeletal SPECT/CT Clinical Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The atlas focuses specifically on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in musculoskeletal imaging, and thus illustrates the inherent advantages of the combination of the metabolic and anatomical component in a single procedure. In addition, the atlas provides information on the usefulness of several sets of specific indications. The publication, which serves more as a training tool rather than a textbook, will help to further integrate the SPECT and CT experience in clinical practice by presenting a series of typical cases with many different patterns of SPECT/CT seen in bone scintigraphy

  7. Design and evaluation of a mobile bedside PET/SPECT imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenski, Matthew Thomas

    Patients confined to an intensive care unit, the emergency room, or a surgical suite are managed without nuclear medicine procedures such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These studies have diagnostic value which can greatly benefit the physician's treatment of the patient but require that the patient is moved to a scanner. This dissertation examines the feasibility of an economical PET/SPECT system that can be brought to the bedside of an immobile patient for imaging. We chose to focus on cardiac SPECT imaging including perfusion imaging using 99mTc tracers and viability imaging using 18F tracers first because of problems arising from positioning a detector beneath a patient's bed, a requirement for the opposed detector orientation in PET imaging. Second, SPECT imaging acquiring over the anterior 180 degrees of the patient results in reduced attenuation effects due to the heart's location in the anterior portion of the body. Four studies were done to assess the clinical feasibility of the mobile system; 1) the performance of the system was evaluated in SPECT mode at both 140 keV (99mTc tracers) and 511 keV (positron emitting tracers), 2) a dynamic cardiac phantom was used to develop and test image acquisition and processing methods for the system at both energies, 3) a high energy pinhole collimator was designed to reduce the effects of high energy photon penetration through the parallel hole collimator, and 4) we estimated the radiation dose to persons that would be in the vicinity of a patient to ensure that the effective dose is below the regulatory limit. With these studies, we show that the mobile system provides an economical means of bringing nuclear medicine to an immobile patient while staying below the regulatory dose limit to other persons. The system performed well at both 140 keV and 511 keV and provided viable images of a phantom myocardium at both energies. The system does not achieve the

  8. Chilaiditi's syndrome demonstrated by SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini S Perumal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chilaiditi’s syndrome is a rare condition commonly diagnosed as an incidental radiological finding. The aim of this report is to show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome and state the functional and anatomical role of this hybrid imaging modality. Materials and Methods: A case report. Results: A 49-year-old female patient was referred for gallium-67 citrate for a possible granulomatous myositis and underwent SPECT-CT of the abdomen to assess the area of decreased gallium uptake on planar images of the liver. The combined SPECT and CT modality demonstrated findings consistent with the clinical evidence of Chilaiditi’s syndrome. The anatomical part of this hybrid modality made it easier to evaluate the area of gallium lack of uptake which was due to air in the colon. Conclusion: This case does not only show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome but also suggest that the use of such modality should be considered whenever available in the evaluation of patients in whom the localization of active disease becomes imperative.

  9. Multipinhole collimator with 20 apertures for a brain SPECT application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho, E-mail: youngho.seo@ucsf.edu [Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94107 (United States); Huang, Qiu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Gullberg, Grant T. [Department of Radiotracer Development and Imaging Technology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel-hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10{sup −5} to 1.6 × 10{sup −3}) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel-hole collimators by use of custom-designed 20 multipinhole (20-MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter. Methods: Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-ioflupane or {sup 123}I-iometopane’s signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I-123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimators and 20-MPH collimators. Results: With only two-thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20-MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study. Conclusions: Their systematic analyses showed that the 20-MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

  10. SPECT I-123 iodoamphetamine brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Liebman, A.; Hellman, R.S.; Collier, B.D.; Voslar, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT/IMP studies of 100 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of dementia were performed with a rotating gamma camera 15-20 minutes after intravenous injection of 3.5 mCi of IMP. Of these studies, 43 were interpreted as normal for age; 28 demonstrated decreased but not absent activity bilaterally in posterior parietal/occipital regions (consistent with Alzheimer-type dementia); 28 showed unilateral abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow consistent with cerebrovascular disease; and one had mixed findings. Based on SPECT/IMP results, further diagnostic testing and/or management would be altered for 72% of patients, suggesting that SPECT/IMP provides valuable data, not available on clinical examination, to guide the evaluation and management of demented patients

  11. Ejection fraction in myocardial perfusion imaging assessed with a dynamic phantom: comparison between IQ-SPECT and LEHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippeläinen, Eero; Mäkelä, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Touko; Kaleva, Erna

    2017-12-01

    Developments in single photon emission tomography instrumentation and reconstruction methods present a potential for decreasing acquisition times. One of such recent options for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is IQ-SPECT. This study was motivated by the inconsistency in the reported ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) volume results between IQ-SPECT and more conventional low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimation protocols. IQ-SPECT and LEHR quantitative results were compared while the equivalent number of iterations (EI) was varied. The end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV) and the derived EF values were investigated. A dynamic heart phantom was used to produce repeatable ESVs, EDVs and EFs. Phantom performance was verified by comparing the set EF values to those measured from a gated multi-slice X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan (EF True ). The phantom with an EF setting of 45, 55, 65 and 70% was imaged with both IQ-SPECT and LEHR protocols. The data were reconstructed with different EI, and two commonly used clinical myocardium delineation software were used to evaluate the LV volumes. The CT verification showed that the phantom EF settings were repeatable and accurate with the EF True being within 1% point from the manufacture's nominal value. Depending on EI both MPI protocols can be made to produce correct EF estimates, but IQ-SPECT protocol produced on average 41 and 42% smaller EDV and ESV when compared to the phantom's volumes, while LEHR protocol underestimated volumes by 24 and 21%, respectively. The volume results were largely similar between the delineation methods used. The reconstruction parameters can greatly affect the volume estimates obtained from perfusion studies. IQ-SPECT produces systematically smaller LV volumes than the conventional LEHR MPI protocol. The volume estimates are also software dependent.

  12. Collimator and energy window optimization for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging: A SIMIND Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, Hoda Rezaei; Mahmoudian, Babak; Gharepapagh, Esmaeil; Azarm, Ahmadreza; Pirayesh Islamian, Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Treatment efficacy of radioembolization using Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) microspheres is assessed by the 90 Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging following radioembolization. The radioisotopic image has the potential of providing reliable activity map of 90 Y microspheres distribution. One of the main reasons of the poor image quality in 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging is the continuous and broad energy spectrum of the related bremsstrahlung photons. Furthermore, collimator geometry plays an impressive role in the spatial resolution, sensitivity and image contrast. Due to the relatively poor quality of the 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images, we intend to optimize the medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator and energy window. The Siemens e.cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a voxelized phantom was simulated by the SImulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors (SIMIND) program. We used the SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT projection of the digital Jaszczak phantom. The phantom consist of the six hot spheres ranging from 9.5 to 31.8 mm in diameter, which are used to evaluate the image contrast. In order to assess the effect of the energy window on the image contrast, three energy windows ranging from 60 to 160 KeV, 160 to 400 KeV, and 60 to 400 KeV were set on a 90 Y bremsstrahlung spectrum. As well, the effect of the hole diameter of a ME collimator on the image contrast and bremsstrahlung spectrum were investigated. For the fixed collimator and septa thickness values (3.28 cm and 1.14 mm, respectively), a hole diameter range (2.35–3.3 mm) was chosen based on the appropriate balance between the spatial resolution and sensitivity. The optimal energy window for 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging was extended energy window from 60 to 400 KeV. Besides, The optimal value of the hole diameter of ME collimator was obtained 3.3 mm. Geometry of the ME parallel-hole collimator and energy

  13. Validation and the limits of SPECT for patients suffering from cerebrovascular accidents. Evaluations based on simultaneous PET and SPECT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Norihiko; Yano, Ichiro; Tenjin, Hiroshi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1989-02-01

    Contemporaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed in 10 patients with cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), whose ages ranged from 11 to 67 years. I-123-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and/or Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) were used for SPECT. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were measured by an O-15 labelled gas continuous-inhalation method. SPECT images were quite similar to CBF and CMRO{sub 2} during the chronic stage of CVA. Two patietns with vasospasm during the subacute stage had apparently low CBF and CMRO{sub 2} on PET, but did not have low perfusion on SPECT. Luxury perfusion areas were detected in 4 subacute stage patients and one chronic stage patient. A redistribution of IMP was detected in two patients with infarction during subacute stage. CMRO{sub 2} value in such an area was 2.0 ml/100 g/min. Low CBF and/or CMRO{sub 2} areas were well visualized by IMP rather than by HM-PAO SPECT. (N.K.).

  14. A vision for an ultra-high resolution integrated water cycle observation and prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    biomass would improve soil-moisture retrieval by avoiding the need for auxiliary vegetation information. This multivariable water-cycle observation system must be integrated with high-resolution, application relevant prediction systems to optimize their information content and utility is addressing critical water cycle issues. One such vision is a real-time ultra-high resolution locally-moasiced global land modeling and assimilation system, that overlays regional high-fidelity information over a baseline global land prediction system. Such a system would provide the best possible local information for use in applications, while integrating and sharing information globally for diagnosing larger water cycle variability. In a sense, this would constitute a hydrologic telecommunication system, where the best local in-situ gage, Doppler radar, and weather station can be shared internationally, and integrated in a consistent manner with global observation platforms like the multivariable water cycle mission. To realize such a vision, large issues must be addressed, such as international data sharing policy, model-observation integration approaches that maintain local extremes while achieving global consistency, and methods for establishing error estimates and uncertainty.

