WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultrahigh resolution measurements

  1. Measurement of the Retention Time of Different Ophthalmic Formulations with Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Caterina; Papa, Vincenzo; Amato, Roberta; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Avitabile, Teresio

    2018-04-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to measure the pre-corneal retention time of two marketed formulations (eye drops and eye gel) of a steroid-antibiotic fixed combination (FC) containing 0.1% dexamethasone and 0.3% netilmicin. Pre-corneal retention time was evaluated in 16 healthy subjects using an ultrahigh-resolution anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). All subjects randomly received both formulations of the FC (Netildex, SIFI, Italy). Central tear film thickness (CTFT) was measured before instillation (time 0) and then after 1, 10, 20, 30, 40 50, 60 and 120 min. The pre-corneal retention time was calculated by plotting CTFT as a function of time. Differences between time points and groups were analyzed by Student's t-test. CTFT increased significantly after the instillation of the eye gel formulation (p < 0.001). CTFT reached its maximum value 1 min after instillation and returned to baseline after 60 min. No effect on CTFT was observed after the instillation of eye drops. The difference between the two formulations was statistically significant at time 1 min (p < 0.0001), 10 min (p < 0.001) and 20 min (p < 0.01). The FC formulated as eye gel was retained on the ocular surface longer than the corresponding eye drop solution. Consequently, the use of the eye gel might extend the interval between instillations and decrease the frequency of administration.

  2. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  3. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  4. Development of ultrahigh energy resolution gamma spectrometers for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, O.B.; Velazquez, M.; Dreyer, J.G.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing superconducting ultrahigh resolution gamma-detectors for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials, and specifically for spent fuel characterization in nuclear safeguards. The detectors offer an energy resolution below 100 eV FWHM at 100 keV, and can therefore significantly increase the precision of NDA at low energies where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement when using germanium detectors. They also increase the peak-to-background ratio and thus improve the detection limits for weak gamma emissions from the fissile Pu and U isotopes at low energy in the presence of an intense Compton background from the fission products in spent fuel. Here we demonstrate high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of our superconducting Gamma detectors, and discuss their relevance for measuring actinides in spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  5. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  6. Energy resolution measurements of LaBr3:Ce scintillating crystals with an ultra-high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Scafe, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Vittorini, F.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Lo Meo, S.; Mattioli, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Pisacane, F.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.; Boccaccio, P.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Sacco, D.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the new prototype of high quantum efficiency PMT (43% at 380 nm), Hamamatsu R7600U-200, was studied coupled to a LaBr 3 :Ce crystal with the size of o12.5 mmx12.5 mm. The energy resolution results were compared with ones from two PMTs, Hamamatsu R7600U and R6231MOD, with 22% and 30% quantum efficiency (QE), respectively. Moreover, the photodetectors were equipped with tapered and un-tapered voltage dividers to study the non-linearity effects on pulse height distribution, due to very high peak currents induced in the PMT by the fast and intense light pulse of LaBr 3 :Ce. The results show an energy resolution improvement with UBA PMT of about 20%, in the energy range of 80-662 keV, with respect to the BA one.

  7. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  8. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  9. Measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Properties and Simulations Probed with Electromagnetic Containerless Technique (PROSPECT) is a measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties to be able to measure thermophysical properties with high precision by combining AC magnetic field (electromagnetic levitation device) and DC magnetic field (superconducting magnet) to realize the static floating state of metallic melt, in other words, the state of suppressing the surface vibration of droplets, translational motion, and internal convection. The electromagnetic levitation method is a method to obtain a floating force due to the Lorentz force generated by the interaction between high-frequency current flowing in the coil and the induced current generated in a sample, and to heat/melt the sample with the Joule heat generated by its induced current. This paper roughly explains the element technologies of PROSPECT with a focus on the laser modulation calorimetry (laser periodic heating method), normal spectral emissivity measurement method, density measurement, and surface tension measurement method. Furthermore, as the application of PROSPECT to new research deployment, it introduces the observation of phase separation structure in the supercooled solidification structure of Cu-Co alloy. (A.O.)

  10. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Cheng, Bin; Liu, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Lin; He, Jr-Hau; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  11. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  12. Ultrahigh resolution radiation imaging system using an optical fiber structure scintillator plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-02-16

    High resolution imaging of radiation is required for such radioisotope distribution measurements as alpha particle detection in nuclear facilities or high energy physics experiments. For this purpose, we developed an ultrahigh resolution radiation imaging system using an optical fiber structure scintillator plate. We used a ~1-μm diameter fiber structured GdAlO 3 :Ce (GAP) /α-Al 2 O 3 scintillator plate to reduce the light spread. The fiber structured scintillator plate was optically coupled to a tapered optical fiber plate to magnify the image and combined with a lens-based high sensitivity CCD camera. We observed the images of alpha particles with a spatial resolution of ~25 μm. For the beta particles, the images had various shapes, and the trajectories of the electrons were clearly observed in the images. For the gamma photons, the images also had various shapes, and the trajectories of the secondary electrons were observed in some of the images. These results show that combining an optical fiber structure scintillator plate with a tapered optical fiber plate and a high sensitivity CCD camera achieved ultrahigh resolution and is a promising method to observe the images of the interactions of radiation in a scintillator.

  13. Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution

  14. Systematic profiling and comparison of the lipidomes from Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and ion mobility-derived collision cross section measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojian; Yang, Wenzhi; Qiu, Shi; Hou, Jinjun; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2018-05-04

    Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng) by methyl tert-butyl ether are comprehensively profiled and compared by use of this platform. A potent UHPSFC/QTOF-MS approach was developed on a 1.7-μm particles packed Torus 2-PIC column using CH 3 OH (in CO 2 ) as a modifier and CH 3 OH/0.2 mM ammonium acetate as the makeup liquid, enabling well resolution of six lipid subclasses by both positive and negative MS E modes. In contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, "normal-phase" like elution order and better resolution of polar lipids and some lipid isomers were achieved by UHPSFC separation. Pattern recognition chemometric analysis of 60 batches of Ginseng samples ultimately unveiled 24 lipid markers, of which triacylglycerols were the most important. Aside from the automated MS database searching against HMDB and LIPID MAPS, the application of CCS retrieval or CCS prediction improved lipid identification by reducing the possible hits. In conclusion, this integral platform can significantly improve the chromatographic separation and the reliability of lipids identification in lipidomics studies. It is the first report that systematically compares the lipidomic difference of three reputable Panax species, providing useful information for their quality control in addition to ginsenoside analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography for encapsulation quality inspection

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, Jakub

    2011-08-28

    We present the application of ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of thin, protective films used in printed electronics. Two types of sample were investigated: microscopy glass and organic field effect transistor (OFET) structure. Samples were coated with thin (1-3 μm) layer of parylene C polymer. Measurements were done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti: sapphire femtosecond laser, photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. Submicron resolution offered by the UHR-OCT system applied in the study enables registration of both interfaces of the thin encapsulation layer. Complete, volumetric characterisation of protective layers is presented, demonstrating possibility to use OCT for encapsulation quality inspection. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  16. Design and Implementation of Wideband Exciter for an Ultra-high Resolution Airborne SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system with better than 0.1 m resolution, a wideband Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM pulse compression exciter with 14.8 GHz carrier and 3.2 GHz bandwidth is designed and implemented. The selection of signal generation scheme and some key technique points for wideband LFM waveform is presented in detail. Then, an acute test and analysis of the LFM signal is performed. The final airborne experiments demonstrate the validity of the LFM source which is one of the subsystems in an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system.

  17. Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, P. R.; Chen, Y.; Aguirre, A. D.; Schneider, K.; Hsiung, P.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Madden, K.; Schmitt, J.; Goodnow, J.; Petersen, C.

    2004-10-01

    A distally actuated, rotational-scanning micromotor endoscope catheter probe is demonstrated for ultrahigh-resolution in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The probe permits focus adjustment for visualization of tissue morphology at varying depths with improved transverse resolution compared with standard OCT imaging probes. The distal actuation avoids nonuniform scanning motion artifacts that are present with other probe designs and can permit a wider range of imaging speeds. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic imaging is demonstrated in a rabbit with micromotor endoscope catheter probe promises to improve OCT imaging performance in future endoscopic imaging applications.

  18. Waveguide image-slicers for ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Andersen, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Waveguide image-slicer prototypes with resolutions up to 310.000 for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 30 μm have been manufactured. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of 7 and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 4.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image-slicer stacks can be used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to be implemented in a set of four, measurements indicate an overall efficiency of above 80% for them.

  19. Quantifying the benefits of ultrahigh energy resolution for Gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Owen B.; Terracol, Stephane F.; Friedrich, Stephan [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-270, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Cryogenic Gamma-ray spectrometers operating at temperatures of {proportional_to}0.1 K provide an order of magnitude better energy resolution than conventional germanium detectors. Ultra-high energy resolution improves the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials, since a better separation of lines reduces statistical errors as well as systematic errors from background subtraction and efficiency correction. We are developing cryogenic Gamma-spectrometers based on bulk tin absorbers and superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors for nuclear forensics and non-proliferation applications. Here we quantify the improvements in accuracy for isotope analysis with cryogenic detectors in terms of detector performance for different cases of line separation, line intensity ratios and background levels. Precise measurements of isotope ratios are crucial in the context of nuclear attribution, since they provide signatures of composition, age, origin, intended purpose and processing history of illicit nuclear materials. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Motivation for an SSC detector with ultra-high resolution photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.F.; Kane, G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that incorporating ultra-high resolution photon detection into a general purpose detector for the SSC will be extremely difficult. The authors will argue that the physics signals that could be missed without such resolution are of such importance that a special purpose detector designed specifically for photon final state modes should be constructed, if sufficient resolution cannot be achieved with general purpose detectors. The potentially great value of these signals as a probe of extremely high mass scales is stressed

  1. Ultra-High Resolution Spectroscopic Remote Sensing: A Microscope on Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of planetary atmospheres is not complete without studies of all levels of the atmosphere, including the dense cloudy- and haze filled troposphere, relatively clear and important stratosphere and the upper atmosphere, which are the first levels to experience the effects of solar radiation. High-resolution spectroscopy can provide valuable information on these regions of the atmosphere. Ultra-high spectral resolution studies can directly measure atmospheric winds, composition, temperature and non-thermal phenomena, which describe the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere. Spectroscopy in the middle to long infrared wavelengths can also probe levels where dust of haze limit measurements at shorter wavelength or can provide ambiguous results on atmospheric species abundances or winds. A spectroscopic technique in the middle infrared wavelengths analogous to a radio receiver. infrared heterodyne spectroscopy [1], will be describe and used to illustrate the detailed study of atmospheric phenomena not readily possible with other methods. The heterodyne spectral resolution with resolving power greater than 1,000.000 measures the true line shapes of emission and absorption lines in planetary atmospheres. The information on the region of line formation is contained in the line shapes. The absolute frequency of the lines can be measured to I part in 100 ,000,000 and can be used to accurately measure the Doppler frequency shift of the lines, directly measuring the line-of-sight velocity of the gas to --Im/s precision (winds). The technical and analytical methods developed and used to measure and analyze infrared heterodyne measurements will be described. Examples of studies on Titan, Venus, Mars, Earth, and Jupiter will be presented. 'These include atmospheric dynamics on slowly rotating bodies (Titan [2] and Venus [3] and temperature, composition and chemistry on Mars 141, Venus and Earth. The discovery and studies of unique atmospheric phenomena will also be

  2. Single photon imaging at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: Gloria.Spandre@pi.infn.it; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Baldini, L.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Sgro, C.; Bregeon, J.; Razzano, M.; Pinchera, M. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-06-11

    We present a detection system capable of imaging both single photon/positive ion and multiple coincidence photons/positive ions with extremely high spatial resolution. In this detector the photoelectrons excited by the incoming photons are multiplied by microchannel plate(s) (MCP). The process of multiplication is spatially constrained within an MCP pore, which can be as small as 4 {mu}m for commercially available MCPs. An electron cloud originated by a single photoelectron is then encoded by a pixellated custom analog ASIC consisting of 105 K charge sensitive pixels of 50 {mu}m in size arranged on a hexagonal grid. Each pixel registers the charge with an accuracy of <100 electrons rms. Computation of the event centroid from the readout charges results in an accurate event position. A large number of simultaneous photons spatially separated by {approx}0.4 mm can be detected simultaneously allowing multiple coincidence operation for the experiments where a large number of incoming photons/positive ions have to be detected simultaneously. The experimental results prove that the spatial resolution of the readout system itself is {approx}3 {mu}m FWHM enabling detection resolution better than 6 {mu}m for the small pore MCPs. An attractive feature of the detection system is its capability to register the timing of each incoming photon/positive ion (in single photon detection mode) or of the first incoming particle (for the multiple coincidence detection) with an accuracy of {approx}130 ps FWHM. There is also virtually no dark count noise in the detection system making it suitable for low count rate applications.

  3. Bulk superconducting gap of V{sub 3}Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T., E-mail: t-sato@arpes.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Souma, S. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakayama, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sugawara, K. [WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Toyota, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); WPI Research Center, Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V{sub 3}Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V{sub 3}Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V{sub 3}Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c} = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V{sub 3}Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  4. Bulk superconducting gap of V_3Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Toyota, N.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V_3Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V_3Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T_c = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  5. Development of an ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head GAGG coincidence imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2013-03-01

    A silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for high resolution PET systems due to its small channel size and high gain. Using Si-PMs, it will be possible to develop a high resolution imaging systems. For this purpose, we developed a small field-of-view (FOV) ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system for small animals and plant research. A new scintillator, Ce doped Gd3Al12Ga3O12 (GAGG), was selected because of its high light output and its emission wavelength matched with the Si-PM arrays and contained no radioactivity. Each coincidence imaging block detector consists of 0.5×0.5×5 mm3 GAGG pixels combined with a 0.1-mm thick reflector to form a 20×17 matrix that was optically coupled to a Si-PM array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 1.5-mm thick light guide. The GAGG block size was 12.0×10.2 mm2. Two GAGG block detectors were positioned face to face and set on a flexible arm based detector stand. All 0.5 mm GAGG pixels in the block detectors were clearly resolved in the 2-dimensional position histogram. The energy resolution was 14.4% FWHM for the Cs-137 gamma ray. The spatial resolution was 0.7 mm FWHM measured using a 0.25 mm diameter Na-22 point source. Small animal and plant images were successfully obtained. We conclude that our developed ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system is promising for small animal and plant imaging research.

  6. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  7. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povaay, B.; Müller, André

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion......-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior...... eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness....

  9. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterhuber, A; Povazay, B; Bizheva, K; Hermann, B; Sattmann, H; Stingl, A; Le, T; Seefeld, M; Menzel, R; Preusser, M; Budka, H; Schubert, Ch; Reitsamer, H; Ahnelt, P K; Morgan, J E; Cowey, A; Drexler, W

    2004-01-01

    Novel ultra-broad bandwidth light sources enabling unprecedented sub-2 μm axial resolution over the 400 nm-1700 nm wavelength range have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility for clinical ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) applications. The state-of-the-art light sources described here include a compact Kerr lens mode locked Ti:sapphire laser (λ c = 785 nm, Δλ = 260 nm, P out = 50 mW) and different nonlinear fibre-based light sources with spectral bandwidths (at full width at half maximum) up to 350 nm at λ c = 1130 nm and 470 nm at λ c = 1375 nm. In vitro UHR OCT imaging is demonstrated at multiple wavelengths in human cancer cells, animal ganglion cells as well as in neuropathologic and ophthalmic biopsies in order to compare and optimize UHR OCT image contrast, resolution and penetration depth

  10. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  11. Microstructural abnormalities in MEWDS demonstrated by ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, My Hanh T; Witkin, Andre J; Reichel, Elias; Ko, Tony H; Fujimoto, James G; Schuman, Joel S; Duker, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    Histopathological studies of acute multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) have not been reported because of the transient and benign nature of the disease. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT), capable of high resolution in vivo imaging, offers a unique opportunity to visualize retinal microstructure in the disease. UHR-OCT images of the maculae of five patients with MEWDS were obtained and analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, examination, visual field testing, and angiography. UHR-OCT revealed disturbances in the photoreceptor inner/outer segment junction (IS/OS) in each of the five patients (six eyes) with MEWDS. In addition, thinning of the outer nuclear layer was seen in the case of recurrent MEWDS, suggesting that repeated episodes of MEWDS may result in photoreceptor atrophy. Subtle disruptions of the photoreceptor IS/OS are demonstrated in all eyes affected by MEWDS. UHR-OCT may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and monitoring of MEWDS.

  12. Magnetic Microcalorimeter (MMC) Gamma Detectors with Ultra-High Energy Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The goal of this LCP is to develop ultra-high resolution gamma detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material, and implement several geometry and design changes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers, and by developing a cryogenic Compton veto to reduce the spectral background. Since best MMC performance requires detector operation at ~10 mK, we will purchase a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature <10 mK and adapt it for MMC operation. The detector performance will be tested with radioactive sources of interest to the safeguards community.

  13. Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, John M; Jacob, Robert; Vertenstein, Mariana; Craig, Tony; Loy, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Global climate models need to simulate several small, regional-scale processes which affect the global circulation in order to accurately simulate the climate. This is particularly important in the ocean where small scale features such as oceanic eddies are currently represented with adhoc parameterizations. There is also a need for higher resolution to provide climate predictions at small, regional scales. New high-performance computing platforms such as the IBM BlueGene can provide the necessary computational power to perform ultra-high resolution climate model integrations. We have begun to investigate the scaling of the individual components of the Community Climate System Model to prepare it for integrations on BlueGene and similar platforms. Our investigations show that it is possible to successfully utilize O(32K) processors. We describe the scalability of five models: the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice CodE (CICE), the Community Land Model (CLM), and the new CCSM sequential coupler (CPL7) which are components of the next generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM); as well as the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) which is a dynamical core currently being evaluated within the Community Atmospheric Model. For our studies we concentrate on 1/10 0 resolution for CICE, POP, and CLM models and 1/4 0 resolution for HOMME. The ability to simulate high resolutions on the massively parallel petascale systems that will dominate high-performance computing for the foreseeable future is essential to the advancement of climate science

  14. Spectrally Resolved and Functional Super-resolution Microscopy via Ultrahigh-Throughput Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Moon, Seonah; Kenny, Samuel J; Xu, Ke

    2018-03-20

    As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples. In this Account, we summarize the rationale, design, and results of our recent efforts toward the integration of the spectral dimension of single-molecule fluorescence with SMLM to achieve spectrally resolved SMLM (SR-SMLM) and functional SRM ( f-SRM). By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing single-molecule fluorescence on-off switching typical of SMLM, we first showed that in densely labeled (bio)samples it is possible to record the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules synchronously within minutes, giving rise to ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and SR-SMLM. This allowed us to first show statistically that for many dyes, single molecules of the same species exhibit near identical emission in fixed cells. This narrow distribution of emission wavelengths, which contrasts markedly with previous results at solid surfaces, allowed us to unambiguously identify single molecules of spectrally similar dyes. Crosstalk-free, multiplexed SRM was thus achieved for four dyes that were merely 10 nm apart in emission spectrum, with the three-dimensional SRM images of all four dyes being automatically aligned within one image channel. The ability to incorporate single-molecule fluorescence measurement with

  15. A comparative study of noise in supercontinuum light sources for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria J., Sanjuan-Ferrer,; Bravo Gonzalo, Ivan; Bondu, Magalie

    2017-01-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) light is a well-established technology, which finds applications in several domains ranging from chemistry to material science and imaging systems [1-2]. More specifically, its ultra-wide optical bandwidth and high average power make it an ideal tool for Optical Coherence...... Tomography (OCT). Over the last 5 years, numerous examples have demonstrated its high potential [3-4] in this context. However, SC light sources present pulse-to-pulse intensity variation that can limit the performance of any OCT system [5] by degrading their signal to noise ratio (SNR). To this goal, we...... have studied and compared the noise of several SC light sources and evaluated how their noise properties affect the performance of Ultra-High Resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) at 1300 nm. We have measured several SC light sources with different parameters (pulse length, energy, seed repetition rate, etc.). We...

  16. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  17. A vision for an ultra-high resolution integrated water cycle observation and prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Society's welfare, progress, and sustainable economic growth—and life itself—depend on the abundance and vigorous cycling and replenishing of water throughout the global environment. The water cycle operates on a continuum of time and space scales and exchanges large amounts of energy as water undergoes phase changes and is moved from one part of the Earth system to another. We must move toward an integrated observation and prediction paradigm that addresses broad local-to-global science and application issues by realizing synergies associated with multiple, coordinated observations and prediction systems. A central challenge of a future water and energy cycle observation strategy is to progress from single variable water-cycle instruments to multivariable integrated instruments in electromagnetic-band families. The microwave range in the electromagnetic spectrum is ideally suited for sensing the state and abundance of water because of water's dielectric properties. Eventually, a dedicated high-resolution water-cycle microwave-based satellite mission may be possible based on large-aperture antenna technology that can harvest the synergy that would be afforded by simultaneous multichannel active and passive microwave measurements. A partial demonstration of these ideas can even be realized with existing microwave satellite observations to support advanced multivariate retrieval methods that can exploit the totality of the microwave spectral information. The simultaneous multichannel active and passive microwave retrieval would allow improved-accuracy retrievals that are not possible with isolated measurements. Furthermore, the simultaneous monitoring of several of the land, atmospheric, oceanic, and cryospheric states brings synergies that will substantially enhance understanding of the global water and energy cycle as a system. The multichannel approach also affords advantages to some constituent retrievals—for instance, simultaneous retrieval of vegetation

  18. High-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes using ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Rockberg, Johan; Forsström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies empower numerous important scientific, clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications. Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning...... against unwanted (e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. The latter are typically probed with peptides, but the cost of peptide screening programs tends to prohibit comprehensive specificity analysis. To perform high-throughput, high......-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against...

  19. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  20. Ultra-low noise supercontinuum source for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, I. B.; Maria, M.; Engelsholm, R. D.; Feuchter, T.; Leick, L.; Moselund, P. M.; Podoleanu, A.; Bang, O.

    2018-02-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) sources are of great interest for many applications due to their ultra-broad optical bandwidth, good beam quality and high power spectral density [1]. In particular, the high average power over large bandwidths makes SC light sources excellent candidates for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) [2-5]. However, conventional SC sources suffer from high pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuations as a result of the noise-sensitive nonlinear effects involved in the SC generation process [6-9]. This intensity noise from the SC source can limit the performance of OCT, resulting in a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) [10-12]. Much work has been done to reduce the noise of the SC sources for instance with fiber tapers [7,8] or increasing the repetition rate of the pump laser for averaging in the spectrometer [10,12]. An alternative approach is to use all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fibers [13,14] to generate SC light from well-known coherent nonlinear processes [15-17]. In fact, reduction of SC noise using ANDi fibers compared to anomalous dispersion SC pumped by sub-picosecond pulses has been recently demonstrated [18], but a cladding mode was used to stabilize the ANDi SC. In this work, we characterize the noise performance of a femtosecond pumped ANDi based SC and a commercial SC source in an UHR-OCT system at 1300 nm. We show that the ANDi based SC presents exceptional noise properties compared to a commercial source. An improvement of 5 dB in SNR is measured in the UHR-OCT system, and the noise behavior resembles that of a superluminiscent diode. This preliminary study is a step forward towards development of an ultra-low noise SC source at 1300 nm for ultra-high resolution OCT.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-High Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.; Drury, O.B.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background. In order to optimize the detector geometry and to understand the spectral response function Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation package coded in C++, was used to model the detectors. Using a 1 mm 3 Sn absorber and a monochromatic gamma source, different absorber geometries were tested. The simulation was expanded to include the Cu block behind the absorber and four layers of shielding required for detector operation at 0.1 K. The energy spectrum was modeled for an Am-241 and a Cs-137 source, including scattering events in the shielding, and the results were compared to experimental data. For both sources the main spectral features such as the photopeak, the Compton continuum, the escape x-rays and the backscatter peak were identified. Finally, the low energy response of a Pu-239 source was modeled to assess the feasibility of Pu-239 detection in spent fuel. This modeling of superconducting detectors can serve as a guide to optimize the configuration in future spectrometer designs.

  2. Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, John M [Computer Science Section, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Jacob, Robert [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Vertenstein, Mariana [Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Craig, Tony [Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Loy, Raymond [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Global climate models need to simulate several small, regional-scale processes which affect the global circulation in order to accurately simulate the climate. This is particularly important in the ocean where small scale features such as oceanic eddies are currently represented with adhoc parameterizations. There is also a need for higher resolution to provide climate predictions at small, regional scales. New high-performance computing platforms such as the IBM BlueGene can provide the necessary computational power to perform ultra-high resolution climate model integrations. We have begun to investigate the scaling of the individual components of the Community Climate System Model to prepare it for integrations on BlueGene and similar platforms. Our investigations show that it is possible to successfully utilize O(32K) processors. We describe the scalability of five models: the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice CodE (CICE), the Community Land Model (CLM), and the new CCSM sequential coupler (CPL7) which are components of the next generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM); as well as the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) which is a dynamical core currently being evaluated within the Community Atmospheric Model. For our studies we concentrate on 1/10{sup 0} resolution for CICE, POP, and CLM models and 1/4{sup 0} resolution for HOMME. The ability to simulate high resolutions on the massively parallel petascale systems that will dominate high-performance computing for the foreseeable future is essential to the advancement of climate science.

  3. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  4. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, J.G.; Hertrich, T.; Drury, O.B.; Hohne, J.; Friedrich, S.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to ∼3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of ∼2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors

  5. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  6. Atomic-resolution measurements with a new tunable diode laser-based interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silver, R.M.; Zou, H.; Gonda, S.

    2004-01-01

    is lightweight and is mounted directly on an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope capable of atomic resolution. We report the simultaneous acquisition of an atomic resolution image, while the relative lateral displacement of the tip along the sample distance is measured with the new tunable diode...

  7. Clinical Performance of an Ultrahigh Resolution Chromosomal Microarray Optimized for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; Twede, Hope; Vanzo, Rena; Harward, Erin; Hensel, Charles H; Martin, Megan M; Page, Stephanie; Peiffer, Andreas; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Serrano, Moises; Wassman, E Robert

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) as detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) significantly contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study summarizes the results of 3.5 years of CMA testing by a CLIA-certified clinical testing laboratory 5487 patients with neurodevelopmental conditions were clinically evaluated for rare copy number variants using a 2.8-million probe custom CMA optimized for the detection of CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We report an overall detection rate of 29.4% in our neurodevelopmental cohort, which rises to nearly 33% when cases with DD/ID and/or MCA only are considered. The detection rate for the ASD cohort is also significant, at 25%. Additionally, we find that detection rate and pathogenic yield of CMA vary significantly depending on the primary indications for testing, the age of the individuals tested, and the specialty of the ordering doctor. We also report a significant difference between the detection rate on the ultrahigh resolution optimized array in comparison to the array from which it originated. This increase in detection can significantly contribute to the efficient and effective medical management of neurodevelopmental conditions in the clinic.

  8. Wavy Architecture Thin-Film Transistor for Ultrahigh Resolution Flexible Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir Nabil

    2017-11-13

    A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor\\'s width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate. Operation of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based TFTs is shown down to a bending radius of 5 mm with no degradation in the electrical performance or cracks in the gate stack. Finally, flexible low-power LEDs driven by the respective currents of the novel wavy, and conventional coplanar architectures are demonstrated, where the novel architecture is able to drive the LED at 2 × the output power, 3 versus 1.5 mW, which demonstrates the potential use for ultrahigh resolution displays in an area efficient manner.

  9. Mnemonic discrimination relates to perforant path integrity: An ultra-high resolution diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Stark, Craig E L

    2016-03-01

    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20-87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wavy Architecture Thin-Film Transistor for Ultrahigh Resolution Flexible Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir Nabil; Kutbee, Arwa Talal; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Ooi, Boon S.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor's width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate. Operation of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based TFTs is shown down to a bending radius of 5 mm with no degradation in the electrical performance or cracks in the gate stack. Finally, flexible low-power LEDs driven by the respective currents of the novel wavy, and conventional coplanar architectures are demonstrated, where the novel architecture is able to drive the LED at 2 × the output power, 3 versus 1.5 mW, which demonstrates the potential use for ultrahigh resolution displays in an area efficient manner.

  11. Comparative study between ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm and high spatial frequency algorithm in high-resolution CT of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Jung Kyuk; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1994-01-01

    To date, the high spatial frequency algorithm (HSFA) which reduces image smoothing and increases spatial resolution has been used for the evaluation of parenchymal lung diseases in thin-section high-resolution CT. In this study, we compared the ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm (UHSFA) with the high spatial frequency algorithm in the assessment of thin section images of the lung parenchyma. Three radiologists compared the UHSFA and HSFA on identical CT images in a line-pair resolution phantom, one lung specimen, 2 patients with normal lung and 18 patients with abnormal lung parenchyma. Scanning of a line-pair resolution phantom demonstrated no difference in resolution between two techniques but it showed that outer lines of the line pairs with maximal resolution looked thicker on UHSFA than those on HSFA. Lung parenchymal detail with UHSFA was judged equal or superior to HSFA in 95% of images. Lung parenchymal sharpness was improved with UHSFA in all images. Although UHSFA resulted in an increase in visible noise, observers did not found that image noise interfered with image interpretation. The visual CT attenuation of normal lung parenchyma is minimally increased in images with HSFA. The overall visual preference of the images reconstructed on UHSFA was considered equal to or greater than that of those reconstructed on HSFA in 78% of images. The ultrahigh spatial frequency algorithm improved the overall visual quality of the images in pulmonary parenchymal high-resolution CT

  12. Developing a structure-function model for the cryptophyte phycoerythrin 545 using ultrahigh resolution crystallography and ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Alexander B; Marai, Christopher N J; Harrop, Stephen J; Wilk, Krystyna E; Curmi, Paul M G; Scholes, Gregory D

    2004-11-12

    Cryptophyte algae differ from cyanobacteria and red algae in the architecture of their photosynthetic light harvesting systems, even though all three are evolutionarily related. Central to cryptophyte light harvesting is the soluble antenna protein phycoerythrin 545 (PE545). The ultrahigh resolution crystal structure of PE545, isolated from a unicellular cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24, is reported at both 1.1A and 0.97A resolution, revealing details of the conformation and environments of the chromophores. Absorption, emission and polarized steady state spectroscopy (298K, 77K), as well as ultrafast (20fs time resolution) measurements of population dynamics are reported. Coupled with complementary quantum chemical calculations of electronic transitions of the bilins, these enable assignment of spectral absorption characteristics to each chromophore in the structure. Spectral differences between the tetrapyrrole pigments due to chemical differences between bilins, as well as their binding and interaction with the local protein environment are described. Based on these assignments, and considering customized optical properties such as strong coupling, a model for light harvesting by PE545 is developed which explains the fast, directional harvesting of excitation energy. The excitation energy is funnelled from four peripheral pigments (beta158,beta82) into a central chromophore dimer (beta50/beta61) in approximately 1ps. Those chromophores, in turn, transfer the excitation energy to the red absorbing molecules located at the periphery of the complex in approximately 4ps. A final resonance energy transfer step sensitizes just one of the alpha19 bilins on a time scale of 22ps. Furthermore, it is concluded that binding of PE545 to the thylakoid membrane is not essential for efficient energy transfer to the integral membrane chlorophyll a-containing complexes associated with PS-II.

  13. Characterization of unknown iodinated disinfection byproducts during chlorination/chloramination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with organic matter in the presence of iodide in raw water, have recently been focused because of their more cytotoxic and genotoxic properties than their chlorinated or brominated analogues. To date, only a few I-DBPs in drinking water have been identified. In this study, C18 solid phase extraction coupled with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown I-DBPs in chloraminated/chlorinated water spiked with iodide and humic substances. In total, 178 formulas for one-iodine-containing products, 13 formulas for two-iodine-containing products, and 15 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were detected in the chloraminated water sample, while only 9 formulas for one-iodine-containing products and 6 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were found in the chlorinated water sample. Most I-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO compositions. As indicated by the modified aromaticity index (AI mod ), in the C18 extracts, more than 68% of the I-DBPs have aromatic structures or polycyclic aromatic structures. This result demonstrates that the use of chloramination as an alternative disinfection method may lead to the formation of abundant species of I-DBPs in the presence of iodide. Thus, the suitability of adopting chloramination as an alternative disinfection method should be reevaluated, particularly when iodide is present in raw water. - Highlights: • The formulas of 206 iodinated DBPs in chloraminated drinking water were proposed. • More than 68% of the I-DBPs might have aromatic or polycyclic aromatic structures. • Precursors with high aromaticity is preferential to form iodinated DBPs.

  14. Characterization of unknown iodinated disinfection byproducts during chlorination/chloramination using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: yangmin@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), formed from the reaction of disinfectant(s) with organic matter in the presence of iodide in raw water, have recently been focused because of their more cytotoxic and genotoxic properties than their chlorinated or brominated analogues. To date, only a few I-DBPs in drinking water have been identified. In this study, C18 solid phase extraction coupled with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize unknown I-DBPs in chloraminated/chlorinated water spiked with iodide and humic substances. In total, 178 formulas for one-iodine-containing products, 13 formulas for two-iodine-containing products, and 15 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were detected in the chloraminated water sample, while only 9 formulas for one-iodine-containing products and 6 formulas for one-chlorine and one-iodine-containing products were found in the chlorinated water sample. Most I-DBPs have corresponding chlorine-containing analogues with identical CHO compositions. As indicated by the modified aromaticity index (AI{sub mod}), in the C18 extracts, more than 68% of the I-DBPs have aromatic structures or polycyclic aromatic structures. This result demonstrates that the use of chloramination as an alternative disinfection method may lead to the formation of abundant species of I-DBPs in the presence of iodide. Thus, the suitability of adopting chloramination as an alternative disinfection method should be reevaluated, particularly when iodide is present in raw water. - Highlights: • The formulas of 206 iodinated DBPs in chloraminated drinking water were proposed. • More than 68% of the I-DBPs might have aromatic or polycyclic aromatic structures. • Precursors with high aromaticity is preferential to form iodinated DBPs.

  15. Structural Characterization of Laboratory Made Tholins by IRMPD Action Spectroscopy and Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, R.; Somogyi, A.; Vuitton, V.; Bégué, D.; Lemaire, J.; Steinmetz, V.

    2011-10-01

    The complex organic material that is found on the surface and within the haze layer of Titan is attributed to chemistry occurring in its thick N2/CH4 atmosphere. Although several groups are producing in various laboratory setting the socalled tholins which have been investigated by using analytical methods including UV/Vis, fluorescence, IR, and MS1-5, these very complex organic mixtures still hold many unanswered questions, especially related to the potentiality for their prebiotic chemistry. In addition to tholins characterization and analysis, we recently investigated quantitatively the hydrolysis kinetics of tholins in pure and NH3 containing water at different temperatures.7-8 Our groups at UJF (Grenoble) and at U of Arizona (Tucson) have been collaborating on mass spectral analyses of tholins samples for several years.9 Here, we report our most recent results on the structural characterization of tholins by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy10 and ultrahigh resolution MS. IRMPD action spectroscopy is a recently developed technique that uses IR photons of variable wavelengths to activate ions trapped inside an ion trap. When photons are absorbed at a given wavelength, the selected ion fragments and this fragmentation is monitored as a function of wavelength, analog to an absorption spectrum (impossible to record otherwise because of the much reduced density). This technique can, therefore, be used to determine IR spectra of ions in the gas phase, and provides with very acute structural information. IRMPD action spectroscopy is often used to distinguish between structural isomers of isobaric ions. The drawback is that it requests for high power lasers. Only two Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are available in the world and allow to record spectra with reasonable resolution (20-25 cm-1). IRMPD action spectra of selected ions from tholins will be presented and discussed together with observed fragmentation processes that reveal structural

  16. Visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoju; Zhan, Qiuqiang; Zhao, Yuxiang; Wu, Ruitao; Liu, Jing; He, Sailing

    2016-01-25

    Further development of multiphoton microscopic imaging is confronted with a number of limitations, including high-cost, high complexity and relatively low spatial resolution due to the long excitation wavelength. To overcome these problems, for the first time, we propose visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging by using a common cost-effective 730-nm laser diode to excite the prepared Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (Nd(3+)-UCNPs). An ordinary multiphoton scanning microscope system was built using a visible CW diode laser and the lateral imaging resolution as high as 161-nm was achieved via the four-photon upconversion process. The demonstrated large saturation excitation power for Nd(3+)-UCNPs would be more practical and facilitate the four-photon imaging in the application. A sample with fine structure was imaged to demonstrate the advantages of visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals. Combining the uniqueness of UCNPs, the proposed visible-to-visible four-photon imaging would be highly promising and attractive in the field of multiphoton imaging.

  17. Combining pixel and object based image analysis of ultra-high resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter for habitat mapping in shallow marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Kennedy, David; Monk, Jacquomo; Gaylard, Grace; Young, Mary; Diesing, Markus; Rattray, Alex

    2018-06-01

    Habitat mapping data are increasingly being recognised for their importance in underpinning marine spatial planning. The ability to collect ultra-high resolution (cm) multibeam echosounder (MBES) data in shallow waters has facilitated understanding of the fine-scale distribution of benthic habitats in these areas that are often prone to human disturbance. Developing quantitative and objective approaches to integrate MBES data with ground observations for predictive modelling is essential for ensuring repeatability and providing confidence measures for habitat mapping products. Whilst supervised classification approaches are becoming more common, users are often faced with a decision whether to implement a pixel based (PB) or an object based (OB) image analysis approach, with often limited understanding of the potential influence of that decision on final map products and relative importance of data inputs to patterns observed. In this study, we apply an ensemble learning approach capable of integrating PB and OB Image Analysis from ultra-high resolution MBES bathymetry and backscatter data for mapping benthic habitats in Refuge Cove, a temperate coastal embayment in south-east Australia. We demonstrate the relative importance of PB and OB seafloor derivatives for the five broad benthic habitats that dominate the site. We found that OB and PB approaches performed well with differences in classification accuracy but not discernible statistically. However, a model incorporating elements of both approaches proved to be significantly more accurate than OB or PB methods alone and demonstrate the benefits of using MBES bathymetry and backscatter combined for class discrimination.

  18. Set-up of a high-resolution 300 mK atomic force microscope in an ultra-high vacuum compatible "3He/10 T cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwörden, H. von; Ruschmeier, K.; Köhler, A.; Eelbo, T.; Schwarz, A.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2016-01-01

    The design of an atomic force microscope with an all-fiber interferometric detection scheme capable of atomic resolution at about 500 mK is presented. The microscope body is connected to a small pumped "3He reservoir with a base temperature of about 300 mK. The bakeable insert with the cooling stage can be moved from its measurement position inside the bore of a superconducting 10 T magnet into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the tip and sample can be exchanged in situ. Moreover, single atoms or molecules can be evaporated onto a cold substrate located inside the microscope. Two side chambers are equipped with standard surface preparation and surface analysis tools. The performance of the microscope at low temperatures is demonstrated by resolving single Co atoms on Mn/W(110) and by showing atomic resolution on NaCl(001).

  19. Set-up of a high-resolution 300 mK atomic force microscope in an ultra-high vacuum compatible {sup 3}He/10 T cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwörden, H. von; Ruschmeier, K.; Köhler, A.; Eelbo, T.; Schwarz, A., E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Wiesendanger, R. [Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The design of an atomic force microscope with an all-fiber interferometric detection scheme capable of atomic resolution at about 500 mK is presented. The microscope body is connected to a small pumped {sup 3}He reservoir with a base temperature of about 300 mK. The bakeable insert with the cooling stage can be moved from its measurement position inside the bore of a superconducting 10 T magnet into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, where the tip and sample can be exchanged in situ. Moreover, single atoms or molecules can be evaporated onto a cold substrate located inside the microscope. Two side chambers are equipped with standard surface preparation and surface analysis tools. The performance of the microscope at low temperatures is demonstrated by resolving single Co atoms on Mn/W(110) and by showing atomic resolution on NaCl(001).