  15. Measurement of the Retention Time of Different Ophthalmic Formulations with Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Caterina; Papa, Vincenzo; Amato, Roberta; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Avitabile, Teresio

    2018-04-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to measure the pre-corneal retention time of two marketed formulations (eye drops and eye gel) of a steroid-antibiotic fixed combination (FC) containing 0.1% dexamethasone and 0.3% netilmicin. Pre-corneal retention time was evaluated in 16 healthy subjects using an ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). All subjects randomly received both formulations of the FC (Netildex, SIFI, Italy). Central tear film thickness (CTFT) was measured before instillation (time 0) and then after 1, 10, 20, 30, 40 50, 60 and 120 min. The pre-corneal retention time was calculated by plotting CTFT as a function of time. Differences between time points and groups were analyzed by Student's t-test. CTFT increased significantly after the instillation of the eye gel formulation (p < 0.001). CTFT reached its maximum value 1 min after instillation and returned to baseline after 60 min. No effect on CTFT was observed after the instillation of eye drops. The difference between the two formulations was statistically significant at time 1 min (p < 0.0001), 10 min (p < 0.001) and 20 min (p < 0.01). The FC formulated as eye gel was retained on the ocular surface longer than the corresponding eye drop solution. Consequently, the use of the eye gel might extend the interval between instillations and decrease the frequency of administration.

  16. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT for the detection of brain tumor. Comparison with {sup 201}Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Motoo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Yoshirou; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Furui, Shigeru [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Konoeda, Kouichi; Karigome, Masato; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    For the evaluation of brain tumor (n=15), we performed both dynamic and static {sup 99m}Tc-ECD (ECD) SPECT studies. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was also used for comparison with the results of ECD SPECT. Dynamic ECD SPECT was obtained following the injection of 600 MBq of ECD. Five min after the injection of ECD, static ECD SPECT was performed. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was obtained 10 min after the injection of 74 MBq. Abnormal uptake was recognized in 7 of 15 tumors with dynamic ECD; 5 of 7 meningiomas, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 astrocytoma. However, no abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 low grade astrocytoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 craniopharyngioma) and in 2 of 2 brain metastases. In contrast abnormal uptake was seen in 11 of 15 tumors with {sup 201}Tl; 7 of 7 meningiomas, 2 of 2 brain metastases, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 craniopharyngioma. No abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 hemangioma and 2 low grade astrocytomas). Equivocal uptake was seen in 1 low grade astrocytoma with dynamic ECD and {sup 201}Tl. The mechanism of the accumulation of dynamic ECD to brain tumor is unclear. However, it may reflect not only blood flow, but also metabolism. (author)

  17. Clinical assessment of SPECT/CT co-registration image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wen; Luan Zhaosheng; Peng Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Study the methodology of the SPECT/CT co-registration image fusion, and Assessment the Clinical application value. Method: 172 patients who underwent SPECT/CT image fusion during 2001-2003 were studied, 119 men, 53 women. 51 patients underwent 18FDG image +CT, 26 patients underwent 99m Tc-RBC Liver pool image +CT, 43 patients underwent 99mTc-MDP Bone image +CT, 18 patients underwent 99m Tc-MAA Lung perfusion image +CT. The machine is Millium VG SPECT of GE Company. All patients have been taken three steps image: X-ray survey, X-ray transmission and nuclear emission image (Including planer imaging, SPECT or 18 F-FDG of dual head camera) without changing the position of the patients. We reconstruct the emission image with X-ray map and do reconstruction, 18FDG with COSEM and 99mTc with OSEM. Then combine the transmission image and the reconstructed emission image. We use different process parameters in deferent image methods. The accurate rate of SPECT/CT image fusion were statistics, and compare their accurate with that of single nuclear emission image. Results: The nuclear image which have been reconstructed by X-ray attenuation and OSEM are apparent better than pre-reconstructed. The post-reconstructed emission images have no scatter lines around the organs. The outline between different issues is more clear than before. The validity of All post-reconstructed images is better than pre-reconstructed. SPECT/CT image fusion make localization have worthy bases. 138 patients, the accuracy of SPECT/CT image fusion is 91.3% (126/138), whereas 60(88.2%) were found through SPECT/CT image fusion, There are significant difference between them(P 99m Tc- RBC-SPECT +CT image fusion, but 21 of them were inspected by emission image. In BONE 99m Tc -MDP-SPECT +CT image fusion, 4 patients' removed bone(1-6 months after surgery) and their relay with normal bone had activity, their morphologic and density in CT were different from normal bones. 11 of 20 patients who could

  18. Comparison of cone beam SPECT with conventional SPECT by means of cardiac-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, M.A.; Manglos, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Because of poor energy characteristics of Tl-201 used for myocardial perfusion imaging, the high sensitivity of cone-beam collimation is highly desirable. Using a cardiac-thorax phantom, the authors have compared single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images obtained with a cone-beam collimator to those from a parallel hole collimator commonly used for thallium studies. A water-filled circular phantom with a cardiac insert was imaged. The myocardial shell was filled with Tl-201 (220 μCi). Two solid inserts within the myocardium simulated perfusion defects. The phantom ignores truncation effects in this preliminary experiment. For the authors' collimator, the resolution was designed to be similar to the authors' all-purpose, parallel-hole collimator at 10 cm. The focal length was 50 cm. The experimental protocol was chosen to be similar to their clinical protocol. A filtered back projection algorithm was used for cone-beam data. The same algorithm was used for the parallel-hole data, but with focal length set to infinity

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction from radial long-axis tomography. A new reconstruction algorithm for ECG-gated technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1997-01-01

    Radial long-axis tomography can provide views similar to contrast left ventriculography (LVG) including the basal and apical areas of the left ventricle, not possible in routine short-axis tomography. We applied this method to ECG-gated Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial SPECT images to estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was performed with a temporal resolution of 10 frames per R-R interval. LVEF was calculated on the basis of left ventricular volume estimates at end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) with using an ellipsoid body model. To validate this method, LVEF's derived from ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT were compared with those from LVG in 11 patients with coronary artery disease. There was a close linear correlation between LVEF values calculated from Tc-99m MIBI SPECT and those from LVG (r=0.89, p<0.001), although the gated SPECT underestimated LVEF compared to LVG. The technique showed excellent reproducibility (intra-observer variability, r=0.96, p<0.001; inter-observer variability, r=0.71, p<0.005). The radial long-axis tomography technique gives a good estimate of LVEF, in agreement with estimates based on LVG. ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT can, therefore, be applicable to assess myocardial perfusion and ventricular function at the same time. (author)

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction from radial long-axis tomography. A new reconstruction algorithm for ECG-gated technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Uehara, Toshiisa [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Radial long-axis tomography can provide views similar to contrast left ventriculography (LVG) including the basal and apical areas of the left ventricle, not possible in routine short-axis tomography. We applied this method to ECG-gated Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial SPECT images to estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was performed with a temporal resolution of 10 frames per R-R interval. LVEF was calculated on the basis of left ventricular volume estimates at end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) with using an ellipsoid body model. To validate this method, LVEF`s derived from ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT were compared with those from LVG in 11 patients with coronary artery disease. There was a close linear correlation between LVEF values calculated from Tc-99m MIBI SPECT and those from LVG (r=0.89, p<0.001), although the gated SPECT underestimated LVEF compared to LVG. The technique showed excellent reproducibility (intra-observer variability, r=0.96, p<0.001; inter-observer variability, r=0.71, p<0.005). The radial long-axis tomography technique gives a good estimate of LVEF, in agreement with estimates based on LVG. ECG-gated Tc-99m MIBI SPECT can, therefore, be applicable to assess myocardial perfusion and ventricular function at the same time. (author)

  1. Diagnostic impact of SPECT-CT in the assessment of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Badaoui, A.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Allard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Image fusion using single photon emission computed tomography - computed tomography (SPECT - CT) associates functional and morphological images. This study evaluates the added value of SPECT- CT, obtained with a hybrid SPECT- CT gamma camera, on anatomic localization and diagnostic impact in assessment of endocrine tumours and pheochromocytomas. Method: Six months prospective study was undertaken including 33 consecutive exams encompassing 20 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphies (S.R.S.) and 13 123 I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (Mibg) scans. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians independently analysed independently planar and SPECT images in a first time, then, SPECT- CT fused images in a second time. They evaluated two parameters: SPECT- CT impact on anatomic localization (L.A.) and its diagnostic impact (I.D.). Each parameter was scored according three levels of evaluation. Results: An added value of SPECT- CT images was evidenced in 55% of cases on the anatomic localization and in 41% of the patients on the diagnostic impact. Therefore, a more important benefit was noted when SPECT was positive (L.A.: 90%; I.D.: 70%) than when it was negative (L.A.: 15%; I.D.: 8%). Furthermore, the added value proved higher for the S;R.S. compared to Mibg scans. Conclusion: SPECT- CT fusion images obtained by a hybrid system is more relevant to determine anatomic localization and more accurate than SPECT alone, particularly in the assessment of endocrine tumours. The added value of SPECT- CT seems to be lower for Mibg scans in the assessment of pheochromocytomas. (authors)

  2. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  3. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  5. Tc-99m MAG3 SPECT on transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jong Gul; Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of a technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed on transplanted kidney. Thirty renal transplant patients were included in this study. Planar scan was performed for 30 minutes using 555 MBq Tc-99m MAG3. A post-voiding SPECT scan was acquired on the third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth day after transplantation. SPECT scan showed interpretable image quality in 26 of 30 patients (86.7%) and 84 in 120 scans (70%). Fourteen of 26 patients with interpretable SPECT image showed decreased or increased radioactivity, but only 5 had abnormal findings on the planar scan. Focal SPECT defects were seen in allografts with normal function (n=3), acute tubular necrosis (n=3), and acute rejection (n=2). The defects are thought to reflect focally underperfused renal parenchyme or, in normal allografts, an artifact from uneven radioactivity distribution. Four of 10 paints with renal arterial variation showed focally decreased radioactivity and SPECT helped guide further studies that confirmed the exact cause. Five of 10 patients with acute tubular necrosis or acute rejection showed focally decreased radioactivity, but its relation to the patients' clinical course was not clear. Focally increased radioactivity was observed in 5 allografts with normal function and 1 with double ureter in which local clearance delay was observed. Tc-99m MAG3 SPECT renal scan can detect additional focal abnormalities compared to planar scan. Further study is necessary to elucidate the exact clinical significance of the SPECT findings

  6. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko

    1993-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was performed twice in a 78-year-old man clinically diagnosed as brain death according to the standard criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Welfare. The first brain SPECT demonstrated the tracer accumulation in the brain, indicating preserved cerebral blood flow. The second brain SPECT performed 3 days later revealed cessation of the blood flow. In patients with preserved cerebral blood flow, the diagnosis of brain death cannot be made, even if they meet the existing criteria, because previous report noted the recovery in some of those patients. Brain perfusion SPECT plays an important role as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death. (author)

  7. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  8. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  9. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng, E-mail: yxu06@syr.edu [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States); Schmidtlein, C. Ross [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Vogelsang, Levon [Carestream Health, Rochester, New York 14608 (United States); Shen, Lixin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China and Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The authors have recently developed a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) with total variation (TV) regularizer for solving the penalized-likelihood optimization model for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. This algorithm belongs to a novel class of fixed-point proximity methods. The goal of this work is to investigate how PAPA performs while dealing with realistic noisy SPECT data, to compare its performance with more conventional methods, and to address issues with TV artifacts by proposing a novel form of the algorithm invoking high-order TV regularization, denoted as HOTV-PAPA, which has been explored and studied extensively in the present work. Methods: Using Monte Carlo methods, the authors simulate noisy SPECT data from two water cylinders; one contains lumpy “warm” background and “hot” lesions of various sizes with Gaussian activity distribution, and the other is a reference cylinder without hot lesions. The authors study the performance of HOTV-PAPA and compare it with PAPA using first-order TV regularization (TV-PAPA), the Panin–Zeng–Gullberg one-step-late method with TV regularization (TV-OSL), and an expectation–maximization algorithm with Gaussian postfilter (GPF-EM). The authors select penalty-weights (hyperparameters) by qualitatively balancing the trade-off between resolution and image noise separately for TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. However, the authors arrived at the same penalty-weight value for both of them. The authors set the first penalty-weight in HOTV-PAPA equal to the optimal penalty-weight found for TV-PAPA. The second penalty-weight needed for HOTV-PAPA is tuned by balancing resolution and the severity of staircase artifacts. The authors adjust the Gaussian postfilter to approximately match the local point spread function of GPF-EM and HOTV-PAPA. The authors examine hot lesion detectability, study local spatial resolution, analyze background noise properties, estimate mean

  10. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward; Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Vogelsang, Levon; Shen, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have recently developed a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) with total variation (TV) regularizer for solving the penalized-likelihood optimization model for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. This algorithm belongs to a novel class of fixed-point proximity methods. The goal of this work is to investigate how PAPA performs while dealing with realistic noisy SPECT data, to compare its performance with more conventional methods, and to address issues with TV artifacts by proposing a novel form of the algorithm invoking high-order TV regularization, denoted as HOTV-PAPA, which has been explored and studied extensively in the present work. Methods: Using Monte Carlo methods, the authors simulate noisy SPECT data from two water cylinders; one contains lumpy “warm” background and “hot” lesions of various sizes with Gaussian activity distribution, and the other is a reference cylinder without hot lesions. The authors study the performance of HOTV-PAPA and compare it with PAPA using first-order TV regularization (TV-PAPA), the Panin–Zeng–Gullberg one-step-late method with TV regularization (TV-OSL), and an expectation–maximization algorithm with Gaussian postfilter (GPF-EM). The authors select penalty-weights (hyperparameters) by qualitatively balancing the trade-off between resolution and image noise separately for TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. However, the authors arrived at the same penalty-weight value for both of them. The authors set the first penalty-weight in HOTV-PAPA equal to the optimal penalty-weight found for TV-PAPA. The second penalty-weight needed for HOTV-PAPA is tuned by balancing resolution and the severity of staircase artifacts. The authors adjust the Gaussian postfilter to approximately match the local point spread function of GPF-EM and HOTV-PAPA. The authors examine hot lesion detectability, study local spatial resolution, analyze background noise properties, estimate mean

  11. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  12. Evaluation of Parallel and Fan-Beam Data Acquisition Geometries and Strategies for Myocardial SPECT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yujin; Tsui, B. M. W.; Gilland, K. L.; Frey, E. C.; Gullberg, G. T.

    2004-06-01

    This study evaluates myocardial SPECT images obtained from parallel-hole (PH) and fan-beam (FB) collimator geometries using both circular-orbit (CO) and noncircular-orbit (NCO) acquisitions. A newly developed 4-D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom was used to simulate the /sup 99m/Tc-sestamibi uptakes in human torso with myocardial defects in the left ventricular (LV) wall. Two phantoms were generated to simulate patients with thick and thin body builds. Projection data including the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response and scatter were generated using SIMSET Monte Carlo simulations. A large number of photon histories were generated such that the projection data were close to noise free. Poisson noise fluctuations were then added to simulate the count densities found in clinical data. Noise-free and noisy projection data were reconstructed using the iterative OS-EM reconstruction algorithm with attenuation compensation. The reconstructed images from noisy projection data show that the noise levels are lower for the FB as compared to the PH collimator due to increase in detected counts. The NCO acquisition method provides slightly better resolution and small improvement in defect contrast as compared to the CO acquisition method in noise-free reconstructed images. Despite lower projection counts the NCO shows the same noise level as the CO in the attenuation corrected reconstruction images. The results from the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) study show that FB collimator is superior to PH collimator in myocardial defect detection, but the NCO shows no statistical significant difference from the CO for either PH or FB collimator. In conclusion, our results indicate that data acquisition using NCO makes a very small improvement in the resolution over CO for myocardial SPECT imaging. This small improvement does not make a significant difference on myocardial defect detection. However, an FB collimator provides better defect detection than a

  13. Molecular-level evidence provided by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry for oil-derived doc in groundwater at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ananna; Ahmed, Arif; Hur, Manhoi; Thorn, Kevin A.; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter samples extracted from ground water at the USGS Bemidji oil spill site in Minnesota were investigated by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the elemental composition assignments of the samples showed that the score plots for the contaminated sites were well separated from those for the uncontaminated sites. Additionally, spectra obtained from the same sampling site 7 and 19 years after the spill were grouped together in the score plot, strongly suggesting a steady state of contamination within the 12 year interval. The double bond equivalence (DBE) of Ox class compounds was broader for the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the complex nature of oil and the consequent formation of compounds with saturated and/or aromatic structures from the oxygenated products of oil. In addition, Ox class compounds with a relatively smaller number of x (x < 8; x = number of oxygen) and OxS1 class compounds were more abundant in the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the lower oxygen and higher sulfur contents of the oil compared to humic substances. The molecular-level signatures presented here can be a fundamental basis for in-depth analysis of oil contamination.

  14. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50% of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS. Elemental compositions of 552 unique molecular species were determined in the mass range 50–500 Da in the rainwater. Four main groups of organic compounds were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only, sulfur (S containing CHOS compounds, nitrogen (N containing CHON compounds, and S- and N- containing CHONS compounds. Organic acids commonly identified in precipitation were detected in the rainwater. Within the four main groups of compounds detected in the rainwater, oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates were assigned based on elemental formula comparisons. The majority of the compounds identified are products of atmospheric reactions and are known contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed from gas phase, aerosol phase, and in-cloud reactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that the large uncharacterized component of SOA is the main contributor to the large uncharacterized component of rainwater organic matter.