  20. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  1. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  2. USING A MICRO-UAV FOR ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION MULTI-SENSOR OBSERVATIONS OF ANTARCTIC MOSS BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lucieer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to use an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for mapping moss beds in Antarctica. Mosses can be used as indicators for the regional effects of climate change. Mapping and monitoring their extent and health is therefore important. UAV aerial photography provides ultra-high resolution spatial data for this purpose. We developed a technique to extract an extremely dense 3D point cloud from overlapping UAV aerial photography based on structure from motion (SfM algorithms. The combination of SfM and patch-based multi-view stereo image vision algorithms resulted in a 2 cm resolution digital terrain model (DTM. This detailed topographic information combined with vegetation indices derived from a 6-band multispectral sensor enabled the assessment of moss bed health. This novel UAV system has allowed us to map different environmental characteristics of the moss beds at ultra-high resolution providing us with a better understanding of these fragile Antarctic ecosystems. The paper provides details on the different UAV instruments and the image processing framework resulting in DEMs, vegetation indices, and terrain derivatives.

  3. Stacking it up: Exploring the limits of ultra-high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique wherein an atomically sharp needle raster scans across a surface, detecting forces between it and the sample. In state-of-the-art AFM experiments the measured forces are typically on the order of pico-Newtons, and the lateral resolution is on the order of

  4. Pushing the limits of signal resolution to make coupling measurement easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert Pucheta, José Enrique; Pitoux, Daisy; Grison, Claire M; Robin, Sylvie; Merlet, Denis; Aitken, David J; Giraud, Nicolas; Farjon, Jonathan

    2015-05-07

    Probing scalar couplings are essential for structural elucidation in molecular (bio)chemistry. While the measurement of JHH couplings is facilitated by SERF experiments, overcrowded signals represent a significant limitation. Here, a new band selective pure shift SERF allows access to δ(1)H and JHH with an ultrahigh spectral resolution.

  5. Profile measurement of a bent neutron mirror using an ultrahigh precision non-contact measurement system with an auto focus laser probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S; Guo, J; Yamagata, Y; Yamada, N L; Torikai, N; Takeda, S; Furusaka, M

    2016-01-01

    A bent neutron mirror has been considered as one of the best solutions for focusing neutron beams from the viewpoint of cost-benefit performance. Although the form deviation of the bent profile is expected because of the large spot size, it is difficult to measure due to its geometric limitation. Here, we propose a non-contact measurement system using an auto focus (AF) laser probe on an ultrahigh precision machine tool to precisely evaluate the form deviation of the bent mirror. The AF laser probe is composed of a diode laser, a position sensitive sensor, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a microscope objective lens which is actuated by an electromagnetic motor with 1 nm resolution for position sensing and control. The sensor enables a non-contact profile measurement of a high precision surface without any surface damage in contrast with contact-type ultrahigh precision coordinate measurement machines with ruby styli. In the on-machine measurement system, a personal computer simultaneously acquires a displacement signal from the AF laser probe and 3-axis positional coordinates of the ultrahigh machine tool branched between the linear laser scales and the numerical controller. The acquisition rate of the 4-axis positional data in 1 nm resolution is more than 10 Hz and the simultaneity between the axes is negligible. The profile of a neutron bent mirror was measured from a transparent side using the developed system, and the result proves that the form deviation of the mirror enlarged the the spot size of focused neuron beam. (paper)

  6. Argentation chromatography coupled to ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry for the separation of a heavy crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnárné Guricza, Lilla; Schrader, Wolfgang

    2017-02-10

    Simplification of highly complex mixtures such as crude oil by using chromatographic methods makes it possible to get more detailed information about the composition of the analyte. Separation by argentation chromatography can be achieved based on the interaction of different strength between the silver ions (Ag + ) immobilized through a spacer on the silica gel surface and the π-bonds of the analytes. Heavy crude oils contain compounds with a high number of heteroatoms (N, O, S) and a high degree of unsaturation thus making them the perfect analyte for argentation chromatography. The direct coupling of argentation chromatography and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry allows to continuously tracking the separation of the many different compounds by retention time and allows sensitive detection on a molecular level. Direct injection of a heavy crude oil into a ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometer showed components with DBE of up to 25, whereas analytes with DBE of up to 35 could be detected only after separation with argentation chromatography. The reduced complexity achieved by the separation helps increasing the information depth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Report on Ultra-high Resolution Gamma-/X-ray Analysis of Uranium Skull Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Velazquez, M.; Drury, O.; Salaymeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    We have utilized the high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of superconducting TES γ-detectors at very low energies for non-destructive analysis of a skull oxide derived from reprocessed nuclear fuel. Specifically, we demonstrate that superconducting detectors can separate and analyze the strong actinide emission lines in the spectral region below 60 keV that are often obscured in γ-measurements with conventional Ge detectors.

  8. Ultra-High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Unilateral Drusen in a 31 Year Old Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carlo, Talisa E; Adhi, Mehreen; Lu, Chen D; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G; Waheed, Nadia K

    We report a case of widespread unilateral drusen in a healthy 31 year old Caucasian woman using multi-modal imaging including ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Dilated fundus exam showed multiple drusen-like lesions in the posterior pole without heme or fluid. Fundus auto fluorescence demonstrated hyperautofluorescent at the deposits. Fluorescein angiography revealed mild hyperfluorescence and staining of the lesions. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) OS showed accumulations in the temporal macula at Bruch's membrane. UHR-OCT provided improved axial resolution compared to the standard 5 μm on the commercial SD-OCT and confirmed the presence of deposits in Bruch's membrane, consistent with drusen. The retinal layers were draped over the excrescences but did not show any disruption.

  9. The Israeli EA-FEL Upgrade Towards Long Pulse Operation for Ultra-High Resolution Single Pulse Coherent Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A; Kanter, M; Kapilevich, B; Litvak, B; Peleg, S; Socol, Y; Volshonok, M

    2005-01-01

    The Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL (EA-FEL) is now being upgraded towards long pulse (1005s) operation and ultra-high resolution (10(-6)) single pulse coherent spectroscopy. We present quantitative estimations regarding the applications of controlled radiation chirp for spectroscopic applications with pulse-time Fourier Transform limited spectral resolution. Additionally, we describe a novel extraction-efficiency-improving scheme based on increase of accelerating voltage (boosting) after saturation is achieved. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is confirmed by theoretical and numerical calculations. The latter are performed using software, based on 3D space-frequency domain model. The presentation provides an overview of the upgrade status: the high-voltage terminal is being reconfigured to accept the accelerating voltage boost system; a new broad band low-loss resonator is being manufactured; multi-stage depressed collector is assembled.

  10. Measurement of ultra-high energy cosmic rays: An experimental summary and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays achieved remarkable progress in the last 10 years. Physicists, gathered from around the world in the symposium UHECR-2012 held at CERN on February 13-16 2012, reported their most up-to-date observations, discussed the meaning of their findings, and identified remaining problems and future challenges in this field. This paper is a part of the symposium proceedings on the experimental summary and future prospects of the UHECR study.

  11. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  12. An atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscope that applies external tensile stress and strain in an ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, D; Kitahara, M; Onishi, K; Sagisaka, K

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with an in situ external stress application capability in order to determine the effects of stress and strain on surface atomistic structures. It is necessary to understand these effects because controlling them will be a key technology that will very likely be used in future nanometer-scale fabrication processes. We used our microscope to demonstrate atomic resolution imaging under external tensile stress and strain on the surfaces of wafers of Si(111) and Si(001). We also successfully observed domain redistribution induced by applying uniaxial stress at an elevated temperature on the surface of a wafer of vicinal Si(100). We confirmed that domains for which an applied tensile stress is directed along the dimer bond become less stable and shrink. This suggests that it may be feasible to fabricate single domain surfaces in a process that controls surface stress and strain

  13. On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Chen, Bai; Ren, Hugang; Pan, Yingtian

    2009-09-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the cellular details of bladder epithelium embedded in speckle noise can be uncovered with time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (TL-uOCT) by proper time-lapse frame averaging that takes advantage of cellular micromotion in fresh biological tissue ex vivo. Here, spectral-domain 3-D TL-uOCT is reported to further improve the image fidelity, and new experimental evidence is presented to differentiate normal and cancerous nuclei of rodent bladder epithelia. Results of animal cancer study reveal that despite a slight overestimation (e.g., cancerous (e.g., high-grade DN''~13 μm) urothelia, which may potentially be very useful for enhancing the diagnosis of nonpapillary bladder cancer. More animal study is being conducted to examine the utility to differentiate hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ.

  14. Distinguishing d- and l-aspartic and isoaspartic acids in amyloid β peptides with ultrahigh resolution ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueyun; Deng, Liulin; Baker, Erin S; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Smith, Richard D

    2017-07-11

    While α-linked amino acids in the l-form are exclusively utilized in mammalian protein building, β-linked and d-form amino acids also have important biological roles. Unfortunately, the structural elucidation and separation of these different amino acid types in peptides has been analytically challenging to date due to the numerous isomers present, limiting our knowledge about their existence and biological roles. Here, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution ion mobility spectrometry platform coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to separate amyloid β (Aβ) peptides containing l-aspartic acid, d-aspartic acid, l-isoaspartic acid, and d-isoaspartic acid residues which span α- and β-linked amino acids in both d- and l-forms. The results illustrate how IMS-MS could be used to better understand age-related diseases or protein folding disorders resulting from amino acid modifications.

  15. Elemental Composition Analysis to Investigate NOx Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol from α-Pinene Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Babar, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for 20-70% of atmospheric fine aerosol. NOx plays crucial roles in SOA formation and consequently affects the composition and yield of SOA. SOA component speciation is incomplete due to its complex composition of polar oxygenated and multifunctional species. In this study, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) was applied to improve the understanding of NOx effects on biogenic SOA formation by identifying the elemental composition of SOA. Additional research aim was to investigate oligomer components that are considered as a driving force for SOA formation and growth. In this study α-pinene SOA from photochemical reaction was examined. SOA formation was performed in the absence and presence of NOx at dry condition (grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-01350000).

  16. Band-selective excited ultrahigh resolution PSYCHE-TOCSY: fast screening of organic molecules and complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Vemulapalli, Sahithya Phani Babu; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2016-04-01

    Precise assignments of (1) H atomic sites and establishment of their through-bond COSY or TOCSY connectivity are crucial for molecular structural characterization by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy. However, this exercise is often hampered by signal overlap, primarily because of (1) H-(1) H scalar coupling multiplets, even at typical high magnetic fields. The recent developments in homodecoupling strategies for effectively suppressing the coupling multiplets into nice singlets (pure-shift), particularly, Morris's advanced broadband pure-shift yielded by chirp excitation (PSYCHE) decoupling and ultrahigh resolution PSYCHE-TOCSY schemes, have shown new possibilities for unambiguous structural elucidation of complex organic molecules. The superior broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY exhibits enhanced performance over the earlier TOCSY methods, which however warrants prolonged experimental times due to the requirement of large number of dwell increments along the indirect dimension. Herein, we present fast and band-selective analog of the broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY, which is useful for analyzing complex organic molecules that exhibit characteristic yet crowded spectral regions. The simple pulse scheme relies on band-selective excitation (BSE) followed by PSYCHE homodecoupling in the indirect dimension. The BSE-PSYCHE-TOCSY has been exemplified for Estradiol and a complex carbohydrate mixture comprised of six constituents of closely comparable molecular weights. The experimental times are greatly reduced viz., ~20 fold for Estradiol and ~10 fold for carbohydrate mixture, with respect to the broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY. Furthermore, unlike the earlier homonuclear band-selective decoupling, the BSE-PSYCHE-decoupling provides fully decoupled pure-shift spectra for all the individual chemical sites within the excited band. The BSE-PSYCHE-TOCSY is expected to have significant potential for quick screening of complex organic molecules and mixtures at ultrahigh resolution. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  17. A new processing scheme for ultra-high resolution direct infusion mass spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Arthur T.; Kourtchev, Ivan; Bortolini, Claudio; Fuller, Stephen J.; Giorio, Chiara; Popoola, Olalekan A. M.; Bogialli, Sara; Tapparo, Andrea; Jones, Roderic L.; Kalberer, Markus

    2018-04-01

    High resolution, high accuracy mass spectrometry is widely used to characterise environmental or biological samples with highly complex composition enabling the identification of chemical composition of often unknown compounds. Despite instrumental advancements, the accurate molecular assignment of compounds acquired in high resolution mass spectra remains time consuming and requires automated algorithms, especially for samples covering a wide mass range and large numbers of compounds. A new processing scheme is introduced implementing filtering methods based on element assignment, instrumental error, and blank subtraction. Optional post-processing incorporates common ion selection across replicate measurements and shoulder ion removal. The scheme allows both positive and negative direct infusion electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) acquisition with the same programs. An example application to atmospheric organic aerosol samples using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer is reported for both ionisation techniques resulting in final spectra with 0.8% and 8.4% of the peaks retained from the raw spectra for APPI positive and ESI negative acquisition, respectively.

  18. Progress, Performance, and Prospects of Ultra-High Resolution Microcalorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Andrew Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    In 2005 the LANL/NIST team used a single high-resolution microcalorimeter detector to measure the gamma-ray spectrum of a plutonium sample. After more than a decade of research and development on this topic, both the technology and our general understanding of its capabilities have advanced greatly, such that a progress review is now timely. We examine the scenario of a large-scale reprocessing plant and conclude that current non-destructive analysis (NDA) methods are inadequate to safeguard such a facility to the desired levels, leading to undesirable dependence on massspectrometry (MS) destructive analysis (DA). The development of microcalorimeter detectors is intended to close the performance gap between NDA and DA methods to address the needs of nuclear facilities.

  19. Cryogenic microcalorimeter system for ultra-high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, Michael W.; Hoover, Andrew S.; Bacrania, Minesh K.; Croce, Mark P.; Hoteling, N.J.; Lamont, S.P.; Plionis, A.A.; Dry, D.E.; Ullom, J.N.; Bennett, D.A.; Horansky, R.; Kotsubo, V.; Cantor, R.

    2009-01-01

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with ∼15 uK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis, This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  20. Ultra-high resolution spectroscopy of the He doubly excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.; Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.

    1995-11-01

    Photoionization spectra of the doubly-excited states of He were measured using beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source. The beamline utilizes a 4.5 m long 8 cm period undulator as its source together with a spherical grating monochromator to provide an extremely bright source of photons in the range of 20 - 300 eV. A resolving power (E/ΔE) of 64,000 was obtained from the 1 MeV FWEM (2p,3d) doubly excited state resonance of He at 64.12 eV. The high brightness of the source and the very high quality optical elements of the beamline were all essential for achieving such a high resolution. The beamline components and operation are described and spectra of the double excitation resonances of He presented

  1. Cryogenic Microcalorimeter System for Ultra-High Resolution Alpha-Particle Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Bacrania, M. K.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoteling, N. J.; LaMont, S. P.; Plionis, A. A.; Dry, D. E.; Ullom, J. N.; Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D.; Kotsubo, V.; Cantor, R.

    2009-12-01

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with ˜15-μK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis. This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha-particle spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  2. Improved Creep Measurements for Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Ye, X.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2010-01-01

    Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). This method has been extended to lower temperatures and higher stresses and applied to new materials, including a niobium-based superalloy, MASC. High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility and heated with a laser. The samples are rotated with an induction motor at up to 30,000 revolutions per second. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, producing a shear stress of about 60 MPa at the center, causing the sample to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the non-contact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test.

  3. Crystals of DhaA mutants from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 diffracted to ultrahigh resolution: crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Koudelakova, Tana; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Pavlova, Martina; Damborsky, Jiri; Kuta Smatanova, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Three mutants of the haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA derived from R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 were crystallized and diffracted to ultrahigh resolution. The enzyme DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 belongs to the haloalkane dehalogenases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of haloalkanes to the corresponding alcohols. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variants can be used to detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Three mutants named DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 were constructed in order to study the importance of tunnels connecting the buried active site with the surrounding solvent to the enzymatic activity. All protein mutants were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of DhaA04 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , while the crystals of the other two mutants DhaA14 and DhaA15 belonged to the triclinic space group P1. Native data sets were collected for the DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 mutants at beamline X11 of EMBL, DESY, Hamburg to the high resolutions of 1.30, 0.95 and 1.15 Å, respectively

  4. The Dynamic Range of Ultra-High Resolution Cryogenic Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S; Terracol, S F; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

    2005-01-01

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensors (TES). The energy resolution achieved with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm 3 Sn absorber is 50 -90eV for γ-rays up to 100 keV and it decreases for large absorber sizes. We discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range, as well as development of TES arrays for higher count rates and better sensitivity

  5. Optical measurements on hydrogen at ultrahigh static pressures. Summary report for NRIP W233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.L.; Liebenberg, D.H.

    1979-02-01

    The results of a two-year New Research Initiatives Program (NRIP) aimed at developing apparatus and techniques for studying hydrogen and other gases under ultrahigh static pressure in diamond--anvil cells are summarized. The following goals were achieved: A facility was established in which precision optical measurements can be made; special diamond cells for use at low temperatures were built; procedures were devised for loading cells with gases at high density; preliminary visual, x-ray, and spectral studies on various gases at pressures up to 50 kbar were conducted; and having demonstrated the feasibility of NRIP, other sponsorship on a continuing basis was obtained

  6. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-01

    We present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. This will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  7. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-01

    We present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. This will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  8. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of nanocrystalline proteins at ultra-high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, Lindsay J.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2010-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of uniformly- 13 C, 15 N labeled protein samples provides insight into atomic-resolution chemistry and structure. Data collection efficiency has advanced remarkably in the last decade; however, the study of larger proteins is still challenged by relatively low resolution in comparison to solution NMR. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of SSNMR protein spectra acquired at 11.7, 17.6 and 21.1 Tesla ( 1 H frequencies of 500, 750, and 900 MHz). For two protein systems-GB1, a 6 kDa nanocrystalline protein and DsbA, a 21 kDa nanocrystalline protein-line narrowing is demonstrated in all spectral regions with increasing field. Resolution enhancement is greatest in the aliphatic region, including methine, methylene and methyl sites. The resolution for GB1 increases markedly as a function of field, and for DsbA, resolution in the C-C region increases by 42%, according to the number of peaks that can be uniquely picked and integrated in the 900 MHz spectra when compared to the 500 MHz spectra. Additionally, chemical exchange is uniquely observed in the highest field spectra for at least two isoleucine Cδ1 sites in DsbA. These results further illustrate the benefits of high-field MAS SSNMR spectroscopy for protein structural studies.

  9. A Manganin Thin Film Ultra-High Pressure Sensor for Microscale Detonation Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of energetic materials (EMs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor’s sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0.5 mm thick alumina ceramic, the manganin sensitive element with a size of 0.2 mm × 0.1 mm × 2 μm and copper electrodes of 2 μm thick are sputtered sequentially on the substrate, and a 25 μm thick insulating layer of polyimide is wrapped on the sensitive element. The static test shows that the piezoresistive coefficient of manganin thin film is 0.0125 GPa−1. The dynamic experiment indicates that the detonation pressure of micro-detonator is 12.66 GPa, and the response time of the sensor is 37 ns. In a word, the sensor developed in this study is suitable for measuring ultra-high pressure in microscale and has a shorter response time than that of foil-like manganin gauges. Simultaneously, this study could be beneficial to research on ultra-high-pressure sensors with smaller size.

  10. Evaluation of experimental cartilage lesions with ultrahigh-resolution multi-slice-CT in comparison to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Kemper, J.; Begemann, P. G. C.; Habermann, C.R.; Adam, G.; Priemel, M.; Kummer, T.; Amling, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: histologic validation of ultrahigh-resolution multislice (MS)-CT for the evaluation of focal, experimental cartilage lesions with special regard to the subchondral bone. Testing of micro-CT (μCT) as alternative reference standard. Methods: 32 experimental cartilage lesions in bovine patellae were imaged surrounded by air (MS-CT-air) and immersed in a contrast material solution (MS-CT-CM) with MS-CT (collimation 2 x 0,5 mm). After the μCT (8 μm-voxelsite) examination in three specimen and histologic work-up of 29 specimen two radiologist graded the defects on MS-CT images in consensus (subchondral bone involvement yes or no) and results were compared to the results of histomorphometry and μCT. Results: the MS-CT-air and -CM had an accuracy of 94% (30/32) and 88% (28/32), respectively. MS-CT-air led to one false-positive (remaining cartilage: = 0,1 mm) and false-negative result, each. MS-CT-CM showed false-positive results if the remaining cartilage was [de

  11. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry study of tricyclazole photodegradation products in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Mastroianni, Rita; Bolfi, Bianca; Marengo, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the study of the photodegradation reactions that tricyclazole can naturally undergo, under the action of sunlight, in aqueous solutions of standard tricyclazole and of the commercial BEAM(TM) formulation. The analyses are carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography technique coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of both tricyclazole and BEAM(TM) water solutions undergone to hydrolysis does not evidence new chromatographic peaks with respect to the not treated solutions. On the contrary, analysis of the same samples subjected to sunlight irradiation shows a decreased intensity of tricyclazole signal and the presence of new chromatographic peaks. Two photodegradation products of tricyclazole have been identified, one of which has been also quantified, being the commercial standard available. The pattern is similar for the solutions of the standard fungicide and of the BEAM(TM) formulation. The results obtained from eco-toxicological tests show that toxicity of tricyclazole standard solutions is greater than that of the irradiated ones, whereas toxicity levels of all the BEAM(TM) solutions investigated (non-irradiated, irradiated, and hydrolyzed) are comparable and lower than those shown by tricyclazole standard solutions. Experiments performed in paddy water solution show that there is no difference in the degradation products formed.

  12. Molecular-level evidence provided by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry for oil-derived doc in groundwater at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ananna; Ahmed, Arif; Hur, Manhoi; Thorn, Kevin A.; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter samples extracted from ground water at the USGS Bemidji oil spill site in Minnesota were investigated by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the elemental composition assignments of the samples showed that the score plots for the contaminated sites were well separated from those for the uncontaminated sites. Additionally, spectra obtained from the same sampling site 7 and 19 years after the spill were grouped together in the score plot, strongly suggesting a steady state of contamination within the 12 year interval. The double bond equivalence (DBE) of Ox class compounds was broader for the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the complex nature of oil and the consequent formation of compounds with saturated and/or aromatic structures from the oxygenated products of oil. In addition, Ox class compounds with a relatively smaller number of x (x < 8; x = number of oxygen) and OxS1 class compounds were more abundant in the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the lower oxygen and higher sulfur contents of the oil compared to humic substances. The molecular-level signatures presented here can be a fundamental basis for in-depth analysis of oil contamination.

  13. Detailed Source-Specific Molecular Composition of Ambient Aerosol Organic Matter Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Willoughby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosols (OA are universally regarded as an important component of the atmosphere that have far-ranging impacts on climate forcing and human health. Many of these impacts are related to OA molecular characteristics. Despite the acknowledged importance, current uncertainties related to the source apportionment of molecular properties and environmental impacts make it difficult to confidently predict the net impacts of OA. Here we evaluate the specific molecular compounds as well as bulk structural properties of total suspended particulates in ambient OA collected from key emission sources (marine, biomass burning, and urban using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR-MS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR. UHR-MS and 1H NMR show that OA within each source is structurally diverse, and the molecular characteristics are described in detail. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that (1 aromatic nitrogen species are distinguishing components for these biomass burning aerosols; (2 these urban aerosols are distinguished by having formulas with high O/C ratios and lesser aromatic and condensed aromatic formulas; and (3 these marine aerosols are distinguished by lipid-like compounds of likely marine biological origin. This study provides a unique qualitative approach for enhancing the chemical characterization of OA necessary for molecular source apportionment.

  14. Formularity: Software for Automated Formula Assignment of Natural and Other Organic Matter from Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolić, Nikola; Liu, Yina; Liyu, Andrey; Shen, Yufeng; Tfaily, Malak M; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Longnecker, Krista; Kuo, Li-Jung; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J

    2017-12-05

    Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS), can resolve thousands of molecular ions in complex organic matrices. A Compound Identification Algorithm (CIA) was previously developed for automated elemental formula assignment for natural organic matter (NOM). In this work, we describe software Formularity with a user-friendly interface for CIA function and newly developed search function Isotopic Pattern Algorithm (IPA). While CIA assigns elemental formulas for compounds containing C, H, O, N, S, and P, IPA is capable of assigning formulas for compounds containing other elements. We used halogenated organic compounds (HOC), a chemical class that is ubiquitous in nature as well as anthropogenic systems, as an example to demonstrate the capability of Formularity with IPA. A HOC standard mix was used to evaluate the identification confidence of IPA. Tap water and HOC spike in Suwannee River NOM were used to assess HOC identification in complex environmental samples. Strategies for reconciliation of CIA and IPA assignments were discussed. Software and sample databases with documentation are freely available.

  15. Nontargeted Screening Method for Illegal Additives Based on Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanqing; Zhou, Zhihui; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Jia; Wu, Zeming; Xu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-09-06

    Identification of illegal additives in complex matrixes is important in the food safety field. In this study a nontargeted screening strategy was developed to find illegal additives based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). First, an analytical method for possible illegal additives in complex matrixes was established including fast sample pretreatment, accurate UHPLC separation, and HRMS detection. Second, efficient data processing and differential analysis workflow were suggested and applied to find potential risk compounds. Third, structure elucidation of risk compounds was performed by (1) searching online databases [Metlin and the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)] and an in-house database which was established at the above-defined conditions of UHPLC-HRMS analysis and contains information on retention time, mass spectra (MS), and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of 475 illegal additives, (2) analyzing fragment ions, and (3) referring to fragmentation rules. Fish was taken as an example to show the usefulness of the nontargeted screening strategy, and six additives were found in suspected fish samples. Quantitative analysis was further carried out to determine the contents of these compounds. The satisfactory application of this strategy in fish samples means that it can also be used in the screening of illegal additives in other kinds of food samples.

  16. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50% of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS. Elemental compositions of 552 unique molecular species were determined in the mass range 50–500 Da in the rainwater. Four main groups of organic compounds were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only, sulfur (S containing CHOS compounds, nitrogen (N containing CHON compounds, and S- and N- containing CHONS compounds. Organic acids commonly identified in precipitation were detected in the rainwater. Within the four main groups of compounds detected in the rainwater, oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates were assigned based on elemental formula comparisons. The majority of the compounds identified are products of atmospheric reactions and are known contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed from gas phase, aerosol phase, and in-cloud reactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that the large uncharacterized component of SOA is the main contributor to the large uncharacterized component of rainwater organic matter.

  17. Formularity: Software for Automated Formula Assignment of Natural and Other Organic Matter from Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolic, Nikola; Liu, Yina; Liyu, Andrey V.; Shen, Yufeng; Tfaily, Malak M.; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Longnecker, Krista; Kuo, Li-Jung; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J.

    2017-11-13

    Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, such as Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), can resolve thousands of molecular ions in complex organic matrices. A Compound Identification Algorithm (CIA) was previously developed for automated elemental formula assignment for natural organic matter (NOM). In this work we describe a user friendly interface for CIA, titled Formularity, which includes an additional functionality to perform search of formulas based on an Isotopic Pattern Algorithm (IPA). While CIA assigns elemental formulas for compounds containing C, H, O, N, S, and P, IPA is capable of assigning formulas for compounds containing other elements. We used halogenated organic compounds (HOC), a chemical class that is ubiquitous in nature as well as anthropogenic systems, as an example to demonstrate the capability of Formularity with IPA. A HOC standard mix was used to evaluate the identification confidence of IPA. The HOC spike in NOM and tap water were used to assess HOC identification in natural and anthropogenic matrices. Strategies for reconciliation of CIA and IPA assignments are discussed. Software and sample databases with documentation are freely available from the PNNL OMICS software repository https://omics.pnl.gov/software/formularity.

  18. Molecular-level evidence provided by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry for oil-derived doc in groundwater at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ananna; Ahmed, Arif; Hur, Manhoi; Thorn, Kevin A.; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter samples extracted from ground water at the USGS Bemidji oil spill site in Minnesota were investigated by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the elemental composition assignments of the samples showed that the score plots for the contaminated sites were well separated from those for the uncontaminated sites. Additionally, spectra obtained from the same sampling site 7 and 19 years after the spill were grouped together in the score plot, strongly suggesting a steady state of contamination within the 12 year interval. The double bond equivalence (DBE) of Ox class compounds was broader for the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the complex nature of oil and the consequent formation of compounds with saturated and/or aromatic structures from the oxygenated products of oil. In addition, Ox class compounds with a relatively smaller number of x (x molecular-level signatures presented here can be a fundamental basis for in-depth analysis of oil contamination.

  19. Evaluation of TSE- and T1-3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Schulze, D.; Koops, A.; Kemper, J.; Adam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of TSE- and T 1 -3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Materials and methods: Forty artificial cartilage lesions in ten bovine patellae were immersed in a solution of iodinated contrast medium and assessed with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Fat-suppressed TSE images with intermediate- and T 2 -weighting at a slice thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm as well as fat-suppressed T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH images with an effective slice thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm were acquired at 1.5 T. After adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution containing the patellae, the T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH imaging was repeated. Results: All cartilage lesions were visualised and graded with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. The TSE images had a higher sensitivity and a higher inter- and intraobserver kappa compared to the FLASH-sequences (TSE: 70-95%; 0.82-0.83; 0.85-0.9; FLASH: 57.5-85%; 0.53-0.72; 0.73-0.82, respectively). An increase in slice thickness decreased the sensitivity, whereby deep lesions were even reliably depicted on TSE images at a slice thickness of 3 and 4 mm. Adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution increased the sensitivity by 10% with no detectable advantage over the T 2 -weighted TSE images. Conclusion: TSE sequences and application of Gd-DTPA seemed to be superior to T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH sequences without Gd-DTPA in the detection of focal cartilage lesions. The ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT can serve as in vitro reference standard for focal cartilage lesions. (orig.) [de

  20. Magnetic Microcalorimeters with Ultra-High Energy Resolution (FY17 Q2 report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramos, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-28

    We will continue to characterize the Ag:Er MMC in detail to compare it with existing models and understand its limiting performance, both in New Mexico and at LLNL. For best resolution, it will be important to reduce external electromagnetic interference and ensure good thermal coupling to the cryostat. Improved resolution will be important for our presentations at the LTD-17 conference in Japan in Q3. We have also hired Cameron Flynn, a junior in physics at the university of New Hampshire, as a summer student to work on the MMC detector project. If he turns out to be as smart and as strong in the lab as his letters of recommendation and his interview performance suggests, we will try to attract him into one of the bay area universities for his Ph.D. and recruit him to LLNL for his thesis research.

  1. Low-Cost Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Mapping of Intertidal Rock Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, M.; Johnson-Roberson, M.; Murphy, R.

    2012-07-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time which could compliment field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at relatively course, sub-meter resolutions or with limited temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecology studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric pipeline that was developed for constructing highresolution, 3D, photo-realistic terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing pipeline uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine colour and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an area of approximately 100m, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rock platform at Cape Banks, Sydney, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  2. An Ultra-high Resolution Synthetic Precipitation Data for Ungauged Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Joong; Choi, Kyung-Min; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Despite the enormous damage caused by record heavy rainfall, the amount of precipitation in areas without observation points cannot be known precisely. One way to overcome these difficulties is to estimate meteorological data at ungauged sites. In this study, we have used observation data over Seoul city to calculate high-resolution (250-meter resolution) synthetic precipitation over a 10-year (2005-2014) period. Furthermore, three cases are analyzed by evaluating the rainfall intensity and performing statistical analysis over the 10-year period. In the case where the typhoon "Meari" passed to the west coast during 28-30 June 2011, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.93 for seven validation points, which implies that the temporal correlation between the observed precipitation and synthetic precipitation was very good. It can be confirmed that the time series of observation and synthetic precipitation in the period almost completely matches the observed rainfall. On June 28-29, 2011, the estimation of 10 to 30 mm h-1 of continuous strong precipitation was correct. In addition, it is shown that the synthetic precipitation closely follows the observed precipitation for all three cases. Statistical analysis of 10 years of data reveals a very high correlation coefficient between synthetic precipitation and observed rainfall (0.86). Thus, synthetic precipitation data show good agreement with the observations. Therefore, the 250-m resolution synthetic precipitation amount calculated in this study is useful as basic data in weather applications, such as urban flood detection.

  3. Precision Near-Field Reconstruction in the Time Domain via Minimum Entropy for Ultra-High Resolution Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high resolution (UHR radar imaging is used to analyze the internal structure of objects and to identify and classify their shapes based on ultra-wideband (UWB signals using a vector network analyzer (VNA. However, radar-based imaging is limited by microwave propagation effects, wave scattering, and transmit power, thus the received signals are inevitably weak and noisy. To overcome this problem, the radar may be operated in the near-field. The focusing of UHR radar signals over a close distance requires precise geometry in order to accommodate the spherical waves. In this paper, a geometric estimation and compensation method that is based on the minimum entropy of radar images with sub-centimeter resolution is proposed and implemented. Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging is used because it is applicable to several fields, including medical- and security-related applications, and high quality images of various targets have been produced to verify the proposed method. For ISAR in the near-field, the compensation for the time delay depends on the distance from the center of rotation and the internal RF circuits and cables. Required parameters for the delay compensation algorithm that can be used to minimize the entropy of the radar images are determined so that acceptable results can be achieved. The processing speed can be enhanced by performing the calculations in the time domain without the phase values, which are removed after upsampling. For comparison, the parameters are also estimated by performing random sampling in the data set. Although the reduced data set contained only 5% of the observed angles, the parameter optimization method is shown to operate correctly.

  4. A compact sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with high energy resolution and high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Miyamachi, T; Tomanić, T; Dehm, R; Wulfhekel, W

    2011-10-01

    We designed a scanning tunneling microscope working at sub-Kelvin temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in order to study the magnetic properties on the nanoscale. An entirely homebuilt three-stage cryostat is used to cool down the microscope head. The first stage is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the second stage with liquid (4)He. The third stage uses a closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigerator of a cooling power of 1 mW. A base temperature of 930 mK at the microscope head was achieved using expansion of (4)He, which can be reduced to ≈400 mK when using (3)He. The cryostat has a low liquid helium consumption of only 38 ml/h and standing times of up to 280 h. The fast cooling down of the samples (3 h) guarantees high sample throughput. Test experiments with a superconducting tip show a high energy resolution of 0.3 meV when performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The vertical stability of the tunnel junction is well below 1 pm (peak to peak) and the electric noise floor of tunneling current is about 6fA/√Hz. Atomic resolution with a tunneling current of 1 pA and 1 mV was achieved on Au(111). The lateral drift of the microscope at stable temperature is below 20 pm/h. A superconducting spilt-coil magnet allows to apply an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 3 T at the sample surface. The flux vortices of a Nb(110) sample were clearly resolved in a map of differential conductance at 1.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.21 T. The setup is designed for in situ preparation of tip and samples under UHV condition.

  5. In situ ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamin S; Wang, Danling; Li, Xiaoli; Baluyot, Florence; Iliakis, Bernie; Lindquist, Thomas D; Shirakawa, Rika; Shen, Tueng T; Li, Xingde

    2008-08-01

    To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool to perform in situ characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty. A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) was used to characterize donor corneal tissue that had been processed for lamellar keratoplasty. Twenty-seven donor corneas were analyzed. Four donor corneas were used as controls, whereas the rest were processed into donor corneal buttons for lamellar transplantation by using hand dissection, a microkeratome, or a femtosecond laser. UHR-OCT was also used to noninvasively characterize and monitor the viable corneal tissue immersed in storage medium over 3 weeks. The UHR-OCT captured high-resolution images of the donor corneal tissue in situ. This noninvasive technique showed the changes in donor corneal tissue morphology with time while in storage medium. The characteristics of the lamellar corneal tissue with each processing modality were clearly visible by UHR-OCT. The in situ characterization of the femtosecond laser-cut corneal tissue was noted to have more interface debris than shown by routine histology. The effects of the femtosecond laser microcavitation bubbles on the corneal tissue were well visualized at the edges of the lamellar flap while in storage medium. The results of our feasibility study show that UHR-OCT can provide superb, in situ microstructural characterization of eye bank corneal tissue noninvasively. The UHR-OCT interface findings and corneal endothelial disc thickness uniformity analysis are valuable information that may be used to optimize the modalities and parameters for lamellar tissue processing. The UHR-OCT is a powerful approach that will allow us to further evaluate the tissue response to different processing techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty. It may also provide information that can be used to correlate with postoperative clinical outcomes. UHR-OCT has the potential to become a routine part of tissue

  6. Mechanisms of proton relay and product release by Class A β-lactamase at ultrahigh resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Eric M; Lethbridge, Kathryn G; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Skiba, Joanna; Kowalski, Konrad; Chen, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The β-lactam antibiotics inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) by forming a stable, covalent, acyl-enzyme complex. During the evolution from PBPs to Class A β-lactamases, the β-lactamases acquired Glu166 to activate a catalytic water and cleave the acyl-enzyme bond. Here we present three product complex crystal structures of CTX-M-14 Class A β-lactamase with a ruthenocene-conjugated penicillin-a 0.85 Å resolution structure of E166A mutant complexed with the penilloate product, a 1.30 Å resolution complex structure of the same mutant with the penicilloate product, and a 1.18 Å resolution complex structure of S70G mutant with a penicilloate product epimer-shedding light on the catalytic mechanisms and product inhibition of PBPs and Class A β-lactamases. The E166A-penilloate complex captured the hydrogen bonding network following the protonation of the leaving group and, for the first time, unambiguously show that the ring nitrogen donates a proton to Ser130, which in turn donates a proton to Lys73. These observations indicate that in the absence of Glu166, the equivalent lysine would be neutral in PBPs and therefore capable of serving as the general base to activate the catalytic serine. Together with previous results, this structure suggests a common proton relay network shared by Class A β-lactamases and PBPs, from the catalytic serine to the lysine, and ultimately to the ring nitrogen. Additionally, the E166A-penicilloate complex reveals previously unseen conformational changes of key catalytic residues during the release of the product, and is the first structure to capture the hydrolyzed product in the presence of an unmutated catalytic serine. Structural data are available in the PDB database under the accession numbers 5TOP, 5TOY, and 5VLE. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Mechanisms of proton relay and product release by Class A β-lactamase at ultrahigh resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Eric M. [Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa FL USA; Lethbridge, Kathryn G. [Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa FL USA; Sanishvili, Ruslan [GMCA@APS, X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Skiba, Joanna [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Lodz, Poland; Kowalski, Konrad [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Lodz, Poland; Chen, Yu [Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa FL USA

    2017-11-20

    The beta-lactam antibiotics inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) by forming a stable, covalent, acyl-enzyme complex. During the evolution from PBPs to Class A beta-lactamases, the beta-lactamases acquired Glu166 to activate a catalytic water and cleave the acyl-enzyme bond. Here we present three product complex crystal structures of CTX-M-14 Class A beta-lactamase with a ruthenocene-conjugated penicillin-a 0.85 angstrom resolution structure of E166A mutant complexed with the penilloate product, a 1.30 angstrom resolution complex structure of the same mutant with the penicilloate product, and a 1.18 angstrom resolution complex structure of S70G mutant with a penicilloate product epimer-shedding light on the catalytic mechanisms and product inhibition of PBPs and Class A beta-lactamases. The E166A-penilloate complex captured the hydrogen bonding network following the protonation of the leaving group and, for the first time, unambiguously show that the ring nitrogen donates a proton to Ser130, which in turn donates a proton to Lys73. These observations indicate that in the absence of Glu166, the equivalent lysine would be neutral in PBPs and therefore capable of serving as the general base to activate the catalytic serine. Together with previous results, this structure suggests a common proton relay network shared by Class A beta-lactamases and PBPs, from the catalytic serine to the lysine, and ultimately to the ring nitrogen. Additionally, the E166A-penicilloate complex reveals previously unseen conformational changes of key catalytic residues during the release of the product, and is the first structure to capture the hydrolyzed product in the presence of an unmutated catalytic serine.

  8. Performance of ultrahigh resolution electron microscope JEM-4000EX and some applications of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Ibe, K.; Ishida, Y.; Kersker, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The high resolution electron microscope is powerful for modern materials science because of its direct observation capability for the atomic structure of materials. the JEM-4000EX, a 400 kV accelerating voltage electron microscope whose objective lens has a 1 mm spherical aberration coefficient, has a 0.168 nm theoretical resolving power. Using this microscope, atomic structure images of high Tc superconductor such as Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O are reported

  9. Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope with ultra-high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Wataru; Nakajima, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2010-06-07

    We propose electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope, and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.