  15. Kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper a kernel integration scatter Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative SPECT. In this paper a kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response based on Klein-Nishina formula is proposed. This method models primary photon distribution as well as first Compton scattering. It also includes a correction for multiple scattering by applying a point isotropic single medium buildup factor for the path segment between the point of scatter an the point of detection. Gamma ray attenuation in the object of imaging, based on known μ-map distribution, is considered too. Intrinsic spatial resolution of the camera is approximated by a simple Gaussian function. Collimator is modeled simply using acceptance angles derived from the physical dimensions of the collimator. Any gamma rays satisfying this angle were passed through the collimator to the crystal. Septal penetration and scatter in the collimator were not included in the model. The method was validated by comparison with Monte Carlo MCNP-4a numerical phantom simulation and excellent results were obtained. The physical phantom experiments, to confirm this method, are planed to be done. (author)

  16. Practical reconstruction protocol for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman, W.; Mikell, J. K.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a practical background compensation (BC) technique to improve quantitative 90 Y-bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) using a commercially available imaging system. Methods: All images were acquired using medium-energy collimation in six energy windows (EWs), ranging from 70 to 410 keV. The EWs were determined based on the signal-to-background ratio in planar images of an acrylic phantom of different thicknesses (2–16 cm) positioned below a 90 Y source and set at different distances (15–35 cm) from a gamma camera. The authors adapted the widely used EW-based scatter-correction technique by modeling the BC as scaled images. The BC EW was determined empirically in SPECT/CT studies using an IEC phantom based on the sphere activity recovery and residual activity in the cold lung insert. The scaling factor was calculated from 20 clinical planar 90 Y images. Reconstruction parameters were optimized in the same SPECT images for improved image quantification and contrast. A count-to-activity calibration factor was calculated from 30 clinical 90 Y images. Results: The authors found that the most appropriate imaging EW range was 90–125 keV. BC was modeled as 0.53× images in the EW of 310–410 keV. The background-compensated clinical images had higher image contrast than uncompensated images. The maximum deviation of their SPECT calibration in clinical studies was lowest (<10%) for SPECT with attenuation correction (AC) and SPECT with AC + BC. Using the proposed SPECT-with-AC + BC reconstruction protocol, the authors found that the recovery coefficient of a 37-mm sphere (in a 10-mm volume of interest) increased from 39% to 90% and that the residual activity in the lung insert decreased from 44% to 14% over that of SPECT images with AC alone. Conclusions: The proposed EW-based BC model was developed for 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging. SPECT with AC + BC gave improved lesion detectability and activity

  17. Estimation of scattered photons using a neural network in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Wataru; Ogawa, Koichi

    1994-01-01

    In single photon emission CT (SPECT), measured projection data involve scattered photons. This causes degradation of spatial resolution and contrast in reconstructed images. The purpose of this study is to estimate the scattered photons, and eliminate them from measured data. To estimate the scattered photons, we used an artificial neural network which consists of five input units, five hidden units, and two output units. The inputs of the network are the ratios of the counts acquired by five narrow energy windows and their sum. The outputs are the ratios of the count of scattered photons and that of primary photons to the total count. The neural network was trained with a back-propagation algorithm using count data obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results of simulation showed improvement of contrast and spatial resolution in reconstructed images. (author)

  18. Response analysis for an approximate 3-D image reconstruction in cone-beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo; Nohara, Norimasa

    1991-01-01

    Cone-beam single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers the potential for a large increase in sensitivity as compared with parallel hole or fan-beam collimation. Three-dimensional image reconstruction was approximately accomplished by backprojecting filtered projections using a two-dimensional fan-beam algorithm. The cone-beam projection data were formed from mathematical phantoms as analytically derived line integrals of the density. In order to reduce the processing time, the filtered projections were backprojected into each plane parallel to the circle on which the focal point moved. Discrepancy of source position and degradation of resolution were investigated by computer simulation in three-dimensional image space. The results obtained suggest that, the nearer to the central plane or the axis of rotation, the less image degradation is performed. By introducing a parameter of angular difference between the focal point and a fixed point in the image space during rotation, degradation of the reconstructed image can be estimated for any cone-beam SPECT system. (author)

  19. Construction of McSPECT II - a clinical brain SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Jin, Y.; Liu, J. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Since reported the design concept and system configuration of the McSPECT II last year, we have settled the design details and moved on to the construction phase. The major components being developed in this phase are: detector, collimator, electronics, interfaces, acquisition and processing software, and gantry systems. To provide adequate number of angular sampling (= views), we have increased the number of transverse detector elements to 120 NaI(Tl) bar-detectors in the new cylindrical detector system. These bar-detector are housed in 24 detector modules. Since we have developed a new light-guide and implemented a new 2-step centriod position calculation, the intrinsic performance of the detector modules has been substantially improved. These improvements lead to a simpler position estimation which yields < 4 mm FWHM spatial resolution in the 12 cm axial FOV. The imaging volume is 21 cm (dia.) x 12.8 (axial) cm. The number of collimator units (= rays) is increased to 100 to achieve high linear sampling density (2.3 mm) and sampling resolution ({approximately}5.6 mm). The collimator is still being manufacture. The electronics, acquisition, and processing systems are all in the final phases of debugging through simulated testing. The electronics is divided into 24 independent channels, one for each module. A 10-bit 1.0{mu}s ADC is connected to each of the 72 PMTs. A Pentium based PC performs real-time position calculation in 20 {mu}s/event. After de-randomizing, we expect 50 K/sec count-rate performance with little loss. Linearity and energy corrections are being implemented, in a separate calibration procedure, to yield <0.5 mm non-linearity and {approximately}10% energy resolution at 140 keV. The gantry construction is moving along well but slowly. The large (27.5 cm) aperture and the adjustable orientation of the gantry plane promise easy operation and patient comfort. The system construction should be completed soon to allow imaging studies to be performed.

  20. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  1. Characterization of unknown iodinated disinfection byproducts during chlorination/chloramination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with organic matter in the presence of iodide in raw water, have recently been focused because of their more cytotoxic and genotoxic properties than their chlorinated or brominated analogues. To date, only a few I-DBPs in drinking water have been identified. In this study, C18 solid phase extraction coupled with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown I-DBPs in chloraminated/chlorinated water spiked with iodide and humic substances. In total, 178 formulas for one-iodine-containing products, 13 formulas for two-iodine-containing products, and 15 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were detected in the chloraminated water sample, while only 9 formulas for one-iodine-containing products and 6 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were found in the chlorinated water sample. Most I-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO compositions. As indicated by the modified aromaticity index (AI mod ), in the C18 extracts, more than 68% of the I-DBPs have aromatic structures or polycyclic aromatic structures. This result demonstrates that the use of chloramination as an alternative disinfection method may lead to the formation of abundant species of I-DBPs in the presence of iodide. Thus, the suitability of adopting chloramination as an alternative disinfection method should be reevaluated, particularly when iodide is present in raw water. - Highlights: • The formulas of 206 iodinated DBPs in chloraminated drinking water were proposed. • More than 68% of the I-DBPs might have aromatic or polycyclic aromatic structures. • Precursors with high aromaticity is preferential to form iodinated DBPs.

  2. Characterization of unknown iodinated disinfection byproducts during chlorination/chloramination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: yangmin@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with organic matter in the presence of iodide in raw water, have recently been focused because of their more cytotoxic and genotoxic properties than their chlorinated or brominated analogues. To date, only a few I-DBPs in drinking water have been identified. In this study, C18 solid phase extraction coupled with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown I-DBPs in chloraminated/chlorinated water spiked with iodide and humic substances. In total, 178 formulas for one-iodine-containing products, 13 formulas for two-iodine-containing products, and 15 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were detected in the chloraminated water sample, while only 9 formulas for one-iodine-containing products and 6 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were found in the chlorinated water sample. Most I-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO compositions. As indicated by the modified aromaticity index (AI{sub mod}), in the C18 extracts, more than 68% of the I-DBPs have aromatic structures or polycyclic aromatic structures. This result demonstrates that the use of chloramination as an alternative disinfection method may lead to the formation of abundant species of I-DBPs in the presence of iodide. Thus, the suitability of adopting chloramination as an alternative disinfection method should be reevaluated, particularly when iodide is present in raw water. - Highlights: • The formulas of 206 iodinated DBPs in chloraminated drinking water were proposed. • More than 68% of the I-DBPs might have aromatic or polycyclic aromatic structures. • Precursors with high aromaticity is preferential to form iodinated DBPs.

  3. SPECT-CT in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease; SPECT-CT in der Diagnostik der koronaren Herzerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Two-dimensional invasive coronary angiography (ICA), although showing high temporal and spatial resolution, is neither able to predict the physiologic relevance of a stenosis nor able to determine the prognosis of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Therefore, the ICA can hardly represent the sole gold standard in clinical decision making. Additionally, the small but distinct morbidity and mortality rate of this method and the inconvenience of patients undergoing ICA have strengthened the search for a non-invasive alternative. Recent publications have shown high accuracy for spiral computed tomography (MDCT) angiography acquired with a 64-slice CT scanner compared to ICA in detecting 'obstructive' coronary artery disease, defined as stenosis of more than 50%. Otherwise, although well known limitations of MDCT like motion artifacts or severe vessel calcifications could be clearly reduced with the newest scanner generation, this technique lacks of delivering exact lumen quantification compared to ICA in a clinical setting. Furthermore, there is evidence that exact quantification of coronary artery stenoses is of minor impact on clinical decision making, if lesion location and functional status are known. A first publication showed that combined imaging of MDCT angiography and PET myocardinal perfusion scanning with [{sup 13}N]ammonia was feasible with an integrated PET/CT scanner and reported high sensitivity and specificity to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenoses compared to the combination of PET plus ICA. However, PET perfusion tracers are not widely available at present and the well accepted reference for detecting myocardial ischemia, based on numerous publications, is myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPI). MPI is an established method for the non-invasive assessment of functional significance of coronary stenoses and delivers valuable information for risk stratification. Patients with stable angina and normal stress sestamibi

  4. Accelerated 3D-OSEM image reconstruction using a Beowulf PC cluster for pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Sohlberg, Antti; Iida, Hidehiro

    2007-01-01

    A conventional pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a single circular orbit has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. Recently, we demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) images with uniform spatial resolution and no blurring can be obtained by complete data acquired using two-circular orbit, combined with the 3D ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction method. However, a long computation time is required to obtain the reconstruction image, because of the fact that 3D-OSEM is an iterative method and two-orbit acquisition doubles the size of the projection data. To reduce the long reconstruction time, we parallelized the two-orbit pinhole 3D-OSEM reconstruction process by using a Beowulf personal computer (PC) cluster. The Beowulf PC cluster consists of seven PCs connected to Gbit Ethernet switches. Message passing interface protocol was utilized for parallelizing the reconstruction process. The projection data in a subset are distributed to each PC. The partial image forward-and back-projected in each PC is transferred to all PCs. The current image estimate on each PC is updated after summing the partial images. The performance of parallelization on the PC cluster was evaluated using two independent projection data sets acquired by a pinhole SPECT system with two different circular orbits. Parallelization using the PC cluster improved the reconstruction time with increasing number of PCs. The reconstruction time of 54 min by the single PC was decreased to 10 min when six or seven PCs were used. The speed-up factor was 5.4. The reconstruction image by the PC cluster was virtually identical with that by the single PC. Parallelization of 3D-OSEM reconstruction for pinhole SPECT using the PC cluster can significantly reduce the computation time, whereas its implementation is simple and inexpensive. (author)

  5. Development of an Optical Fiber-Based MR Compatible Gamma Camera for SPECT/MRI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Tadashi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Optical fiber is a promising material for integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) PET/MRI systems. Because its material is plastic, it has no interference between MRI. However, it is unclear whether this material can also be used for a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/MRI system. For this purpose, we developed an optical fiber-based block detector for a SPECT/MRI system and tested its performance by combining 1.2 ×1.2 ×6 mm Y2SiO5 (YSO) pixels into a 15 ×15 block and was coupled it to an optical fiber image guide that used was 0.5-mm in diameter with 80-cm long double clad fibers. The image guide had 22 ×22 mm rectangular input and an equal size output. The input of the optical fiber-based image guide was bent at 90 degrees, and the output was optically coupled to a 1-in square high quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube (HQE-PSPMT). The parallel hole, 7-mm-thick collimator made of tungsten plastic was mounted on a YSO block. The diameter of the collimator holes was 0.8 mm which was positioned one-to-one coupled to the YSO pixels. We evaluated the intrinsic and system performances. We resolved most of the YSO pixels in a two-dimensional histogram for Co-57 gamma photons (122-keV) with an average peak-to-value ratio of 1.5. The energy resolution was 38% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The system resolution was 1.7-mm FWHM, 1.5 mm from the collimator surface, and the sensitivity was 0.06%. Images of a Co-57 point source could be successfully obtained inside 0.3 T MRI without serious interference. We conclude that the developed optical fiber-based YSO block detector is promising for SPECT/MRI systems.

  6. SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation toward clinical use: a comparative study with {sup 13}N-Ammonia PET myocardial blood flow quantitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bailing [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, Columbia, Missouri (United States); Hu, Lien-Hsin; Yang, Bang-Hung; Ting, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chen, Lung-Ching [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Taipei (China); Chen, Yen-Kung [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Wu, Tao-Cheng [National Yang-Ming University, Cardiovascular Research Center, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantitation of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with {sup 13}N-Ammonia (NH3) position emission tomography (PET) on the same cohorts. Recent advances of SPECT technologies have been applied to develop MBF quantitation as a promising tool to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) for areas where PET MBF quantitation is not available. However, whether the SPECT approach can achieve the same level of accuracy as the PET approach for clinical use still needs further investigations. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVT) and 16 clinical patients with CAD received both MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET flow scans. Dynamic SPECT images acquired with high temporary resolution were fully corrected for physical factors and processed to quantify K1 using the standard compartmental modeling. Human MIBI tracer extraction fraction (EF) was determined by comparing MIBI K1 and NH3 flow on the HVT group and then used to convert flow values from K1 for all subjects. MIBI and NH3 flow values were systematically compared to validate the SPECT approach. The human MIBI EF was determined as [1.0-0.816*exp(-0.267/MBF)]. Global and regional MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET were highly correlated for all subjects (global R{sup 2}: MBF = 0.92, MFR = 0.78; regional R{sup 2}: MBF ≥ 0.88, MFR ≥ 0.71). No significant differences for rest flow, stress flow, and MFR between these two approaches were observed (All p ≥ 0.088). Bland-Altman plots overall revealed small bias between MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET (global: ΔMBF = -0.03Lml/min/g, ΔMFR = 0.07; regional: ΔMBF = -0.07 - 0.06, ΔMFR = -0.02 - 0.22). Quantitation with SPECT technologies can be accurate to measure myocardial blood flow as PET quantitation while comprehensive imaging factors of SPECT to derive the variability between these two approaches were fully addressed and corrected

  7. SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation toward clinical use: a comparative study with "1"3N-Ammonia PET myocardial blood flow quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bailing; Hu, Lien-Hsin; Yang, Bang-Hung; Ting, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Lung-Ching; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hung, Guang-Uei; Wu, Tao-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantitation of "9"9"mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with "1"3N-Ammonia (NH3) position emission tomography (PET) on the same cohorts. Recent advances of SPECT technologies have been applied to develop MBF quantitation as a promising tool to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) for areas where PET MBF quantitation is not available. However, whether the SPECT approach can achieve the same level of accuracy as the PET approach for clinical use still needs further investigations. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVT) and 16 clinical patients with CAD received both MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET flow scans. Dynamic SPECT images acquired with high temporary resolution were fully corrected for physical factors and processed to quantify K1 using the standard compartmental modeling. Human MIBI tracer extraction fraction (EF) was determined by comparing MIBI K1 and NH3 flow on the HVT group and then used to convert flow values from K1 for all subjects. MIBI and NH3 flow values were systematically compared to validate the SPECT approach. The human MIBI EF was determined as [1.0-0.816*exp(-0.267/MBF)]. Global and regional MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET were highly correlated for all subjects (global R"2: MBF = 0.92, MFR = 0.78; regional R"2: MBF ≥ 0.88, MFR ≥ 0.71). No significant differences for rest flow, stress flow, and MFR between these two approaches were observed (All p ≥ 0.088). Bland-Altman plots overall revealed small bias between MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET (global: ΔMBF = -0.03Lml/min/g, ΔMFR = 0.07; regional: ΔMBF = -0.07 - 0.06, ΔMFR = -0.02 - 0.22). Quantitation with SPECT technologies can be accurate to measure myocardial blood flow as PET quantitation while comprehensive imaging factors of SPECT to derive the variability between these two approaches were fully addressed and corrected. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative pre-surgical lung function estimation with SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D. L.; Willowson, K. P.; Timmins, S.; Harris, B. E.; Bailey, E. A.; Roach, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Objectives: To develop methodology to predict lobar lung function based on SPECT/CT ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) scanning in candidates for lobectomy for lung cancer. Methods: This combines two development areas from our group: quantitative SPECT based on CT-derived corrections for scattering and attenuation of photons, and SPECT V/Q scanning with lobar segmentation from CT. Eight patients underwent baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT) including spirometry, measure of DLCO and cario-pulmonary exercise testing. A SPECT/CT V/Q scan was acquired at baseline. Using in-house software each lobe was anatomically defined using CT to provide lobar ROIs which could be applied to the SPECT data. From these, individual lobar contribution to overall function was calculated from counts within the lobe and post-operative FEV1, DLCO and VO2 peak were predicted. This was compared with the quantitative planar scan method using 3 rectangular ROIs over each lung. Results: Post-operative FEV1 most closely matched that predicted by the planar quantification method, with SPECT V/Q over-estimating the loss of function by 8% (range - 7 - +23%). However, post-operative DLCO and VO2 peak were both accurately predicted by SPECT V/Q (average error of 0 and 2% respectively) compared with planar. Conclusions: More accurate anatomical definition of lobar anatomy provides better estimates of post-operative loss of function for DLCO and VO2 peak than traditional planar methods. SPECT/CT provides the tools for accurate anatomical defintions of the surgical target as well as being useful in producing quantitative 3D functional images for ventilation and perfusion.

  9. /sup 123/I-amphetamine-SPECT in the diagnosis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Kreiten, K.; Hartmann, A.; Friedrich, G.; Linck, H.A.; Winkler, C.

    1985-03-01

    In contrast to conventional brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT with /sup 123/I-IMP enables visualization of the brain tissue itself. The relevance of this imaging technique was evaluated in 54 patients with cerebral disorders. SPECT of the brain was performed with a rotating gamma camera. In 6 of 24 epileptic patients, SPECT revealed foci consistent with EEG-findings which were, however, not detected by CCT. In 4 of 25 patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypoperfused areas were detected by SPECT despite negative results obtained with CCT. In 50% (10/20) of the patients with cerebrovascular disease, SPECT showed a greater functional extent of the lesions than CCT. In 3 patients with migraine and normal CCT, regional perfusion disturbancers were found. SPECT with /sup 123/I-labeled amphetamines, therefore, enables diagnosis of functional perfusion disorders and metabolic disturbances that are not revealed by CCT. In addition, SPECT can be used to exactly demonstrate the functional extent of lesions detected by CCT.