  10. Optical Analysis of an Ultra-High resolution Two-Mirror Soft X-Ray Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, Cheng; Hoover, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    This work has summarized for a Schwarzschild microscope some relationships between numerical aperture (NA), magnification, diameter of the primary mirror, radius of curvature of the secondary mirror, and the total length of the microscope. To achieve resolutions better than a spherical Schwarzschild microscope of 3.3 Lambda for a perfectly aligned and fabricated system. it is necessary to use aspherical surfaces to control higher-order aberrations. For an NA of 0.35, the aspherical Head microscope provides diffraction limited resolution of 1.4 Lambda where the aspherical surfaces differ from the best fit spherical surface by approximately 1 micrometer. However, the angle of incidence varies significantly over the primary and the secondary mirrors, which will require graded multilayer coatings to operate near peak reflectivities. For higher numerical apertures, the variation of the angle of incidence over the secondary mirror surface becomes a serious problem which must be solved before multilayer coatings can be used for this application. Tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has shown that water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance for operations with 130 A radiation. Surface contour errors have been shown to have a significant impact on the MTF and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror.

  11. Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Markus B; Molina, Leopoldo; Elsaesser, Thomas; Kim, Dong Ha; Knoll, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Karsten

    2005-10-14

    Nanodomains formed by microphase separation in thin films of the diblock copolymers poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene-b-ethyleneoxide) (PS-b-PEO) were imaged by means of infrared scattering-type near-field microscopy. When probing at 3.39 mum (2950 cm(-1)), contrast is obtained due to spectral differences between the C--H stretching vibrational resonances of the respective polymer constituents. An all-optical spatial resolution better than 10 nm was achieved, which corresponds to a sensitivity of just several thousand C--H groups facilitated by the local-field enhancement at the sharp metallic probe tips. The results demonstrate that infrared spectroscopy with access to intramolecular dimensions is within reach.

  12. High and ultra-high resolution metabolite mapping of the human brain using 1H FID MRSI at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassirpour, Sahar; Chang, Paul; Henning, Anke

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a promising technique for mapping the spatial distribution of multiple metabolites in the human brain. These metabolite maps can be used as a diagnostic tool to gain insight into several biochemical processes and diseases in the brain. In comparison to lower field strengths, MRSI at ultra-high field strengths benefits from a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) as well as higher chemical shift dispersion, and hence spectral resolution. This study combines the benefits of an ultra-high field magnet with the advantages of an ultra-short TE and TR single-slice FID-MRSI sequence (such as negligible J-evolution and loss of SNR due to T 2 relaxation effects) and presents the first metabolite maps acquired at 9.4T in the healthy human brain at both high (voxel size of 97.6µL) and ultra-high (voxel size of 24.4µL) spatial resolutions in a scan time of 11 and 46min respectively. In comparison to lower field strengths, more anatomically-detailed maps with higher SNR from a larger number of metabolites are shown. A total of 12 metabolites including glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutathione (GSH) are reliably mapped. Comprehensive description of the methodology behind these maps is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel carbon nanosheets as support for ultrahigh-resolution structural analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottbohm, Christoph T.; Beyer, Andre; Sologubenko, Alla S.; Ennen, Inga; Huetten, Andreas; Roesner, Harald; Eck, Wolfgang; Mayer, Joachim; Goelzhaeuser, Armin

    2008-01-01

    The resolution in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has reached values as low as 0.08 nm. However, these values are not accessible for very small objects in the size range of a few nanometers or lower, as they have to be placed on some support, which contributes to the overall electron-scattering signal, thereby blurring the contrast. Here, we report on the use of nanosheets made from cross-linked aromatic self-assembled monolayers as TEM sample supports. When transferred onto a copper grid, a single 1.6-nm-thick nanosheet can cover the grid and is free standing within the micron-sized openings. Despite its thinness, the sheet is stable under the impact of the electron beam. Micrographs taken from nanoclusters onto these nanosheets show highly increased contrast in comparison to the images taken from amorphous carbon supports. In scanning transmission electron microscopy with nanosheet support, a size analysis of sub-nanometer Au clusters was performed and single Au atoms were resolved

  14. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Aragon, B.; Houborg, Rasmus; Mascaro, J.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  15. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  16. Pressure measurements in the AGS Booster ultra-high vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabusi, J.; Geller, J.; Hseuh, H.C.; Mapes, M.; Stattel, P.

    1992-01-01

    An average pressure of mid 10 -11 Torr has been achieved and maintained in the AGS Booster ring vacuum system during its first year of operation. This ultra-high vacuum system is monitored through remote controlled Bayard-Alpert Gauges (BAGs). The characteristics of the pressure measurements with BAGs over the long cable lengths (up to 200 m) and under various accelerator operating conditions will be described. Two types of noise in the pressure readouts have been identified; the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with the acceleration cycles of the Booster and the environment noise associated with the temperature of the collector cables. The magnitude of the noise pickup depends on the routing of the collector cables and reaches the equivalent pressure of low 10 -9 Torr

  17. Classification of Ultra-High Resolution Orthophotos Combined with DSM Using a Dual Morphological Top Hat Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New aerial sensors and platforms (e.g., unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are capable of providing ultra-high resolution remote sensing data (less than a 30-cm ground sampling distance (GSD. This type of data is an important source for interpreting sub-building level objects; however, it has not yet been explored. The large-scale differences of urban objects, the high spectral variability and the large perspective effect bring difficulties to the design of descriptive features. Therefore, features representing the spatial information of the objects are essential for dealing with the spectral ambiguity. In this paper, we proposed a dual morphology top-hat profile (DMTHP using both morphology reconstruction and erosion with different granularities. Due to the high dimensional feature space, we have proposed an adaptive scale selection procedure to reduce the feature dimension according to the training samples. The DMTHP is extracted from both images and Digital Surface Models (DSM to obtain complimentary information. The random forest classifier is used to classify the features hierarchically. Quantitative experimental results on aerial images with 9-cm and UAV images with 5-cm GSD are performed. Under our experiments, improvements of 10% and 2% in overall accuracy are obtained in comparison with the well-known differential morphological profile (DMP feature, and superior performance is observed over other tested features. Large format data with 20,000 × 20,000 pixels are used to perform a qualitative experiment using the proposed method, which shows its promising potential. The experiments also demonstrate that the DSM information has greatly enhanced the classification accuracy. In the best case in our experiment, it gives rise to a classification accuracy from 63.93% (spectral information only to 94.48% (the proposed method.

  18. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT. Methods. Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear. The conjunctival overlap was ranked as the percentage of the edge covered by the conjunctiva. The frequency of occurrence for visualized peripheral PoLTF was determined. Results. The average conjunctival overlaps at insertion were 49% and 73% for galyfilcon A and balafilcon A lenses and increased significantly to 84% and 90% by 6 hours of lens wear (P<0.001. Lenses with rounded edges had more conjunctival overlap than the lenses with angled edges (P=0.014. There were significant decreases for PoLTF on the conjunctiva (P=0.014 and peripheral cornea (P=0.004 over the study period compared to insertion. The percentage of subjects with PoLTF on the conjunctiva (32.5% and peripheral cornea (36% were greater in subjects wearing balafilcon A lenses (P=0.017. Conclusions. Increased conjunctival overlap over the lens edges and reduced PoLTF underneath the peripheral region of soft contact lenses were shown during lens daily wear. The lens edge configuration may play a role in conjunctival response and peripheral PoLTF.

  19. Fragmentation analysis of water-soluble atmospheric organic matter using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Jeffrey P; Collett, Jeffrey L; Mazzoleni, Lynn R

    2012-04-17

    Isolated water-soluble atmospheric organic matter (AOM) analytes extracted from radiation fogwater samples were analyzed using collision induced dissociation with ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Tandem mass analysis was performed on several mass ranges between 100 and 400 Da to characterize the functional groups of AOM species. Compounds containing nitrogen and/or sulfur were targeted because of the high number of oxygen atoms contained in their molecular formulas. Due to the large number of isobaric ions in the precursor isolation ranges, large numbers of product ions resulted from collision induced dissociation. Common neutral losses were assigned by matching the molecular formulas of the expected product ions with the detected product ions within the appropriate mass spectra. Since polar functional groups are expected to affect the hygroscopic properties of aerosols, the losses of H(2)O, CO(2), CH(3)OH, HNO(3), CH(3)NO(3), SO(3), SO(4) and combinations of these were specifically targeted. Among the 421 compounds studied, the most frequently observed neutral losses were CO(2) (54%), H(2)O (43%) and CH(3)OH (40%). HNO(3) losses were observed for 63% of the studied nitrogen containing compounds and 33% of the studied compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur. SO(3) losses were observed for 85% of the studied sulfur containing compounds and 42% of studied compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur. A number of molecular formulas matching those of monoterpene ozonolysis SOA were observed; they include organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy-organosulfates. Overall, the results of fragmentation analysis of 400+ individual molecular precursors elucidate the complexity and multifunctional nature of the isolated water-soluble AOM.

  20. Use of an ultra-high resolution magnetic spectrograph for materials research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, DO; Arnoldbik, WM; Wolfswinkel, W; Balogh, AG; Walter, G

    1997-01-01

    A brief description is given of a magnetic spectrograph for RBS and ERD analysis with MeV beams, delivered by a Tandem accelerator. With a number of examples of thin layer analysis it is shown that the spectrograph is uniquely suited for the measurement of concentration depth profiles up to a depth

  1. Self-transcendence trait and its relationship with in vivo serotonin transporter availability in brainstem raphe nuclei: An ultra-high resolution PET-MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Yo-Han; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2015-12-10

    Self-transcendence is an inherent human personality trait relating to the experience of spiritual aspects of the self. We examined the relationship between self-transcendence and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in brainstem raphe nuclei, which are collections of five different serotonergic nuclei with rostro-caudal extension, using ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) to elucidate potential roles of serotonergic neuronal activities in this personality trait. Sixteen healthy subjects completed 7.0T MRI and High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) PET. The regions of interest (ROIs) included the dorsal raphe nucleus (R1), median raphe nucleus (R2), raphe pontis (R3), and the caudal raphe nuclei (R4 and R5). For the estimation of SERT availability, the binding potential (BPND) was derived using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM2). The Temperament and Character Inventory was used to measure self-transcendence. The analysis revealed that the self-transcendence total score had a significant negative correlation with the [(11)C]DASB BPND in the caudal raphe (R5). The subscale score for spiritual acceptance was significantly negatively correlated with the [(11)C]DASB BPND in the median raphe nucleus (R2). The results indicate that the self-transcendence trait is associated with SERT availability in specific raphe subnuclei, suggesting that the serotonin system may serve as an important biological basis for human self-transcendence. Based on the connections of these nuclei with cortico-limbic and visceral autonomic structures, the functional activity of these nuclei and their related neural circuitry may play a crucial role in the manifestation of self-transcendence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C.; Nguyen, Khoa

    2015-01-01

    level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13 mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise...... datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer......'s disease subjects and elderly controls with 88% accuracy in standard resolution (1 mm) T1 data, significantly outperforming the atlas in FreeSurfer version 5.3 (86% accuracy) and classification based on whole hippocampal volume (82% accuracy)....

  3. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen co-metabolism in yeast by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry applying 13C- and 15N-labeled substrates simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, Lars M.; Desphande, Rahul R.; Schmid, Andreas; Hayen, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Alternative metabolic pathways inside a cell can be deduced using stable isotopically labeled substrates. One prerequisite is accurate measurement of the labeling pattern of targeted metabolites. Experiments are generally limited to the use of single-element isotopes, mainly 13 C. Here, we demonstrate the application of direct infusion nanospray, ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) for metabolic studies using differently labeled elemental isotopes simultaneously - i.e., 13 C and 15 N - in amino acids of a total protein hydrolysate. The optimized strategy for the analysis of metabolism by a hybrid linear ion trap-FTICR-MS comprises the collection of multiple adjacent selected ion monitoring scans. By limiting both the width of the mass range and the number of ions entering the ICR cell with automated gain control, sensitive measurements of isotopologue distribution were possible without compromising mass accuracy and isotope intensity mapping. The required mass-resolving power of more than 60,000 is only achievable on a routine basis by FTICR and Orbitrap mass spectrometers. Evaluation of the method was carried out by comparison of the experimental data to the natural isotope abundances of selected amino acids and by comparison to GC/MS results obtained from a labeling experiment with 13 C-labeled glucose. The developed method was used to shed light on the complexity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbon-nitrogen co-metabolism by administering both 13 C-labeled glucose and 15 N-labeled alanine. The results indicate that not only glutamate but also alanine acts as an amino donor during alanine and valine synthesis. Metabolic studies using FTICR-MS can exploit new possibilities by the use of multiple-labeled elemental isotopes. (orig.)

  4. Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON is a subset of the complex organic matter in aerosols and rainwater, which impacts cloud condensation processes and aerosol chemical and optical properties and may play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of N. However, its sources, composition, connections to inorganic N, and variability are largely unknown. Rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W, which experiences both anthropogenic and marine influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to chemically characterize the WSON. Elemental compositions of 2281 N containing compounds were determined over the mass range m/z+ 50 to 500. The five compound classes with the largest number of elemental formulas identified, in order from the highest number of formulas to the lowest, contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON+, CHON compounds that contained sulfur (CHONS+, CHON compounds that contained phosphorus (CHONP+, CHON compounds that contained both sulfur and phosphorus (CHONSP+, and compounds that contained only carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN+. Compared to rainwater collected in the continental USA, average O:C ratios of all N containing compound classes were lower in the marine samples whereas double bond equivalent values were higher, suggesting a reduced role of secondary formation mechanisms. Despite their prevalence in continental rainwater, no organonitrates or nitrooxy-organosulfates were detected, but there was an increased presence of organic S and organic P containing compounds in the marine rainwater. Cluster analysis showed a clear chemical distinction between samples collected during the cold season (October to March which have anthropogenic air mass origins and samples collected during the warm season (April to September with remote

  5. Next-generation technologies for spatial proteomics: Integrating ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR imaging mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Rizzo, David G; Moore, Jessica L; Noto, Michael J; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool enabling the visualization of biomolecules in tissue. However, there are unique challenges associated with protein imaging experiments including the need for higher spatial resolution capabilities, improved image acquisition rates, and better molecular specificity. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR IMS platforms as they relate to these challenges. High spatial resolution MALDI-TOF protein images of rat brain tissue and cystic fibrosis lung tissue were acquired at image acquisition rates >25 pixels/s. Structures as small as 50 μm were spatially resolved and proteins associated with host immune response were observed in cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF enables unique applications including megapixel molecular imaging as demonstrated for lipid analysis of cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Additionally, imaging experiments using MALDI FTICR IMS were shown to produce data with high mass accuracy (z 5000) for proteins up to ∼20 kDa. Analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using MALDI FTICR IMS identified specific proteins localized to healthy tissue regions, within the tumor, and also in areas of increased vascularization around the tumor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Precision mechanical design of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system with CDFDW optics at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D; Stoupin, S; Khachatryan, R; Goetze, K A; Roberts, T; Shvyd'ko, Y; Mundboth, K; Collins, S

    2013-01-01

    There are many scientific applications, especially involving topics related to the equilibrium atomic-scale dynamics of condensed matter, that require both a narrower and a steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than are currently available. To meet these important scientific needs, a prototype of a novel ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system has been designed and constructed at undulator-based beamline 30-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This prototype is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for performing so-called CDFDW angular-dispersive x-ray crystal optics, which include a central ultra-thin CFW crystal and a pair of dispersing elements. The abbreviation CDFDW stands for: C – collimating crystal, D – dispersing-element crystal (two D-crystals are used in each CDFDW), F – anomalous transmission filter, and W – wavelength-selector crystal [1]. The mechanical design of the ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer, as well as the preliminary test results of its precision positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  7. Sea Level History in 3D: Early results of an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Kucuk, H. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Newton, A.; Baldwin, K.; Johnson, C.; Stanley, J. N.; Bhatnagar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although globally averaged sea level is rising at roughly 3 mm/yr (and is accelerating), rates of local sea-level change measured at coastlines may differ from this number by a factor of two or more; at some locations, sea level may even be falling. This is due to local processes that can match or even reverse the global trend, making it clear that reliable predictions of future impacts of sea-level rise require a firm understanding of processes at the local level. The history of local sea-level change and shoreline response is contained in the geologic record of shallow-water sediments. We report on a continuing study of sea-level history in sediments at the New Jersey continental margin, where compaction and glacial isostatic adjustment are currently adding 2 mm/yr to the globally averaged rise. We collected 570 sq km of ultra-high resolution 3D MCS data aboard the R/V Langseth in June-July 2015; innovative recording and preliminary results are described by Nedimovic et al. in this same session. The goal was to provide regional context to coring and logging at IODP Exp 313 sites 27-29 that were drilled 750 m into the New Jersey shelf in 2009. These sites recovered a nearly continuous record of post-Eocene sediments from non-marine soils, estuaries, shoreface, delta front, pro-delta and open marine settings. Existing seismic data are good but are 2D high-resolution profiles at line spacings too wide to enable mapping of key nearshore features. The Langseth 3D survey used shallow towing of a tuned air gun array to preserve high frequencies, and twenty-four 50-m PCables each 12.5 apart provided 6.25 x 3.125 m common-midpoint bins along seventy-seven 50-km sail lines. With this especially dense spatial resolution of a pre-stack time migrated volume we expect to map rivers, incised valleys, barrier islands, inlets and bays, pro-delta clinoforms, tidal deltas, sequence boundaries, debris flow aprons, and more. Seismic attributes linked to sedimentary facies and

  8. Ultra-high resolution X-ray structures of two forms of human recombinant insulin at 100 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisgarten, David R; Palmer, Rex A; Lobley, Carina M C; Naylor, Claire E; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Al-Kurdi, Zakieh I; Badwan, Adnan A; Howlin, Brendan J; Gibbons, Nicholas C J; Saldanha, José W; Lisgarten, John N; Basak, Ajit K

    2017-08-01

    with the Insugen (I) structure. In the Intergen (II) structure there is no solvated propanol or acetate molecule. The electron density of Intergen (II), however, does also exhibit the three types of amino acid representations as in Insugen (I). These effects do not necessarily correspond between chains A and C or chains B and D in Intergen (II), or between corresponding residues in Insugen (I). The results of this comparison are reported. Graphical abstract Conformations of PheB25 and PheD25 in three insulin structures: implications for biological activity? Insulin residues PheB25 and PheD25 are considered to be important for insulin receptor binding and changes in biological activity occur when these residues are modified. In porcine insulin and Intergen (II) PheB25 adopts conformation B and PheD25 conformation D. However, unexpectedly PheB25 in Insugen (I) human recombinant insulin adopts two distinct conformations corresponding to B and D, Figure 1 and PheD25 adopts a single conformation corresponding to B not D, Figure 2. Conformations of this residue in the ultra-high resolution structure of Insugen (I) are therefore unique within this set. Figures were produced with Biovia, Discovery Studio 2016.

  9. Ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist: Radiation dose and image quality compared to conventional multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werncke, Thomas, E-mail: Werncke.Thomas@mh-hannover.de [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Sonnow, Lena; Meyer, Bernhard C. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Lüpke, Matthias [University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Institute for General Radiology and Medical Physics, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover (Germany); Hinrichs, Jan; Wacker, Frank K.; Falck, Christian von [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Objective of this phantom and cadaveric study was to compare the effective radiation dose (ED) and image quality (IQ) between C-arm computed tomography (CACT) using an ultra-high resolution 1 × 1 binning with a standard 16-slice CT (MDCT) arthrography of the wrist. Methods: ED was determined with thermoluminescence dosimetry using an anthropomorphic phantom and different patient positions. Imaging was conducted in 10 human cadaveric wrists after tri-compartmental injection of diluted iodinated contrast material and a wire phantom. IQ of MDCT was compared with CACT reconstructed with a soft (CACT1) and sharp (CACT2) kernel. High and low contrast resolution was determined. Three radiologists assessed IQ of wrist structures and occurrence of image artifacts using a 5-point Likert scale. Results: ED of MDCT was comparable to standard CACT (4.3 μSv/3.7 μSv). High contrast resolution was best for CACT2, decreased to CACT1 and MDCT. Low contrast resolution increased between CACT2 and MDCT (P < 0.001). IQ was best for CACT2 (1.3 ± 0.5), decreased to CACT1 (1.9 ± 0.6) and MDCT (3.5 ± 0.6). Non-compromising artifacts were only reported for CACT. Conclusions: The results of this phantom and cadaveric study indicate that ultra-high resolution C-Arm CT arthrography of the wrist bears the potential to outperform MDCT arthrography in terms of image quality and workflow at the cost of mildly increasing image artifacts while radiation dose to the patient is comparably low for both, MDCT and C-Arm CT.

  10. High resolution separations of charge variants and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates using ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, W Hampton; He, Yan; Mellors, J Scott; Batz, Nicholas G; Ramsey, J Michael; Jorgenson, James W

    2017-11-10

    Ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength has been applied to the separation of the charge variants, drug conjugates, and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies. Samples composed of many closely related species are difficult to resolve and quantify using traditional analytical instrumentation. High performance instrumentation can often save considerable time and effort otherwise spent on extensive method development. Ideally, the resolution obtained for a given CE buffer system scales with the square root of the applied voltage. Currently available commercial CE instrumentation is limited to an applied voltage of approximately 30kV and a maximum electric field strength of 1kV/cm due to design limitations. The instrumentation described here is capable of safely applying potentials of at least 120kV with electric field strengths over 2000V/cm, potentially doubling the resolution of the best conventional CE buffer/capillary systems while decreasing analysis time in some applications. Separations of these complex mixtures using this new instrumentation demonstrate the potential of ultra-high voltage CE to identify the presence of previously unresolved components and to reduce analysis time for complex mixtures of antibody variants and drug conjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS) in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Thissen, Roland; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis; Vuitton, Véronique

    2016-03-24

    It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks ("seeds") for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

  12. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Somogyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks (“seeds” for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

  13. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS) in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Thissen, Roland; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis; Vuitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks (“seeds”) for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. PMID:27023520

  14. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  15. New Visualization Techniques to Analyze Ultra-High Resolution Four-dimensional Surface Deformation Imagery Collected With Ground-based Tripod LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G. W.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a visualization application to display and interact with very large (tens of millions of points) four-dimensional point position datasets in an immersive environment such that point groups from repeated Tripod LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) surveys can be selected, measured, and analyzed for land surface change using 3D~interactions. Ground-based tripod or terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) can remotely collect ultra-high resolution (centimeter to subcentimeter) and accurate (± 4 mm) digital imagery of the scanned target, and at scanning rates of 2,000 (x, y, z, i) (3D~position~+ intensity) points per second over 7~million points can be collected for a given target in an hour. We developed a multiresolution point set data representation based on octrees to display large T-LiDAR point cloud datasets at the frame rates required for immersive display (between 60 Hz and 120 Hz). Data inside an observer's region of interest is shown in full detail, whereas data outside the field of view or far away from the observer is shown at reduced resolution to provide context. Using 3D input devices at the University of California Davis KeckCAVES, users can navigate large point sets, accurately select related point groups in two or more point sets by sweeping regions of space, and guide the software in deriving positional information from point groups to compute their displacements between surveys. We used this new software application in the KeckCAVES to analyze 4D T-LiDAR imagery from the June~1, 2005 Blue Bird Canyon landslide in Laguna Beach, southern California. Over 50~million (x, y, z, i) data points were collected between 10 and 21~days after the landslide to evaluate T-LiDAR as a natural hazards response tool. The visualization of the T-LiDAR scans within the immediate landslide showed minor readjustments in the weeks following the primarily landslide with no observable continued motion on the primary landslide. Recovery and demolition efforts across the

  16. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of the human brain with phase-cycled balanced steady-state free precession at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineh, Michael M; Parekh, Mansi B; Zaharchuk, Greg; Su, Jason H; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Fischbein, Nancy J; Rutt, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to acquire ultra-high resolution images of the brain using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 7 T and to identify the potential utility of this sequence. Eight volunteers participated in this study after providing informed consent. Each volunteer was scanned with 8 phase cycles of bSSFP at 0.4-mm isotropic resolution using 0.5 number of excitations and 2-dimensional parallel acceleration of 1.75 × 1.75. Each phase cycle required 5 minutes of scanning, with pauses between the phase cycles allowing short periods of rest. The individual phase cycles were aligned and then averaged. The same volunteers underwent scanning using 3-dimensional (3D) multiecho gradient recalled echo at 0.8-mm isotropic resolution, 3D Cube T2 at 0.7-mm isotropic resolution, and thin-section coronal oblique T2-weighted fast spin echo at 0.22 × 0.22 × 2.0-mm resolution for comparison. Two neuroradiologists assessed image quality and potential research and clinical utility. The volunteers generally tolerated the scan sessions well, and composite high-resolution bSSFP images were produced for each volunteer. Rater analysis demonstrated that bSSFP had a superior 3D visualization of the microarchitecture of the hippocampus, very good contrast to delineate the borders of the subthalamic nucleus, and relatively good B1 homogeneity throughout. In addition to an excellent visualization of the cerebellum, subtle details of the brain and skull base anatomy were also easier to identify on the bSSFP images, including the line of Gennari, membrane of Liliequist, and cranial nerves. Balanced steady-state free precession had a strong iron contrast similar to or better than the comparison sequences. However, cortical gray-white contrast was significantly better with Cube T2 and T2-weighted fast spin echo. Balanced steady-state free precession can facilitate ultrahigh-resolution imaging of the brain. Although total imaging times are long, the individually short

  17. Fe- and Cu-complex formation with artificial ligands investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS: Implications for natural metal-organic complex studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Waska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has been increasingly used to complement the bulk determination of metal-ligand equilibria, for example via competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV. However, ESI-MS speciation analyses may be impacted by instrumental artefacts such as reduction reactions, fragmentation, and adduct formation at the ESI source, changes in the ionization efficiencies of the detected species in relation to sample matrix, and peak overlaps in response to increasing sample complexity. In our study, equilibria of the known artificial ligands citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (NN, and salicylaldoxime (SA with iron (Fe and copper (Cu were investigated by ultra-high resolution ESI-MS, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, under a variety of sample matrix and ionization settings. The acquired mass spectra were compared with metal-ligand equilibrium data from the literature as well as an adapted speciation model. Overall, the mass spectra produced representative species mentioned in previous reports and predicted by the speciation calculations, such as Fe(Cit, Cu(Cit2, Fe(EDTA, Cu(EDTA, Fe(NN3, and Cu(SA2. The analyses furthermore revealed new species which had been hypothesized but not measured directly using other methods, for example ternary complexes of citrate with Fe and Cu, Cu(SA monomers, and the dimer Fe(SA2. Finally, parallel measurements of a Cu+SA calibration series and a Cu+SA+EDTA competition series indicated that FT-ICR-MS can produce linear responses and low detection limits analogous to those of ACSV. We propose that ultra-high resolution FT-ICR-MS can be used as a representative tool to study interactions of trace metals with artificial as well as natural, unknown ligands at the molecular level.

  18. Highly informative multiclass profiling of lipids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - Low resolution (quadrupole) mass spectrometry by using electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Marco; Inferrera, Veronica; Rigano, Francesca; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Purcaro, Giorgia; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-08-04

    A simple, fast, and versatile method, using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a low resolution (single quadrupole) mass spectrometer was optimized to perform multiclass lipid profiling of human plasma. Particular attention was made to develop a method suitable for both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces (sequentially in positive- and negative-ion mode), without any modification of the chromatographic conditions (mobile phase, flow-rate, gradient, etc.). Emphasis was given to the extrapolation of the structural information based on the fragmentation pattern obtained using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface, under each different ionization condition, highlighting the complementary information obtained using the electrospray ionization interface, of support for related molecule ions identification. Furthermore, mass spectra of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol obtained using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface are reported and discussed for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints...... on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act...... as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints....

  20. Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 19 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 192001. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * testing hadronic Interactions * ultrahigh energies * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  1. The ALICE TPC, a high resolution device for ultra-high particle multiplicities. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Marian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE apparatus is a large 3-dimensional tracking and particle identification device for ultra-high multiplicity collision events. It has been operated successfully at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, recording data from pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions. Presently, LHC is in its first long shutdown (LS1), the next round of data taking will start in summer 2015 at or close to the LHC design energy and luminosity. During the second long shutdown (LS2), LHC will undergo a further increase in the Pb-Pb luminosity together with a major upgrade of ALICE. After the upgrade, the ALICE TPC will operate with Pb-Pb collisions at an interaction rate of 50 kHz. We present the performance in operation, calibration and reconstruction with the ALICE TPC together with ongoing work and plans for the near future and the coming 10 years.

  2. Cochlear Implant Electrode Localization Using an Ultra-High Resolution Scan Mode on Conventional 64-Slice and New Generation 192-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Leng, Shuai; Diehn, Felix E; Witte, Robert J; Krecke, Karl N; Grimes, Josh; Koeller, Kelly K; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Lane, John I

    2017-08-01

    A new generation 192-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) clinical scanner provides enhanced image quality and superior electrode localization over conventional MDCT. Currently, accurate and reliable cochlear implant electrode localization using conventional MDCT scanners remains elusive. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with full-length cochlear implant electrodes. Specimens were subsequently scanned with conventional 64-slice and new generation 192-slice MDCT scanners utilizing ultra-high resolution modes. Additionally, all specimens were scanned with micro-CT to provide a reference criterion for electrode position. Images were reconstructed according to routine temporal bone clinical protocols. Three neuroradiologists, blinded to scanner type, reviewed images independently to assess resolution of individual electrodes, scalar localization, and severity of image artifact. Serving as the reference standard, micro-CT identified scalar crossover in one specimen; imaging of all remaining cochleae demonstrated complete scala tympani insertions. The 192-slice MDCT scanner exhibited improved resolution of individual electrodes (p implant imaging compared with conventional MDCT. This technology provides important feedback regarding electrode position and course, which may help in future optimization of surgical technique and electrode design.

  3. Enhanced Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA Peak Detection and Identification with Ultra-High Resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS: Potential Application for Investigation of Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying non-annotated peaks may have a significant impact on the understanding of biological systems. In silico methodologies have focused on ESI LC/MS/MS for identifying non-annotated MS peaks. In this study, we employed in silico methodology to develop an Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA workflow using enhanced mass spectrometric data acquired with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS to determine the identity of non-annotated metabolites. The higher resolution of the GC-Orbitrap/MS, together with its wide dynamic range, resulted in more IROA peak pairs detected, and increased reliability of chemical formulae generation (CFG. IROA uses two different 13C-enriched carbon sources (randomized 95% 12C and 95% 13C to produce mirror image isotopologue pairs, whose mass difference reveals the carbon chain length (n, which aids in the identification of endogenous metabolites. Accurate m/z, n, and derivatization information are obtained from our GC/MS workflow for unknown metabolite identification, and aids in silico methodologies for identifying isomeric and non-annotated metabolites. We were able to mine more mass spectral information using the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth protocol (Qiu et al. Anal. Chem 2016 with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS, using 10% ammonia in methane as the CI reagent gas. We identified 244 IROA peaks pairs, which significantly increased IROA detection capability compared with our previous report (126 IROA peak pairs using a GC-TOF/MS machine. For 55 selected metabolites identified from matched IROA CI and EI spectra, using the GC-Orbitrap/MS vs. GC-TOF/MS, the average mass deviation for GC-Orbitrap/MS was 1.48 ppm, however, the average mass deviation was 32.2 ppm for the GC-TOF/MS machine. In summary, the higher resolution and wider dynamic range of the GC-Orbitrap/MS enabled more accurate CFG, and the coupling of accurate mass GC/MS IROA methodology with in silico fragmentation has great

  4. Enhanced Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) Peak Detection and Identification with Ultra-High Resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS: Potential Application for Investigation of Model Organism Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunping; Moir, Robyn D; Willis, Ian M; Seethapathy, Suresh; Biniakewitz, Robert C; Kurland, Irwin J

    2018-01-18

    Identifying non-annotated peaks may have a significant impact on the understanding of biological systems. In silico methodologies have focused on ESI LC/MS/MS for identifying non-annotated MS peaks. In this study, we employed in silico methodology to develop an Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) workflow using enhanced mass spectrometric data acquired with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS to determine the identity of non-annotated metabolites. The higher resolution of the GC-Orbitrap/MS, together with its wide dynamic range, resulted in more IROA peak pairs detected, and increased reliability of chemical formulae generation (CFG). IROA uses two different 13 C-enriched carbon sources (randomized 95% 12 C and 95% 13 C) to produce mirror image isotopologue pairs, whose mass difference reveals the carbon chain length (n), which aids in the identification of endogenous metabolites. Accurate m/z, n, and derivatization information are obtained from our GC/MS workflow for unknown metabolite identification, and aids in silico methodologies for identifying isomeric and non-annotated metabolites. We were able to mine more mass spectral information using the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth protocol (Qiu et al. Anal. Chem 2016) with the ultra-high resolution GC-Orbitrap/MS, using 10% ammonia in methane as the CI reagent gas. We identified 244 IROA peaks pairs, which significantly increased IROA detection capability compared with our previous report (126 IROA peak pairs using a GC-TOF/MS machine). For 55 selected metabolites identified from matched IROA CI and EI spectra, using the GC-Orbitrap/MS vs. GC-TOF/MS, the average mass deviation for GC-Orbitrap/MS was 1.48 ppm, however, the average mass deviation was 32.2 ppm for the GC-TOF/MS machine. In summary, the higher resolution and wider dynamic range of the GC-Orbitrap/MS enabled more accurate CFG, and the coupling of accurate mass GC/MS IROA methodology with in silico fragmentation has great potential in

  5. Multi-resolution anisotropy studies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Luz, R. J. Barreira; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D' Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D' Olivo, J. C.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlín, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rogozin, D.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Quispe, I. D. Vergara; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2017-06-01

    We report a multi-resolution search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with local zenith angles up to 80(o) and energies in excess of 4 EeV (4 × 1018 eV). This search is conducted by measuring the angular power spectrum and performing a needlet wavelet analysis in two independent energy ranges. Both analyses are complementary since the angular power spectrum achieves a better performance in identifying large-scale patterns while the needlet wavelet analysis, considering the parameters used in this work, presents a higher efficiency in detecting smaller-scale anisotropies, potentially providing directional information on any observed anisotropies. No deviation from isotropy is observed on any angular scale in the energy range between 4 and 8 EeV. Above 8 EeV, an indication for a dipole moment is captured, while no other deviation from isotropy is observed for moments beyond the dipole one. The corresponding p-values obtained after accounting for searches blindly performed at several angular scales, are 1.3 × 10-5 in the case of the angular power spectrum, and 2.5 × 10-3 in the case of the needlet analysis. While these results are consistent with previous reports making use of the same data set, they provide extensions of the previous works through the thorough scans of the angular scales.

  6. Multi-resolution anisotropy studies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A. [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas—LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico—IST, Universidade de Lisboa—UL (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino (Italy); Samarai, I. Al [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universités Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Albuquerque, I.F.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física, São Paulo (Brazil); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET) (Argentina); Almela, A.; Andrada, B. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Anastasi, G.A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Anchordoqui, L., E-mail: auger_spokespersons@fnal.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York (United States); and others

    2017-06-01

    We report a multi-resolution search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with local zenith angles up to 80{sup o} and energies in excess of 4 EeV (4 × 10{sup 18} eV). This search is conducted by measuring the angular power spectrum and performing a needlet wavelet analysis in two independent energy ranges. Both analyses are complementary since the angular power spectrum achieves a better performance in identifying large-scale patterns while the needlet wavelet analysis, considering the parameters used in this work, presents a higher efficiency in detecting smaller-scale anisotropies, potentially providing directional information on any observed anisotropies. No deviation from isotropy is observed on any angular scale in the energy range between 4 and 8 EeV. Above 8 EeV, an indication for a dipole moment is captured; while no other deviation from isotropy is observed for moments beyond the dipole one. The corresponding p -values obtained after accounting for searches blindly performed at several angular scales, are 1.3 × 10{sup −5} in the case of the angular power spectrum, and 2.5 × 10{sup −3} in the case of the needlet analysis. While these results are consistent with previous reports making use of the same data set, they provide extensions of the previous works through the thorough scans of the angular scales.

  7. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  8. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsen, Niels M.; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas; Podoleanu, Adrian; Bang, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints that are light, robust and of lower cost. The robustness of the structure printed is only maintained if each layer printed is properly fused to its previously printed layers. In situations where the printed component has to accomplish a key mechanical role there is a need to characterize its mechanical strength. This may only be revealed by in-depth testing in order to discover unwanted air-gaps in the structure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an in-depth imaging method, that is sensitive to variations in the refractive index and therefore can resolve with high resolution translucid samples. We report on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints.

  9. An Ultrahigh Resolution Structure of TEM-1 β-Lactamase Suggests a Role for Glu166 as the General Base in Acylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasov, George; Wang, Xiaojun; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    Although TEM-1 β-lactamase is among the best studied enzymes, its acylation mechanism remains controversial. To investigate this problem, the structure of TEM-1 in complex with an acylation transition-state analogue was determined at ultrahigh resolution (0.85 (angstrom)) by X-ray crystallography. The quality of the data was such as to allow for refinement to an R-factor of 9.1% and an R free of 11.2%. In the resulting structure, the electron density features were clear enough to differentiate between single and double bonds in carboxylate groups, to identify multiple conformations that are occupied by residues and loops, and to assign 70% of the protons in the protein. Unexpectedly, even at pH 8.0 where the protein was crystallized, the active site residue Glu166 is clearly protonated. This supports the hypothesis that Glu166 is the general base in the acylation half of the reaction cycle. This structure suggests that Glu166 acts through the catalytic water to activate Ser70 for nucleophilic attack on the β-lactam ring of the substrate. The hydrolytic mechanism of class A β-lactamases, such as TEM-1, appears to be symmetrical, as are the serine proteases. Apart from its mechanistic implications, this atomic resolution structure affords an unusually detailed view of the structure, dynamics, and hydrogen-bonding networks of TEM-1, which may be useful for the design of inhibitors against this key antibiotic resistance target.

  10. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C; Nguyen, Khoa; Player, Christopher M; Player, Allison; Wright, Michelle; Roy, Nicole; Frosch, Matthew P; McKee, Ann C; Wald, Lawrence L; Fischl, Bruce; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-07-15

    Automated analysis of MRI data of the subregions of the hippocampus requires computational atlases built at a higher resolution than those that are typically used in current neuroimaging studies. Here we describe the construction of a statistical atlas of the hippocampal formation at the subregion level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13 mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise delineations were made possible by the extraordinary resolution of the scans. In addition to the subregions, manual annotations for neighboring structures (e.g., amygdala, cortex) were obtained from a separate dataset of in vivo, T1-weighted MRI scans of the whole brain (1mm resolution). The manual labels from the in vivo and ex vivo data were combined into a single computational atlas of the hippocampal formation with a novel atlas building algorithm based on Bayesian inference. The resulting atlas can be used to automatically segment the hippocampal subregions in structural MRI images, using an algorithm that can analyze multimodal data and adapt to variations in MRI contrast due to differences in acquisition hardware or pulse sequences. The applicability of the atlas, which we are releasing as part of FreeSurfer (version 6.0), is demonstrated with experiments on three different publicly available datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer's disease subjects and elderly controls with 88% accuracy in standard resolution (1mm) T1 data, significantly outperforming the atlas in FreeSurfer version 5.3 (86% accuracy) and

  11. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  12. An ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at sub-Kelvin temperatures and high magnetic fields for spin-resolved measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, C.; Baumann, D.; Hänke, T.; Scheffler, M.; Kühne, T.; Kaiser, M.; Voigtländer, R.; Lindackers, D.; Büchner, B.; Hess, C.

    2018-06-01

    We present the construction and performance of an ultra-low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), working in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and in high magnetic fields up to 9 T. The cryogenic environment of the STM is generated by a single-shot 3He magnet cryostat in combination with a 4He dewar system. At a base temperature (300 mK), the cryostat has an operation time of approximately 80 h. The special design of the microscope allows the transfer of the STM head from the cryostat to a UHV chamber system, where samples and STM tips can be easily exchanged. The UHV chambers are equipped with specific surface science treatment tools for the functionalization of samples and tips, including high-temperature treatments and thin film deposition. This, in particular, enables spin-resolved tunneling measurements. We present test measurements using well-known samples and tips based on superconductors and metallic materials such as LiFeAs, Nb, Fe, and W. The measurements demonstrate the outstanding performance of the STM with high spatial and energy resolution as well as the spin-resolved capability.

  13. Ultra-high resolution HLA genotyping and allele discovery by highly multiplexed cDNA amplicon pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lank Simon M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution HLA genotyping is a critical diagnostic and research assay. Current methods rarely achieve unambiguous high-resolution typing without making population-specific frequency inferences due to a lack of locus coverage and difficulty in exon-phase matching. Achieving high-resolution typing is also becoming more challenging with traditional methods as the database of known HLA alleles increases. Results We designed a cDNA amplicon-based pyrosequencing method to capture 94% of the HLA class I open-reading-frame with only two amplicons per sample, and an analogous method for class II HLA genes, with a primary focus on sequencing the DRB loci. We present a novel Galaxy server-based analysis workflow for determining genotype. During assay validation, we performed two GS Junior sequencing runs to determine the accuracy of the HLA class I amplicons and DRB amplicon at different levels of multiplexing. When 116 amplicons were multiplexed, we unambiguously resolved 99%of class I alleles to four- or six-digit resolution, as well as 100% unambiguous DRB calls. The second experiment, with 271 multiplexed amplicons, missed some alleles, but generated high-resolution, concordant typing for 93% of class I alleles, and 96% for DRB1 alleles. In a third, preliminary experiment we attempted to sequence novel amplicons for other class II loci with mixed success. Conclusions The presented assay is higher-throughput and higher-resolution than existing HLA genotyping methods, and suitable for allele discovery or large cohort sampling. The validated class I and DRB primers successfully generated unambiguously high-resolution genotypes, while further work is needed to validate additional class II genotyping amplicons.

  14. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  15. An ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat for simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and magneto-transport measurements down to 400 mK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Marcus; Bindel, Jan Raphael; Pezzotta, Mike; Becker, Stefan; Muckel, Florian; Johnsen, Tjorven; Saunus, Christian; Ast, Christian R; Morgenstern, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present the design and calibration measurements of a scanning tunneling microscope setup in a 3 He ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat operating at 400 mK with a hold time of 10 days. With 2.70 m in height and 4.70 m free space needed for assembly, the cryostat fits in a one-story lab building. The microscope features optical access, an xy table, in situ tip and sample exchange, and enough contacts to facilitate atomic force microscopy in tuning fork operation and simultaneous magneto-transport measurements on the sample. Hence, it enables scanning tunneling spectroscopy on microstructured samples which are tuned into preselected transport regimes. A superconducting magnet provides a perpendicular field of up to 14 T. The vertical noise of the scanning tunneling microscope amounts to 1 pm rms within a 700 Hz bandwidth. Tunneling spectroscopy using one superconducting electrode revealed an energy resolution of 120 μeV. Data on tip-sample Josephson contacts yield an even smaller feature size of 60 μeV, implying that the system operates close to the physical noise limit.

  16. An ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat for simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and magneto-transport measurements down to 400 mK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Marcus; Bindel, Jan Raphael; Pezzotta, Mike; Becker, Stefan; Muckel, Florian; Johnsen, Tjorven; Saunus, Christian; Ast, Christian R.; Morgenstern, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present the design and calibration measurements of a scanning tunneling microscope setup in a 3He ultrahigh-vacuum cryostat operating at 400 mK with a hold time of 10 days. With 2.70 m in height and 4.70 m free space needed for assembly, the cryostat fits in a one-story lab building. The microscope features optical access, an xy table, in situ tip and sample exchange, and enough contacts to facilitate atomic force microscopy in tuning fork operation and simultaneous magneto-transport measurements on the sample. Hence, it enables scanning tunneling spectroscopy on microstructured samples which are tuned into preselected transport regimes. A superconducting magnet provides a perpendicular field of up to 14 T. The vertical noise of the scanning tunneling microscope amounts to 1 pmrms within a 700 Hz bandwidth. Tunneling spectroscopy using one superconducting electrode revealed an energy resolution of 120 μeV. Data on tip-sample Josephson contacts yield an even smaller feature size of 60 μeV, implying that the system operates close to the physical noise limit.

  17. Investigation of bio-oil produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of food waste using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Vlaskin, Mikhail; Borisova, Ludmila; Zherebker, Alexander; Perminova, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has revealed that more than 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally every year. The disposal of such huge biomass has become a challenge. In the present paper, we report the production of the bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction of three classes of food waste: meat, cheese and fruits. The highest yield of the bio-oil was observed for meat (∼60%) and cheese (∼75%), while for fruits, it was considerably low (∼10%). The molecular composition of the obtained bio-oil was investigated using ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and was found to be similar to that obtained from algae. Several thousand heteroatom compounds (N, N 2 , ON 2 , etc. classes) were reliably identified from each sample. It was found that bio-oils produced from meat and cheese have many compounds (∼90%) with common molecular formulas, while bio-oil produced from fruits differs considerably (∼30% of compounds are unique).

  18. Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Drinking Water by Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Yiping; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-11-11

    A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) method based on a polymer cation exchange material (PCX) was applied to the simultaneous determination of the 30 triazine herbicides in drinking water with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric detection. Drinking water samples were acidified with formic acid, and then triazines were adsorbed by the PCX sorbent. Subsequently, the analytes were eluted with ammonium hydroxide/acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on an HSS T3 column using water (4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The method achieved LODs of 0.2-30.0 ng/L for the 30 triazines, with recoveries in the range of 70.5-112.1%, and the precision of the method was better than 12.7%. These results indicated that the proposed method had the advantages of convenience and high efficiency when applied to the analysis of the 30 triazines in drinking water.

  19. Kite aerial photography for low-cost, ultra-high spatial resolution multi-spectral mapping of intertidal landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch Bryson

    Full Text Available Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time that could complement field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging provide data at limited spatial and temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecologically-focussed studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric/mapping procedure that was developed for constructing high-resolution, three-dimensional, multi-spectral terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing procedure uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an intertidal shoreline 200 m long, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rocky shore at Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae and animal (e.g. gastropods assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  20. Kite aerial photography for low-cost, ultra-high spatial resolution multi-spectral mapping of intertidal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Mitch; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew; Murphy, Richard J; Bongiorno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time that could complement field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at limited spatial and temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecologically-focussed studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric/mapping procedure that was developed for constructing high-resolution, three-dimensional, multi-spectral terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing procedure uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an intertidal shoreline 200 m long, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rocky shore at Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Imaging cells and sub-cellular structures with ultrahigh resolution full-field X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C C; Tseng, P Y; Chen, H H; Hua, T E; Chen, S T; Chen, Y Y; Leng, W H; Wang, C H; Hwu, Y; Yin, G C; Liang, K S; Chen, F R; Chu, Y S; Yeh, H I; Yang, Y C; Yang, C S; Zhang, G L; Je, J H; Margaritondo, G

    2013-01-01

    Our experimental results demonstrate that full-field hard-X-ray microscopy is finally able to investigate the internal structure of cells in tissues. This result was made possible by three main factors: the use of a coherent (synchrotron) source of X-rays, the exploitation of contrast mechanisms based on the real part of the refractive index and the magnification provided by high-resolution Fresnel zone-plate objectives. We specifically obtained high-quality microradiographs of human and mouse cells with 29 nm Rayleigh spatial resolution and verified that tomographic reconstruction could be implemented with a final resolution level suitable for subcellular features. We also demonstrated that a phase retrieval method based on a wave propagation algorithm could yield good subcellular images starting from a series of defocused microradiographs. The concluding discussion compares cellular and subcellular hard-X-ray microradiology with other techniques and evaluates its potential impact on biomedical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-resolution ultrahigh-pressure long column reversed-phase liquid chromatography for top-down proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Piehowski, Paul D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kim, Sangtae; Zhao, Rui; Qu, Yi; Robinson, E. W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2017-05-01

    We report development of an approach providing high-resolution RPLC of proteins and its utility for mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomics. A chromatographic peak capacity of ~450 was achieved for proteins and large polypeptides having MWs up to 43 kDa in the context of proteomics applications. RPLC column lengths from 20 to 200 cm, particle sizes from 1.5 to 5 m, bonding alkyl chains from C1 to C2, C4, C8, and C18, and particle surface structures that spanned porous, superficially porous (porous shell, core-shell), and nonporous were investigated at pressures up to14K psi. Column length was found as the most important factor for >20 kDa proteins in gradient RPLC, and shortening column length degraded RPLC resolution and sensitivity regardless of the size and surface structure of the packing particles used. The alkyl chains bonded to the silica particle surface significantly affected the RPLC recovery and efficiency, and short alkyl C1-C4 phases provided higher sensitivity and resolution than C8 and C18 phases. Long gradient separations (e.g., >10 hours) with long columns (e.g., 100 cm) were particularly effective in conjunction with use of high accuracy mass spectrometers (e.g., the Orbitrap Elite) for top-down proteomics with improved proteoform coverage by allowing multiple HCD, CID, and ETD dissociation modes. It was also found that HCD produced small fragments useful for proteoform identification, while low energy CID and ETD often complemented HCD by providing large fragments.

  3. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Van der Merwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV. Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level.

  4. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik

    2010-01-01

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  5. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-07-13

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  6. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  7. The variability of the isotopic signal during the last Glacial as seen from the ultra-high resolution NEEM and NorthGRIP ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkinis, Vasileios; Møllesøe Vinther, Bo; Terkelsen Holme, Christian; Capron, Emilie; Popp, Trevor James; Olander Rasmussen, Sune

    2017-04-01

    The continuity and high resolution available in polar ice core records constitutes them an excellent tool for the study of the stadial-interstadial transitions, notably through the study of the water isotopic composition of polar precipitation (δ18O, δD ). The quest for the highest resolution possible has resulted in experimental sampling and analysis techniques that have yielded data sets with a potential to change the current picture on the climatic signals of the last Glacial. Specifically, the ultra-high resolution δ18O signals from the NorthGRIP and NEEM ice cores, present a variability at multi-annual and decadal time scales, whose interpretation gives rise to further puzzling though interesting questions and an obvious paradox. By means of simple firn isotope diffusion and densification calculations, we firstly demonstrate that the variability of observed signals is unlikely to be due to post depositional effects that are known to occur on the surface of the Greenland ice cap and alter the δ18O composition of the precipitated snow. Assuming specific values for the δ18O sensitivity to temperature (commonly referred to as the δ18O slope), we estimate that the temperature signal during the stadials has a variability that extents from interstadial to extremely cold levels with peak-to-peak fluctuations of almost 35 K occurring in a few years. Similarly, during interstadial phases the temperature varies rapidly from stadial to Holocene levels while the signal variability shows a maximum during the LGM, with magnitudes of up to 15‰ that translate to ≈ 50 K when a δ18O slope of 0.3‰K-1 is used. We assess the validity of these results and comment on the stability of the δ18O slope. Driven by a simple logical queue, we conclude that the observed δ18O variability reflects a climatic signal although not necessarily attributed 100% to temperature changes. From this we can assume that there occur climatic mechanisms during the previously thought stable

  8. Physical properties of shallow landslides and their role in landscape evolution investigated with ultrahigh-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M. D.; Bryk, A. B.; Fauria, K.; Huang, M. H.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow landslides are often a primary method of sediment transport and a dominant process of hillslope evolution in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. However, detailed studies of single landslides can be difficult to generalize across a landscape and watershed-scale analyses using coarse-resolution digital elevation models often fail to capture the detail necessary to understand the mechanics of individual slides. During February 2017, an intense rainfall event generated over 400 shallow landslides within a 13 km2 field site in Colusa County, Northern California, providing a unique opportunity to investigate how landsliding affects landscape morphology at multiple scales. The hilly grass and oak woodland site is underlain by Great Valley Sequence shale, sandstone, and conglomerate turbidites uniformly dipping 50° east, with ridgelines and valleys following bedding orientation. Here we present results from ultrahigh-resolution ( 100 points per square meter) airborne lidar data and aerial imagery collected directly after the event, as well as high-resolution airborne lidar data collected in 2015 and preliminary findings from field surveys. Of the 136 landslides surveyed so far, the failure surface was at the soil-weathered bedrock boundary in 85%. Only 69% of the landslides traveled down hillslopes and reached active channels, and of these, 37% transformed into debris flows that scoured channel pathways to bedrock. These small landslides have a median width of 3.2 m and average failure depth of 0.4 m. Landslides occurred at a median pre-failure ground surface slope of 35°, and only 56% occurred in convergent or weakly convergent areas. This comprehensive before and after dataset is being used as a rigorous test of shallow landslide models that predict landslide size and location, as well as a lens to investigate patterns in slope stability or failure with across the landscape. After multiple years of fieldwork at this study site where small landslide scars suggested

  9. Crystals of DhaA mutants from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 diffracted to ultrahigh resolution: crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Koudelakova, Tana; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Pavlova, Martina; Damborsky, Jiri; Smatanova, Ivana Kuta

    2008-02-01

    The enzyme DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 belongs to the haloalkane dehalogenases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of haloalkanes to the corresponding alcohols. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variants can be used to detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Three mutants named DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 were constructed in order to study the importance of tunnels connecting the buried active site with the surrounding solvent to the enzymatic activity. All protein mutants were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of DhaA04 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), while the crystals of the other two mutants DhaA14 and DhaA15 belonged to the triclinic space group P1. Native data sets were collected for the DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 mutants at beamline X11 of EMBL, DESY, Hamburg to the high resolutions of 1.30, 0.95 and 1.15 A, respectively.

  10. High spatial resolution and temporally resolved T2* mapping of normal human myocardium at 7.0 Tesla: an ultrahigh field magnetic resonance feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Hezel

    Full Text Available Myocardial tissue characterization using T(2(* relaxation mapping techniques is an emerging application of (preclinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The increase in microscopic susceptibility at higher magnetic field strengths renders myocardial T(2(* mapping at ultrahigh magnetic fields conceptually appealing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of myocardial T(2(* imaging at 7.0 T and examines the applicability of temporally-resolved and high spatial resolution myocardial T(2(* mapping. In phantom experiments single cardiac phase and dynamic (CINE gradient echo imaging techniques provided similar T(2(* maps. In vivo studies showed that the peak-to-peak B(0 difference following volume selective shimming was reduced to approximately 80 Hz for the four chamber view and mid-ventricular short axis view of the heart and to 65 Hz for the left ventricle. No severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the septum and in the lateral wall for T(2(* weighting ranging from TE = 2.04 ms to TE = 10.2 ms. For TE >7 ms, a susceptibility weighting induced signal void was observed within the anterior and inferior myocardial segments. The longest T(2(* values were found for anterior (T(2(* = 14.0 ms, anteroseptal (T(2(* = 17.2 ms and inferoseptal (T(2(* = 16.5 ms myocardial segments. Shorter T(2(* values were observed for inferior (T(2(* = 10.6 ms and inferolateral (T(2(* = 11.4 ms segments. A significant difference (p = 0.002 in T(2(* values was observed between end-diastole and end-systole with T(2(* changes of up to approximately 27% over the cardiac cycle which were pronounced in the septum. To conclude, these results underscore the challenges of myocardial T(2(* mapping at 7.0 T but demonstrate that these issues can be offset by using tailored shimming techniques and dedicated acquisition schemes.

  11. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Resolution dependence on phase extraction by the Hilbert transform in phase calibrated and dispersion compensated ultrahigh resolution spectrometer-based OCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    -linearities lead together to an unknown chirp of the detected interferogram. One method to compensate for the chirp is to perform a pixel-wavenumber calibration versus phase that requires numerical extraction of the phase. Typically a Hilbert transform algorithm is employed to extract the optical phase versus...... wavenumber for calibration and dispersion compensation. In this work we demonstrate UHR-OCT at 1300 nm using a Super continuum source and highlight the resolution constraints in using the Hilbert transform algorithm when extracting the optical phase for calibration and dispersion compensation. We demonstrate...... that the constraints cannot be explained purely by the numerical errors in the data processing module utilizing the Hilbert transform but must be dictated by broadening mechanisms originating from the experimentally obtained interferograms....

  13. Ultra-High Precision Half-Life Measurement for the Superallowed &+circ; Emitter ^26Al^m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, P.; Demand, G.; Garrett, P. E.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Grinyer, G. F.; Leslie, J. R.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Djongolov, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Williams, S. J.

    2009-10-01

    The calculated nuclear structure dependent correction for ^26Al^m (δC-δNS= 0.305(27)% [1]) is smaller by nearly a factor of two than the other twelve precision superallowed cases, making it an ideal case to pursue a reduction in the experimental errors contributing to the Ft value. An ultra-high precision half-life measurement for the superallowed &+circ; emitter ^26Al^m has been made at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. A beam of ˜10^5 ^26Al^m/s was delivered in October 2007 and its decay was observed using a 4π continuous gas flow proportional counter as part of an ongoing experimental program in superallowed Fermi β decay studies. With a statistical precision of ˜0.008%, the present work represents the single most precise measurement of any superallowed half-life to date. [4pt] [1] I.S. Towner and J.C. Hardy, Phys. Rev. C 79, 055502 (2009).

  14. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  15. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  16. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  17. Detection of anabolic and androgenic steroids and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Wai Him; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-04-14

    Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood. As a result, there is a high risk that such AASs could escape detection in their official race-day samples although they may have been used during the long period of training. Hair analysis, on the other hand, can afford significantly longer detection windows. In addition, the identification of synthetic ester derivatives of AASs in hair, particularly for the endogenous ones, can provide unequivocal proof of their exogenous origin. This paper describes the development of a sensitive method (at sub to low parts-per-billion or ppb levels) for detecting 48 AASs and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Decontaminated horse hair was pulverised and subjected to in-situ liquid-liquid extraction in a mixture of hexane - ethyl acetate (7:3, v/v) and phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 9.5), followed by additional clean-up using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. The final extract was analysed using UHPLC-HRMS in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with both full scan and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). This method was validated for qualitative identification purposes. Validation data, including method specificity, method sensitivity, extraction recovery, method precision and matrix effect are presented. Method applicability was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of testosterone propionate in a referee hair sample. To our knowledge, this was

  18. Analysis of Non-Volatile Chemical Constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Menthae Haplocalycis herba, one kind of Chinese edible herbs, has been widely utilized for the clinical use in China for thousands of years. Over the last decades, studies on chemical constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis herba have been widely performed. However, less attention has been paid to non-volatile components which are also responsible for its medical efficacy than the volatile constituents. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the comprehensive identification of the non-volatile constituents in Menthae Haplocalycis herba using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Separation was performed with Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm with 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Based on the accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm, MS/MS fragmentation patterns and different chromatographic behaviors, a total of 64 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, including 30 flavonoids, 20 phenolic acids, 12 terpenoids and two phenylpropanoids. Finally, target isolation of three compounds named Acacetin, Rosmarinic acid and Clemastanin A (first isolated from Menthae Haplocalycis herba were performed based on the obtained results, which further confirmed the deduction of fragmentation patterns and identified the compounds profile in Menthae Haplocalycis herba. Our research firstly systematically elucidated the non-volatile components of Menthae Haplocalycis herba, which laid the foundation for further pharmacological and metabolic studies. Meanwhile, our established method was useful and efficient to screen and identify targeted constituents from traditional Chinese medicine extracts.

  19. Measurement of the Thermal Expansion Coefficient for Ultra-High Temperatures up to 3000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompan, T. A.; Kondratiev, S. V.; Korenev, A. S.; Puhov, N. F.; Inochkin, F. M.; Kruglov, S. K.; Bronshtein, I. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to a new high-temperature dilatometer, a part of the State Primary Standard of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) unit. The dilatometer is designed for investigation and certification of materials for TEC standards in the range of extremely high temperatures. The critical review of existing methods of TEC measurements is given. Also, the design, principles of operation and metrological parameters of the new device are described. The main attention is paid to the system of machine vision that allows accurate measurement of elongation at high temperatures. The results of TEC measurements for graphite GIP-4, single crystal Al2O3, and some other materials are also presented.

  20. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  1. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  2. Techniques for Ultra-high Magnetic Field Gradient NMR Diffusion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Mitrovic, Vesna F.; Calder, Edward S.; Will Thomas, G.; Halperin, William P.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.

    2001-03-01

    We report on development and application of techniques for ultraslow diffusion coefficient measurements through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in high magnetic field gradients. We have performed NMR experiments in a steady fringe field gradient of 175 T/m from a 23 T resistive Bitter magnet, as well as in a gradient of 42 T/m from an 8 T superconducting magnet. New techniques to provide optimum sensitivity in these experiments are described. To eliminate parasitic effects of the temporal instability of the resistive magnet, we have introduced a passive filter: a highly conductive cryogen-cooled inductive shield. We show experimental demonstration of such a shield’s effect on NMR performed in the Bitter magnet. For enhanced efficiency, we have employed “frequency jumping” in our spectrometer system. Application of these methods has made possible measurements of diffusion coefficients as low as 10-10 cm^2/s, probing motion on a 250 nm length scale.

  3. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  4. Small displacement measurements with subatomic resolution by beat frequency measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Petrů, František; Buchta, Zdeněk; Lazar, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2007), s. 2005-2013 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200650503; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA ČR GA102/07/1179; GA MPO FT-TA3/133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : high-resolution interferometry * nanometrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2007

  5. Collective Thomson scattering measurements with high frequency resolution at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the development and first results of a receiver system for the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TEXTOR with frequency resolution in the megahertz range or better. The improved frequency resolution expands the diagnostic range and utility of CTS measurements in general ...... and is a prerequisite for measurements of ion Bernstein wave signatures in CTS spectra. The first results from the new acquisition system are shown to be consistent with theory and with simultaneous measurements by the standard receiver system. © 2010 EURATOM...

  6. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  7. Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Christiansen, A.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Facilities that process special nuclear material perform periodic inventories. In bulk facilities that process low-enriched uranium, these inventories and their audits are based primarily on weight and enrichment measurements. Enrichment measurements determine the 211 U weight fraction of the uranium compound from the passive gamma-ray emissions of the sample. Both international inspectors and facility operators rely on the capability to make in-field gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment. These users require rapid, portable measurement capability. Some in-field measurements have been biased, forcing the inspectors to resort to high-resolution measurements or mass spectrometry to accomplish their goals

  8. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  9. High-resolution neutron-diffraction measurements to 8 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, C. L.; Fortes, A. D.; Ridley, C. J.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Funnell, N. P.; Gibbs, A. S.; Goodway, C. M.; Sadykov, R.; Knight, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the capability to measure high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data to a pressure of at least 8 kbar. We have used the HRPD instrument at the ISIS neutron source and a piston-cylinder design of pressure cell machined from a null-scattering titanium zirconium alloy. Data were collected under hydrostatic conditions from an elpasolite perovskite La?NiMnO?; by virtue of a thinner cell wall on the incident-beam side of the cell, it was possible to obtain data in the instrument's highest resolution back-scattering detector banks up to a maximum pressure of 8.5 kbar.

  10. DOI resolution measurement and error analysis with LYSO and APDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae-hun; Cho, Gyuseong

    2008-01-01

    Spatial resolution degradation in PET occurs at the edge of Field Of View (FOV) due to parallax error. To improve spatial resolution at the edge of FOV, Depth-Of-Interaction (DOI) PET has been investigated and several methods for DOI positioning were proposed. In this paper, a DOI-PET detector module using two 8x4 array avalanche photodiodes (APDs) (Hamamatsu, S8550) and a 2 cm long LYSO scintillation crystal was proposed and its DOI characteristics were investigated experimentally. In order to measure DOI positions, signals from two APDs were compared. Energy resolution was obtained from the sum of two APDs' signals and DOI positioning error was calculated. Finally, an optimum DOI step size in a 2 cm long LYSO were suggested to help to design a DOI-PET

  11. A compact Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) compatible instrument for time of flight-energy measurements of slow heavy reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Lyapin, V.G.; Aleklett, K.; Loveland, W.; Bondorf, J.; Jakobsson, B.; Whitlow, H.J.; El Bouanani, M

    2000-10-01

    A compact Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) compatible instrument for time of flight-energy measurements of slow heavy reaction products from nuclear reactions has been designed and tested at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala. The construction is based on MicroChannel Plate (MCP) time detectors of the electron mirror type and silicon p-i-n diodes, and permits the detectors to be stacked side-by-side to achieve large solid angle coverage. This kind of telescope measures the Time of Flight (ToF) and Energy (E) of the particle from which one can reconstruct mass. The combination of an ultra-thin cluster gas-jet target and thin carbon emitter foils allows one to measure heavy residues down to an energy of {approx}35 keV/nucleon from the interactions of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 16}O with {sup nat}Xe gas targets.

  12. A compact Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) compatible instrument for time of flight-energy measurements of slow heavy reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Lyapin, V.G.; Aleklett, K.; Loveland, W.; Bondorf, J.; Jakobsson, B.; Whitlow, H.J.; El Bouanani, M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) compatible instrument for time of flight-energy measurements of slow heavy reaction products from nuclear reactions has been designed and tested at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala. The construction is based on MicroChannel Plate (MCP) time detectors of the electron mirror type and silicon p-i-n diodes, and permits the detectors to be stacked side-by-side to achieve large solid angle coverage. This kind of telescope measures the Time of Flight (ToF) and Energy (E) of the particle from which one can reconstruct mass. The combination of an ultra-thin cluster gas-jet target and thin carbon emitter foils allows one to measure heavy residues down to an energy of ∼35 keV/nucleon from the interactions of 400 MeV/nucleon 16 O with nat Xe gas targets

  13. Rapid objective measurement of gamma camera resolution using statistical moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hander, T A; Lancaster, J L; Kopp, D T; Lasher, J C; Blumhardt, R; Fox, P T

    1997-02-01

    An easy and rapid method for the measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution of a gamma camera was developed. The measurement is based on the first and second statistical moments of regions of interest (ROIs) applied to bar phantom images. This leads to an estimate of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of a line spread function (LSF). Bar phantom images were acquired using four large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma cameras (Scintronix, Picker, Searle, Siemens). The following factors important for routine measurements of gamma camera resolution with this method were tested: ROI placement and shape, phantom orientation, spatial sampling, and procedural consistency. A 0.2% coefficient of variation (CV) between repeat measurements of MTF was observed for a circular ROI. The CVs of less than 2% were observed for measured MTF values for bar orientations ranging from -10 degrees to +10 degrees with respect to the x and y axes of the camera acquisition matrix. A 256 x 256 matrix (1.6 mm pixel spacing) was judged sufficient for routine measurements, giving an estimate of the FWHM to within 0.1 mm of manufacturer-specified values (3% difference). Under simulated clinical conditions, the variation in measurements attributable to procedural effects yielded a CV of less than 2% in newer generation cameras. The moments method for determining MTF correlated well with a peak-valley method, with an average difference of 0.03 across the range of spatial frequencies tested (0.11-0.17 line pairs/mm, corresponding to 4.5-3.0 mm bars). When compared with the NEMA method for measuring intrinsic spatial resolution, the moments method was found to be within 4% of the expected FWHM.

  14. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  15. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  16. Modification, calibration, and performance of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer for particle size distribution and volatility measurements during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom airborne campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol is a key component of the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate measurement of the concentration of atmospheric particles as a function of their size is fundamental to investigations of particle microphysics, optical characteristics, and chemical processes. We describe the modification, calibration, and performance of two commercially available, Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometers (UHSASs as used on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom. To avoid sample flow issues related to pressure variations during aircraft altitude changes, we installed a laminar flow meter on each instrument to measure sample flow directly at the inlet as well as flow controllers to maintain constant volumetric sheath flows. In addition, we added a compact thermodenuder operating at 300 °C to the inlet line of one of the instruments. With these modifications, the instruments are capable of making accurate (ranging from 7 % for Dp < 0.07 µm to 1 % for Dp > 0.13 µm, precise (< ±1.2 %, and continuous (1 Hz measurements of size-resolved particle number concentration over the diameter range of 0.063–1.0 µm at ambient pressures of > 1000 to 225 hPa, while simultaneously providing information on particle volatility.We assessed the effect of uncertainty in the refractive index (n of ambient particles that are sized by the UHSAS assuming the refractive index of ammonium sulfate (n =  1.52. For calibration particles with n between 1.44 and 1.58, the UHSAS diameter varies by +4/−10 % relative to ammonium sulfate. This diameter uncertainty associated with the range of refractive indices (i.e., particle composition translates to aerosol surface area and volume uncertainties of +8.4/−17.8 and +12.4/−27.5 %, respectively. In addition to sizing uncertainty, low counting statistics can lead to uncertainties of < 20 % for aerosol surface area and < 30

  17. Measurement of the position resolution of the Gas Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffitta, Paolo; Muleri, Fabio; Fabiani, Sergio; Costa, Enrico; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo; Pinchera, Michele; Spandre, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The Gas Pixel Detector was designed and built as a focal plane instrument for X-ray polarimetry of celestial sources, the last unexplored subtopics of X-ray astronomy. It promises to perform detailed and sensitive measurements resolving extended sources and detecting polarization in faint sources in crowded fields at the focus of telescopes of good angular resolution. Its polarimetric and spectral capability were already studied in earlier works. Here we investigate for the first time, with both laboratory measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, its imaging properties to confirm its unique capability to carry out imaging spectral-polarimetry in future X-ray missions.

  18. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    High performance demand for several engineering alloys and components, and miniaturization of electronics and development of MEMS requires better understanding of local corrosion characteristics frequently down to µm scale. This is because in metallic materials corrosion is a sensitive function...... in conjunction with microstructural analysis, using advanced microscopic tools, becomes very important. Corrosion of microelectronics circuits and MEMs is also a recent problem, which demands measurement resolution down to few microns as the components are extremely small, and measurement needs to be carried out...

  19. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W. (Scripps)

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  20. SiliPET: An ultra-high resolution design of a small animal PET scanner based on stacks of double-sided silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni; Zavattini, Guido; Cesca, Nicola; Auricchio, Natalia; Andritschke, Robert; Schopper, Florian; Kanbach, Gottfried

    2007-01-01

    We investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSNrcMP code, the capabilities of a small animal PET scanner based on four stacks of double-sided silicon strip detectors. Each stack consists of 40 silicon detectors with dimension of 60x60x1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on each side. Two coordinates of the interaction are given by the strips, whereas the third coordinate is given by the detector number in the stack. The stacks are arranged to form a box of 5x5x6 cm 3 with minor sides opened; the box represents the minimal FOV of the scanner. The performance parameters of the SiliPET scanner have been estimated giving a (positron range limited) spatial resolution of 0.52 mm FWHM, and an absolute sensitivity of 5.1% at the center of system. Preliminary results of a proof of principle measurement done with the MEGA advanced Compton imager using a ∼1 mm diameter 22 Na source, showed a focal ray tracing FWHM of 1 mm

  1. Effect of temporal resolution on the accuracy of ADCP measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.; Oberg, K.; Duncker, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) in river flow measurements is promoting a great deal of progress in hydrometry. ADCP's not only require shorter times to collect data than traditional current meters, but also allow streamflow measurements at sites where the use of conventional meters is either very expensive, unsafe, or simply not possible. Moreover, ADCP's seem to offer a means for collecting flow data with spatial and temporal resolutions that cannot be achieved with traditional current-meters. High-resolution data is essential to characterize the mean flow and turbulence structure of streams, which can in turn lead to a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and transport processes in rivers. However, to properly characterize the mean flow and turbulence intensities of stationary flows in natural turbulent boundary layers, velocities need to be sampled over a long-enough time span. The question then arises, how long should velocities be sampled in the flow field to achieve an adequate temporal resolution? Theoretically, since velocities cannot be sampled over an infinitely long time interval, the error due to finite integration time must be considered. This error can be estimated using the integral time scale. The integral time scale is not only a measure of the time interval over which a fluctuating function is correlated with itself but also a measure of the time span over which the function is dependent on itself. This time scale, however, is not a constant but varies spatially in the flow field. In this paper we present an analysis of the effect of the temporal resolution (sampling time span) on the accuracy of ADCP measurements based on the integral time scale. Single ping velocity profiles collected with frequencies of 1 Hz in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive using an uplooking 600 kHz ADCP are used in this analysis. The integral time scale at different depths is estimated based on the autocorrelation function of the

  2. Structure-dependent degradation of polar compounds in weathered oils observed by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Ananna; Kim, Donghwi [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon [Oil and POPs Research Group, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, KIOST, Geoje 656-834 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan, E-mail: sunghwank@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green Nano Center, Department of Chemistry, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We examined source crude oil and weathered oils from M/V Hebei accident. • APPI hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh mass spectrometry was applied. • N{sub 1} class compounds with 2° and/or 3° amine decrease in larger scale than pyridines. • Preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed. • Significant increase in S{sub 1}O{sub 1} compounds was observed as the weathering proceeds. - Abstract: The resin fractions of fresh mixtures of three oils spilled during the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill, as well as weathered oils collected at weathering stages II and IV from the oil spill site were analyzed and compared by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The significantly decreased abundance of N{sup +}· and [N − H + D]{sup +} ions suggested that secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds were preferentially degraded during the early stage of weathering. [N + H]{sup +} and [N + D]{sup +} ions previously attributed to pyridine-type compounds degraded more slowly than secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds. The preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed by photo-degradation experiments using 15 standard compounds. In addition, significant increases of [S{sub 1}O{sub 1} + H]{sup +} and [S{sub 1}O{sub 1} + D]{sup +} ions with higher DBE values were observed from fresh oil mixtures as compared to stages II and IV samples, and that could be linked with the decrease of higher DBE compounds of the S{sub 1} class. This study presented convincing arguments and evidence demonstrating that secondary and tertiary amines were more vulnerable to photo-degradation than compounds containing pyridine, and hence, preferential degradation depending on chemical structures must be considered in the production of hazardous or toxic components.

  3. Structure-dependent degradation of polar compounds in weathered oils observed by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Ananna; Kim, Donghwi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined source crude oil and weathered oils from M/V Hebei accident. • APPI hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh mass spectrometry was applied. • N 1 class compounds with 2° and/or 3° amine decrease in larger scale than pyridines. • Preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed. • Significant increase in S 1 O 1 compounds was observed as the weathering proceeds. - Abstract: The resin fractions of fresh mixtures of three oils spilled during the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill, as well as weathered oils collected at weathering stages II and IV from the oil spill site were analyzed and compared by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The significantly decreased abundance of N + · and [N − H + D] + ions suggested that secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds were preferentially degraded during the early stage of weathering. [N + H] + and [N + D] + ions previously attributed to pyridine-type compounds degraded more slowly than secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds. The preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed by photo-degradation experiments using 15 standard compounds. In addition, significant increases of [S 1 O 1 + H] + and [S 1 O 1 + D] + ions with higher DBE values were observed from fresh oil mixtures as compared to stages II and IV samples, and that could be linked with the decrease of higher DBE compounds of the S 1 class. This study presented convincing arguments and evidence demonstrating that secondary and tertiary amines were more vulnerable to photo-degradation than compounds containing pyridine, and hence, preferential degradation depending on chemical structures must be considered in the production of hazardous or toxic components

  4. Ultrahigh-resolution ultrasound characterization of access site trauma and intimal hyperplasia following use of a 7F sheathless guide versus 6F sheath/guide combination for transradial artery PCI: Results of the PRAGMATIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Wayne; Dahya, Vishal; McGee, Dan; Katopodis, John; Dixon, William; Campbell, James; Meredith, Ashley; Knap, Patty; Parkin, Mathew; Noel, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    There exist limited data on the relative degree of acute injury and late healing of the radial artery after transradial artery (TRA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a 7F sheathless guide catheter compared with a 6F sheath/guide combination. We used ultrahigh-resolution (55 MHz) vascular ultrasound to compare intimal-medial thickening (IMT) and early and late radial artery (RA) injury resulting from a sheathless 7F guide catheter versus a 6F sheath/guide combination for TRA-PCI. Forty-one consecutive consenting patients undergoing elective nonemergent TRA-PCI at a single institution from June 2016 to December 2016 were included. Patients were randomized (stratified by sex) to undergo TRA-PCI using a 7F sheathless guide catheter versus a 6F sheath/6F guide combination. Ultrahigh-resolution vascular ultrasound (55MHz) of the RA access site was performed at 24hours and 90days post-TRA-PCI. The primary outcome of the study was a noninferiority comparison of radial artery IMT thickness at 90days. PCI success rates, fluoroscopy times, number of guides used, and crossover rates to a femoral approach were also compared. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Radial arterial IMT (mm) was similar between the 7F sheathless and 6F sheath/guide groups at 24hours (0.27 vs 0.29, respectively; P=.43) and at 90days (0.35 vs 0.34, respectively; P=.96). The P value for the noninferiority testing of a 0.07-mm limit was .002. Limited access site intimal tears were relatively common in both groups at 24hours (4 vs 5, P=.53) but often healed by 90days. Radial artery occlusion was infrequent at 90days (2 vs 1, P=.10), and no frank dissections were noted. PCI success rates (100% vs 95%, P=.59), fluoroscopy times (16 vs 12minutes, P=.17), number of guides used (1.1 vs 1.2, P=.48), and femoral crossover rates (0% vs 0%) were similar between the 2 respective groups. A 7F sheathless approach to TRA-PCI results in no more IMT and early or late RA trauma than a

  5. Ultra-High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Utilizing Traveling Waves in a 13 m Serpentine Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Zheng, Xueyun; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-09-20

    We report the development and initial evaluation of a 13-m path length Structures for Lossless Manipulations (SLIM) module for achieving high resolution separations using traveling waves (TW) with ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. The TW SLIM module was fabricated using two mirror-image printed circuit boards with appropriately configured RF, DC and TW electrodes and positioned with a 2.75-mm inter-surface gap. Ions were effective confined between the surfaces by RF-generated pseudopotential fields and moved losslessly through a serpentine path including 44 “U” turns using TWs. The ion mobility resolution was characterized at different pressures, gaps between the SLIM surfaces, TW and RF parameters. After initial optimization the SLIM IM-MS module provided about 5-fold higher resolution separations than present commercially available drift tube or traveling wave IM-MS platforms. Peak capacity and peak generation rates achieved were 246 and 370 s-1, respectively, at a TW speed of 148 m/s. The high resolution achieved in the TW SLIM IM-MS enabled e.g., isomeric sugars (Lacto-N-fucopentaose I and Lacto-N-fucopentaose II) to be baseline resolved, and peptides from a albumin tryptic digest much better resolved than with existing commercial IM-MS platforms. The present work also provides a foundation for the development of much higher resolution SLIM devices based upon both considerably longer path lengths and multi-pass designs.

  6. Optical-fiber interferometer for velocity measurements with picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Wang Xiang; Ma Yun; Hu Shaolou; Wang Xiaosong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Doppler laser-interference velocimeters are made up of traditional optical elements such as lenses and mirrors and will generally restrict its applications in multipoint velocity measurements. By transfering the light from multimode optical fiber to single-mode optical fiber and using the currently available conventional telecommunications elements, the authors have constructed a velocimeter called all-fiber displacement interferometer system for any reflector. The unique interferometer system is only made up of fibers or fiber-coupled components. The viability of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the velocity of an interface moving at velocity of 2133 m/s with 50 ps time resolution. In addition, the concept of optical-fiber mode conversion would provide a way to develop various optical-fiber sensors

  7. A new Time-of-Flight mass measurement project for exotic nuclei and ultra-high precision detector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The time-of-flight (TOF mass spectrometry (MS, a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer equipped with a fast particle tracking system, is well recognized by its ability in weighing the most exotic nuclei. Currently such TOF-MS can achieve a mass resolution power of about 2×10−4. We show that the mass resolution can be further improved by one order of magnitude with augmented timing and position detectors. We report the progress in developing ultra-fast detectors to be used in TOF-MS.

  8. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  9. Measurement of pulsatile motion with millisecond resolution by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Rémi; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Salomir, Rares; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    We investigated a technique based on phase-contrast cine MRI combined with deconvolution of the phase shift waveforms to measure rapidly varying pulsatile motion waveforms. The technique does not require steady-state displacement during motion encoding. Simulations and experiments were performed in porcine liver samples in view of a specific application, namely the observation of transient displacements induced by acoustic radiation force. Simulations illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of the methods. For experimental validation, the waveforms were acquired with an ultrafast ultrasound scanner (Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer), and the rates of decay of the waveforms (relaxation time) were compared. With bipolar motion-encoding gradient of 8.4 ms, the method was able to measure displacement waveforms with a temporal resolution of 1 ms over a time course of 40 ms. Reasonable agreement was found between the rate of decay of the waveforms measured in ultrasound (2.8 ms) and in MRI (2.7-3.3 ms). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lietzmann, Florian; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm(2) removes the necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. • Omitting the z-axis-filter allows a reduction in radiation dose of 50% • A smaller focal spot of 0.2 mm (2) significantly improves spatial resolution • Ultra-high-resolution temporal-bone-CT helps to gain diagnostic information of the middle/inner ear.