  10. Inverse Monte Carlo: a unified reconstruction algorithm for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse Monte Carlo (IMOC) is presented as a unified reconstruction algorithm for Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) providing simultaneous compensation for scatter, attenuation, and the variation of collimator resolution with depth. The technique of inverse Monte Carlo is used to find an inverse solution to the photon transport equation (an integral equation for photon flux from a specified source) for a parameterized source and specific boundary conditions. The system of linear equations so formed is solved to yield the source activity distribution for a set of acquired projections. For the studies presented here, the equations are solved using the EM (Maximum Likelihood) algorithm although other solution algorithms, such as Least Squares, could be employed. While the present results specifically consider the reconstruction of camera-based Single Photon Emission Computed Tomographic (SPECT) images, the technique is equally valid for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) if a Monte Carlo model of such a system is used. As a preliminary evaluation, experimentally acquired SPECT phantom studies for imaging Tc-99m (140 keV) are presented which demonstrate the quantitative compensation for scatter and attenuation for a two dimensional (single slice) reconstruction. The algorithm may be expanded in a straight forward manner to full three dimensional reconstruction including compensation for out of plane scatter

  11. Study on SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenhuang; Xie Zhichun; Chen Yucai; Lin Haoxue; Zheng Aidong; Xie Hui

    1998-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction (CCI), comparative research was made on 26 cases undergoing regional cerebral perfusion (rCP) image between SPECT imaging and CT scanning. The results showed that the rCP in the infarct and its distant area was decreased. The positive rate of SPECT and CT were 92.3% (24/26) and 84.5% (22/26) respectively. The difference was not significant (P = 0.67, P>0.05). But, the positive rate of SPECT image 2 days after onset in 9 CCI was 100% (9/9), significantly higher than 55.6% (5/9) in CT scanning (P = 0.04, P<0.05). These findings suggested that the SPECT imaging is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of CCI, and also helpful for observation of the therapeutic effect and evaluation of the prognosis

  12. Improved detection of sentinel lymph nodes in SPECT/CT images acquired using a low- to medium-energy general-purpose collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Hiroto; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Masato; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The use of the low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator for lymphoscintigraphy causes the appearance of star-shaped artifacts at injection sites. The aim of this study was to confirm whether the lower resolution of the low- to medium-energy general-purpose (LMEGP) collimator is compensated by decrease in the degree of septal penetration and the reduction in star-shaped artifacts. A total of 106 female patients with breast cancer, diagnosed by biopsy, were enrolled in this study. Tc phytate (37 MBq, 1 mCi) was injected around the tumor, and planar and SPECT/CT images were obtained after 3 to 4 hours. When sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) could not be identified from planar and SPECT/CT images by using the LEHR collimator, we repeated the study with the LMEGP collimator. Planar imaging performed using the LEHR and LEHR + LMEGP collimators positively identified SLNs in 96.2% (102/106) and 99.1% (105/106) of the patients, respectively. Using combination of planar and SPECT/CT imaging with the LEHR and LEHR + LMEGP collimators, SLNs were positively identified in 97.2% (103/106) and 100% (106/106) of the patients, respectively. The LMEGP collimator provided better results than the LEHR collimator because of the lower degree of septal penetration. The use of the LMEGP collimator improved SLN detection.

  13. Usefulness of brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.; Rancurel, G.; Kieffer, E.; Ricard, S.; Askienazy, S.; Moretti, J.L.; Bourdoiseau, M.; Rapin, J.; Soussaline, F.

    1983-01-01

    Brain SPECT was not effectively exploited until I-123 isopropyl amphetamine (IAMP), indicator able to penetrate the blood brain barrier, became available. Although the experience of research teams working with IAMP is quite restricted due to the high cost of the indicator, some applications now appear to be worth the cost and in some cases provide data which cannot be obtained with routine techniques, especially in cerebrovascular patients, in epilepsy and some cases of tumor. Brain SPECT appears as an atraumatic test which is useful to establish a functional evaluation of the cerebral parenchyma, and which is a complement to arteriography, X-ray scan and regional cerebral blood flow measurement

  14. Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J G; Jung, S H; Kim, J B; Moon, J; Kim, C H

    2013-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger

  15. The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Matsumoto, Toru

    1991-01-01

    We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological information, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows. (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician. (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading. (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP. (author)

  16. Longitudinal in vivo evaluation of bone regeneration by combined measurement of multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Philipp S.; Metzger, Stéphanie; Kiveliö, Anna-Sofia; Blanc, Alain; Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Astolfo, Alberto; Pinzer, Bernd R.; Cinelli, Paolo; Weber, Franz E.; Schibli, Roger; Béhé, Martin; Ehrbar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decades, great strides were made in the development of novel implants for the treatment of bone defects. The increasing versatility and complexity of these implant designs request for concurrent advances in means to assess in vivo the course of induced bone formation in preclinical models. Since its discovery, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has excelled as powerful high-resolution technique for non-invasive assessment of newly formed bone tissue. However, micro-CT fails to provide spatiotemporal information on biological processes ongoing during bone regeneration. Conversely, due to the versatile applicability and cost-effectiveness, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would be an ideal technique for assessing such biological processes with high sensitivity and for nuclear imaging comparably high resolution (designed poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels that release bone morphogenetic protein to guide the healing of critical sized calvarial bone defects. By combined in vivo longitudinal multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT evaluations we determine the spatiotemporal course of bone formation and remodeling within this synthetic hydrogel implant. End point evaluations by high resolution micro-CT and histological evaluation confirm the value of this approach to follow and optimize bone-inducing biomaterials.

  17. An Ultrahigh Resolution Structure of TEM-1 β-Lactamase Suggests a Role for Glu166 as the General Base in Acylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasov, George; Wang, Xiaojun; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    Although TEM-1 β-lactamase is among the best studied enzymes, its acylation mechanism remains controversial. To investigate this problem, the structure of TEM-1 in complex with an acylation transition-state analogue was determined at ultrahigh resolution (0.85 (angstrom)) by X-ray crystallography. The quality of the data was such as to allow for refinement to an R-factor of 9.1% and an R free of 11.2%. In the resulting structure, the electron density features were clear enough to differentiate between single and double bonds in carboxylate groups, to identify multiple conformations that are occupied by residues and loops, and to assign 70% of the protons in the protein. Unexpectedly, even at pH 8.0 where the protein was crystallized, the active site residue Glu166 is clearly protonated. This supports the hypothesis that Glu166 is the general base in the acylation half of the reaction cycle. This structure suggests that Glu166 acts through the catalytic water to activate Ser70 for nucleophilic attack on the β-lactam ring of the substrate. The hydrolytic mechanism of class A β-lactamases, such as TEM-1, appears to be symmetrical, as are the serine proteases. Apart from its mechanistic implications, this atomic resolution structure affords an unusually detailed view of the structure, dynamics, and hydrogen-bonding networks of TEM-1, which may be useful for the design of inhibitors against this key antibiotic resistance target.

  18. Towards the Experimental Assessment of the DQE in SPECT Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountos, G. P.; Michail, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to introduce the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems using a flood source. A Tc-99m-based flood source (Eγ = 140 keV) consisting of a radiopharmaceutical solution of dithiothreitol (DTT, 10-3 M)/Tc-99m(III)-DMSA, 40 mCi/40 ml bound to the grains of an Agfa MammoRay HDR Medical X-ray film) was prepared in laboratory. The source was placed between two PMMA blocks and images were obtained by using the brain tomographic acquisition protocol (DatScan-brain). The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was evaluated using the Iterative 2D algorithm. All imaging experiments were performed in a Siemens e-Cam gamma camera. The Normalized Noise Power spectra (NNPS) were obtained from the sagittal views of the source. The higher MTF values were obtained for the Flash Iterative 2D with 24 iterations and 20 subsets. The noise levels of the SPECT reconstructed images, in terms of the NNPS, were found to increase as the number of iterations increase. The behavior of the DQE was influenced by both MTF and NNPS. As the number of iterations was increased, higher MTF values were obtained, however with a parallel, increase of magnitude in image noise, as depicted from the NNPS results. DQE values, which were influenced by both MTF and NNPS, were found higher when the number of iterations results in resolution saturation. The method presented here is novel and easy to implement, requiring materials commonly found in clinical practice and can be useful in the quality control of SPECT scanners.