  11. Research and Development of a portable microfocus x-ray system capable of providing ultra-high resolutions images of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkala, G.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray screening has long been a recognized valuable tool as a means to evaluate and identify suspect articles for possible improvised explosive devices. Recent bombings indicate an increase in technical sophistication by the terrorist which demand additional means to further the possibility of detecting these devices before they reach their target or detonate. This paper discusses history of the use of x-ray and the design parameters of a portable micro-focus x-ray system capable of providing ultra high resolution radiographs as well as being able to be used with additional state-of-the-art imaging systems

  12. Use of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening in high throughput doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musenga, Alessandro; Cowan, David A

    2013-05-03

    We describe a sensitive, comprehensive and fast screening method based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the detection of a large number of analytes in sports samples. UHPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with polarity switching capability is applied for the rapid screening of a large number of analytes in human urine samples. Full scan data are acquired alternating both positive and negative ionisation. Collision-induced dissociation with positive ionisation is also performed to produce fragment ions to improve selectivity for some analytes. Data are reviewed as extracted ion chromatograms based on narrow mass/charge windows (±5ppm). A simple sample preparation method was developed, using direct enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates, followed by solid phase extraction with mixed mode ion-exchange cartridges. Within a 10min run time (including re-equilibration) the method presented allows for the analysis of a large number of analytes from most of the classes in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, including anabolic agents, β2-agonists, hormone antagonists and modulators, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticoids and β-blockers, and does so while meeting the WADA sensitivity requirements. The high throughput of the method and the fast sample pre-treatment reduces analysis cost and increases productivity. The method presented has been used for the analysis of over 5000 samples in about one month and proved to be reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-Dimensional Imaging and Numerical Reconstruction of Graphite/Epoxy Composite Microstructure Based on Ultra-High Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, M. W.; Riccio, M. L.; Whitacre, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study aimed at high-resolution 3D imaging, visualization, and numerical reconstruction of fiber-reinforced polymer microstructures at the fiber length scale is presented. To this end, a sample of graphite/epoxy composite was imaged at sub-micron resolution using a 3D X-ray computed tomography microscope. Next, a novel segmentation algorithm was developed, based on concepts adopted from computer vision and multi-target tracking, to detect and estimate, with high accuracy, the position of individual fibers in a volume of the imaged composite. In the current implementation, the segmentation algorithm was based on Global Nearest Neighbor data-association architecture, a Kalman filter estimator, and several novel algorithms for virtualfiber stitching, smoothing, and overlap removal. The segmentation algorithm was used on a sub-volume of the imaged composite, detecting 508 individual fibers. The segmentation data were qualitatively compared to the tomographic data, demonstrating high accuracy of the numerical reconstruction. Moreover, the data were used to quantify a) the relative distribution of individual-fiber cross sections within the imaged sub-volume, and b) the local fiber misorientation relative to the global fiber axis. Finally, the segmentation data were converted using commercially available finite element (FE) software to generate a detailed FE mesh of the composite volume. The methodology described herein demonstrates the feasibility of realizing an FE-based, virtual-testing framework for graphite/fiber composites at the constituent level.

  14. An Automated Technique for Generating Georectified Mosaics from Ultra-High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Imagery, Based on Structure from Motion (SfM Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Watson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are an exciting new remote sensing tool capable of acquiring high resolution spatial data. Remote sensing with UAVs has the potential to provide imagery at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. The small footprint of UAV imagery, however, makes it necessary to develop automated techniques to geometrically rectify and mosaic the imagery such that larger areas can be monitored. In this paper, we present a technique for geometric correction and mosaicking of UAV photography using feature matching and Structure from Motion (SfM photogrammetric techniques. Images are processed to create three dimensional point clouds, initially in an arbitrary model space. The point clouds are transformed into a real-world coordinate system using either a direct georeferencing technique that uses estimated camera positions or via a Ground Control Point (GCP technique that uses automatically identified GCPs within the point cloud. The point cloud is then used to generate a Digital Terrain Model (DTM required for rectification of the images. Subsequent georeferenced images are then joined together to form a mosaic of the study area. The absolute spatial accuracy of the direct technique was found to be 65–120 cm whilst the GCP technique achieves an accuracy of approximately 10–15 cm.

  15. Spatial Co-Registration of Ultra-High Resolution Visible, Multispectral and Thermal Images Acquired with a Micro-UAV over Antarctic Moss Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Turner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs as tools for environmental remote sensing has become more commonplace. Compared to traditional airborne remote sensing, UAVs can provide finer spatial resolution data (up to 1 cm/pixel and higher temporal resolution data. For the purposes of vegetation monitoring, the use of multiple sensors such as near infrared and thermal infrared cameras are of benefit. Collecting data with multiple sensors, however, requires an accurate spatial co-registration of the various UAV image datasets. In this study, we used an Oktokopter UAV to investigate the physiological state of Antarctic moss ecosystems using three sensors: (i a visible camera (1 cm/pixel, (ii a 6 band multispectral camera (3 cm/pixel, and (iii a thermal infrared camera (10 cm/pixel. Imagery from each sensor was geo-referenced and mosaicked with a combination of commercially available software and our own algorithms based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The validation of the mosaic’s spatial co-registration revealed a mean root mean squared error (RMSE of 1.78 pixels. A thematic map of moss health, derived from the multispectral mosaic using a Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MTVI2, and an indicative map of moss surface temperature were then combined to demonstrate sufficient accuracy of our co-registration methodology for UAV-based monitoring of Antarctic moss beds.

  16. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-01

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  17. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-15

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  18. A general protocol of ultra-high resolution MR angiography to image the cerebro-vasculature in 6 different rats strains at high field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Géraldine; Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Beraza, Marta; Padro, Daniel; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Reese, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    Differences in the cerebro-vasculature among strains as well as individual animals might explain variability in animal models and thus, a non-invasive method tailored to image cerebral vessel of interest with high signal to noise ratio is required. Experimentally, we describe a new general protocol of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography to visualize non-invasively the cerebral vasculature in 6 different rat strains. Flow compensated angiograms of Sprague Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, Lister Hooded, Long Evans, Fisher 344 and Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat strains were obtained without the use of contrast agents. At 11.7T using a repetition time of 60ms, an isotropic resolution of up to 62μm was achieved; total imaging time was 98min for a 3D data set. The visualization of the cerebral arteries was improved by removing extra-cranial vessels prior to the calculation of maximum intensity projection to obtain the angiograms. Ultimately, we demonstrate that the newly implemented method is also suitable to obtain angiograms following middle cerebral artery occlusion, despite the presence of intense vasogenic edema 24h after reperfusion. The careful selection of the excitation profile and repetition time at a higher static magnetic field allowed an increase in spatial resolution to reliably detect of the hypothalamic artery, the anterior choroidal artery as well as arterial branches of the peri-amygdoidal complex and the optical nerve in six different rat strains. MR angiography without contrast agent can be utilized to study cerebro-vascular abnormalities in various animal models. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  20. Realisation of a ultra-high vacuum system and technique development of microscopical emitters preparation in silicium. First measurements of field emission current and field photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Manouni, A.

    1990-12-01

    The development of research in the domain of photocathode (electron sources) illuminated by laser light to produce intense multiple bunches of electrons in short time is needed by many applications as linear collider e + e - , free electron laser, lasertron, etc... In this way, after a study of field emission, of photoemission and of photofield emission, we prepared microscopical emitters in silicium heavy and weakly doped a boron using a technique of microlithography. Then, we realized a system of ultra-high vacuum of studying property of emission from photocathodes realized. The experiment results obtained in field emission and photofield emission have shown that a behaviour unexpected for P-silicium tips array compared to P + -silicon tips array. With P-type silicon, a quantum yield of 21 percent has been measured for laser power of 140 mW and for applied field of 1.125 x 10 7 V/m and an instantaneous response to laser light beam has been observed. It has been noted that presence of oxyde at the surface of photocathode limits extensively the emission current. The fluctuations of emission current are due to quality of vacuum [fr

  1. Analysis of the unresolved organic fraction in atmospheric aerosols with ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: organosulfates as photochemical smog constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gelencsér, Andras; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Kiss, Gyula; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Hong, Yang; Gebefügi, Istvan

    2010-10-01

    Complementary molecular and atomic signatures obtained from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectra and NMR spectra provided unequivocal attribution of CHO, CHNO, CHOS, and CHNOS molecular series in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and high-resolution definition of carbon chemical environments. Sulfate esters were confirmed as major players in SOA formation and as major constituents of its water-soluble fraction (WSOC). Elevated concentrations of SO(2), sulfate, and photochemical activity were shown to increase the proportion of SOA sulfur-containing compounds. Sulfonation of CHO precursors by means of heterogeneous reactions between carbonyl derivatives and sulfuric acid in gas-phase photoreactions was proposed as a likely formation mechanism of CHOS molecules. In addition, photochemistry induced oligomerization processes of CHOS molecules. Methylesters found in methanolic extracts of a SOA subjected to strong photochemical exposure were considered secondary products derived from sulfate esters by methanolysis. The relative abundance of nitrogen-containing compounds (CHNO and CHNOS series) appeared rather dependent on local effects such as biomass burning. Extensive aliphatic branching and disruption of extended NMR spin-systems by carbonyl derivatives and other heteroatoms were the most significant structural motifs in SOA. The presence of heteroatoms in elevated oxidation states suggests a clearly different SOA formation trajectory in comparison with established terrestrial and aqueous natural organic matter.

  2. Ultra-high resolution pollen record from the northern Andes reveals rapid shifts in montane climates within the last two glacial cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. M. Groot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we developed a composite pollen-based record of altitudinal vegetation changes from Lake Fúquene (5° N in Colombia at 2540 m elevation. We quantitatively calibrated Arboreal Pollen percentages (AP% into mean annual temperature (MAT changes with an unprecedented ~60-year resolution over the past 284 000 years. An age model for the AP% record was constructed using frequency analysis in the depth domain and tuning of the distinct obliquity-related variations to the latest marine oxygen isotope stacked record. The reconstructed MAT record largely concurs with the ~100 and 41-kyr (obliquity paced glacial cycles and is superimposed by extreme changes of up to 7 to 10° Celsius within a few hundred years at the major glacial terminations and during marine isotope stage 3, suggesting an unprecedented North Atlantic – equatorial link. Using intermediate complexity transient climate modelling experiments, we demonstrate that ice volume and greenhouse gasses are the major forcing agents causing the orbital-related MAT changes, while direct precession-induced insolation changes had no significant impact on the high mountain vegetation during the last two glacial cycles.

  3. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R.

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm 2 removesthe necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p < 0.05). Total effective dose was 63 %/39 % lower for the third generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. (orig.)

  4. SiliPET: Design of an ultra-high resolution small animal PET scanner based on stacks of semi-conductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesca, N.; Auricchio, N.; Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.; Malaguti, R.; Andritschke, R.; Kanbach, G.; Schopper, F.

    2007-01-01

    We studied with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSnrc code, a new scanner for small animal positron emission tomography (PET), based on stacks of double-sided semiconductor detectors. Each stack is composed of planar detectors with dimension 70x60x1 mm 3 and orthogonal strips on both sides with 500 μm pitch to read the two interaction coordinates, the third being the detector number in the stack. Multiple interactions in a stack are discarded. In this way, we achieve a precise determination of the first interaction point of the two 511 keV photons. The reduced dimensions of the scanner also improve the solid angle coverage resulting in a high sensitivity. Preliminary results of scanners based on Si planar detectors are presented and the initial tomographic reconstructions demonstrate very good spatial resolution limited only by the positron range. This suggests that, this is a promising new approach for small animal PET imaging. We are testing some double-sided silicon detectors, equipped with 128 orthogonal p and n strips on opposite sides using VATAGP3 ASIC by IDEAS

  5. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  6. Technical Note: Molecular characterization of aerosol-derived water soluble organic carbon using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Dickhut

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the acknowledged relevance of aerosol-derived water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC to climate and biogeochemical cycling, characterization of aerosol WSOC has been limited. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS was utilized in this study to provide detailed molecular level characterization of the high molecular weight (HMW; m/z>223 component of aerosol-derived WSOC collected from rural sites in Virginia and New York, USA. More than 3000 peaks were detected by ESI FT-ICR MS within a m/z range of 223–600 for each sample. Approximately 86% (Virginia and 78% (New York of these peaks were assigned molecular formulas using only carbon (C, hydrogen (H, oxygen (O, nitrogen (N, and sulfur (S as elemental constituents. H/C and O/C molar ratios were plotted on van Krevelen diagrams and indicated a strong contribution of lignin-like and lipid-like compounds to the aerosol-derived WSOC samples. Approximately 1–4% of the peaks in the aerosol-derived WSOC mass spectra were classified as black carbon (BC on the basis of double bond equivalents calculated from the assigned molecular formulas. In addition, several high-magnitude peaks in the mass spectra of samples from both sites corresponded to molecular formulas proposed in previous secondary organic aerosol (SOA laboratory investigations indicating that SOAs are important constituents of the WSOC. Overall, ESI FT-ICR MS provides a level of resolution adequate for detailed compositional and source information of the HMW constituents of aerosol-derived WSOC.

  7. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high resolution mass spectrometry for the characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepier, Julien; Le Masle, Agnès; Charon, Nadège; Albrieux, Florian; Duchene, Pascal; Heinisch, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    Extensive characterization of complex mixtures requires the combination of powerful analytical techniques. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) method was previously developed, for the specific case of fast pyrolysis bio oils, as an alternative to gas chromatography (GC and GC × GC) or liquid chromatography (LC and LC × LC), both separation methods being generally used prior to mass spectrometry (MS) for the characterization of such complex matrices. In this study we investigated the potential of SFC hyphenated to high resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-HRMS) for this characterization using Negative ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical ionization ((-)APCI) for the ionization source. The interface between SFC and (-)APCI/HRMS was optimized from a mix of model compounds with the objective of maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The main studied parameters included both make-up flow-rate and make-up composition. A methodology for the treatment of APCI/HRMS data is proposed. This latter allowed for the identification of molecular formulae. Both SFC-APCI/HRMS method and data processing method were applied to a mixture of 36 model compounds, first analyzed alone and then spiked in a bio-oil. In both cases, 19 compounds could be detected. Among them 9 could be detected in a fast pyrolysis bio-oil by targeted analysis. The whole procedure was applied to the characterization of a bio-oil using helpful representations such as mass-plots, van Krevelen diagrams and heteroatom class distributions. Finally the results were compared with those obtained with a Fourier Transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR/MS). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the positon resolution in centroid measurements in MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.

    1981-01-01

    Resolution limits in avalanche localization along the anode wires of an MWPC with cathodes connected by resistors and equally spaced amplifiers, are evaluated. A simple weighted-centroid method and a highly linear method based on a linear centroid finding filter, are considered. The contributions to the variance of the estimator of the avalanche position, due to the series noise of the amplifiers and to the thermal noise of the resistive line are separately calculated and compared. A comparison is made with the resolution of the MWPC with isolated cathodes. The calculations are performed with a distributed model of the diffusive line formed by the cathodes and the resistors. A comparison is also made with the results obtained with a simple lumped model of the diffusive line. A number of graphs useful in determining the best parameters of a MWPC, with a specified position and time resolution, are given. It has been found that, for short resolution times, an MWPC with cathodes connected by resitors presents better resolution (lower variance of the estimator of the avalanche position) than an MWPC with isolated cathodes. Conversely, for long resolution times, the variance of the estimator of the avalanche position is lower in an MWPC with isolated cathodes. (orig.)

  9. Discrete time interval measurement system: fundamentals, resolution and errors in the measurement of angular vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez de León, F C; Meroño Pérez, P A

    2010-01-01

    The traditional method for measuring the velocity and the angular vibration in the shaft of rotating machines using incremental encoders is based on counting the pulses at given time intervals. This method is generically called the time interval measurement system (TIMS). A variant of this method that we have developed in this work consists of measuring the corresponding time of each pulse from the encoder and sampling the signal by means of an A/D converter as if it were an analog signal, that is to say, in discrete time. For this reason, we have denominated this method as the discrete time interval measurement system (DTIMS). This measurement system provides a substantial improvement in the precision and frequency resolution compared with the traditional method of counting pulses. In addition, this method permits modification of the width of some pulses in order to obtain a mark-phase on every lap. This paper explains the theoretical fundamentals of the DTIMS and its application for measuring the angular vibrations of rotating machines. It also displays the required relationship between the sampling rate of the signal, the number of pulses of the encoder and the rotating velocity in order to obtain the required resolution and to delimit the methodological errors in the measurement

  10. High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylönen, A. T.

    2013-07-01

    Flow behaviour inside a rod bundle has been an active research topic since the early days of the nuclear power industry. Of particular interest in previous studies have been topics such as flow mixing, two-phase flow structure and mapping of two-phase flow transitions. The optimisation of fuel element design can only be achieved by truly understanding the nature of flow. The ultimate goal in this research is to enhance the heat transfer and increase the critical heat flux, which would improve the fuel economy. A better understanding of the flow would also improve nuclear safety as departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) can be predicted more accurately. The motivation for the current project (SUBFLOW) was to increase knowledge of the complex flow phenomena inside a rod bundle. A dedicated sub-channel flow test facility was designed and constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. An adiabatic test loop has an up-scaled (1:2.6) vertical fuel rod bundle model with a 4 × 4 geometry. For the very first time, the wire-mesh sensor measurement technique was implemented in a rod bundle as two 64×64 conductivity wire-mesh sensors were installed in the upper part of the test section. The measurement technique enables one to study single- and two-phase flow behaviour with high spatial and temporal resolution. The research topics addressed in this thesis cover a wide range of flow conditions with and without a spacer grid in a rod bundle. The experimental campaign was started by studying natural mixing of a passive scalar to characterise the development of turbulent diffusion in an injection sub-channel and, later on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The results were also used in comparison with the in-house CFD code PSI-Boil that is being developed at PSI. The code could estimate the mixing inside the sub-channel and the transition to cross-mixing with a good accuracy. As a natural transition, the SUBFLOW experiments were continued by

  11. High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylönen, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    Flow behaviour inside a rod bundle has been an active research topic since the early days of the nuclear power industry. Of particular interest in previous studies have been topics such as flow mixing, two-phase flow structure and mapping of two-phase flow transitions. The optimisation of fuel element design can only be achieved by truly understanding the nature of flow. The ultimate goal in this research is to enhance the heat transfer and increase the critical heat flux, which would improve the fuel economy. A better understanding of the flow would also improve nuclear safety as departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) can be predicted more accurately. The motivation for the current project (SUBFLOW) was to increase knowledge of the complex flow phenomena inside a rod bundle. A dedicated sub-channel flow test facility was designed and constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. An adiabatic test loop has an up-scaled (1:2.6) vertical fuel rod bundle model with a 4 × 4 geometry. For the very first time, the wire-mesh sensor measurement technique was implemented in a rod bundle as two 64×64 conductivity wire-mesh sensors were installed in the upper part of the test section. The measurement technique enables one to study single- and two-phase flow behaviour with high spatial and temporal resolution. The research topics addressed in this thesis cover a wide range of flow conditions with and without a spacer grid in a rod bundle. The experimental campaign was started by studying natural mixing of a passive scalar to characterise the development of turbulent diffusion in an injection sub-channel and, later on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The results were also used in comparison with the in-house CFD code PSI-Boil that is being developed at PSI. The code could estimate the mixing inside the sub-channel and the transition to cross-mixing with a good accuracy. As a natural transition, the SUBFLOW experiments were continued by

  12. Insights into the mechanics of en-échelon sigmoidal vein formation using ultra-high resolution photogrammetry and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Samuel T.; Micklethwaite, Steven; Bourke, Paul; Verrall, Michael; Kovesi, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Two novel techniques, photo based reconstruction (photogrammetry) and computed tomography (CT), are used to investigate the formation of an exceptional array of sigmoidal veins in a hand sample from Cape Liptrap, Southern Victoria, and to provide constraint on models for their development. The accuracies of the photogrammetric models were tested by comparison with a laser scan generated three dimensional (3D) model. The photogrammetric model was found to be accurate to at least 0.25 mm and substantially more detailed than the laser scan. A methodology was developed by which 3D structural measurements could be extracted from the photogrammetric model. This was augmented with the CT model which, through its capacity to elucidate internal structure, was used to constrain the geometry and linkage of structures within the rock volume. The photogrammetric and CT data were then combined with detailed photomicrographs to evaluate the evolution of the sigmoidal veins in the sample. The angle between the sigmoidal vein margins and an inferred shear zone, as well as the orientations of the crystal fibres, were found to imply a rotation of >27°. However coeval pressure solution seams and older veinlets in the rock bridges between the veins were only found to have rotated by ∼10°, an observation not easily explained using existing models for sigmoidal vein formation. A new model is proposed in which a significant component of sigmoidal vein geometry is due to localised dilation caused by slip on the pressure solution seams. The process involves strain partitioning onto pressure solution seams, which leads to exaggeration of sigmoidal vein geometries. If not accounted for, the apparent vein rotation due to slip partitioning introduces errors into calculations of simple shear and volume strain based on sigmoidal arrays of this type. Furthermore, the CT data demonstrated that in 3D the veins are continuous and channel-like, implying a far higher degree of connectivity and

  13. Ultra-high field MRI: Advancing systems neuroscience towards mesoscopic human brain function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O; Fracasso, A.; Van der Zwaag, W.; Siero, Jeroen C W; Petridou, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image

  14. Development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to measure creatinine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraselle, S; De Cremer, K; Coucke, W; Glorieux, G; Vanmassenhove, J; Schepers, E; Neirynck, N; Van Overmeire, I; Van Loco, J; Van Biesen, W; Vanholder, R

    2015-04-15

    Despite decades of creatinine measurement in biological fluids using a large variety of analytical methods, an accurate determination of this compound remains challenging. Especially with the novel trend to assess biomarkers on large sample sets preserved in biobanks, a simple and fast method that could cope with both a high sample throughput and a low volume of sample is still of interest. In answer to these challenges, a fast and accurate ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to measure creatinine in small volumes of human urine. In this method, urine samples are simply diluted with a basic mobile phase and injected directly under positive electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, without further purification steps. The combination of an important diluting factor (10(4) times) due to the use of a very sensitive triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (XEVO TQ) and the addition of creatinine-d3 as internal standard completely eliminates matrix effects coming from the urine. The method was validated in-house in 2012 according to the EMA guideline on bioanalytical method validation using Certified Reference samples from the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-Equas) proficiency test. All obtained results for accuracy and recovery are within the authorized tolerance ranges defined by G-Equas. The method is linear between 0 and 5 g/L, with LOD and LOQ of 5 × 10(-3) g/L and 10(-2) g/L, respectively. The repeatability (CV(r) = 1.03-2.07%) and intra-laboratory reproducibility (CV(RW) = 1.97-2.40%) satisfy the EMA 2012 guideline. The validated method was firstly applied to perform the German G-Equas proficiency test rounds 51 and 53, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The obtained results were again all within the accepted tolerance ranges and very close to the reference values defined by the organizers of the proficiency test scheme, demonstrating an excellent accuracy of the developed method. The

  15. High resolution measurements of Cyg X-1 from rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, R.E.; Boldt, E.A.; Holt, S.S.; Serlemitsos, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Cyg X-1 was observed on two occasions (Oct. 4, 1973 and Oct. 3, 1974) by the Goddard x-ray rocket payload. This payload consisted of two gas proportional counters (xenon--methane with 710 cm 2 and argon--methane with 610 cm 2 ) using the same 128 channel pulse height analyzer and having 320 μs temporal resolution on the 1973 flight and 160 μs resolution on the 1974 flight. During both flights bursts of 1 ms duration were observed with very high statistical certainty. To date all 13 of these bursts have been analyzed for spectral and temporal character, and the results of this analysis are presented. The spectra of overall x-ray emission from both flights are also presented. In a source known for its variability it is remarkable that the spectra taken one year apart are virtually identical

  16. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli; Dun, Xiong; Fu, Qiang; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor

  17. The measurement of trace elements in interplanetary dust and cometary particles by ultra-high sensitivity INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolensky, M.E.; Lindstrom, D.J.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Lindstrom, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Today the major elemental composition of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is routinely determined in many laboratories. These and mineralogical studies have revealed the presence of at least two major types of IDPs, chondritic and refractory. Preliminary results of a successful attempt to determine abundances of a large suite of trace elements from both chondritic and refractory IDPs are reported. The analytical procedure can be used in the grain-by-grain analysis of returned cometary samples. Chondritic and refractory IDPs are characterized by standard scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. With this system, detection limits for many elements are well below picogram levels, and some approach femtogram levels. This technique is non-destructive, although some sample handling is required, so particles can be analyzed by other techniques after instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) is completed. Data is presently being reduced from the analyses of 7 IDPs. These are U2015E10, U2015F1, W7029-A2, W7029-A3, W7013A8, LACl (all chondritic) and 705 (refractory). So far, 17 different major and trace elements were detected and measured in these particles, including rare earths and some very volatile elements (Br and Zn)

  18. Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement with Dictionary-optimized Sparse Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun-Bao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement (MRIM is an effective way of measuring materials. MRIM has wide applications in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medical and material science, especially in medical diagnosis. It is feasible to improve the resolution of MR imaging through increasing radiation intensity, but the high radiation intensity and the longtime of magnetic field harm the human body. Thus, in the practical applications the resolution of hardware imaging reaches the limitation of resolution. Software-based super-resolution technology is effective to improve the resolution of image. This work proposes a framework of dictionary-optimized sparse learning based MR super-resolution method. The framework is to solve the problem of sample selection for dictionary learning of sparse reconstruction. The textural complexity-based image quality representation is proposed to choose the optimal samples for dictionary learning. Comprehensive experiments show that the dictionary-optimized sparse learning improves the performance of sparse representation.

  19. High time resolution measurements of the thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. K. Ford

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the performance of CCD detectors have enabled a high time resolution study of the high latitude upper thermosphere with Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs to be performed. 10-s integration times were used during a campaign in April 2004 on an FPI located in northern Sweden in the auroral oval. The FPI is used to study the thermosphere by measuring the oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm, which emits at an altitude of approximately 240 km. Previous time resolutions have been 4 min at best, due to the cycle of look directions normally observed. By using 10 s rather than 40 s integration times, and by limiting the number of full cycles in a night, high resolution measurements down to 15 s were achievable. This has allowed the maximum variability of the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and 630.0 nm emission intensities, at approximately 240 km, to be determined as a few minutes. This is a significantly greater variability than the often assumed value of 1 h or more. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with waves with short periods. Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. At high latitudes gravity waves may be generated in-situ by localised auroral activity. Short period waves were detected in all four clear nights when this experiment was performed, in 630.0 nm intensities and thermospheric winds and temperatures. Waves with many periodicities were observed, from periods of several hours, down to 14 min. These waves were seen in all parameters over several nights, implying that this variability is a typical property of the thermosphere.

  20. Measurements of free radical in vitamin E-doped ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: Dependence on materials processing and irradiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridley, M.D. [Department of Physics, Biomaterials Research Laboratory, University of Memphis, 216 Manning Hall, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Jahan, M.S. [Department of Physics, Biomaterials Research Laboratory, University of Memphis, 216 Manning Hall, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)], E-mail: mjahan@memphis.edu

    2007-12-15

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), doped with vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-T)), was irradiated with gamma rays in nitrogen (N{sub 2}) or air, and the resulting free radicals were detected in air using an electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Two groups of samples were investigated. In one group, samples were prepared from blends of {alpha}-T (20 wt%) and UHMWPE powder (PPE-{alpha}-T) and, in the other, from compression molded blocks (CMPE-{alpha}-T). The CMPE-{alpha}-T blocks contained 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0% and 25.0% {alpha}-T by weight. When irradiation was performed in air, the ESR spectrum of powder samples showed the presence of only vitamin E radical (tocopheroxyl, {alpha}-T-O{sup {center_dot}}), and there was no detectable signal due to PE radicals (alkyl/allyl). Most likely, all PE radicals were quenched by vitamin E during irradiation in air. However, when irradiation was performed in N{sub 2}, composite ESR spectra showed the presence of both PE and {alpha}-T-O{sup {center_dot}} radicals. Compared to the control (PPE, 0% {alpha}-T) PE radicals in PPE-20% {alpha}-T were found to be significantly reduced or quenched by {alpha}-T. The presence of {alpha}-T in powder samples, however, did not affect the long-term (71 days in this study) oxidation behavior of the PE radicals. Compression molded samples, with and without {alpha}-T, produced identical ESR spectra irrespective of their irradiation environment N{sub 2} or air. However, radical concentration, measured immediately after irradiation, was found to be an order of magnitude less in CMPE-{alpha}-T than in the control (CMPE-0% {alpha}-T). They also evidenced identical structural changes in the respective ESR spectra during subsequent oxidation for 24 days in open air. These observations suggest that {alpha}-T can effectively quench a significant fraction of PE radicals during irradiation, but has no measurable effect on subsequent reactions. No

  1. Measurements of Free Radical in Vitamin E-Doped Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Dependence on Materials Processing and Irradiation Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridley, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to combat oxidation of the load-bearing, polyethylene (PE) components of total hip- and knee-joint replacement devices, antioxidant such as vitamin E (α-Tocopherol (α-T)) has been introduced into polymer matrix. In this study we investigated effect of α-T on free radicals in medical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), GUR 1020 resin. Since oxidation resistance depends on radical reaction, we used electron spin resonance (ESR) technique for direct detection of free radicals before and after irradiation. High concentration (20% by vol.) of α-T was used so its ESR signal (due to α-T-O degree radical) could be distinguished among the overwhelming signals due to PE radicals. Two groups of samples were investigated. In one group, samples were prepared from blends of α-T and UHMWPE powder (α-T-P), and in the second group, from compression molded blocks (α-T-B). In each group, samples were γ-irradiated in sealed packages filled with N 2 , or in open air, and free radicals were measured in open air environment as a function of time. Also included in this study were α-T, and powder resin and compression molded blocks without any α-T. Following irradiation in air, α-T-P and α-T produced identical ESR spectra showing characteristic feature of α-T-O degree radical. Absence of PE radicals in the ESR signals suggests quenching/repairing of PE radicals by α-T in presence of oxygen. However, when irradiation was performed in N 2 , ESR signals of α-T-P exhibited superimposed resonance lines due to PE and α-T-O degree radicals. Furthermore, presence of a-T or α-T-O degree radicals did not prevent subsequent oxidation of PE radicals in producing stable, oxygen-induced radicals (OIR). Post-irradiation oxidation index measured by FTIR, however, did not show any difference between these samples. Compression molded samples, with or without α-T, produced ESR spectra showing features characteristics of PE radicals only, and there was no

  2. Modification, calibration, and performance of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer for particle size distribution and volatility measurements during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) airborne campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupc, Agnieszka; Williamson, Christina; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Richardson, Mathews; Brock, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is a key component of the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate measurement of the concentration of atmospheric particles as a function of their size is fundamental to investigations of particle microphysics, optical characteristics, and chemical processes. We describe the modification, calibration, and performance of two commercially available, Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometers (UHSASs) as used on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). To avoid sample flow issues related to pressure variations during aircraft altitude changes, we installed a laminar flow meter on each instrument to measure sample flow directly at the inlet as well as flow controllers to maintain constant volumetric sheath flows. In addition, we added a compact thermodenuder operating at 300 °C to the inlet line of one of the instruments. With these modifications, the instruments are capable of making accurate (ranging from 7 % for Dp 0.13 µm), precise ( 1000 to 225 hPa, while simultaneously providing information on particle volatility.We assessed the effect of uncertainty in the refractive index (n) of ambient particles that are sized by the UHSAS assuming the refractive index of ammonium sulfate (n = 1.52). For calibration particles with n between 1.44 and 1.58, the UHSAS diameter varies by +4/-10 % relative to ammonium sulfate. This diameter uncertainty associated with the range of refractive indices (i.e., particle composition) translates to aerosol surface area and volume uncertainties of +8.4/-17.8 and +12.4/-27.5 %, respectively. In addition to sizing uncertainty, low counting statistics can lead to uncertainties of 1000 cm-3.Examples of thermodenuded and non-thermodenuded aerosol number and volume size distributions as well as propagated uncertainties are shown for several cases encountered during the ATom project. Uncertainties in particle number concentration were limited by counting statistics

  3. Modal analysis of the ultrahigh finesse Haroche QED cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Nicolas; De Gersem, Herbert; Demésy, Guillaume; Nicolet, André; Geuzaine, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a high-order finite element approach to simulate an ultrahigh finesse Fabry–Pérot superconducting open resonator for cavity quantum electrodynamics. Because of its high quality factor, finding a numerically converged value of the damping time requires an extremely high spatial resolution. Therefore, the use of high-order simulation techniques appears appropriate. This paper considers idealized mirrors (no surface roughness and perfect geometry, just to cite a few hypotheses), and shows that under these assumptions, a damping time much higher than what is available in experimental measurements could be achieved. In addition, this work shows that both high-order discretizations of the governing equations and high-order representations of the curved geometry are mandatory for the computation of the damping time of such cavities.

  4. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  5. Measurement of the spatial resolution and rate capability of an induction drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderburg, E.; Broeders, R.; Dahmen, M.; Decker, G.; Kilian, K.; Kurtenbach, A.; Lippert, C.; Oelert, W.; Sehl, G.; Steinkamp, O.; Stratmann, R.; Walsh, S.; Ziolkowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution of an induction drift chamber (IDC) lead to the concept of an asymmetric IDC with Flash ADC readout. The construction of a chamber is described. The results of two measurements concerning the spatial resolution and the rate capability are reported. (orig.)

  6. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles...

  7. Measurement of the Resolution of the Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines procedures demonstrating that the aperture of a microscope objective limits resolving power and then, by using ancillary measurements made with a calibrated graticule in the microscope eyepiece, that the experimentally determined value for the maximum resolving power of a given objective is close to the value predicted by theory. (JN)

  8. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-01-01

    spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response

  9. High Resolution Viscosity Measurement by Thermal Noise Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Aguilar Sandoval

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An interferometric method is implemented in order to accurately assess the thermal fluctuations of a micro-cantilever sensor in liquid environments. The power spectrum density (PSD of thermal fluctuations together with Sader’s model of the cantilever allow for the indirect measurement of the liquid viscosity with good accuracy. The good quality of the deflection signal and the characteristic low noise of the instrument allow for the detection and corrections of drawbacks due to both the cantilever shape irregularities and the uncertainties on the position of the laser spot at the fluctuating end of the cantilever. Variation of viscosity below 0.03 mPa·s was detected with the alternative to achieve measurements with a volume as low as 50 µL.

  10. Lifetime measurements of charmed mesons with high resolution silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, G.A.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis an experiment is described to measure the lifetimes of pseudoscalar charmed mesons. The experiment uses a negatively charged unseparated hadron beam of 200 GeV. The experiment is carried out with a magnetic spectrometer preceded by a beam telescope, an active target and a vertex telescope, all consisting of Si microstrip detectors. The spectrometer consists of two spectrometer magnets, 48 planes of drift chambers and 3 Cerenkov hodoscopes for the determination and identification of charged secondaries. The lifetimes of the charmed mesons are determined by measuring the length of their flight path, their momentum and their mass. The results, which are described in the thesis, are based on the analysis of part of the collected data. The production rates in the K - beam and in the π - beam are found to be in the same order of magnitude within the x F range covered. Previous experimental data on the lifetimes of charmed particles are reviewed. A theoretical interpretation is presented of the measured decay properties. (Auth.)

  11. Effects of limited spatial resolution on fluctuation measurements (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravenec, R.V.; Wootton, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The finite sample volumes of fluctuation diagnostics distort the measurements not only by averaging the gross fluctuation parameters over the sample volumes, but more importantly (except for collective scattering), by attenuating the shorter wavelength components. In this work, the response of various sample volume sizes and orientations to a model fluctuation power spectrum S(k,ω) are examined. The model spectrum is fashioned after observations by far-infrared scattering on TEXT. The sample-volume extent in the direction of propagation of the turbulence is shown to be the most critical---not only does it reduce the measured fluctuation amplitude and increase the correlation length (as does an extent perpendicular to the propagation direction), but it also reduces the measured mean frequency and increases the apparent average phase velocity of the fluctuations. The differing sizes, shapes, and orientations of the sample volumes among fluctuation diagnostics, as well as deliberate variations within a single diagnostic, provide information on the form of the underlying turbulence and can be exploited to refine the model

  12. Effects of limited spatial resolution on fluctuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravenec, R.V.; Wootton, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The finite sample volumes of fluctuation diagnostics distort the measurements not only by averaging the gross fluctuation parameters over the sample volumes, but more importantly (except for collective scattering), by attenuating the shorter wavelength components. In this work the response of various sample volume sizes and orientations to a model fluctuation power spectrum S(k,ω) are examined. The model spectrum is fashioned after observations by far-infrared scattering on TEXT. The sample-volume extent in the direction of propagation of the turbulence is shown to be the most critical - not only does it reduce the measured fluctuation amplitude and correlation length (as does an extent perpendicular to the propagation direction), but also reduces the measured mean frequency and increases the apparent average phase velocity of the fluctuations. The differing sizes, shapes, and orientations of the sample volumes among fluctuation diagnostics, as well as deliberate variations within a single diagnostic, provide information on the form of the underlying turbulence and can be exploited to refine the model

  13. Ultrahigh stability of atomically thin metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, C. R.; Huang, K. Q.; Zhao, N. J.; Sun, Y. T.; Bai, H. Y.; Gu, L., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Zheng, D. N., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, W. H., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-07

    We report the fabrication and study of thermal stability of atomically thin ZrCu-based metallic glass films. The ultrathin films exhibit striking dynamic properties, ultrahigh thermal stability, and unique crystallization behavior with discrete crystalline nanoparticles sizes. The mechanisms for the remarkable high stability and crystallization behaviors are attributed to the dewetting process of the ultrathin film. We demonstrated a promising avenue for understanding some fundamental issues such as glassy structure, crystallization, deformation, and glass formation through atomic resolution imaging of the two dimensional like metallic glasses.

  14. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2008-11-17

    We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  15. Systematic measurements of the gain and the energy resolution of single and double mask GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Schmidt, D.J.; Abuhoza, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic studies on the gain and the energy resolution have been carried out by varying the voltage across the GEM foils for both single mask and double mask triple GEM detector prototypes. Variation of the gain and the energy resolution has also been measured by varying either the drift voltage, transfer voltage and induction voltage keeping other voltages constant. The results of the systematic measurements have been presented.

  16. High-resolution stress measurements for microsystem and semiconductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dietmar; Keller, Juergen; Michel, Bernd

    2006-04-01

    Research results obtained for local stress determination on micro and nanotechnology components are summarized. It meets the concern of controlling stresses introduced to sensors, MEMS and electronics devices during different micromachining processes. The method bases on deformation measurement options made available inside focused ion beam equipment. Removing locally material by ion beam milling existing stresses / residual stresses lead to deformation fields around the milled feature. Digital image correlation techniques are used to extract deformation values from micrographs captured before and after milling. In the paper, two main milling features have been analyzed - through hole and through slit milling. Analytical solutions for stress release fields of in-plane stresses have been derived and compared to respective experimental findings. Their good agreement allows to settle a method for determination of residual stress values, which is demonstrated for thin membranes manufactured by silicon micro technology. Some emphasis is made on the elimination of main error sources for stress determination, like rigid body object displacements and rotations due to drifts of experimental conditions under FIB imaging. In order to illustrate potential application areas of the method residual stress suppression by ion implantation is evaluated by the method and reported here.

  17. MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Marco; Magnani, Luca; Carlotti, Massimo; Dinelli, Bianca Maria

    2004-11-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a limb-scanning spectrometer that has operated onboard the Environmental Satellite since the end of March 2002. Common features of limb-scanning experiments are both high vertical resolution and poor horizontal resolution. We exploit the two-dimensional geo-fit retrieval approach [Appl. Opt. 40, 1872-1875 (2001)] to investigate the possibility of improving the horizontal resolution of MIPAS measurements. Two different strategies are considered for this purpose, one exploiting the possibility (offered by the geo-fit analysis method) for an arbitrary definition of the retrieval grid, the other based on the possibility of saving measurement time by degrading the spectral resolution of the interferometer. The performances of the two strategies are compared in terms of the trade-off between the attained horizontal resolution and the retrieval precision. We find that for ozone it is possible to improve by a factor of 2 the horizontal resolution, which in the nominal measurement plan is approximately 530 km. This improvement corresponds to a degradation of the retrieval precision, which on average varies from a factor of 1.4 to 2.5, depending on the adopted spectral resolution.

  18. A Silicon d-spacing Mapping Measurement System With Resolution of 10-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Fugimoto, Hiroyuki; Waseda, Atsushi; Takatomi, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    For determination of the Avogadro's number, a self-referenced lattice comparator established at the Photon Factory to deal with a d-spacing mapping measurement over the cross section of a 4 ∼ 5 inches FZ silicon rod. For uncertainty of 1x10 -8 of the unit cell volume, it is necessary to measure lattice parameter of silicon with resolution of 3x10 -9 at least. In this paper, we report the principle of our lattice comparator, characterize our measurement system, and show some mapping measurement results of FZ silicon with resolution of 3x10 -9 .

  19. Measurement and simulation of the inelastic resolution function of a time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, S.V.; Zirkel, A.; Neuhaus, J.; Petry, W.; Bossy, J.; Peters, J.; Schober, H.

    2002-01-01

    The deconvolution of inelastic neutron scattering data requires the knowledge of the inelastic resolution function. The inelastic resolution function of the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5/ILL has been measured by exploiting the sharp resonances of the roton and maxon excitations in superfluid 4 He for the two respective (q,ω) values. The calculated inelastic resolution function for three different instrumental setups is compared to the experimentally determined resolution function. The agreement between simulation and experimental data is excellent, allowing us in principle to extrapolate the simulations and thus to determine the resolution function in the whole accessible dynamic range of IN5 or any other time-of-flight spectrometer. (orig.)

  20. Measurement and simulation of the inelastic resolution function of a time-of-flight spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, S V; Neuhaus, J; Petry, W; Bossy, J; Peters, J; Schober, H

    2002-01-01

    The deconvolution of inelastic neutron scattering data requires the knowledge of the inelastic resolution function. The inelastic resolution function of the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5/ILL has been measured by exploiting the sharp resonances of the roton and maxon excitations in superfluid sup 4 He for the two respective (q,omega) values. The calculated inelastic resolution function for three different instrumental setups is compared to the experimentally determined resolution function. The agreement between simulation and experimental data is excellent, allowing us in principle to extrapolate the simulations and thus to determine the resolution function in the whole accessible dynamic range of IN5 or any other time-of-flight spectrometer. (orig.)

  1. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  2. High resolution time-of-flight measurements in small and large scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Martellotti, G.; Massa, F.; Rambaldi, A.; Sciubba, A.

    1981-01-01

    In a test run, the experimental time-of-flight resolution was measured for several different scintillation counters of small (10 x 5 cm 2 ) and large (100 x 15 cm 2 and 75 x 25 cm 2 ) area. The design characteristics were decided on the basis of theoretical Monte Carlo calculations. We report results using twisted, fish-tail, and rectangular light- guides and different types of scintillator (NE 114 and PILOT U). Time resolution up to approx. equal to 130-150 ps fwhm for the small counters and up to approx. equal to 280-300 ps fwhm for the large counters were obtained. The spatial resolution from time measurements in the large counters is also reported. The results of Monte Carlo calculations on the type of scintillator, the shape and dimensions of the light-guides, and the nature of the external wrapping surfaces - to be used in order to optimize the time resolution - are also summarized. (orig.)

  3. In-beam measurement of the position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Cromaz, M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Radford, D.C.; Vetter, K.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Ward, D.

    2005-01-01

    The position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector was determined by analyzing the 2055keV γ-ray transition of Zr90 excited in a fusion-evaporation reaction. The high velocity of the Zr90 nuclei imparted large Doppler shifts. Digital analysis of the detector signals recovered the energy and position of individual γ-ray interactions. The location of the first interaction in the crystal was used to correct the Doppler energy shift. Comparison of the measured energy resolution with simulations implied a position resolution (root mean square) of 2mm in three-dimensions

  4. Confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dali; Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Mao, Xinyue; Zhao, Weiqian

    2014-09-01

    A confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration is proposed to obtain a fast and accurate measurement for submicrometer pore size of nuclear track-etched membranes (NTEMs). This method facilitates the online inspection of the pore size evolution during etching. Combining confocal microscopy with super-resolution image restoration significantly improves the lateral resolution of the NTEM image, yields a reasonable circle edge-setting criterion of 0.2408, and achieves precise pore edge detection. Theoretical analysis shows that the minimum measuring diameter can reach 0.19 μm, and the root mean square of the residuals is only 1.4 nm. Edge response simulation and experiment reveal that the edge response of the proposed method is better than 80 nm. The NTEM pore size measurement results obtained by the proposed method agree well with that obtained by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. High-resolution transmission measurements of CO2 at high temperatures for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    . The spectra have been recorded in a high-temperature flow gas cell and using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.125 cm-1. The volume fractions of CO2 in the measurements were 1,10 and 100%. The measurements have been validated by comparison with medium...

  6. Computer-supported resolution of measurement conflicts: a case-study in materials science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Hidde; Mars, Nicolaas; van der Vet, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Resolving conflicts between different measurements ofa property of a physical system may be a key step in a discovery process. With the emergence of large-scale databases and knowledge bases with property measurements, computer support for the task of conflict resolution has become highly desirable.

  7. A super-resolution approach for uncertainty estimation of PIV measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciacchitano, A.; Wieneke, B.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    A super-resolution approach is proposed for the a posteriori uncertainty estimation of PIV measurements. The measured velocity field is employed to determine the displacement of individual particle images. A disparity set is built from the residual distance between paired particle images of

  8. Role of experimental resolution in measurements of critical layer thickness for strained-layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of critical layer thicknesses (CLT's) in strained-layer epitaxy are considered. Finite experimental resolution can have a major effect on measured CLT's and can easily lead to spurious results. The theoretical approach to critical layer thicknesses of J. W. Matthews [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 126 (1975)] has been modified in a straightforward way to predict the apparent critical thickness for an experiment with finite resolution in lattice parameter. The theory has also been modified to account for the general empirical result that fewer misfit dislocations are generated than predicted by equilibrium calculation. The resulting expression is fit to recent x-ray diffraction data on InGaAs/GaAs and SiGe/Si. The results suggest that CLT's in these systems may not be significantly larger than predicted by equilibrium theory, in agreement with high-resolution measurements

  9. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on a Potassium Faraday Dispersive Filter for Daytime Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is proposed for measuring the profiles of atmospheric temperature in daytime. Based on the theory of high resolution Rayleigh scattering, the feasibility and advantages of using potassium (K Faraday dispersive optical filters as blocking filters for measuring atmospheric temperature are demonstrated with a numerical simulation. It was found that temperature profiles could be measured within 1K error for the height of 9 km with a 500 m range resolution in 60 min by using laser pulses with 1mJ/pulse and 1 kHz, and a 50 cm diameter telescope. Furthermore, we are developing compact pulsed laser system for temperature lidar transmitter.

  10. Study of position resolution for cathode readout MWPC with measurement of induced charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, J.; Iwasaki, H.; Kageyama, T.; Kuribayashi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takeda, T.

    1983-01-01

    A readout technqiue of multiwire proportional chambers by measurement of charges induced on cathode strips, orthogonal to anode wires, requires an algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position. With given chamber parameters and under the influence of noise, resolution limits depend on the chosen algorithm. We have studied the position resolution obtained by the centroid method and by the charge-ratio method, both using three consecutive cathode strips. While the centroid method uses a single number, the center of gravity of the measured charges, the charge-ratio method uses the ratios of the charges Qsub(i-1)/Qsub(i) and Qsub(i+1)/Qsub(i) where Qsub(i) is the largest. To obtain a given resolution, the charge-ratio method generally allows wider cathode strips and therefore a smaller number of readout channels than the centroid method. (orig.)

  11. Effect of image resolution manipulation in rearfoot angle measurements obtained with photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, I C N; Picon, A P; Ribeiro, A P; Sartor, C D; Camargo-Junior, F; Macedo, D O; Mori, E T T; Monte, F; Yamate, G Y; Neves, J G; Kondo, V E; Aliberti, S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of image resolution manipulation on the photogrammetric measurement of the rearfoot static angle. The study design was that of a reliability study. We evaluated 19 healthy young adults (11 females and 8 males). The photographs were taken at 1536 pixels in the greatest dimension, resized into four different resolutions (1200, 768, 600, 384 pixels) and analyzed by three equally trained examiners on a 96-pixels per inch (ppi) screen. An experienced physiotherapist marked the anatomic landmarks of rearfoot static angles on two occasions within a 1-week interval. Three different examiners had marked angles on digital pictures. The systematic error and the smallest detectable difference were calculated from the angle values between the image resolutions and times of evaluation. Different resolutions were compared by analysis of variance. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). The rearfoot static angles obtained by the examiners in each resolution were not different (P > 0.05); however, the higher the image resolution the better the inter-examiner reliability. The intra-examiner reliability (within a 1-week interval) was considered to be unacceptable for all image resolutions (ICC range: 0.08-0.52). The whole body image of an adult with a minimum size of 768 pixels analyzed on a 96-ppi screen can provide very good inter-examiner reliability for photogrammetric measurements of rearfoot static angles (ICC range: 0.85-0.92), although the intra-examiner reliability within each resolution was not acceptable. Therefore, this method is not a proper tool for follow-up evaluations of patients within a therapeutic protocol.

  12. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1....../15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...

  13. Displacement measurement with nanoscale resolution using a coded micro-mark and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Ma, Chengfu; Chen, Yuhang

    2014-12-01

    A method for simple and reliable displacement measurement with nanoscale resolution is proposed. The measurement is realized by combining a common optical microscopy imaging of a specially coded nonperiodic microstructure, namely two-dimensional zero-reference mark (2-D ZRM), and subsequent correlation analysis of the obtained image sequence. The autocorrelation peak contrast of the ZRM code is maximized with well-developed artificial intelligence algorithms, which enables robust and accurate displacement determination. To improve the resolution, subpixel image correlation analysis is employed. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the quasi-static and dynamic displacement characterization ability of a micro 2-D ZRM.

  14. High Resolution Temperature Measurement of Liquid Stainless Steel Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Devesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A contactless temperature measurement system is presented based on a hyperspectral line camera that captures the spectra in the visible and near infrared (VNIR region of a large set of closely spaced points. The measured spectra are used in a nonlinear least squares optimization routine to calculate a one-dimensional temperature profile with high spatial resolution. Measurements of a liquid melt pool of AISI 316L stainless steel show that the system is able to determine the absolute temperatures with an accuracy of 10%. The measurements are made with a spatial resolution of 12 µm/pixel, justifying its use in applications where high temperature measurements with high spatial detail are desired, such as in the laser material processing and additive manufacturing fields.

  15. Performance of high-resolution X-band radar for rainfall measurement in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. van de Beek

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The aim of this paper is to present a thorough analysis of a climatological dataset using a high spatial (120 m and temporal (16 s resolution X-band radar. This makes it a study of the potential for high-resolution rainfall measurements with non-polarimetric X-band radar over flat terrain. An appropriate radar reflectivity – rain rate relation is derived from measurements of raindrop size distributions and compared with radar – rain gauge data. The radar calibration is assessed using a long-term comparison of rain gauge measurements with corresponding radar reflectivities as well as by analyzing the evolution of the stability of ground clutter areas over time. Three different methods for ground clutter correction as well as the effectiveness of forward and backward attenuation correction algorithms have been studied. Five individual rainfall events are discussed in detail to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of high-resolution X-band radar and the effectiveness of the presented correction methods. X-band radar is found to be able to measure the space-time variation of rainfall at high resolution, far greater than what can be achieved by rain gauge networks or a typical operational C-band weather radar. On the other hand, SOLIDAR can suffer from receiver saturation, wet radome attenuation as well as signal loss along the path. During very strong convective situations the signal can even be lost completely. In combination with several rain gauges for quality control, high resolution X-band radar is considered to be suitable for rainfall monitoring over relatively small (urban catchments. These results offer great prospects for the new high resolution polarimetric doppler X-band radar IDRA.

  16. Resolution and drift measurements on the Advanced Photon Source beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1994-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N = 2 n , n = 1, 2, ... , 11). Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√ N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed

  17. Resolution and drift measurements on the advanced photon source beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1995-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N=2 n , n=1,2,...,11) . Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Measuring true localization accuracy in super resolution microscopy with DNA-origami nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Matthias; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar; Fördős, Ferenc; Högberg, Björn; Öktem, Ozan

    2017-01-01

    A common method to assess the performance of (super resolution) microscopes is to use the localization precision of emitters as an estimate for the achieved resolution. Naturally, this is widely used in super resolution methods based on single molecule stochastic switching. This concept suffers from the fact that it is hard to calibrate measures against a real sample (a phantom), because true absolute positions of emitters are almost always unknown. For this reason, resolution estimates are potentially biased in an image since one is blind to true position accuracy, i.e. deviation in position measurement from true positions. We have solved this issue by imaging nanorods fabricated with DNA-origami. The nanorods used are designed to have emitters attached at each end in a well-defined and highly conserved distance. These structures are widely used to gauge localization precision. Here, we additionally determined the true achievable localization accuracy and compared this figure of merit to localization precision values for two common super resolution microscope methods STED and STORM. (paper)

  19. Deterministic phase measurements exhibiting super-sensitivity and super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Ježek, Miroslav; Madsen, Lars S.

    2018-01-01

    Phase super-sensitivity is obtained when the sensitivity in a phase measurement goes beyond the quantum shot noise limit, whereas super-resolution is obtained when the interference fringes in an interferometer are narrower than half the input wavelength. Here we show experimentally that these two...

  20. Picosecond resolution on relativistic heavy ions' time-of-flight measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebran, A., E-mail: adeline.ebran@cea.fr; Taieb, J., E-mail: julien.taieb@cea.fr; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.

    2013-11-11

    We developed a time-of-flight measurement system for relativistic heavy ions with a requested resolution of 40 ps Full Width Half Maximum. Such a resolution is mandatory to assign the correct mass number to every fission fragment, identified using the Bρ-ToF-ΔE method with the recoil spectrometer designed for the SOFIA experiment—which hold very recently at GSI. To achieve such a performance, fast plastic scintillators read-out by dedicated photomultiplier tubes were chosen among other possible options. We have led several test-measurements from 2009 to 2011, in order to investigate: the effect of the addition of a quenching molecule in the scintillator's matrix, the influence of the detector's size and the impact of the photomultiplier tube. The contribution of the dedicated electronics is also characterized. Time-of-flight measurements were performed realized with electron pulses and relativistic heavy ions, respectively provided by the LASER driven electron–accelerator (ELSA) at CEA–DAM Ile-de-France and by the SIS18/FRS facility at GSI. The reported results exhibit a time resolution better than 20 ps Full Width Half Maximum reached with the last prototype at GSI with an Uranium beam. These results confirm that the SOFIA experiment should enable the measurement of the relativistic fission fragments' time-of-flight with the requested resolution.

  1. Picosecond resolution on relativistic heavy ions' time-of-flight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebran, A.; Taieb, J.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a time-of-flight measurement system for relativistic heavy ions with a requested resolution of 40 ps Full Width Half Maximum. Such a resolution is mandatory to assign the correct mass number to every fission fragment, identified using the Bρ-ToF-ΔE method with the recoil spectrometer designed for the SOFIA experiment—which hold very recently at GSI. To achieve such a performance, fast plastic scintillators read-out by dedicated photomultiplier tubes were chosen among other possible options. We have led several test-measurements from 2009 to 2011, in order to investigate: the effect of the addition of a quenching molecule in the scintillator's matrix, the influence of the detector's size and the impact of the photomultiplier tube. The contribution of the dedicated electronics is also characterized. Time-of-flight measurements were performed realized with electron pulses and relativistic heavy ions, respectively provided by the LASER driven electron–accelerator (ELSA) at CEA–DAM Ile-de-France and by the SIS18/FRS facility at GSI. The reported results exhibit a time resolution better than 20 ps Full Width Half Maximum reached with the last prototype at GSI with an Uranium beam. These results confirm that the SOFIA experiment should enable the measurement of the relativistic fission fragments' time-of-flight with the requested resolution

  2. Design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoshi; Wang Feng; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Tang Qi

    2010-01-01

    In order to accurately measure the history of fusion reaction for experimental study of inertial confinement fusion, we advance the design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic system is composed of plastic scintillator and nose cone, an optical imaging system and the system of optic streak camera. Analyzing the capability of the system indicated that the instrument measured fusion reaction history at temporal resolution as low as 55ps and 40ps correspond to 2.45MeV DD neutrons and 14.03MeV DT neutrons. The instrument is able to measure the fusion reaction history at yields 1.5 x 10 9 DD neutrons, about 4 x 10 8 DT neutrons are required for a similar quality signal. (authors)

  3. High-resolution measurements of x rays from ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    High resolution measurements of K x-ray spectra produced by ion-atom collisions at MeV energies are presented. These measurements indicate that a distribution of L-shell vacancies accompanies K-shell excitation. The variation of these spectra as a function of incident ion energy and atomic number is discussed. Difficulties in the analysis of these spectra due to rearrangement of vacancies between the time of the collision and the time of x-ray emission are considered. The use of high resolution x-ray measurements to obtain information on projectile ion vacancy configurations is demonstrated by data for Ar ions in KCl. X-ray spectra from Al projectiles in a variety of targets were measured and the effect of target composition on these spectra is discussed

  4. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and asp...

  5. Fallspeed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in freefall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in freefall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fallspeed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fallspeed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a sel...

  6. Measurement of the spatial resolution of wide-pitch silicon strip detectors with large incident angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, T.; Hazumi, M.; Nagashima, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As a part of R ampersand D for the BELLE experiment at KEK-B, we measured the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors for particles with incident angles ranging from 0 degrees to 75 degrees. These detectors have strips with pitches of 50, 125 and 250 μm on the ohmic side. We have obtained the incident angle dependence which agreed well with a Monte Carlo simulation. The resolution was found to be 11 μm for normal incidence with a pitch of 50 μm, and 29 μm for incident angle of 75 degrees with a pitch of 250μm

  7. The implementing of high resolution time measuring circuit based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ji; Zeng Yun; Wang Zheng; Li Quiju; Lu Jifang; Wu Jinyuan

    2011-01-01

    It presents the implementing of TDC based on FPGA. The fine timing function part is accomplished through the time interpolators that are composed of the carry chain of intrinsic adders in FPGA. This architecture dates back to the latest technology-WUTDC (Wave Union TDC) that is developed to sub-divide the ultra-wide bins and improve the measure resolution. The board and the online test have been proved that the linearity of converters is satisfying and the time resolution is better than 40 ps. (authors)

  8. Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography in Steroid Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    The latest version of liquid chromatography is ultra-high performance (or pressure) chromatography (UHPLC). In the technique, short and narrow-bore columns with particle sizes below 3 µm are used. The extremely high pressure used results in very short analysis times, excellent separation, and good resolution. This makes UHPLC a good choice for steroidal analysis. Steroids are a highly interesting area of study; they can be recognized as biomarkers for several diseases and are a relevant topic...

  9. Measurement on the density resolution of industrial computerized tomography by using disc specimen with holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Gao, D.; Zhang, W.; Xia, Z.; Yang, C.

    2004-01-01

    Several ways mainly used for measuring the density resolution of industrial computerized tomography (ICT) are briefly introduced. Based on the equivalent conversion between volume variation and density variation, a kind of disc specimen with holes is designed to measure the density resolution of ICT. In this experiment, a kind of high quality polymethyl methacylate (PMMA) is selected to make specimens with diameter of 250mm, in which six sets of holes with diameter separately 0.5mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm, and 3.0mm are distributed in the radial directions with interval of 60 o between two neighboring sets, and in the same set, the distances of holes departing the center of the specimen are respectively 20mm, 40mm, 60mm, 80mm, and 100mm. The experiment shows that the method is sensitive, simple, flexible, and practical. About 0.2% density resolution of region of interest (ROI) with diameter 20mm can be verified, the relationship between CT value of ROI and its position can be obtained, and at the same time the spatial resolution of ICT can be measured in high quality. (author)

  10. Fabrication of thin TEM sample of ionic liquid for high-resolution ELNES measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo-m@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail: teru@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2017-07-15

    Investigation of the local structure, ionic and molecular behavior, and chemical reactions at high spatial resolutions in liquids has become increasingly important. Improvements in these areas help to develop efficient batteries and improve organic syntheses. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) have excellent spatial resolution, and the electron energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES) measured by the accompanied electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is effective to analyze the liquid local structure owing to reflecting the electronic density of states. In this study, we fabricate a liquid-layer-only sample with thickness of single to tens nanometers using an ionic liquid. Because the liquid film has a thickness much less than the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of the electron beam, the fine structure of the C-K edge electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) can be measured with sufficient resolution to allow meaningful analysis. The ELNES spectrum from the thin liquid film has been interpreted using first principles ELNES calculations. - Highlights: • A fabrication method of thin liquid film samples for STEM-EELS observations is proposed. • The thickness of the fabricated thin liquid film is about 10 nm. • An ELNES is measured from the thin liquid with a high energy resolution. • The peaks of the ELNES are interpreted using first principles calculations.

  11. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  12. Ultrahigh-resolution (1+1) photoionization spectroscopy of Kr I: Hyperfine structures, isotope shifts, and lifetimes for the n = 5,6,7 4p5ns Rydberg levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trickl, T.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Cromwell, E.; Lee, Y.T.; Kung, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the hyperfine structures and isotope shifts are reported for Kr I n = 5,6,7 4p 5 ns Rydberg levels, obtained using an extreme-ultraviolet laser with a bandwidth of 210 MHz in a resonant two-photon-ionization scheme. Use of known I 2 frequencies yields an improved absolute calibration of the Kr energy levels by more than one order of magnitude. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure indicates that the 4p 5 6s and 4p 5 7s states are described by a pure jj-coupling scheme, whereas the 4p 5 5s states depart from a pure jj-coupling scheme by 0.37(6)%. The magnetic hyperfine structure shows that the 4p 5 ns states are mixed with 4p 5 n'd states. The isotope shifts can be described as pure mass effects within the precision of our experiment. For the 4p 5 6s and 4p 5 7s states, lifetimes were determined that differ markedly from theoretical literature values

  13. Unbiased Scanning Method and Data Banking Approach Using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Comparison of Metabolite Exposure in Plasma across Species Analyzed at Different Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongying; Deng, Shibing; Obach, R Scott

    2015-12-01

    An unbiased scanning methodology using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to bank data and plasma samples for comparing the data generated at different dates. This method was applied to bank the data generated earlier in animal samples and then to compare the exposure to metabolites in animal versus human for safety assessment. With neither authentic standards nor prior knowledge of the identities and structures of metabolites, full scans for precursor ions and all ion fragments (AIF) were employed with a generic gradient LC method to analyze plasma samples at positive and negative polarity, respectively. In a total of 22 tested drugs and metabolites, 21 analytes were detected using this unbiased scanning method except that naproxen was not detected due to low sensitivity at negative polarity and interference at positive polarity; and 4'- or 5-hydroxy diclofenac was not separated by a generic UPLC method. Statistical analysis of the peak area ratios of the analytes versus the internal standard in five repetitive analyses over approximately 1 year demonstrated that the analysis variation was significantly different from sample instability. The confidence limits for comparing the exposure using peak area ratio of metabolites in animal plasma versus human plasma measured over approximately 1 year apart were comparable to the analysis undertaken side by side on the same days. These statistical analysis results showed it was feasible to compare data generated at different dates with neither authentic standards nor prior knowledge of the analytes.

  14. High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Neufeld, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations

  15. Production of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The objective was to produce and measure controlled ultrahigh magnetic fields by imploding a plasma in which a magnetic field has been entrained. The novel method for producing the ultrahigh fields using a gas-puff Z pinch was tested successfully and found to work as well as predicted in some respects and better in others, such as field amplification. Moreover, in testing this concept, we may have created the only megagauss facility in the world with a 3-minute repetition rate and long lifetime. Most megagauss facilities are single-shot, owing to material deformations or the use of explosives

  16. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution

  17. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  18. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  19. Time Resolution Dependence of Information Measures for Spiking Neurons: Scaling and Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Crutchfield

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mutual information between stimulus and spike-train response is commonly used to monitor neural coding efficiency, but neuronal computation broadly conceived requires more refined and targeted information measures of input-output joint processes. A first step towards that larger goal is todevelop information measures for individual output processes, including information generation (entropy rate, stored information (statisticalcomplexity, predictable information (excess entropy, and active information accumulation (bound information rate. We calculate these for spike trains generated by a variety of noise-driven integrate-and-fire neurons as a function of time resolution and for alternating renewal processes. We show that their time-resolution dependence reveals coarse-grained structural properties of interspike interval statistics; e.g., $tau$-entropy rates that diverge less quickly than the firing rate indicate interspike interval correlations. We also find evidence that the excess entropy and regularized statistical complexity of different types of integrate-and-fire neurons are universal in the continuous-time limit in the sense that they do not depend on mechanism details. This suggests a surprising simplicity in the spike trains generated by these model neurons. Interestingly, neurons with gamma-distributed ISIs and neurons whose spike trains are alternating renewal processes do not fall into the same universality class. These results lead to two conclusions. First, the dependence of information measures on time resolution reveals mechanistic details about spike train generation. Second, information measures can be used as model selection tools for analyzing spike train processes.

  20. Height Resolution of Antibody Spots Measured by Spinning-Disk Interferometry on the BioCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin O’Brien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinning-disc interferometry (SDI is a high-speed laser scanning approach to surface metrology that uses common-path interferometry to measure protein spots on a BioCD disk. The measurement sensitivity depends on the scanning pitch and on the time-base. Based on high-resolution laser scanning images of printed antibody spots, we quantify the protein sensitivity as a function of the scan parameters. For smoothly printed antibody spots scanned with a transverse spatial resolution of 1 μm, the surface height precision for a single 100 μm diameter protein spot is approximately 1 pm. This detection sensitivity sets the fundamental limit of detection for label-free BioCD biosensors performing immunoassays.

  1. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  2. High-resolution characterisation of the aging brain using simultaneous quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* measurements at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew J; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Nestor, Peter J; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has recently emerged as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to detect non-haem iron deposition, calcifications, demyelination and vascular lesions in the brain. It has been suggested that QSM is more sensitive than the more conventional quantifiable MRI measure, namely the transverse relaxation rate, R2*. Here, we conducted the first high-resolution, whole-brain, simultaneously acquired, comparative study of the two techniques using 7Tesla MRI. We asked which of the two techniques would be more sensitive to explore global differences in tissue composition in elderly adults relative to young subjects. Both QSM and R2* revealed strong age-related differences in subcortical regions, hippocampus and cortical grey matter, particularly in superior frontal regions, motor/premotor cortices, insula and cerebellar regions. Within the basal ganglia system-but also hippocampus and cerebellar dentate nucleus-, QSM was largely in agreement with R2* with the exception of the globus pallidus. QSM, however, provided superior anatomical contrast and revealed age-related differences in the thalamus and in white matter, which were otherwise largely undetected by R2* measurements. In contrast, in occipital cortex, age-related differences were much greater with R2* compared to QSM. The present study, therefore, demonstrated that in vivo QSM using ultra-high field MRI provides a novel means to characterise age-related differences in the human brain, but also combining QSM and R2* using multi-gradient recalled echo imaging can potentially provide a more complete picture of mineralisation, demyelination and/or vascular alterations in aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High Angular Resolution Measurements of the Anisotropy of Reflectance of Sea Ice and Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyens, C.; Marty, S.; Leymarie, E.; Antoine, D.; Babin, M.; Bélanger, S.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new method to determine the anisotropy of reflectance of sea ice and snow at spatial scales from 1 m2 to 80 m2 using a multispectral circular fish-eye radiance camera (CE600). The CE600 allows measuring radiance simultaneously in all directions of a hemisphere at a 1° angular resolution. The spectral characteristics of the reflectance and its dependency on illumination conditions obtained from the camera are compared to those obtained with a hyperspectral field spectroradiometer manufactured by Analytical Spectral Device, Inc. (ASD). Results confirm the potential of the CE600, with the suggested measurement setup and data processing, to measure commensurable sea ice and snow hemispherical-directional reflectance factor, HDRF, values. Compared to the ASD, the reflectance anisotropy measured with the CE600 provides much higher resolution in terms of directional reflectance (N = 16,020). The hyperangular resolution allows detecting features that were overlooked using the ASD due to its limited number of measurement angles (N = 25). This data set of HDRF further documents variations in the anisotropy of the reflectance of snow and ice with the geometry of observation and illumination conditions and its spectral and spatial scale dependency. Finally, in order to reproduce the hyperangular CE600 reflectance measurements over the entire 400-900 nm spectral range, a regression-based method is proposed to combine the ASD and CE600 measurements. Results confirm that both instruments may be used in synergy to construct a hyperangular and hyperspectral snow and ice reflectance anisotropy data set.

  4. Fiber based hydrophones for ultra-high energy neutrino detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.J.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Eijk, D. van; Lahmann, R.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is a well studied process [1, 2] that energy deposition of cosmic ray particles in water that generate thermo-acoustic signals. Hydrophones of sufficient sensitivity could measure this signal and provide a means of detecting ultra-high energetic cosmic neutrinos. We investigate optical

  5. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.phelan@oeaw.ac.at [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Tortorella, Daniele [Payr Engineering GmbH, Wiederschwing 25, A-9564 Patergassen (Austria); Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo [Low Temperature Solutions UG, Bahnhofstraße 21, D-85737 Ismaning (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  6. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

    2015-04-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.

  7. The inference of vector magnetic fields from polarization measurements with limited spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lites, B. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for recovery of the vector magnetic field and thermodynamic parameters from polarization measurement of photospheric line profiles measured with filtergraphs. The method includes magneto-optic effects and may be utilized on data sampled at arbitrary wavelengths within the line profile. The accuracy of this method is explored through inversion of synthetic Stokes profiles subjected to varying levels of random noise, instrumental wave-length resolution, and line profile sampling. The level of error introduced by the systematic effect of profile sampling over a finite fraction of the 5 minute oscillation cycle is also investigated. The results presented here are intended to guide instrumental design and observational procedure.

  8. High resolution measurements and study of the neutron inelastic scattering reaction on 56Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, E.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution measures of neutrons inelastic scattering cross section, have been performed on 56 Fe from 862 KeV to 3 MeV. The time of flight method has been used on the GELINA source of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). Four barium fluoride scintillators, placed around the samples, recorded the gamma rays emissions coming from the iron and the boron. A study of the correlations between the partial elastic and inelastic lengths has been performed taking into account first transmission measures realized at Geel. (A.L.B.)

  9. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, Joffray; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Šmíd, Radek [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic); Alexandre, Christophe [Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Informatique et Communications (CEDRIC), Cnam, 292 rue St-Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2016-07-15

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  10. Proper-time resolution function for measurement of time evolution of B mesons at the KEK B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, H.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Hazumi, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sumisawa, K.; Kawasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    The proper-time resolution function for the measurement of the time evolution of B mesons with the Belle detector at KEKB is studied in detail. The obtained resolution function is applied to the measurement of B meson lifetimes, the B0B-bar 0 oscillation frequency and time-dependent CP asymmetries

  11. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging- From animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline D. Metzger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning.With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem.We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of high-resolution imaging.

  12. Interpretation of measured data and the resolution analysis of the RTP 4-channel pulsed radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlo, P.

    1993-01-01

    The resolution of a 4-channel pulsed radar being built at Rijnhuisen for the RTP tokamak is analyzed. The achievable resolution mainly depends on the accuracy of the time-of-flight measurements and the number of sampling frequencies; since the technological solution and the configuration have already been set, emphasis is put on interpretation of the measured data (the inversion problem) and minimization of the overall error. For this purpose, a specific neural network - the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) - has successfully been applied. Central density in the range of 0.2-0.6 x 10 20 m -3 was considered, i.e., one above the critical density for all four frequencies but not so high as to restrict the measurements to just the edge of the plasma. By balancing the inversion error and the time measurement error, for a wide class of density profiles the overall error in estimating the reflection point position of between 0.72 cm (for the lowest frequency) and 0.52 cm (for the highest frequency) root mean square was obtained, assuming an RMS error of 70 ps in the time of flight measurements. This is probably much better than what could be obtained by the Abel transform. Moreover, mapping with the MLP is considerably faster, and it should be considered for routine multichannel pulsed radar data processing. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs

  13. ASIC for time-of-flight measurements with picosecond timing resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, Vera; Shen, Wei; Harion, Tobias [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are especially affected by a high level of noise. This noise affects the potential to detect and discriminate the tumor in relation to the background. Including Time-of-Flight information, with picosecond time resolution, within the conventional PET scanners will improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and in sequence the quality of the medical images. A mix-mode ASIC (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The STiC3 is 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for crosstalk and electronic noise immunity. It integrates Time to Digital Converters (TDC) with time binning of 50.2 ps for time and energy measurements. Measurements of the of the analog front-end show a time jitter less than 20 ps and jitter of the TDC together with the digital part is around 37 ps. Further the timing of a channel has been tested by injecting a pulse into two channels and measuring the time difference of the recorded timestamps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 215 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 x 3.1 x 15 mm{sup 2} LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matric (S12643-050CN(x)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its performances are presented.

  14. Comparison of spatio-temporal resolution of different flow measurement techniques for marine renewable energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Vincent; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion devices are subject to a wide range of turbulent scales, either due to upstream bathymetry, obstacles and waves, or from wakes of upstream devices in array configurations. The commonly used, robust Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are well suited for long term flow measurements in the marine environment, but are limited to low sampling rates due to their operational principle. The resulting temporal and spatial resolution is insufficient to measure all turbulence scales of interest to the device, e.g., ``blade-scale turbulence.'' The present study systematically characterizes the spatial and temporal resolution of ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were conducted in a large cross section tow tank (3.7m × 2.4m) for several benchmark cases, including low and high turbulence intensity uniform flow as well as in the wake of a cylinder, to quantitatively investigate the flow scales which each of the instruments can resolve. The purpose of the study is to supply data for mathematical modeling to improve predictions from ADCP measurements, which can help lead to higher-fidelity energy resource assessment and more accurate device evaluation, including wake measurements. Supported by NSF-CBET grant 1150797.

  15. The measurement of the presampled MTF of a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Raymond Lei; Biegalski, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A high spatial resolution neutron imaging device was developed at the Mark II TRIGA reactor at University of Texas at Austin. As the modulation transfer function (MTF) is recognized as a well-established parameter for evaluation of imaging system resolution, the aliasing associated with digital sampling adds complexity to its measurement. Aliasing is especially problematic when using a high spatial resolution micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detector that has a pixel grid size similar to that of a CCD array. To compensate for the aliasing an angulated edge method was used to evaluate the neutron imaging facility, overcoming aliasing by obtaining an oversampled edge spread function (ESF). Baseline correction was applied to the ESF to remove the noticeable trends and the LSF was multiplied by Hann window to obtain a smoothed version of presampled MTF. The computing procedure is confirmed by visual inspection of a testing phantom; in addition, it is confirmed by comparison to the MTF measurement of a scintillation screen with a known MTF curve

  16. Using hyperentanglement to enhance resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and measurement time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-03-01

    A hyperentanglement-based atmospheric imaging/detection system involving only a signal and an ancilla photon will be considered for optical and infrared frequencies. Only the signal photon will propagate in the atmosphere and its loss will be classical. The ancilla photon will remain within the sensor experiencing low loss. Closed form expressions for the wave function, normalization, density operator, reduced density operator, symmetrized logarithmic derivative, quantum Fisher information, quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound, coincidence probabilities, probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of error after M measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, quantum Chernoff bound, time-on-target expressions related to probability of error, and resolution will be provided. The effect of noise in every mode will be included as well as loss. The system will provide the basic design for an imaging/detection system functioning at optical or infrared frequencies that offers better than classical angular and range resolution. Optimization for enhanced resolution will be included. The signal-to-noise ratio will be increased by a factor equal to the number of modes employed during the hyperentanglement process. Likewise, the measurement time can be reduced by the same factor. The hyperentanglement generator will typically make use of entanglement in polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum and so on. Mathematical results will be provided describing the system's performance as a function of loss mechanisms and noise.

  17. A new method for measuring temporal resolution in electrocardiogram-gated reconstruction image with area-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takeshi; Takagi, Masachika; Kato, Ryohei; Anno, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Katada, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and construct a phantom for using motion artifact in the electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction image. In addition, the temporal resolution under various conditions was estimated. A stepping motor was used to move the phantom over an arc in a reciprocating manner. The program for controlling the stepping motor permitted the stationary period and the heart rate to be adjusted as desired. Images of the phantom were obtained using a 320-row area-detector computed tomography (ADCT) system under various conditions using the ECG-gated reconstruction method. For estimation, the reconstruction phase was continuously changed and the motion artifacts were quantitatively assessed. The temporal resolution was calculated from the number of motion-free images. Changes in the temporal resolution according to heart rate, rotation time, the number of reconstruction segments and acquisition position in z-axis were also investigated. The measured temporal resolution of ECG-gated half reconstruction is 180 ms, which is in good agreement with the nominal temporal resolution of 175 ms. The measured temporal resolution of ECG-gated segmental reconstruction is in good agreement with the nominal temporal resolution in most cases. The estimated temporal resolution improved to approach the nominal temporal resolution as the number of reconstruction segments was increased. Temporal resolution in changing acquisition position is equal. This study shows that we could design a new phantom for estimating temporal resolution. (author)

  18. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC waveform digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D. [CNRS/IN2P3/LAL Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay (France); De Cacqueray, V.; Delagnes, E. [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Grabas, H. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Maalmi, J. [CNRS/IN2P3/LAL Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay (France); Minafra, N. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Royon, C. [University of Kansas, Lawrence (United States); Saimpert, M., E-mail: matthias.saimpert@cern.ch [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to improve time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using pulses generated by a signal generator or by a silicon detector illuminated by a pulsed infrared laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 ps with synthesized signals and 40 ps with silicon detector signals.

  19. Vulcan - A low-resolution spectrophotometer for measuring the integrated colors of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakos, K.D.; Weiss, W.W.; Mueller, S.; Pressberger, R.; Wachtler, P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics, holographic gratings, and blue CCD sensitivity have been combined to develop a low-resolution spectrophotometer. Combining the principles of aperture photometry and spectroscopy, this device is designed specifically to measure the light from galaxies with low contrast to the sky brightness (i.e., low surface brightness galaxies). The instrument consists of two large apertures (up to several arcmin) with fast-field lens for imaging the entrance pupil onto a fiber-optics cable. The circular configuration for the input end of the fiber cable is modified to a rectangular slit at the output end. The output is then imaged onto a concave holographic grating producing a spectrum from 3200 A to 7600 A with a resolution of 140 A. The main purpose of this instrument is to obtain narrow-band optical colors for low surface brightness galaxies, which can then be applied to the study of stellar populations in these galaxies. 11 refs

  20. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC WTDC

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter (TDC) and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to maximize time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using Gaussian signals generated by a signal generator or by silicon detectors pulsed with an infra-red laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 (40) ps with synthesized (silicon detector) signals.

  1. Attofarad resolution capacitance-voltage measurement of nanometer scale field effect transistors utilizing ambient noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokirmak, Ali; Inaltekin, Hazer; Tiwari, Sandip

    2009-01-01

    A high resolution capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization technique, enabling direct measurement of electronic properties at the nanoscale in devices such as nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) through the use of random fluctuations, is described. The minimum noise level required for achieving sub-aF (10 -18 F) resolution, the leveraging of stochastic resonance, and the effect of higher levels of noise are illustrated through simulations. The non-linear ΔC gate-source/drain -V gate response of FETs is utilized to determine the inversion layer capacitance (C inv ) and carrier mobility. The technique is demonstrated by extracting the carrier concentration and effective electron mobility in a nanoscale Si FET with C inv = 60 aF.