  19. Blood lipid levels and SPECT of myocardium perfusion to type 2 asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Quian, Yamile; Fernandez-Britto Rodriguez, Jose; Coca Perez, Marco A; Batista Cuellar, Juan F; Rochela Vazquez, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    SPECT, coronary angiography and laboratories test were performed on 31 asymptomatic type 2 diabetes patients, in order to determine the relationship among the lipid levels in blood and the results of the SPECT. Patients were classified in two groups (positive SPECT or negative SPECT). Simple descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables in both groups. Positive SPECT was detected in 35,5% of the patients and negative SPECT in 64,5%.The coronary angiography and SPECT showed good correlation. Low values of HDLc showed significant association with the positive results of the SPECT. The logistical regression showed an increment of the capacity to predict a positive SPECT if the values of HDLc are used. Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrated a significant association among the low levels of HDLc in blood and the positive results of the SPECT. The low values of HDLc could predict the possibility of a positive SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic type 2 patients (au)

  20. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ-SPECT

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose H. N; Santos, Antonio C; Takanayagui, Oswaldo M; Agapejev, Svetlana; Maes, A

    2002-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Taenia solium eggs that set in the brain. Its incidence is increasing both in the developing and the developed world, as a result of low economical and hygiene levels and immigration, respectively. Clinical manifestation of disease varies from no symptoms to epilepsy, increased intra-cranial pressure, arachnoiditis and dementia. In order to evaluate function (perfusion) of affected brains, we studied 40 patients (21 females and 19 males, 19-71 yo) by means of SPECT (ECD, ethyl cysteinate dimer, labelled with 99mTc) and with and without contrast CT. SPECT studies were all abnormal. No difference was noted between active and inactive disease. Two SPECT patterns were noted: a) several areas of focally reduced uptake, resulting from coalescent and big lesions and large destruction of brain tissue (small, isolated and symmetric cysts seen in CT were missed by SPECT); b) diffuse atrophy with reduction of the tracer uptake, associated with ventricle dilatation, corresponding to the cases where ventricular NC was important. Interestingly, we noted diffuse hypoperfusion, with the scintigraphic pattern of atrophy in 5 cases of massive parenchymal infection; in such cases, CT signs of atrophy were clearly less prominent. The first scintigraphic aspect can be explained by the destruction of large areas of brain, which produces focal absence of perfusion; generalised vasculitis and the destruction of large portions of brain tissue could explain the difference noted between the SPECT and the CT aspects in the 5 cases of massive parenchimal infection, and this may be interesting for prognosis. Dilatation of ventricles and Sylvian fissures were interestingly prominent in SPECT. SPECT may be of great value to evaluate brain perfusion in NC (Au)

  2. Quantative pre-surgical lung function estimation with SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale L.; Timmins, Sophi; Harris, Benjamin E.; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Roach, Paul J.; Willowson, Kathy P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To develop methodology to predict lobar lung function based on SPECT/CT ventilation 6 k perfusion (V/Q) scanning in candidates for lobectomy for lung cancer. This combines two development areas from our group: quantitative SPECT based on CT-derived corrections for scattering and attenuation of photons, and SPECT V/Q scanning with lobar segmentation from CT Six patients underwent baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT) including spirometry, measurement of DLCO and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. A SPECT/CT V/Q scan was acquired at baseline. Using in-house software each lobe was anatomically defined using CT to provide lobar ROIs which could be applied to the SPECT data. From these, individual lobar contribution to overall function was calculated from counts within the lobe and post-operative FEVl, DLCO and V02 peak were predicted. This was compared with the quantitative planar scan method using 3 rectangular ROIs over each lung.

  3. Evaluation of reconstruction algorithms in SPECT neuroimaging: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heejoung Kim; Zeeberg, B.R.; Reba, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the presence of statistical noise, an iterative reconstruction algorithm (IRA) for the quantitative reconstruction of single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) brain images overcomes major limitations of applying the standard filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm to projection data which have been degraded by convolution of the true radioactivity distribution with a finite-resolution distance-dependent detector response: (a) the non-uniformity within the grey (or white) matter voxels which results even though the true model is uniform within these voxels; (b) a significantly lower ratio of grey/white matter voxel values than in the true model; and (c) an inability to detect an altered radioactivity value within the grey (or white) matter voxels. It is normally expected that an algorithm which improves spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy might also increase the magnitude of the statistical noise in the reconstructed image. However, the noise properties in the IRA images are very similar to those in the FBP images. (Author)

  4. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  5. Fragmentation analysis of water-soluble atmospheric organic matter using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Jeffrey P; Collett, Jeffrey L; Mazzoleni, Lynn R

    2012-04-17

    Isolated water-soluble atmospheric organic matter (AOM) analytes extracted from radiation fogwater samples were analyzed using collision induced dissociation with ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Tandem mass analysis was performed on several mass ranges between 100 and 400 Da to characterize the functional groups of AOM species. Compounds containing nitrogen and/or sulfur were targeted because of the high number of oxygen atoms contained in their molecular formulas. Due to the large number of isobaric ions in the precursor isolation ranges, large numbers of product ions resulted from collision induced dissociation. Common neutral losses were assigned by matching the molecular formulas of the expected product ions with the detected product ions within the appropriate mass spectra. Since polar functional groups are expected to affect the hygroscopic properties of aerosols, the losses of H(2)O, CO(2), CH(3)OH, HNO(3), CH(3)NO(3), SO(3), SO(4) and combinations of these were specifically targeted. Among the 421 compounds studied, the most frequently observed neutral losses were CO(2) (54%), H(2)O (43%) and CH(3)OH (40%). HNO(3) losses were observed for 63% of the studied nitrogen containing compounds and 33% of the studied compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur. SO(3) losses were observed for 85% of the studied sulfur containing compounds and 42% of studied compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur. A number of molecular formulas matching those of monoterpene ozonolysis SOA were observed; they include organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy-organosulfates. Overall, the results of fragmentation analysis of 400+ individual molecular precursors elucidate the complexity and multifunctional nature of the isolated water-soluble AOM.

  6. Brain SPECT using dipyridamole for evaluation of vascular reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Yoon, Soo Hwan; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Cho, Kyung Kee

    1997-01-01

    Baseline and stress brain SPECT studies using CO 2 inhalation, acetazolamide (Diamox R ) and adenosine administrations have been used in the evaluation of cerebral vascular reserve. Recently dipyridamole (Persantine R ) which is one of the pharmacologic myocardial perfusion SPECT agents as a potent vasodilator is suggested as another cerebral vasodilator. IV Diamox R is not available in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate dipyridamole in stress brain SPECT in patients with Moya Moya disease. Eight patients with angiographically proven Moya Moya disease were studied. Their ages ranged from 7 to 62 year old. There were 4 males and 4 females. Each patient had a baseline and persantine brain SPECT studies with 1 to 3 days' interval. Dipyridamole was given intravenously at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg over 4 minutes while watching vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram. Three minutes after the completion of the infusion, 99mTc-ECD (0.2 mCi/Ib body weight) was injected. Brain SPECT was performed 30 minutes later using a tripple head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. A total of 128 projections with an acquisition time of 30 second per projection was obtained and reconstructed by filtered back projections without attenuation correction. The difference between the baseline and persantine studies was analysed by visual and semiquantitavely. During the infusion of persantine, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects such as headache, chest discomfort were similar to the persantine myocardial SPECT studies. Five of eight patients showed a significant decrease in rCBF on persantine brain SPECT in comparison to the baseline study. The remaining three revealed no significant change in rCBF. Our study suggests that the dipyridamole stress brain SPECT is feasible and useful in assessing cerebral blood flow reserve. However we need to evaluate more number of patients in the future

  7. Usefulness of isoproterenol stress thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Twenty patients complaining of chest pain were referred for isoproterenol stress thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (ISO-SPECT). The findings were compared with those obtained from isoproterenol stress ECG testing (ISO-ECG) and exercise SPECT (EX-SPECT). Isoproterenol was iv injected in a dose of 0.02 μg/kg/min. The amount was continuously increased until limited by chest pain, ST depression, and/or determined heart rate criteria. The patients were scanned immediately and three hours after giving isoproterenol. Transient hypoperfusion was regarded as myocardial ischemia. Washout rate, obtained from circumferential profile analysis on the short axis SPECT images, was expressed by Bull's eye display. Fifteen patients with angiographically significant stenosis of 75% or greater were diagnosed as having coronary artery disease (CAD). The other five patients had normal coronary artery (NC). In diagnosing CAD, ISO-ECG and ISO-SPECT had a sensitivity of 80% and 92%, respectively. Because the NC group had negative findings for redistribution on ISO-SPECT, the specificy of ISO-SPECT seemed to be high. For multi-vessel disease, redistribution on ISO-SPECT tended to underestimate coronary lesions. The underestimation was, however, corrected by calculating washout rate. For evaluable 11 patients undergoing concurrent EX-SPECT, ISP-SPECT was equivalent or superior to EX-SPECT in diagnostic sensitivity. None of the patients had severe side effects of isoproterenol, except for some having arrhythmia. The results indicated that ISO-SPECT is a safe, high sensitive diagnostic approach that is comparable to Ex-SPECT. (N.K.)

  8. SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Praveen; Jaganthan, Sriram; Patnecha, Manish; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad; Malhotra, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Skull base osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal disease. We demonstrate here the utility of SPECT/CT in diagnosing this entity, which was not obvious on a planar bone scan. A 99mT c MDP bone scan with SPECT/CT was carried out on a patient with clinically suspected skull base osteomyelitis. Findings were correlated with contrast enhanced CT (CECT) and MRI. Planar images were equivocal, but SPECT/CT showed intense uptake in the body of sphenoid and petrous temporal bone as well as the atlas corresponding to irregular bone destruction on CT and MRI. These findings indicate that SPECT/CT may have an additional role beyond planar imaging in the detection of skull base osteomyelitis.

  9. [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    We studied clinical significance of [sup 99m]Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ([sup 99m]Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author).