  2. Combined local current distribution measurements and high resolution neutron radiography of operating direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Wippermann, Klaus [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research, IEF-3: Fuel Cells; Sanders, Tilman [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA); Arlt, Tobias [Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials

    2010-07-01

    Neutron radiography allows the investigation of the local fluid distribution in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) under operating conditions. Spatial resolutions in the order of some tens of micrometers at the full test cell area are achieved. This offers the possibility to study practice-oriented, large stack cells with an active area of several hundred cm{sup 2} as well as specially designed, small test cells with an area of some cm{sup 2}. Combined studies of high resolution neutron radiography and segmented cell measurements are especially valuable, because they enable a correlation of local fluid distribution and local performance [1, 2]. The knowledge of this interdependency is essential to optimise the water management and performance respecting a homogeneous fluid, current and temperature distribution and to achieve high performance and durability of DMFCs. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of transient atomic displacements in thin films with picosecond and femtometer resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kozina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of the transient structural response of weakly photo-excited thin films of BiFeO3, Pb(Zr,TiO3, and Bi and time-scales for interfacial thermal transport. Utilizing picosecond x-ray diffraction at a 1.28 MHz repetition rate with time resolution extending down to 15 ps, transient changes in the diffraction angle are recorded. These changes are associated with photo-induced lattice strains within nanolayer thin films, resolved at the part-per-million level, corresponding to a shift in the scattering angle three orders of magnitude smaller than the rocking curve width and changes in the interlayer lattice spacing of fractions of a femtometer. The combination of high brightness, repetition rate, and stability of the synchrotron, in conjunction with high time resolution, represents a novel means to probe atomic-scale, near-equilibrium dynamics.

  4. High resolution measurement of the velocity profiles of channel flows using the particle image velocimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizi Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The high resolution velocity profiles of a uniform steady channel flow and a flow beneath waves were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The velocity profiles for each flow were calculated for both components. It is shown that the profiles obtained are very precise, displaying the point velocities from a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel up to the water surface across the water depth. In the case of the wave-induced flow, the profiles are shown under the respective wave phases and given in a plane representation. High resolution measurement of point velocities in a flow is achievable using PIV and invaluable when applied to a complex flow. (Author)

  5. Oversampling in the computed tomography measurements applied for bone structure studies as a method of spatial resolution improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatoń, Grzegorz; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Rok, Tomasz; Beckmann, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to check the potential ability of oversampling as a method for computed tomography axial resolution improvement. The method of achieving isotropic and fine resolution, when the scanning system is characterized by anisotropic resolutions is proposed. In case of typical clinical system the axial resolution is much lower than the planar one. The idea relies on the scanning with a wide overlapping layers and subsequent resolution recovery on the level of scanning step. Simulated three-dimensional images, as well as the real microtomographic images of rat femoral bone were used in proposed solution tests. Original high resolution images were virtually scanned with a wide beam and a small step in order to simulate the real measurements. The low resolution image series were subsequently processed in order to back to the original fine one. Original, virtually scanned and recovered images resolutions were compared with the use of modulation transfer function (MTF). A good ability of oversampling as a method for the resolution recovery was showed. It was confirmed by comparing the resolving powers after and before resolution recovery. The MTF analysis showed resolution improvement. The resolution improvement was achieved but the image noise raised considerably, which is clearly visible on image histograms. Despite this disadvantage the proposed method can be successfully used in practice, especially in the trabecular bone studies because of high contrast between trabeculae and intertrabecular spaces

  6. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  7. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  8. Optical fiber sensors-based temperature distribution measurement in ex vivo radiofrequency ablation with submillimeter resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Tosi, Daniele; Braschi, Giovanni; Gallati, Mario; Cigada, Alfredo; Busca, Giorgio; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) induces a high-temperature field in a biological tissue having steep spatial (up to 6°C∕mm) and temporal (up to 1°C∕s) gradients. Applied in cancer care, RFTA produces a localized heating, cytotoxic for tumor cells, and is able to treat tumors with sizes up to 3 to 5 cm in diameter. The online measurement of temperature distribution at the RFTA point of care has been previously carried out with miniature thermocouples and optical fiber sensors, which exhibit problems of size, alteration of RFTA pattern, hysteresis, and sensor density worse than 1 sensor∕cm. In this work, we apply a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) with a submillimeter spatial resolution for the monitoring of RFTA in porcine liver tissue. The DTS demodulates the chaotic Rayleigh backscattering pattern with an interferometric setup to obtain the real-time temperature distribution. A measurement chamber has been set up with the fiber crossing the tissue along different diameters. Several experiments have been carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during RFTA. The present work showcases the temperature monitoring in RFTA with an unprecedented spatial resolution and is exportable to in vivo measurement; the acquired data can be particularly useful for the validation of RFTA computational models.

  9. Measuring the spatial resolution of an optical system in an undergraduate optics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Donnelly, T. D.

    2017-06-01

    Two methods of quantifying the spatial resolution of a camera are described, performed, and compared, with the objective of designing an imaging-system experiment for students in an undergraduate optics laboratory. With the goal of characterizing the resolution of a typical digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we motivate, introduce, and show agreement between traditional test-target contrast measurements and the technique of using Fourier analysis to obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF). The advantages and drawbacks of each method are compared. Finally, we explore the rich optical physics at work in the camera system by calculating the MTF as a function of wavelength and f-number. For example, we find that the Canon 40D demonstrates better spatial resolution at short wavelengths, in accordance with scalar diffraction theory, but is not diffraction-limited, being significantly affected by spherical aberration. The experiment and data analysis routines described here can be built and written in an undergraduate optics lab setting.

  10. Accurate Mass Measurements for Planetary Microlensing Events Using High Angular Resolution Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Beaulieu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microlensing technique is a unique method to hunt for cold planets over a range of mass and separation, orbiting all varieties of host stars in the disk of our galaxy. It provides precise mass-ratio and projected separations in units of the Einstein ring radius. In order to obtain the physical parameters (mass, distance, orbital separation of the system, it is necessary to combine the result of light curve modeling with lens mass-distance relations and/or perform a Bayesian analysis with a galactic model. A first mass-distance relation could be obtained from a constraint on the Einstein ring radius if the crossing time of the source over the caustic is measured. It could then be supplemented by secondary constraints such as parallax measurements, ideally by using coinciding ground and space-born observations. These are still subject to degeneracies, like the orbital motion of the lens. A third mass-distance relation can be obtained thanks to constraints on the lens luminosity using high angular resolution observations with 8 m class telescopes or the Hubble Space Telescope. The latter route, although quite inexpensive in telescope time is very effective. If we have to rely heavily on Bayesian analysis and limited constraints on mass-distance relations, the physical parameters are determined to 30–40% typically. In a handful of cases, ground-space parallax is a powerful route to get stronger constraint on masses. High angular resolution observations will be able to constrain the luminosity of the lenses in the majority of the cases, and in favorable circumstances it is possible to derive physical parameters to 10% or better. Moreover, these constraints will be obtained in most of the planets to be discovered by the Euclid and WFIRST satellites. We describe here the state-of-the-art approaches to measure lens masses and distances with an emphasis on high angular resolution observations. We will discuss the challenges, recent results and

  11. High-spatial resolution and high-spectral resolution detector for use in the measurement of solar flare hard x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, U.D.; Orwig, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the areas of high spatial resolution, the evaluation of a hard X-ray detector with 65 micron spatial resolution for operation in the energy range from 30 to 400 keV is proposed. The basic detector is a thick large-area scintillator faceplate, composed of a matrix of high-density scintillating glass fibers, attached to a proximity type image intensifier tube with a resistive-anode digital readout system. Such a detector, combined with a coded-aperture mask, would be ideal for use as a modest-sized hard X-ray imaging instrument up to X-ray energies as high as several hundred keV. As an integral part of this study it was also proposed that several techniques be critically evaluated for X-ray image coding which could be used with this detector. In the area of high spectral resolution, it is proposed to evaluate two different types of detectors for use as X-ray spectrometers for solar flares: planar silicon detectors and high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). Instruments utilizing these high-spatial-resolution detectors for hard X-ray imaging measurements from 30 to 400 keV and high-spectral-resolution detectors for measurements over a similar energy range would be ideally suited for making crucial solar flare observations during the upcoming maximum in the solar cycle

  12. Isotopic composition of neon in the galactic cosmic rays: a high resolution measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1979-06-01

    A measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray neon in the energy range 70 to 260 MeV/amu has been made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard ISEE-3. A combination of high resolution and good statistical accuracy makes possible a precise determination of the local interplanetary neon composition. We find 22 Ne/ 20 Ne = 0.64 +- 0.07 and 21 Ne/ 20 Ne < 0.30 in local interplanetary space. These ratios, when interpreted in using standard galactic propagation and solar modulation models, yield cosmic ray source abundances which are inconsistent with a solar-like source composition

  13. Midinfrared absorption measured at a lambda/400 resolution with an atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houel, Julien; Homeyer, Estelle; Sauvage, Sébastien; Boucaud, Philippe; Dazzi, Alexandre; Prazeres, Rui; Ortéga, Jean-Michel

    2009-06-22

    Midinfrared absorption can be locally measured using a detection combining an atomic force microscope and a pulsed excitation. This is illustrated for the midinfrared bulk GaAs phonon absorption and for the midinfrared absorption of thin SiO(2) microdisks. We show that the signal given by the cantilever oscillation amplitude of the atomic force microscope follows the spectral dependence of the bulk material absorption. The absorption spatial resolution achieved with microdisks is around 50 nanometer for an optical excitation around 22 micrometer wavelength.

  14. Detecting Single-Nucleotides by Tunneling Current Measurements at Sub-MHz Temporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takanori; Yokota, Kazumichi; Tanimoto, Sachie; Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-04-18

    Label-free detection of single-nucleotides was performed by fast tunneling current measurements in a polar solvent at 1 MHz sampling rate using SiO₂-protected Au nanoprobes. Short current spikes were observed, suggestive of trapping/detrapping of individual nucleotides between the nanoelectrodes. The fall and rise features of the electrical signatures indicated signal retardation by capacitance effects with a time constant of about 10 microseconds. The high temporal resolution revealed current fluctuations, reflecting the molecular conformation degrees of freedom in the electrode gap. The method presented in this work may enable direct characterizations of dynamic changes in single-molecule conformations in an electrode gap in liquid.

  15. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  16. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett

    2015-10-24

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  17. The investigation of Martian dune fields using very high resolution photogrammetric measurements and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Park, M.; Baik, H. S.; Choi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    At the present time, arguments continue regarding the migration speeds of Martian dune fields and their correlation with atmospheric circulation. However, precisely measuring the spatial translation of Martian dunes has rarely conducted only a very few times Therefore, we developed a generic procedure to precisely measure the migration of dune fields with recently introduced 25-cm resolution High Resolution Imaging Science Experimen (HIRISE) employing a high-accuracy photogrammetric processor and sub-pixel image correlator. The processor was designed to trace estimated dune migration, albeit slight, over the Martian surface by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on hierarchical geodetic control for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout the sensor model refinement with a non-rigorous bundle block adjustment, which makes possible the co-alignment of all images in a time series; and 3) improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Moreover, volumetric changes of Martian dunes were additionally traced by means of stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using high-resolution HIRISE images over a large number of Martian dune fields covering whole Mars Global Dune Database. Migrations over well-known crater dune fields appeared to be almost static for the considerable temporal periods and were weakly correlated with wind directions estimated by the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al. 2015). Only over a few Martian dune fields, such as Kaiser crater, meaningful migration speeds (>1m/year) compared to phtotogrammetric error residual have been measured. Currently a technical improved processor to compensate error residual using time series observation is under developing and expected to produce the long term migration speed over Martian dune

  18. Constraining sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and shear acceleration mechanism of particles in relativistic jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruoyu

    2015-06-10

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are extreme energetic particles from outer space. They have aroused great interest among scientists for more than fifty years. However, due to the rarity of the events and complexity of the process of their propagation to Earth, they are still one of the biggest puzzles in modern high energy astrophysics. This dissertation is dedicated to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from various aspects. Firstly, we discuss a possible link between recently discovered sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. If these two kinds of particles share the same origin, the observation of neutrinos may provide additional and non-trivial constraints on the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Secondly, we jointly employ the chemical composition measurement and the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, and find a robust upper limit for distances of sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays above ∝55 EeV, as well as a lower limit for their metallicities. Finally, we study the shear acceleration mechanism in relativistic jets, which is a more efficient mechanism for the acceleration of higher energy particle. We compute the acceleration efficiency and the time-dependent particle energy spectrum, and explore the feature of synchrotron radiation of the accelerated particles. The possible realizations of this mechanism for acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in different astrophysical environments is also discussed.

  19. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R; Murshudov, Garib N; Short, Judith M; Scheres, Sjors H W; Henderson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  20. High resolution photofission measurements in 238U and 232Th. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancman, H.

    1985-12-01

    A novel technique for measuring the photofission cross section with very high photon energy resolution has been developed. The photons are obtained from selected resonances in the (p,γ) reaction on various light nuclei. The photon energy resolution approaches 200 eV in favorable cases. The photon energy spread at each (p,γ) resonance is approx.20 keV on the average. Measurements of the photo-fission cross sections of 232 Th and 238 U have been carried out in the energy range from 5.8 to 12 MeV. Intermediate structure has been found in both nuclei at excitation energies around 6 MeV. Various properties of this structure, such as average areas of resonances, their spacing, width, and the underlying bakground, as well as the experimental fission probability averaged over the intermediate structure have been found to agree with theoretical predictions based on a double-humped fission barrier. In the case of 232 Th, the feature of this barrier, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretial barrier calculations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Marvel Analysis of the Measured High-resolution Rovibronic Spectra of TiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemmish, Laura K.; Masseron, Thomas; Sheppard, Samuel; Sandeman, Elizabeth; Schofield, Zak; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Sousa-Silva, Clara

    2017-02-01

    Accurate, experimental rovibronic energy levels, with associated labels and uncertainties, are reported for 11 low-lying electronic states of the diatomic {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}} molecule, determined using the Marvel (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) algorithm. All levels are based on lines corresponding to critically reviewed and validated high-resolution experimental spectra taken from 24 literature sources. The transition data are in the 2-22,160 cm-1 region. Out of the 49,679 measured transitions, 43,885 are triplet-triplet, 5710 are singlet-singlet, and 84 are triplet-singlet transitions. A careful analysis of the resulting experimental spectroscopic network (SN) allows 48,590 transitions to be validated. The transitions determine 93 vibrational band origins of {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}}, including 71 triplet and 22 singlet ones. There are 276 (73) triplet-triplet (singlet-singlet) band-heads derived from Marvel experimental energies, 123(38) of which have never been assigned in low- or high-resolution experiments. The highest J value, where J stands for the total angular momentum, for which an energy level is validated is 163. The number of experimentally derived triplet and singlet {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}} rovibrational energy levels is 8682 and 1882, respectively. The lists of validated lines and levels for {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}} are deposited in the supporting information to this paper.

  2. Auroral radar measurements at 16-cm wavelength with high range and time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.; Turunen, T.; Moorcroft, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Auroral radar measurements performed with the EISCAT facility are presented. Backscatter cross sections of the irregularities produced by the two-stream (Farley-Buneman) or gradient drift plasma instabilities have been recorded with a range separation of 1.5 km, corresponding to a spacing of successive values in height of about 0.4 km. The apparent height profiles of the backscatter have a width of about 5-6 km and occur between 95 and 112 km altitude, with a mean at 104 km. Very often, fast motions of the backscatter layers are observed which can be explained as fast moving ionospheric structures controlled by magnetospheric convection. The maximal time resolution of the measurements is 12.5 ms. The statistics of the backscatter amplitudes at this time resolution is close to a Rice distribution with a Rice parameter a ∼ 3.7. The observed backscatter spectra do not change significantly in shape when the integration time is reduced from 5 s to 100 ms

  3. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  4. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  5. Measurement of replication structures at the nanometer scale using super-resolution light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, D; Chagin, V O; Schermelleh, L; Martin, S; Pombo, A; Carlton, P M; Gahl, A; Domaing, P; Birk, U; Leonhardt, H; Cremer, C; Cardoso, M C

    2010-01-01

    DNA replication, similar to other cellular processes, occurs within dynamic macromolecular structures. Any comprehensive understanding ultimately requires quantitative data to establish and test models of genome duplication. We used two different super-resolution light microscopy techniques to directly measure and compare the size and numbers of replication foci in mammalian cells. This analysis showed that replication foci vary in size from 210 nm down to 40 nm. Remarkably, spatially modulated illumination (SMI) and 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) both showed an average size of 125 nm that was conserved throughout S-phase and independent of the labeling method, suggesting a basic unit of genome duplication. Interestingly, the improved optical 3D resolution identified 3- to 5-fold more distinct replication foci than previously reported. These results show that optical nanoscopy techniques enable accurate measurements of cellular structures at a level previously achieved only by electron microscopy and highlight the possibility of high-throughput, multispectral 3D analyses.

  6. Performance of beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS: Flux and resolution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Fischer, G.; Kring, J.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. This beamline is the first monochromatic hard x-ray beamline in the ALS, and designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, and preservation of the high brightness from the ALS. It consists of a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator and two toroidal mirrors which are positioned before and after the monochromator. The construction of the beamline was completed in December of 1995, with imperfect mirrors. In this report, the authors describe the experimental results of absolute flux measurements and x-ray absorption measurements of gases and solid samples using the present set of mirrors.

  7. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  8. Measuring high-resolution sky luminance distributions with a CCD camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohsing, Korntip; Schrempf, Michael; Riechelmann, Stefan; Schilke, Holger; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2013-03-10

    We describe how sky luminance can be derived from a newly developed hemispherical sky imager (HSI) system. The system contains a commercial compact charge coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a fish-eye lens. The projection of the camera system has been found to be nearly equidistant. The luminance from the high dynamic range images has been calculated and then validated with luminance data measured by a CCD array spectroradiometer. The deviation between both datasets is less than 10% for cloudless and completely overcast skies, and differs by no more than 20% for all sky conditions. The global illuminance derived from the HSI pictures deviates by less than 5% and 20% under cloudless and cloudy skies for solar zenith angles less than 80°, respectively. This system is therefore capable of measuring sky luminance with the high spatial and temporal resolution of more than a million pixels and every 20 s respectively.

  9. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  10. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  11. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; de Souza, Mariano; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-01

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K ⩽ T ⩽ 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P ⩽ 250 MPa. Helium (4He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P ≃ 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  12. Shuttle high resolution accelerometer package experiment results - Atmospheric density measurements between 60-160 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.; Nicholson, J. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect or inferred values of atmospheric density encountered by the Shuttle Orbiter during reentry have been calculated from acceleration measurements made by the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) and the Orbiter Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) liner accelerometers. The atmospheric density data developed from this study represent a significant gain with respect to the body of data collected to date by various techniques in the altitude range of 60 to 160 km. The data are unique in that they cover a very wide horizontal range during each flight and provide insight into the actual density variations encountered along the reentry flight path. The data, which were collected over about 3 years, are also characterized by variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and local solar time. Comparison of the flight-derived densities with various atmospheric models have been made, and analyses have attempted to characterize the data and to show correlation with selected physical variables.

  13. Potassium Stable Isotopic Compositions Measured by High-Resolution MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah E.; Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Ellam, Robert M.; Simon, Justin I.

    2012-01-01

    Potassium isotopic (K-41/K-39) compositions are notoriously difficult to measure. TIMS measurements are hindered by variable fractionation patterns throughout individual runs and too few isotopes to apply an internal spike method for instrumental mass fractionation corrections. Internal fractionation corrections via the K-40/K-39 ratio can provide precise values but assume identical K-40/K-39 ratios (e.g. 0.05% (1sigma) in [1]); this is appropriate in some cases (e.g. identifying excess K-41) but not others (e.g., determining mass fractionation effects and metrologically traceable isotopic abundances). SIMS analyses have yielded measurements with 0.25% precisions (1sigma) [2]. ICP-MS analyses are significantly affected by interferences from molecular species such as Ar-38H(+) and Ar-40H(+) and instrument mass bias. Single collector ICP-MS instruments in "cold plasma" mode have yielded uncertainties as low as 2% (1sigma, e.g. [3]). Although these precisions may be acceptable for some concentration determinations, they do not resolve isotopic variation in terrestrial materials. Here we present data from a series of measurements made on the Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus multi-collector ICP-MS that demonstrate the ability to make K-41/K-39 ratio measurements with 0.07% precisions (1sigma). These data, collected on NIST K standards, indicate the potential for MC-ICP-MS measurements to look for K isotopic variations at the sub-permil level. The NEPTUNE Plus can sufficiently resolve 39K and 41K from the interfering 38ArH+ and 40ArH+ peaks in wet cold plasma and high-resolution mode. Measurements were made on small but flat, interference-free, plateaus (ca. 50 ppm by mass width for K-41). Although ICP-MS does not yield accurate K-41/K-39 values due to significant instrumental mass fractionation (ca. 6%), this bias can be sufficiently stable over the time required for several measurements so that relative K-41/K-39 values can be precisely determined via sample

  14. Compact high-resolution echelle-AOTF NIR spectrometer for atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, Oleg I.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Vinogradov, Imant I.; Kalinnikov, Yurii K.; Nevejans, D.; Neefs, E.; Le Barbu, T.; Durry, G.

    2017-11-01

    A new concept of a high-resolution near-IR spectrometer consisting of an echelle grating combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for separation of diffraction orders, is developed for space-borne studies of planetary atmospheres. A compact design with no moving parts within the mass budget of 3-5 kg allows to reach the resolving power λ/Δλ of 20000-30000. Only a small piece of spectrum in high diffraction orders can be measured at a time, but thanks to flexibility of the AOTF electrical tuning, such pieces of spectrum can be measured randomly and rapidly within the spectral range. This development can be used for accurate measurements of important atmospheric gases, such as CO2 in terrestrial atmosphere, isotopic ratios and minor gases. A spectrometer, based on this principle, SOIR (Solar Occultation InfraRed) is being built for Venus Express (2005) ESA mission. Instruments based on this principle have high potential for the studies of the Earth, in particular for measurements of isotopes of water in the lower atmosphere, either in solar occultation profiling (tangent altitude <10 km), or observing solar glint for integral quantities of the components. Small size of hardware makes them ideal for micro-satellites, which are now agile enough to provide necessary pointing for solar occultation or glint observations. Also, the atmosphere of Mars has never been observed at local scales with such a high spectral resolution. A laboratory prototype consisting of 275-mm echelle spectrometer with Hamamatsu InGaAs 512-pixel linear array and the AOTF has demonstrated λ/Δλ≍30000 in the spectral range of 1-1.7 μm. The next set up, covering the spectral ranges of 1-1.7 μm and 2.3-4.3 μm, and the Venus Express SOIR are briefly discussed.

  15. MARVEL analysis of the measured high-resolution spectra of 14NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Császár, Attila G.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate, experimental rotational–vibrational energy levels and line positions, with associated labels and uncertainties, are reported for the ground electronic state of the symmetric-top 14 NH 3 molecule. All levels and lines are based on critically reviewed and validated high-resolution experimental spectra taken from 56 literature sources. The transition data are in the 0.7–17 000 cm −1 region, with a large gap between 7000 and 15 000 cm −1 . The MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational–Vibrational Energy Levels) algorithm is used to determine the energy levels. Out of the 29 450 measured transitions 10 041 and 18 947 belong to ortho- and para- 14 NH 3 , respectively. A careful analysis of the related experimental spectroscopic network (SN) allows 28 530 of the measured transitions to be validated, 18 178 of these are unique, while 462 transitions belong to floating components. Despite the large number of spectroscopic measurements published over the last 80 years, the transitions determine only 30 vibrational band origins of 14 NH 3 , 8 for ortho- and 22 for para- 14 NH 3 . The highest J value, where J stands for the rotational quantum number, for which an energy level is validated is 31. The number of experimental-quality ortho- and para- 14 NH 3 rovibrational energy levels is 1724 and 3237, respectively. The MARVEL energy levels are checked against ones in the BYTe first-principles database, determined previously. The lists of validated lines and levels for 14 NH 3 are deposited in the Supporting Information to this paper. Combination of the MARVEL energy levels with first-principles absorption intensities yields a huge number of experimental-quality rovibrational lines, which should prove to be useful for the understanding of future complex high-resolution spectroscopy on 14 NH 3 ; these lines are also deposited in the Supporting Information to this paper

  16. MARVEL analysis of the measured high-resolution spectra of 14NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Császár, Attila G.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate, experimental rotational-vibrational energy levels and line positions, with associated labels and uncertainties, are reported for the ground electronic state of the symmetric-top 14NH3 molecule. All levels and lines are based on critically reviewed and validated high-resolution experimental spectra taken from 56 literature sources. The transition data are in the 0.7-17 000 cm-1 region, with a large gap between 7000 and 15 000 cm-1. The MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) algorithm is used to determine the energy levels. Out of the 29 450 measured transitions 10 041 and 18 947 belong to ortho- and para-14NH3, respectively. A careful analysis of the related experimental spectroscopic network (SN) allows 28 530 of the measured transitions to be validated, 18 178 of these are unique, while 462 transitions belong to floating components. Despite the large number of spectroscopic measurements published over the last 80 years, the transitions determine only 30 vibrational band origins of 14NH3, 8 for ortho- and 22 for para-14NH3. The highest J value, where J stands for the rotational quantum number, for which an energy level is validated is 31. The number of experimental-quality ortho- and para-14NH3 rovibrational energy levels is 1724 and 3237, respectively. The MARVEL energy levels are checked against ones in the BYTe first-principles database, determined previously. The lists of validated lines and levels for 14NH3 are deposited in the Supporting Information to this paper. Combination of the MARVEL energy levels with first-principles absorption intensities yields a huge number of experimental-quality rovibrational lines, which should prove to be useful for the understanding of future complex high-resolution spectroscopy on 14NH3; these lines are also deposited in the Supporting Information to this paper.

  17. A self-calibrating optomechanical force sensor with femtonewton resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, John; Stirling, Julian; Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A.; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive optomechanical sensor designed to improve the accuracy and precision of force measurements with atomic force microscopy. The sensors reach quality factors of 4.3 × 10 6 and force resolution on the femtonewton scale at room temperature. Self-calibration of the sensor is accomplished using radiation pressure to create a reference force. Self-calibration enables in situ calibration of the sensor in extreme environments, such as cryogenic ultra-high vacuum. The senor technology presents a viable route to force measurements at the atomic scale with uncertainties below the percent level

  18. A self-calibrating optomechanical force sensor with femtonewton resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, John, E-mail: john.melcher@nist.gov; Stirling, Julian; Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive optomechanical sensor designed to improve the accuracy and precision of force measurements with atomic force microscopy. The sensors reach quality factors of 4.3 × 10{sup 6} and force resolution on the femtonewton scale at room temperature. Self-calibration of the sensor is accomplished using radiation pressure to create a reference force. Self-calibration enables in situ calibration of the sensor in extreme environments, such as cryogenic ultra-high vacuum. The senor technology presents a viable route to force measurements at the atomic scale with uncertainties below the percent level.

  19. High spatial resolution measurement of depth-of-interaction of a PET LSO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Kalinka, G.; Novak, D.; Sipos, A.; Vegh, J.; Molnar, J.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A new type of experimental technique to investigate the depth-of-interaction (DOI) dependence in small scintillator elements designed for high-resolution animal PET [1] has been introduced at our institute, recently. A lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystal (2x2x10 mm 3 ) was irradiated with a highly focused 2 MeV He + beam at the ATOMKI nuclear microprobe laboratory. Pulse height spectra from a photomultiplier (PMT) attached to one end of the LSO crystal were collected in list mode. Sequential scans of 1000x1000 μm 2 areas along the 10 mm long crystal were made to get high lateral resolution images of pulse height spectra at different distances from the window of the PMT. A mean pulse height algorithm was applied to each pixel to generate two dimensional intensity images and the corresponding spectra of 100 μmx1 mm areas. Representative pulse height spectra are shown in Fig. 1 for different distances between the position of irradiation and the PMT. The mean value of the pulse height spectrum describing the position of the full energy peak is a way to measure DOI effects. It is seen that the closer the DOI to the PMT-end of the crystal the higher the energy of the peak. The centre of the detected peak varies about 30 % along the lateral side of the crystal. This effect is due to the increasing number of reflections with associated loss of light when the distance between the DOI position and the light collecting PMT grows. Further these results, no difference in the light intensity was found depending on which position across (perpendicular to the length of) the crystal was irradiated with the microbeam. The obtained results of the overall DOI dependence confirm previous measurements on LSO crystals with similar geometry and wrapping but based on collimated gamma-ray irradiation. Since the present experimental setup allows obtaining data with several orders of magnitude better spatial resolution (from μm up to mm) than with

  20. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  1. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard, E-mail: rh15@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    2013-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  2. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  3. WE-DE-207B-05: Measuring Spatial Resolution in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Update of AAPM Task Group 245

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaduto, DA; Hu, Y-H; Zhao, W [Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Goodsitt, M; Chan, H-P [University Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Olafsdottir, H [Image Owl, 105 Reykjavik (Iceland); Das, M [University Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Fredenberg, E [Philips Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Geiser, W [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Goodenough, D [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Heid, P [ARCADES, Marseille (France); Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Mainprize, J [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, North York, ON (Canada); Reiser, I [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Van Engen, R [LRCB, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Varchena, V [CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA (United States); Vecchio, S [I.M.S., Pontecchio Marconi (Italy); Glick, S [Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is affected by inherent/binned detector resolution, oblique entry of x-rays, and focal spot size/motion; the limited angular range further limits spatial resolution in the depth-direction. While DBT is being widely adopted clinically, imaging performance metrics and quality control protocols have not been standardized. AAPM Task Group 245 on Tomosynthesis Quality Control has been formed to address this deficiency. Methods: Methods of measuring spatial resolution are evaluated using two prototype quality control phantoms for DBT. Spatial resolution in the detector plane is measured in projection and reconstruction domains using edge-spread function (ESF), point-spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Spatial resolution in the depth-direction and effective slice thickness are measured in the reconstruction domain using slice sensitivity profile (SSP) and artifact spread function (ASF). An oversampled PSF in the depth-direction is measured using a 50 µm angulated tungsten wire, from which the MTF is computed. Object-dependent PSF is derived and compared with ASF. Sensitivity of these measurements to phantom positioning, imaging conditions and reconstruction algorithms is evaluated. Results are compared from systems of varying acquisition geometry (9–25 projections over 15–60°). Dependence of measurements on feature size is investigated. Results: Measurements of spatial resolution using PSF and LSF are shown to depend on feature size; depth-direction spatial resolution measurements are shown to similarly depend on feature size for ASF, though deconvolution with an object function removes feature size-dependence. A slanted wire may be used to measure oversampled PSFs, from which MTFs may be computed for both in-plane and depth-direction resolution. Conclusion: Spatial resolution measured using PSF is object-independent with sufficiently small object; MTF is object

  4. Internal Friction and Young's Modulus Measurements on SiO2 and Ta2O5 Films Done with an Ultra-High Q Silicon-Wafer Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granata M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the internal friction of thin films a nodal suspension system called GeNS (Gentle Nodal Suspension has been developed. The key features of this system are: i the possibility to use substrates easily available like silicon wafers; ii extremely low excess losses coming from the suspension system which allows to measure Q factors in excess of 2×108 on 3” diameter wafers; iii reproducibility of measurements within few percent on mechanical losses and 0.01% on resonant frequencies; iv absence of clamping; v the capability to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Measurements at cryogenic temperatures on SiO2 and at room temperature only on Ta2O5 films deposited on silicon are presented.

  5. The effect of pattern overlap on the accuracy of high resolution electron backscatter diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Vivian, E-mail: v.tong13@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Angus J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Britton, T. Ben [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    High resolution, cross-correlation-based, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measures the variation of elastic strains and lattice rotations from a reference state. Regions near grain boundaries are often of interest but overlap of patterns from the two grains could reduce accuracy of the cross-correlation analysis. To explore this concern, patterns from the interior of two grains have been mixed to simulate the interaction volume crossing a grain boundary so that the effect on the accuracy of the cross correlation results can be tested. It was found that the accuracy of HR-EBSD strain measurements performed in a FEG-SEM on zirconium remains good until the incident beam is less than 18 nm from a grain boundary. A simulated microstructure was used to measure how often pattern overlap occurs at any given EBSD step size, and a simple relation was found linking the probability of overlap with step size. - Highlights: • Pattern overlap occurs at grain boundaries and reduces HR-EBSD accuracy. • A test is devised to measure the accuracy of HR-EBSD in the presence of overlap. • High pass filters can sometimes, but not generally, improve HR-EBSD measurements. • Accuracy of HR-EBSD remains high until the reference pattern intensity is <72%. • 9% of points near a grain boundary will have significant error for 200nm step size in Zircaloy-4.

  6. Measurements of atmospheric mercury with high time resolution: recent applications in environmental research and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinghaus, R; Kock, H H; Schmolke, S R

    2001-11-01

    In the past five years automated high time-resolution measurements of mercury species in ambient air have promoted remarkable progress in the understanding of the spatial distribution, short-term variability, and fate of this priority pollutant in the lower troposphere. Examples show the wide range of possible applications of these techniques in environmental research and monitoring. Presented applications of measurement methods for total gaseous mercury (TGM) include long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury at a coastal station, simultaneous measurements during a south-to-north transect measurement campaign covering a distance of approximately 800 km, the operation on board of a research aircraft, and the quantification of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surface soils. First results obtained with a new method for the determination of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) are presented. Typical background concentrations of TGM are between 1.5 and 2 ng m(-3) in the lower troposphere. Concentrations of RGM have been determined at a rural site in Germany between 2 and 35 pg m(-3). Flux measurements over naturally enriched surface soils in the Western U.S.A. have revealed emission fluxes of up to 200 ng Hg m(-1) h(-1) under dry conditions.

  7. Measurement of Dynamic Urethral Pressures with a High Resolution Manometry System in Continent and Incontinent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anna C; Tan-Kim, Jasmine; Nager, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is caused by urethral dysfunction during dynamic conditions, but current technology has limitations in measuring urethral pressures under dynamic conditions. An 8-French high resolution manometry catheter (HRM) currently in clinical use in gastroenterology may accurately measure urethral pressures under dynamic conditions because it has a 25ms response rate and circumferential pressure sensors along the length of the catheter (ManoScan® ESO, Given Imaging). We evaluated the concordance, repeatability, and tolerability of this catheter. Methods We measured resting, cough, and strain maximum urethral closure pressures (MUCPs) using HRM and measured resting MUCPs with water perfusion side-hole catheter urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in 37 continent and 28 stress incontinent subjects. Maneuvers were repeated after moving the HRM catheter along the urethral length to evaluate whether results depend on catheter positioning. Visual analog pain scores evaluated the comfort of HRM compared to UPP. Results The correlation coefficient for resting MUCPs measured by HRM vs. UPP was high (r = 0.79, prest, cough, and strain with HRM: r= 0.92, 0.89, and 0.89. Mean MUCPs (rest, cough, strain) were higher in continent than incontinent subjects (all p continent subjects during cough and strain maneuvers compared to rest. Conclusions This preliminary study shows that HRM is concordant with standard technology, repeatable, and well tolerated in the urethra. Incontinent women have more impairment of their urethral closure pressures during cough and strain than continent women. PMID:25185595

  8. UDECON: deconvolution optimization software for restoring high-resolution records from pass-through paleomagnetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Chuang; Oda, Hirokuni

    2015-11-01

    The rapid accumulation of continuous paleomagnetic and rock magnetic records acquired from pass-through measurements on superconducting rock magnetometers (SRM) has greatly contributed to our understanding of the paleomagnetic field and paleo-environment. Pass-through measurements are inevitably smoothed and altered by the convolution effect of SRM sensor response, and deconvolution is needed to restore high-resolution paleomagnetic and environmental signals. Although various deconvolution algorithms have been developed, the lack of easy-to-use software has hindered the practical application of deconvolution. Here, we present standalone graphical software UDECON as a convenient tool to perform optimized deconvolution for pass-through paleomagnetic measurements using the algorithm recently developed by Oda and Xuan (Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:3907-3924, 2014). With the preparation of a format file, UDECON can directly read pass-through paleomagnetic measurement files collected at different laboratories. After the SRM sensor response is determined and loaded to the software, optimized deconvolution can be conducted using two different approaches (i.e., "Grid search" and "Simplex method") with adjustable initial values or ranges for smoothness, corrections of sample length, and shifts in measurement position. UDECON provides a suite of tools to view conveniently and check various types of original measurement and deconvolution data. Multiple steps of measurement and/or deconvolution data can be compared simultaneously to check the consistency and to guide further deconvolution optimization. Deconvolved data together with the loaded original measurement and SRM sensor response data can be saved and reloaded for further treatment in UDECON. Users can also export the optimized deconvolution data to a text file for analysis in other software.

  9. The surface renewal method for better spatial resolution of evapotranspiration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvocarev, K.; Fischer, M.; Massey, J. H.; Reba, M. L.; Runkle, B.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluating feasible irrigation strategies when water is scarce requires measurements or estimations of evapotranspiration (ET). Direct observations of ET from agricultural fields are preferred, and micrometeorological methods such as eddy covariance (EC) provide a high quality, continuous time series of ET. However, when replicates of the measurements are needed to compare irrigation strategies, the cost of such experiments is often prohibitive and limits experimental scope. An alternative micrometeorological approach to ET, the surface renewal (SR) method, may be reduced to a thermocouple and a propeller anemometer (Castellvi and Snyder, 2009). In this case, net radiation, soil and sensible heat flux (H) are measured and latent heat flux (an energy equivalent for ET) is estimated as the residual of the surface energy-balance equation. In our experiment, thermocouples (Type E Fine-Wire Thermocouple, FW3) were deployed next to the EC system and combined with mean horizontal wind speed measurements to obtain H using SR method for three weeks. After compensating the temperature signal for non-ideal frequency response in the wavelet half-plane and correcting the sonic anemometer for the flow distortion (Horst et al., 2015), the SR H fluxes compared well to those measured by EC (r2 = 0.9, slope = 0.92). This result encouraged us to install thermocouples over 16 rice fields under different irrigation treatments (continuous cascade flood, continuous multiple inlet rice irrigation, alternate wetting and drying, and furrow irrigation). The EC measurements with net radiometer and soil heat flux plates are deployed at three of these fields to provide a direct comparison. The measurement campaign will finish soon and the data will be processed to evaluate the SR approach for ET estimation. The results will be used to show better spatial resolution of ET measurements to support irrigation decisions in agricultural crops.

  10. Ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic wave generation for acoustic charge transport in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, B.; van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Santos, P.V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate piezo-electrical generation of ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon substrates, using high-resolution UV-based nanoimprint lithography, hydrogen silsequioxane planarization, and metal lift-off. Interdigital transducers were fabricated on a ZnO layer sandwiched between

  11. The investigation of active Martian dune fields using very high resolution photogrammetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungrack; Kim, Younghwi; Park, Minseong

    2016-10-01

    At the present time, arguments continue regarding the migration speeds of Martian dune fields and their correlation with atmospheric circulation. However, precisely measuring the spatial translation of Martian dunes has succeeded only a very few times—for example, in the Nili Patera study (Bridges et al. 2012) using change-detection algorithms and orbital imagery. Therefore, in this study, we developed a generic procedure to precisely measure the migration of dune fields with recently introduced 25-cm resolution orbital imagery specifically using a high-accuracy photogrammetric processor. The processor was designed to trace estimated dune migration, albeit slight, over the Martian surface by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on hierarchical geodetic control for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout the sensor model refinement with a non-rigorous bundle block adjustment, which makes possible the co-alignment of all images in a time series; and 3) improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Moreover, volumetric changes of Martian dunes were additionally traced by means of stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using high-resolution HIRISE time-series images over several Martian dune fields. Dune migrations were iteratively processed both spatially and volumetrically, and the results were integrated to be compared to the Martian climate model. Migrations over well-known crater dune fields appeared to be almost static for the considerable temporal periods and were weakly correlated with wind directions estimated by the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al. 2015). As a result, a number of measurements over dune fields in the Mars Global Dune Database (Hayward et al. 2014) covering polar areas and mid-latitude will be demonstrated

  12. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.

    2018-01-01

    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  13. High-resolution measurement of the 16O(γ,pn) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, L.

    1996-10-01

    The 16 O(γ,pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual 14 N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the Δ resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual 14 N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J π ,T) = (1 + ,0). The cross-section for absorption on (0 + ,1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs

  14. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N D; Walling, D E; Leeks, G J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the use of a LISST-100 device to monitor the effective particle size characteristics of suspended sediment in situ, and at a quasi-continuous temporal resolution. The study site was located on the River Exe at Thorverton, Devon, UK. This device has not previously been utilized in studies of fluvial suspended sediment at the storm event scale, and existing studies of suspended sediment dynamics have not involved such a high temporal resolution for extended periods. An evaluation of the field performance of the instrument is presented, with respect to innovative data collection and analysis techniques. It was found that trends in the effective particle size distribution (EPSD) and degree of flocculation of suspended sediment at the study site were highly complex, and showed significant short-term variability that has not previously been documented in the fluvial environment. The collection of detailed records of EPSD facilitated interpretation of the dynamic evolution of the size characteristics of suspended sediment, in relation to its likely source and delivery and flocculation mechanisms. The influence of measurement frequency is considered in terms of its implications for future studies of the particle size of fluvial suspended sediment employing in situ data acquisition.