  10. Left ventricular ejection fraction determined by gated Tl-201 perfusion SPECT and quantitative software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, In Young; Kim, Sung Eun; Seo, Jeong Kee; Hong, Eui Soo; Kwan, Jun; Park, Keum Soo; Lee, Woo Hyung

    2000-01-01

    We compared estimates of ejection fraction (EF) determined by gated Tl-201 perfusion SPECT (g-Tl-SPECT) with those by gated blood pool (GBP) scan. Eighteen subjects underwent g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan. After reconstruction of g-Tl-SPECT, we measured EF with Cedars software. The comparison of the EF with g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan was assessed by correlation analysis and Bland Altman plot. The estimates of EF were significantly different (p<0.05) with g-Tl-SPECT (40%±14%) and GBP scan (43%±14%). There was an excellent correlation of EF between g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan (r=3D0.94, p<0.001). The mean difference of EF between GBP scan and g-Tl-SPECT was +3.2%. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement were ±9.8%. EF between g-Tl-SPECT and GBP scan were in poor agreement. The estimates of EF by g-Tl-SPECT was well correlated with those by GBP scan. However, EF of g-Tl-SPECT doesn't agree with EF of GBP scan. EF of g-Tl-SPECT can't be used interchangeably with EF of GBP scan.=20

  11. SPECT/CT imaging in general orthopedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The availability of hybrid devices that combine the latest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technology with multislice computed tomography (CT) scanning has allowed us to detect subtle, nonspecific abnormalities on bone scans and interpret them as specific focal areas of pathology. Abnormalities in the spine can be separated into those caused by pars fractures, facet joint arthritis, or osteophyte formation on vertebral bodies. Compression fractures can be distinguished from severe degenerative disease, both of which can cause intense activity across the spine on either planar or SPECT imaging. Localizing activity in patients who have had spinal fusion can provide tremendous insight into the causes of therapeutic failures. Infections of the spine now can be diagnosed with gallium SPECT/CT, despite the fact that gallium has long been abandoned because of its failure to detect spine infection on either planar or SPECT imaging. Small focal abnormalities in the feet and ankles can be localized well enough to make specific orthopedic diagnoses on the basis of their location. Moreover, when radiographic imaging provides equivocal or inadequate information, SPECT/CT can provide a road map for further diagnostic studies and has been invaluable in planning surgery. Our ability to localize activity within a bone or at an articular surface has allowed us to distinguish between fractures and joint disease. Increased activity associated with congenital anomalies, such as tarsal coalition and Bertolotti's syndrome have allowed us to understand the pathophysiology of these conditions, to confirm them as the cause of the patient's symptoms, and to provide information that is useful in determining appropriate clinical management. As our experience broadens, SPECT/CT will undoubtedly become an important tool in the evaluation and management of a wider variety of orthopedic patients.

  12. Spatiotemporal source analysis in scalp EEG vs. intracerebral EEG and SPECT: a case study in a 2-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, A; Grebe, R; Berquin, P; Bourel Ponchel, E; Jalin, C; Fohlen, M; Bulteau, C; Delalande, O; Gondry, C; Héberlé, C; Moullart, V; Wallois, F

    2012-06-01

    This case study aims to demonstrate that spatiotemporal spike discrimination and source analysis are effective to monitor the development of sources of epileptic activity in time and space. Therefore, they can provide clinically useful information allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiology of individual seizures with time- and space-resolved characteristics of successive epileptic states, including interictal, preictal, postictal, and ictal states. High spatial resolution scalp EEGs (HR-EEG) were acquired from a 2-year-old girl with refractory central epilepsy and single-focus seizures as confirmed by intracerebral EEG recordings and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Evaluation of HR-EEG consists of the following three global steps: (1) creation of the initial head model, (2) automatic spike and seizure detection, and finally (3) source localization. During the source localization phase, epileptic states are determined to allow state-based spike detection and localization of underlying sources for each spike. In a final cluster analysis, localization results are integrated to determine the possible sources of epileptic activity. The results were compared with the cerebral locations identified by intracerebral EEG recordings and SPECT. The results obtained with this approach were concordant with those of MRI, SPECT and distribution of intracerebral potentials. Dipole cluster centres found for spikes in interictal, preictal, ictal and postictal states were situated an average of 6.3mm from the intracerebral contacts with the highest voltage. Both amplitude and shape of spikes change between states. Dispersion of the dipoles was higher in the preictal state than in the postictal state. Two clusters of spikes were identified. The centres of these clusters changed position periodically during the various epileptic states. High-resolution surface EEG evaluated by an advanced algorithmic approach can be used to investigate the

  13. Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Drinking Water by Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Yiping; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-11-11

    A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) method based on a polymer cation exchange material (PCX) was applied to the simultaneous determination of the 30 triazine herbicides in drinking water with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric detection. Drinking water samples were acidified with formic acid, and then triazines were adsorbed by the PCX sorbent. Subsequently, the analytes were eluted with ammonium hydroxide/acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on an HSS T3 column using water (4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The method achieved LODs of 0.2-30.0 ng/L for the 30 triazines, with recoveries in the range of 70.5-112.1%, and the precision of the method was better than 12.7%. These results indicated that the proposed method had the advantages of convenience and high efficiency when applied to the analysis of the 30 triazines in drinking water.

  14. Femoral chondrosarcoma discovered by SPECT-T.D.M. osseous scintigraphy; Chondrosarcome femoral decouvert par scintigraphie osseuse SPECT-TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, K.; Nguyen, L.; Rolling, P.; Schott, A.; Di Salvo, R. [CLCC Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg, (France)

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: the SPECT/T.D.M. imaging can allow a quick diagnosis direction by the concomitant exploitation of scintigraphy data and morphological data brought by the T.D.M.. We present the case of a chondrosarcoma diagnosed in nuclear medicine thanks to the exploitation of the data supplied by the SPECT/T.D.M. that allowed to direct rapidly the later explorations while reducing the time of the patient coverage. Conclusions: A knowledge of the most characteristic morphological data allows to give some diagnosis at first sight during the scintigraphy explorations coupled SPECT/T.D.M. and this in the interest of the patient by reducing his coverage while including the nuclear doctor more broadly in some diagnosis approaches previously remote from his reach. (N.C.)

  15. Usefulness of hyperventilation myocardial SPECT for diagnosing vasospastic angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Yorio; Shimoyama, Katsuya; Nishimura, Tooru; Sasaki, Akira; Taya, Makoto; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Ono, Akifumi; Tsuya, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of hyperventilation myocardial scintigraphy (HV-SPECT) for diagnosing vasospastic angina pectoris. The subjects consisted of 11 patients with rest angina and 13 with rest and exertional angina in whom coronary spasm was demonstrated by coronary angiography, and 6 with exertional angina in whom a significant stenotic lesion was observed by coronary angiography. Hyperventilation was performed at a rate of 40/min for 5 minutes in all the patients. Ischemia was considered to be present when defect and redistribution were observed by SPECT. HV-SPECT revealed positive findings in 8 patients with rest angina (73%) and 9 with exertional and rest angina (69%) but only in 1 with exertional angina (17%). Ischemic ST changes on monitor ECG were observed in 13 of the 30 patients (43%); ST was enhanced in 4 patients and depressed in 9 patients. In the patients with rest angina, HV-SPECT induced ischemic findings more frequently than exercise SPECT (73% vs 55%). HV-SPECT seems to be useful as a non-invasive method for diagnosing angina pectoris resulting from coronary spasm. (author)

  16. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  17. In situ ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamin S; Wang, Danling; Li, Xiaoli; Baluyot, Florence; Iliakis, Bernie; Lindquist, Thomas D; Shirakawa, Rika; Shen, Tueng T; Li, Xingde

    2008-08-01

    To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool to perform in situ characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty. A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) was used to characterize donor corneal tissue that had been processed for lamellar keratoplasty. Twenty-seven donor corneas were analyzed. Four donor corneas were used as controls, whereas the rest were processed into donor corneal buttons for lamellar transplantation by using hand dissection, a microkeratome, or a femtosecond laser. UHR-OCT was also used to noninvasively characterize and monitor the viable corneal tissue immersed in storage medium over 3 weeks. The UHR-OCT captured high-resolution images of the donor corneal tissue in situ. This noninvasive technique showed the changes in donor corneal tissue morphology with time while in storage medium. The characteristics of the lamellar corneal tissue with each processing modality were clearly visible by UHR-OCT. The in situ characterization of the femtosecond laser-cut corneal tissue was noted to have more interface debris than shown by routine histology. The effects of the femtosecond laser microcavitation bubbles on the corneal tissue were well visualized at the edges of the lamellar flap while in storage medium. The results of our feasibility study show that UHR-OCT can provide superb, in situ microstructural characterization of eye bank corneal tissue noninvasively. The UHR-OCT interface findings and corneal endothelial disc thickness uniformity analysis are valuable information that may be used to optimize the modalities and parameters for lamellar tissue processing. The UHR-OCT is a powerful approach that will allow us to further evaluate the tissue response to different processing techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty. It may also provide information that can be used to correlate with postoperative clinical outcomes. UHR-OCT has the potential to become a routine part of tissue

  18. SPECT/CT for staging and treatment monitoring in oncology. Applications in differentiated thyroid cancer and liver tumors; SPECT/CT zum initialen Staging und Therapiemonitoring in der Onkologie. Indikationen beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom und bei Lebertumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K.; Berger, F.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Mustafa, M.; Bartenstein, P.; Haug, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Hybrid imaging of function and morphology has gained significant importance for lesion detection and treatment monitoring in oncology. In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) a planar whole body scan is carried out after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for staging. However, due to limited spatial resolution the diagnostic accuracy of this scintigraphy method is impaired. Radioembolization utilizing {sup 90}Yttrium loaded micro-spheres by selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) allows a minor invasive therapy of primary and secondary liver tumors. In order to avoid side effects of the micro-spheres caused by an outflow into intestines, stomach or lungs, imaging the arteries supplying the liver has to be performed by means of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) and scintigraphy. The limited morphological information supplied by