  15. High-resolution measurement of the {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, L.

    1996-10-01

    The {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the {Delta} resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J{sup {pi}},T) = (1{sup +},0). The cross-section for absorption on (0{sup +},1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs.

  16. Digital pulse processing techniques for high resolution amplitude measurement of radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhai, P.; Roy, A.; Dhara, P.; Chatterjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    The digital pulse processing techniques for high resolution amplitude measurement of radiation detector pulse is an effective replacement of expensive and bulky analog processing as the digital domain offers higher channel density and at the same time it is cheaper. We have demonstrated a prototype digital setup with highspeed sampling ADC with sampling frequency of 80-125 MHz followed by series of IIR filters for pulse shaping in a trigger-less acquisition mode. The IIR filters, peak detection algorithm and the data write-out logic was written on VHDL and implemented on FPGA. We used CAMAC as the read out platform. In conjunction with the full hardware implementation we also used a mixed platform with VME digitizer card with raw-sample read out using C code. The rationale behind this mixed platform is to test out various filter algorithms quickly on C and also to benchmark the performance of the chip level ADCs against the standard commercial digitizer in terms of noise or resolution. The paper describes implementation of both the methods with performance obtained in both the methods. (author)

  17. Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first global distributions of CO vertical profiles retrieved from a thermal infrared FTS working in the nadir geometry. It is based on the exploitation of the high resolution and high quality spectra measured by the Interferometric Monitor of Greenhouse gases (IMG which flew onboard the Japanese ADEOS platform in 1996-1997. The retrievals are performed with an algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM and are characterized in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budget. It is found that most of the IMG measurements contain between 1.5 and 2.2 independent pieces of information about the vertical distribution of CO from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS. The retrievals are validated against coincident NOAA/CMDL in situ surface measurements and NDSC/FTIR total columns measurements. The retrieved global distributions of CO are also found to be in good agreement with the distributions modeled by the GEOS-CHEM 3D CTM, highlighting the ability of IMG to capture the horizontal as well as the vertical structure of the CO distributions.

  18. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  19. High resolution measurement of light in terrestrial ecosystems using photodegrading dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Roales

    Full Text Available Incoming solar radiation is the main determinant of terrestrial ecosystem processes, such as primary production, litter decomposition, or soil mineralization rates. Light in terrestrial ecosystems is spatially and temporally heterogeneous due to the interaction among sunlight angle, cloud cover and tree-canopy structure. To integrate this variability and to know light distribution over time and space, a high number of measurements are needed, but tools to do this are usually expensive and limited. An easy-to-use and inexpensive method that can be used to measure light over time and space is needed. We used two photodegrading fluorescent organic dyes, rhodamine WT (RWT and fluorescein, for the quantification of light. We measured dye photodegradation as the decrease in fluorescence across an irradiance gradient from full sunlight to deep shade. Then, we correlated it to accumulated light measured with PAR quantum sensors and obtained a model for this behavior. Rhodamine WT and fluorescein photodegradation followed an exponential decay curve with respect to accumulated light. Rhodamine WT degraded slower than fluorescein and remained unaltered after exposure to temperature changes. Under controlled conditions, fluorescence of both dyes decreased when temperatures increased, but returned to its initial values after cooling to the pre-heating temperature, indicating no degradation. RWT and fluorescein can be used to measure light under a varying range of light conditions in terrestrial ecosystems. This method is particularly useful to integrate solar radiation over time and to measure light simultaneously at different locations, and might be a better alternative to the expensive and time consuming traditional light measurement methods. The accuracy, low price and ease of this method make it a powerful tool for intensive sampling of large areas and for developing high resolution maps of light in an ecosystem.

  20. Resolution-by-proxy: a simple measure for assessing and comparing the overall quality of NMR protein structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berjanskii, Mark; Zhou Jianjun; Liang Yongjie; Lin Guohui; Wishart, David S.

    2012-01-01

    In protein X-ray crystallography, resolution is often used as a good indicator of structural quality. Diffraction resolution of protein crystals correlates well with the number of X-ray observables that are used in structure generation and, therefore, with protein coordinate errors. In protein NMR, there is no parameter identical to X-ray resolution. Instead, resolution is often used as a synonym of NMR model quality. Resolution of NMR structures is often deduced from ensemble precision, torsion angle normality and number of distance restraints per residue. The lack of common techniques to assess the resolution of X-ray and NMR structures complicates the comparison of structures solved by these two methods. This problem is sometimes approached by calculating “equivalent resolution” from structure quality metrics. However, existing protocols do not offer a comprehensive assessment of protein structure as they calculate equivalent resolution from a relatively small number (<5) of protein parameters. Here, we report a development of a protocol that calculates equivalent resolution from 25 measurable protein features. This new method offers better performance (correlation coefficient of 0.92, mean absolute error of 0.28 Å) than existing predictors of equivalent resolution. Because the method uses coordinate data as a proxy for X-ray diffraction data, we call this measureResolution-by-Proxy” or ResProx. We demonstrate that ResProx can be used to identify under-restrained, poorly refined or inaccurate NMR structures, and can discover structural defects that the other equivalent resolution methods cannot detect. The ResProx web server is available at http://www.resprox.cahttp://www.resprox.ca.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging with ultra-high fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windischberger, C.; Schoepf, V.; Sladky, R.; Moser, E.; Fischmeister, F.P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the primary method for non-invasive functional localization in the brain. With the emergence of MR systems with field strengths of 4 Tesla and above, neuronal activation may be studied with unprecedented accuracy. In this article we present different approaches to use the improved sensitivity and specificity for expanding current fMRT resolution limits in space and time based on several 7 Tesla studies. In addition to the challenges that arise with ultra-high magnetic fields possible solutions will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Magnitude, moment, and measurement: The seismic mechanism controversy and its resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teru

    This paper examines the history of two related problems concerning earthquakes, and the way in which a theoretical advance was involved in their resolution. The first problem is the development of a physical, as opposed to empirical, scale for measuring the size of earthquakes. The second problem is that of understanding what happens at the source of an earthquake. There was a controversy about what the proper model for the seismic source mechanism is, which was finally resolved through advances in the theory of elastic dislocations. These two problems are linked, because the development of a physically-based magnitude scale requires an understanding of what goes on at the seismic source. I will show how the theoretical advances allowed seismologists to re-frame the questions they were trying to answer, so that the data they gathered could be brought to bear on the problem of seismic sources in new ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L.

    2014-01-01

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  4. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it

    2014-12-21

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  5. Elemental composition of ambient aerosols measured with high temporal resolution using an online XRF spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Furger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week field campaign at the rural, traffic-influenced site Härkingen in Switzerland during the summer of 2015. The field campaign encompassed the Swiss National Day fireworks event, providing increased concentrations and unique chemical signatures compared to non-fireworks (or background periods. The objective was to evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The Xact was configured to measure 24 elements in PM10 with 1 h time resolution. Data quality was evaluated for 10 24 h averages of Xact data by intercomparison with 24 h PM10 filter data analysed with ICP-OES for major elements, ICP-MS for trace elements, and gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry for Hg. Ten elements (S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb showed excellent correlation between the compared methods, with r2 values  ≥  0.95. However, the slopes of the regressions between Xact 625 and ICP data varied from 0.97 to 1.8 (average 1.28 and thus indicated generally higher Xact elemental concentrations than ICP for these elements. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, but further investigations are needed. For the remaining elements no conclusions could be drawn about their quantification for various reasons, mainly detection limit issues. An indirect intercomparison of hourly values was performed for the fireworks peak, which brought good agreement of total masses when the Xact data were corrected with the regressions from the 24 h value intercomparison. The results demonstrate that multi-metal characterization at high-time-resolution capability of Xact is a valuable and practical tool for ambient monitoring.

  6. High spatial and spectral resolution measurements of Jupiter's auroral regions using Gemini-North-TEXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Orton, G. S.; Greathouse, T. K.; Lacy, J.; Giles, R.; Fletcher, L. N.; Vogt, M.; Irwin, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter exhibits auroral emission at a multitude of wavelengths. Auroral emission at X-ray, ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths demonstrate the precipitation of ion and electrons in Jupiter's upper atmosphere, at altitudes exceeding 250 km above the 1-bar level. Enhanced mid-infrared emission of CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and further hydrocarbons is also observed coincident with Jupiter's auroral regions. Retrieval analyses of infrared spectra from IRTF-TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility) indicate strong heating at the 1-mbar level and evidence of ion-neutral chemistry, which enriches the abundances of unsaturated hydrocarbons (Sinclair et al., 2017b, doi:10.1002/2017GL073529, Sinclair et al., 2017c (under review)). The extent to which these phenomena in the stratosphere are correlated and coupled physically with the shorter-wavelength auroral emission originating from higher altitudes has been a challenge due to the limited spatial resolution available on the IRTF. Smaller-scale features observed in the near-infrared and ultraviolet emission, such as the main `oval', transient `swirls' and dusk-active regions within the main oval (e.g. Stallard et al., 2014, doi:10.1016/j/Icarus.2015.12.044, Nichols et al., 2017, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073029) are potentially being blurred in the mid-infrared by the diffraction-limited resolution (0.7") of IRTF's 3-metre primary aperture. However, on March 17-19th 2017, we obtained spectral measurements of H2 S(1), CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 emission of Jupiter's high latitudes using TEXES on Gemini-North, which has a 8-metre primary aperture. This rare opportunity combines the superior spectral resolving power of TEXES and the high spatial resolution provided by Gemini-North's 8-metre aperture. We will perform a retrieval analyses to determine the 3D distributions of temperature, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6. The morphology will be compared with near-contemporaneous measurements of H3+ emission from

  7. The effect of radiation dose on the crosslink density of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) measured by a novel swelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratoglu, O.K.; Bragdon, C.R.; O'Connor, D.O.; Jasty, M.; Harris, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The crosslink density of a polyethylene network structure can be determined by swelling in hot xylene (130 deg C). The Flory's swelling theory is generally used to calculate the crosslink density, dx (ln(l-q -1 )+q -1 +Xq -1 )/(V 1 q -1/3 ), where V 1 is the molar volume of xylene at 130 deg C (136 cc/mol), X is the xylene-polyethylene interaction parameter, and q is the equilibrium volume swelling ratio of cross-linked network in hot xylene. Conventionally, q is measured using gravimetric methods as described in ASTM D2765-95. However, as noted in the ASTM standard, the gravimetric method has a large error factor associated with the measurement of q (as much as 100%). UHMWPE was irradiated (range of 25 to 300 kGy) using an AECL I 10/1 linear electron beam accelerator operated at 1 kW. The irradiated specimens were subsequently melt-annealed at 150 deg C for 2 hours in vacuum. For swelling experiments, 2 mm thin samples were machined using a diamond blade. The sample sizes were kept at around 3x3x2 mm and the bottom and top surfaces were machined parallel to each other. The equilibrium volume swelling ratios were determined using a Perkin-Elmer TMA/DMA 7 (n=3 for each radiation dose level). The samples were placed in a quartz basket-probe assembly and lowered into a xylene/antioxidant bath at room temperature. The xylene was then heated to 130 deg C at 5 deg C/min and held at 130 deg C for 2 hours. The swelling was then recorded with the upward motion of the probe until the equilibrium swelling was achieved. (The experiments were carried out in 3 orthogonal directions which confirmed the isotropy of swelling). (author)

  8. Multivariate curve resolution applied to infrared reflection measurements of soil contaminated with an organophosphorus analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Neal B; Blake, Thomas A; Gassman, Paul L; Shaver, Jeremy M; Windig, Willem

    2006-07-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is a powerful technique for extracting chemical information from measured spectra of complex mixtures. A modified MCR technique that utilized both measured and second-derivative spectra to account for observed sample-to-sample variability attributable to changes in soil reflectivity was used to estimate the spectrum of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) adsorbed on two different soil types. This algorithm was applied directly to measurements of reflection spectra of soils coated with analyte without resorting to soil preparations such as grinding or dilution in potassium bromide. The results provided interpretable spectra that can be used to guide strategies for detection and classification of organic analytes adsorbed on soil. Comparisons to the neat DBP liquid spectrum showed that the recovered analyte spectra from both soils showed spectral features from methyl, methylene, hydroxyl, and P=O functional groups, but most conspicuous was the absence of the strong PO-(CH2)3CH3 stretch absorption at 1033 cm(-1). These results are consistent with those obtained previously using extended multiplicative scatter correction.

  9. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  10. High-resolution optical polarimetric elastography for measuring the mechanical properties of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Alexa W.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, chemical and molecular markers have been the predominate method in diagnostics. Recently, alternate methods of determining tissue and disease characteristics have been proposed based on testing the mechanical behavior of biomaterials. Existing methods for performing elastography measurements, such as atomic force microscopy, compression testing, and ultrasound elastography, require either extensive sample processing or have poor resolution. In the present work, we demonstrate an optical polarimetric elastography device to characterize the mechanical properties of salmon skeletal muscle. A fiber-coupled 1550nm laser paired with an optical polarizer is used to create a fiber optic sensing region. By measuring the change in polarization from the initial state to the final state within the fiber sensing region with a polarimeter, the loading-unloading curves can be determined for the biomaterial. The device is used to characterize the difference between samples with a range of collagen membranes. The loading-unloading curves are used to determine the change in polarization phase and energy loss of the samples at 10%, 20% and 30% strain. As expected, the energy loss is a better metric for measuring the mechanical properties of the tissues because it incorporates the entire loading-unloading curve rather than a single point. Using this metric, it is demonstrated the device can repeatedly differentiate between the different membrane configurations.

  11. 3D Super-Resolution Motion-Corrected MRI: Validation of Fetal Posterior Fossa Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Danielle B; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Clancy, Sean; Kapur, Kush; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-09-01

    Current diagnosis of fetal posterior fossa anomalies by sonography and conventional MRI is limited by fetal position, motion, and by two-dimensional (2D), rather than three-dimensional (3D), representation. In this study, we aimed to validate the use of a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, 3D super-resolution motion-corrected MRI, to image the fetal posterior fossa. From a database of pregnant women who received fetal MRIs at our institution, images of 49 normal fetal brains were reconstructed. Six measurements of the cerebellum, vermis, and pons were obtained for all cases on 2D conventional and 3D reconstructed MRI, and the agreement between the two methods was determined using concordance correlation coefficients. Concordance of axial and coronal measurements of the transcerebellar diameter was also assessed within each method. Between the two methods, the concordance of measurements was high for all six structures (P fetal motion and orthogonal slice acquisition. This technique will facilitate further study of fetal abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  12. Method for local temperature measurement in a nanoreactor for in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, S B; Kooyman, P J; Creemer, J F; Morana, B; Mele, L; Dona, P; Nelissen, B J; Helveg, S

    2013-10-01

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of solids under reactive gas conditions can be facilitated by microelectromechanical system devices called nanoreactors. These nanoreactors are windowed cells containing nanoliter volumes of gas at ambient pressures and elevated temperatures. However, due to the high spatial confinement of the reaction environment, traditional methods for measuring process parameters, such as the local temperature, are difficult to apply. To address this issue, we devise an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) method that probes the local temperature of the reaction volume under inspection by the electron beam. The local gas density, as measured using quantitative EELS, is combined with the inherent relation between gas density and temperature, as described by the ideal gas law, to obtain the local temperature. Using this method we determined the temperature gradient in a nanoreactor in situ, while the average, global temperature was monitored by a traditional measurement of the electrical resistivity of the heater. The local gas temperatures had a maximum of 56 °C deviation from the global heater values under the applied conditions. The local temperatures, obtained with the proposed method, are in good agreement with predictions from an analytical model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Absolute high-resolution Se+ photoionization cross-section measurements with Rydberg-series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D. A.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Sterling, N. C.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Red, E. C.; Aguilar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements for Se + ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the photo-ion merged-beams technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 5.5 meV from 17.75 to 21.85 eV spanning the 4s 2 4p 3 4 S 3/2 o ground-state ionization threshold and the 2 P 3/2 o , 2 P 1/2 o , 2 D 5/2 o , and 2 D 3/2 o metastable state thresholds. Extensive analysis of the complex resonant structure in this region identified numerous Rydberg series of resonances and obtained the Se 2+ 4s 2 4p 23 P 2 and 4s 2 4p 21 S 0 state energies. In addition, particular attention was given to removing significant effects in the measurements due to a small percentage of higher-order undulator radiation.

  14. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides in the pan-Japan sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Abe, T.; Murata, Y.M.; Manikandan, N.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    By the use of ultra low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory (OUL), it became possible to detect extremely low levels of environmental radionuclides. In this study, we tried to measure high resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides at three monitoring points, i.e., 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL 40m asl) in Nomi City as the regular monitoring point, 2) Hegura Island Located 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to investigate the influence of Asian continent or mainland of Japan, and 3) Shishiku Plateau (640m asl) located about 8 km from LLRL to know vertical difference. Pb-210 and Be-7 were measured nondestructively by ultra low background gamma spectrometry at OUL, Po-210 by alpha spectrometry using Si detectors after the chemical treatment. Various interesting results on the concentrations and variation patterns of airborne radionuclides were obtained, particularly, during drastic meteorological changes such as the passage of typhoon, snow fall and so on. We have been analyzing the influence of the arrival of yellow sand occurred in this spring. (author)

  15. Length-extension resonator as a force sensor for high-resolution frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hannes; Wagner, Tino; Stemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy has turned into a well-established method to obtain atomic resolution on flat surfaces, but is often limited to ultra-high vacuum conditions and cryogenic temperatures. Measurements under ambient conditions are influenced by variations of the dew point and thin water layers present on practically every surface, complicating stable imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate high-resolution imaging in air using a length-extension resonator operating at small amplitudes. An additional slow feedback compensates for changes in the free resonance frequency, allowing stable imaging over a long period of time with changing environmental conditions.

  16. Inter regional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using {sup 18}F-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Technology, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Son, Y.D.; Kim, H.K.; Oh, C.H., E-mail: ohch@korea.ac.kr [College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.M. [College of Science and Technology, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.B. [Gachon University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. [Bioimaging Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-01

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an inter regional correlation analysis of the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using {sup 18}F-FDG. For detailed inter regional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the inter regional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders. (author)

  17. A validated analytical method to study the long-term stability of natural and synthetic glucocorticoids in livestock urine using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Nathalie; Julie, Vanden Bussche; Croubels, Siska; Delahaut, Philippe; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2013-08-02

    Due to their growth-promoting effects, the use of synthetic glucocorticoids is strictly regulated in the European Union (Council Directive 2003/74/EC). In the frame of the national control plans, which should ensure the absence of residues in food products of animal origin, in recent years, a higher frequency of prednisolone positive bovine urines has been observed. This has raised questions with respect to the stability of natural corticoids in the respective urine samples and their potential to be transformed into synthetic analogs. In this study, a ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) methodology was developed to examine the stability of glucocorticoids in bovine urine under various storage conditions (up to 20 weeks) and to define suitable conditions for sample handling and storage, using an Orbitrap Exactive™. To this end, an extraction procedure was optimized using a Plackett-Burman experimental design to determine the key conditions for optimal extraction of glucocorticoids from urine. Next, the analytical method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of CD 2002/657/EC. Decision limits and detection capabilities for prednisolone, prednisone and methylprednisolone ranged, respectively, from 0.1 to 0.5μgL(-1) and from 0.3 to 0.8μgL(-1). For the natural glucocorticoids limits of detection and limits of quantification for dihydrocortisone, cortisol and cortisone ranged, respectively, from 0.1 to 0.2μgL(-1) and from 0.3 to 0.8μgL(-1). The stability study demonstrated that filter-sterilization of urine, storage at -80°C, and acidic conditions (pH 3) were optimal for preservation of glucocorticoids in urine and able to significantly limit degradation up to 20 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter regional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Son, Y.D.; Kim, H.K.; Oh, C.H.; Kim, J.M.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, C.

    2018-01-01

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an inter regional correlation analysis of the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using 18 F-FDG. For detailed inter regional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the inter regional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using 18 F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders. (author)

  19. The effect of radiation dose on the crosslink density of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) measured by a novel swelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratoglu, O.K.; Bragdon, C.R.; O'Connor, D.O.; Jasty, M.; Harris, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The crosslink density of a polyethylene network structure can be determined by swelling in hot xylene (130 deg C). The Flory's swelling theory is generally used to calculate the crosslink density, dx (ln(l-q -1 ) + q -1 + Xq -1 )/(V l q -1/3 ), where V l is the molar volume of xylene at 130 deg C (136 cc/mol), X is the xylene-polyethylene interaction parameter, and q is the equilibrium volume swelling ratio of cross-linked network in hot xylene. Conventionally, q is measured using gravimetric methods as described in ASTM D2765-95. However, as noted in the ASTM standard, the gravimetric method has a large error factor associated with the measurement of q (as much as 100%). UHMWPE was irradiated (range of 25 to 300 kGy) using an AECL I 10/1 linear electron beam accelerator operated at 1 kW. The irradiated specimens were subsequently melt-annealed at 150 deg C for 2 hours in vacuum. For swelling experiments, 2 mm thin samples were machined using a diamond blade. The sample sizes were kept at around 3x3x2 mm and the bottom and top surfaces were machined parallel to each other. The equilibrium volume swelling ratios were determined using a Perkin-Elmer TMA/DMA 7 (n=3 for each radiation dose level). The samples were placed in a quartz basket-probe assembly and lowered into a xylene/antioxidant bath at room temperature. The xylene was then heated to 130 deg C at 5 deg C/min and held at 130 deg C for 2 hours. The swelling was then recorded with the upward motion of the probe until the equilibrium swelling was achieved. (The experiments were carried out in 3 orthogonal directions which confirmed the isotropy of swelling). From this one-dimensional change in height, q was calculated by taking into account the volumetric expansion due to heating and melting. (author)

  20. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  1. Required spatial resolution of hydrological models to evaluate urban flood resilience measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Giangola-Murzyn, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    During a flood in urban area, several non-linear processes (rainfall, surface runoff, sewer flow, and sub-surface flow) interact. Fully distributed hydrological models are a useful tool to better understand these complex interactions between natural processes and man built environment. Developing an efficient model is a first step to improve the understanding of flood resilience in urban area. Given that the previously mentioned underlying physical phenomenon exhibit different relevant scales, determining the required spatial resolution of such model is tricky but necessary issue. For instance such model should be able to properly represent large scale effects of local scale flood resilience measures such as stop logs. The model should also be as simple as possible without being simplistic. In this paper we test two types of model. First we use an operational semi-distributed model over a 3400 ha peri-urban area located in Seine-Saint-Denis (North-East of Paris). In this model, the area is divided into sub-catchments of average size 17 ha that are considered as homogenous, and only the sewer discharge is modelled. The rainfall data, whose resolution is 1 km is space and 5 min in time, comes from the C-band radar of Trappes, located in the West of Paris, and operated by Météo-France. It was shown that the spatial resolution of both the model and the rainfall field did not enable to fully grasp the small scale rainfall variability. To achieve this, first an ensemble of realistic rainfall fields downscaled to a resolution of 100 m is generated with the help of multifractal space-time cascades whose characteristic exponents are estimated on the available radar data. Second the corresponding ensemble of sewer hydrographs is simulated by inputting each rainfall realization to the model. It appears that the probability distribution of the simulated peak flow exhibits a power-law behaviour. This indicates that there is a great uncertainty associated with small scale

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinzettl, Vladimir; Shukla, Gaurav; Ghosh, Joydeep; Melich, Radek; Panek, Radomir; Tomes, Matej; Imrisek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana; Varju, Josef; Pereira, Tiago; Gomes, Rui; Abramovic, Ivana; Jaspers, Roger; Pisarik, Michael; Odstrcil, Tomas; Van Oost, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new diagnostic of poloidal plasma rotation on the COMPASS tokamak. • Improvements in throughput via toroidal integration and fiber optimizations shown. • Poloidal rotation and ion temperature measured in L- and H-mode and during RMP. • Design and parameters of a new CXRS diagnostic for COMPASS are introduced. - Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of plasma rotation as well as ion temperature using the Doppler shift of the emitted spectral lines and their Doppler broadening, respectively. Both passive and active diagnostic variants for the COMPASS tokamak are introduced. The passive diagnostic focused on the C III lines at about 465 nm is utilized for the observation of the poloidal plasma rotation. The current set-up of the measuring system is described, including the intended high-throughput optics upgrade. Different options to increase the fiber collection area are mentioned, including a flower-like fiber bundle, and the use of micro-lenses or tapered fibers. Recent measurements of poloidal plasma rotation of the order of 0–6 km/s are shown. The design of the new active diagnostic using a deuterium heating beam and based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (C VI line at 529 nm) is introduced. The tool will provide both space (0.5–5 cm) and time (10 ms) resolved toroidal plasma rotation and ion temperature profiles. The results of the Simulation of Spectra code used to examine the feasibility of charge exchange measurements on COMPASS are shown and connected with a selection of the spectrometer coupled with the CCD camera.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzettl, Vladimir, E-mail: vwei@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Shukla, Gaurav [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Ghosh, Joydeep [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Melich, Radek; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Tomes, Matej; Imrisek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Varju, Josef [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Pereira, Tiago [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, Rui [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Abramovic, Ivana; Jaspers, Roger [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pisarik, Michael [SQS Vlaknova optika a.s., Nova Paka (Czech Republic); Department of Electromagnetic Field, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, Tomas [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We built a new diagnostic of poloidal plasma rotation on the COMPASS tokamak. • Improvements in throughput via toroidal integration and fiber optimizations shown. • Poloidal rotation and ion temperature measured in L- and H-mode and during RMP. • Design and parameters of a new CXRS diagnostic for COMPASS are introduced. - Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of plasma rotation as well as ion temperature using the Doppler shift of the emitted spectral lines and their Doppler broadening, respectively. Both passive and active diagnostic variants for the COMPASS tokamak are introduced. The passive diagnostic focused on the C III lines at about 465 nm is utilized for the observation of the poloidal plasma rotation. The current set-up of the measuring system is described, including the intended high-throughput optics upgrade. Different options to increase the fiber collection area are mentioned, including a flower-like fiber bundle, and the use of micro-lenses or tapered fibers. Recent measurements of poloidal plasma rotation of the order of 0–6 km/s are shown. The design of the new active diagnostic using a deuterium heating beam and based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (C VI line at 529 nm) is introduced. The tool will provide both space (0.5–5 cm) and time (10 ms) resolved toroidal plasma rotation and ion temperature profiles. The results of the Simulation of Spectra code used to examine the feasibility of charge exchange measurements on COMPASS are shown and connected with a selection of the spectrometer coupled with the CCD camera.

  4. Combined High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Millimeter Wavelength Radar Measurement of Ice Crystal Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, Edwin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this research has been to improve measurements of snowfall using a combination of millimeter-wavelength radar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Observations. Snowflakes are large compared to the 532nm HSRL wavelength and small compared to the 3.2 and 8.6 mm wavelength radars used in this study. This places the particles in the optical scattering regime of the HSRL, where extinction cross-section is proportional to the projected area of the particles, and in the Rayleigh regime for the radar, where the backscatter cross-section is proportional to the mass-squared of the particles. Forming a ratio of the radar measured cross-section to the HSRL measured cross section eliminates any dependence on the number of scattering particles, yielding a quantity proportional to the average mass-squared of the snowflakes over the average area of the flakes. Using simultaneous radar measurements of particle fall velocities, which are dependent particle mass and cross-sectional area it is possible to derive the average mass of the snow flakes, and with the radar measured fall velocities compute the snowfall rate. Since this retrieval requires the optical extinction cross-section we began by considering errors this quantity. The HSRL is particularly good at measuring the backscatter cross-section. In previous studies of snowfall in the high Arctic were able to estimate the extinction cross-section directly as a fixed ratio to the backscatter cross-section. Measurements acquired in the STORMVEX experiment in Colorado showed that this approach was not valid in mid-latitude snowfalls and that direct measurement of the extinction cross-section is required. Attempts to measure the extinction directly uncovered shortcomings in thermal regulation and mechanical stability of the newly deployed DOE HSRL systems. These problems were largely mitigated by modifications installed in both of the DOE systems. We also investigated other sources of error in the HSRL direct

  5. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  6. High-resolution humidity profiles retrieved from wind profiler radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The retrieval of humidity profiles from wind profiler radars has already been documented in the past 30 years and is known to be neither as straightforward and nor as robust as the retrieval of the wind velocity. The main constraint to retrieve the humidity profile is the necessity to combine measurements from the wind profiler and additional measurements (such as observations from radiosoundings at a coarser time resolution). Furthermore, the method relies on some assumptions and simplifications that restrict the scope of its application. The first objective of this paper is to identify the obstacles and limitations and solve them, or at least define the field of applicability. To improve the method, we propose using the radar capacity to detect transition levels, such as the top level of the boundary layer, marked by a maximum in the radar reflectivity. This forces the humidity profile from the free troposphere and from the boundary layer to coincide at this level, after an optimization of the calibration coefficients, and reduces the error. The resulting mean bias affecting the specific humidity profile never exceeds 0.25 g kg-1. The second objective is to explore the capability of the algorithm to retrieve the humidity vertical profiles for an operational purpose by comparing the results with observations from a Raman lidar.

  7. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  8. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  9. High-efficient method for spectrometric data real time processing with increased resolution of a measuring channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkinaze, S.I.; Voronov, V.A.; Nechaev, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Solution of reduction problem as a mean to increase spectrometric tract resolution when it is realized using the digit-by-digit modified method and special strategy, significantly reducing the time of processing, is considered. The results presented confirm that the complex measurement tract plus microcomputer is equivalent to the use of the tract with a higher resolution, and the use of the digit-by-digit modified method permits to process spectrometric information in real time scale

  10. A Decade of High-Resolution Arctic Sea Ice Measurements from Airborne Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K.; Farrell, S. L.; Connor, L. N.; Jackson, C.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimeters carried on board ERS-1,-2, EnviSat, ICESat, CryoSat-2, AltiKa and Sentinel-3 have transformed our ability to map the thickness and volume of the polar sea ice cover, on seasonal and decadal time-scales. The era of polar satellite altimetry has coincided with a rapid decline of the Arctic ice cover, which has thinned, and transitioned from a predominantly multi-year to first-year ice cover. In conjunction with basin-scale satellite altimeter observations, airborne surveys of the Arctic Ocean at the end of winter are now routine. These surveys have been targeted to monitor regions of rapid change, and are designed to obtain the full snow and ice thickness distribution, across a range of ice types. Sensors routinely deployed as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) campaigns include the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter, the frequency-modulated continuous-wave snow radar, and the Digital Mapping System (DMS). Airborne measurements yield high-resolution data products and thus present a unique opportunity to assess the quality and characteristics of the satellite observations. We present a suite of sea ice data products that describe the snow depth and thickness of the Arctic ice cover during the last decade. Fields were derived from OIB measurements collected between 2009-2017, and from reprocessed data collected during ad-hoc sea ice campaigns prior to OIB. Our bespoke algorithms are designed to accommodate the heterogeneous sea ice surface topography, that varies at short spatial scales. We assess regional and inter-annual variability in the sea ice thickness distribution. Results are compared to satellite-derived ice thickness fields to highlight the sensitivities of satellite footprints to the tails of the thickness distribution. We also show changes in the dynamic forcing shaping the ice pack over the last eight years through an analysis of pressure-ridge sail-height distributions and surface roughness conditions

  11. In vivo skin moisturizing measurement by high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrar, J; Ognard, J; Garetier, M; Chechin, D; Misery, L; Ben Salem, D

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rarely used for the exploration of skin, even if studies have validated both feasibility of skin MRI and its interest for anatomical, physiological, and biochemical study of the skin. The purpose of this study is to explore moisturizing of the different skin layers using 3-T scan. An MRI of the heel's skin was performed using a 23 mm coil diameter on a 3T scan with a FFE (Fast Field Echo) 3D T1-weighted sequence and a TSE (Turbo Spin Echo) calculation T2-weighted sequence (pixels size of respectively 60 and 70 μm). This study was conducted on 35 healthy volunteers, who were scanned before applying moisturizer topic and 1 h after applying it. Region of interest in the stratum corneum, the epidermis and the dermis were generated on the T2 mapping. The thickness of each layer was measured. The T1 sequence allowed accurate cross-examination repositioning to ensure the comparability of the measurements. Among the 35 cases, two were excluded from the analysis because of movement artifacts. Measurements before and after moisturizer topic application displayed a T2 increase of 48.94% (P < 0.0001) in the stratum corneum and of 5.45% (P < 0.0001) in the epidermis yet without significant difference in the dermis. There was no significant link between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the T2 increase. However, there was a strong correlation between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the thickness of the epidermis (P < 0.001; rhô=0.72). High-resolution MRI allows fine exploration of anatomical and physiological properties of the skin and can further be used to extend the studies of skin hydration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recognition of Debt Restructuring and Resolution Measures under the European Union Regulatory Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    Under the proposed Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, member states will be required to provide for bail-in powers to restructure failing financial institutions. At this moment, the Dutch, French, UK and German legislator already provide public authorities with resolution powers. In order to be

  13. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  14. Measurement needs guided by synthetic radar scans in high-resolution model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, A.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Borque, P.

    2017-12-01

    Microphysical and dynamical process interactions within deep convective clouds are not well understood, partly because measurement strategies often focus on statistics of cloud state rather than cloud processes. While processes cannot be directly measured, they can be inferred with sufficiently frequent and detailed scanning radar measurements focused on the life cycleof individual cloud regions. This is a primary goal of the 2018-19 DOE ARM Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) and NSF Remote sensing of Electrification, Lightning, And Mesoscale/microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaigns in central Argentina, where orographic deep convective initiation is frequent with some high-impact systems growing into the tallest and largest in the world. An array of fixed and mobile scanning multi-wavelength dual-polarization radars will be coupled with surface observations, sounding systems, multi-wavelength vertical profilers, and aircraft in situ measurements to characterize convective cloud life cycles and their relationship with environmental conditions. While detailed cloud processes are an observational target, the radar scan patterns that are most ideal for observing them are unclear. They depend on the locations and scales of key microphysical and dynamical processes operating within the cloud. High-resolution simulations of clouds, while imperfect, can provide information on these locations and scales that guide radar measurement needs. Radar locations are set in the model domain based on planned experiment locations, and simulatedorographic deep convective initiation and upscale growth are sampled using a number of different scans involving RHIs or PPIs with predefined elevation and azimuthal angles that approximately conform with radar range and beam width specifications. Each full scan pattern is applied to output atsingle model time steps with time step intervals that depend on the length of time

  15. Tumour size measurement in a mouse model using high resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelius, Mikael; Ljungberg, Maria; Horn, Michael; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assess new treatment methods in cancer research. MRI offers a non-invasive in vivo monitoring of tumour tissue and thus allows longitudinal measurements of treatment effects, without the need for large cohorts of animals. Tumour size is an important biomarker of the disease development, but to our knowledge, MRI based size measurements have not yet been verified for small tumours (10 −2 –10 −1 g). The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of MRI based tumour size measurements of small tumours on mice. 2D and 3D T2-weighted RARE images of tumour bearing mice were acquired in vivo using a 7 T dedicated animal MR system. For the 3D images the acquired image resolution was varied. The images were exported to a PC workstation where the tumour mass was determined assuming a density of 1 g/cm 3 , using an in-house developed tool for segmentation and delineation. The resulting data were compared to the weight of the resected tumours after sacrifice of the animal using regression analysis. Strong correlations were demonstrated between MRI- and necropsy determined masses. In general, 3D acquisition was not a prerequisite for high accuracy. However, it was slightly more accurate than 2D when small (<0.2 g) tumours were assessed for inter- and intraobserver variation. In 3D images, the voxel sizes could be increased from 160 3 μm 3 to 240 3 μm 3 without affecting the results significantly, thus reducing acquisition time substantially. 2D MRI was sufficient for accurate tumour size measurement, except for small tumours (<0.2 g) where 3D acquisition was necessary to reduce interobserver variation. Acquisition times between 15 and 50 minutes, depending on tumour size, were sufficient for accurate tumour volume measurement. Hence, it is possible to include further MR investigations of the tumour, such as tissue perfusion, diffusion or metabolic composition in the same MR session

  16. Exploiting High Resolution Multi-Seasonal Textural Measures and Spectral Information for Reedbed Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Okiemute Onojeghuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reedbeds across the UK are amongst the most important habitats for rare and endangered birds, wildlife and organisms. However, over the past century, this valued wetland habitat has experienced a drastic reduction in quality and spatial coverage due to pressures from human related activities. To this end, conservation organisations across the UK have been charged with the task of conserving and expanding this threatened habitat. With this backdrop, the study aimed to develop a methodology for accurate reedbed mapping through the combined use of multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information contained in high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery. The key objectives were to determine the most effective single-date (autumn or summer and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery suitable for reedbed mapping over the study area; to evaluate the effectiveness of combining multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information for reedbed mapping using a variety of combinations; and to evaluate the most suitable classification technique for reedbed mapping from three selected classification techniques, namely maximum likelihood classifier, spectral angular mapper and artificial neural network. Using two selected grey-level co-occurrence textural measures (entropy and angular second moment, a series of experiments were conducted using varied combinations of single-date and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery. Overall, the results indicate the multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral bands (eight layers combined with all eight grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measures (entropy and angular second moment computed using windows 3 × 3 and 7 × 7 produced the optimal reedbed (76.5% and overall classification (78.1% accuracies using the maximum likelihood classifier technique. Using the optimal 16 layer multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral and texture combined image dataset, a total reedbed area of 9.8 hectares was successfully mapped over the

  17. High Resolution and Large Dynamic Range Resonant Pressure Sensor Based on Q-Factor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Stell, Christopher B. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Vorperian, Vatche (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure sensor has a high degree of accuracy over a wide range of pressures. Using a pressure sensor relying upon resonant oscillations to determine pressure, a driving circuit drives such a pressure sensor at resonance and tracks resonant frequency and amplitude shifts with changes in pressure. Pressure changes affect the Q-factor of the resonating portion of the pressure sensor. Such Q-factor changes are detected by the driving/sensing circuit which in turn tracks the changes in resonant frequency to maintain the pressure sensor at resonance. Changes in the Q-factor are reflected in changes of amplitude of the resonating pressure sensor. In response, upon sensing the changes in the amplitude, the driving circuit changes the force or strength of the electrostatic driving signal to maintain the resonator at constant amplitude. The amplitude of the driving signals become a direct measure of the changes in pressure as the operating characteristics of the resonator give rise to a linear response curve for the amplitude of the driving signal. Pressure change resolution is on the order of 10(exp -6) torr over a range spanning from 7,600 torr to 10(exp -6) torr. No temperature compensation for the pressure sensor of the present invention is foreseen. Power requirements for the pressure sensor are generally minimal due to the low-loss mechanical design of the resonating pressure sensor and the simple control electronics.

  18. Helium temperature measurements in a hot filament magnetic mirror plasma using high resolution Doppler spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, S.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ruth, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Langmuir probe and spectroscopic diagnostics are used to routinely measure electron temperature and density over a wide operating range in a reconfigured Double Plasma device at University College Cork, Ireland. The helium plasma, generated through thermionic emission from a negatively biased tungsten filament, is confined by an axisymmetric magnetic mirror configuration using two stacks of NdFeB permanent magnets, each of length 20 cm and diameter 3 cm placed just outside the 15 mm water cooling jacket enclosing a cylindrical vacuum vessel of internal diameter 25 cm. Plasma light is analysed using a Fourier Transform-type Bruker spectrometer with a highest achievable resolution of 0.08 cm-1 . In the present work, the conventional assumption of room temperature ions in the analysis of Langmuir probe data from low temperature plasmas is examined critically using Doppler spectroscopy of the 468.6 nm He II line. Results for ion temperatures obtained from spectroscopic data for a variety of engineering parameters (discharge voltage, gas pressure and plasma current) will be presented.

  19. Corrected multiple upsets and bit reversals for improved 1-s resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucker, G.J.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has studied the generation of single and multiple errors in control and irradiated static RAM samples (Harris 6504RH) which were exposed to heavy ions for relatively long intervals of time (minute), and read out only after the beam was shut off. The present investigation involved storing 4k x 1 bit maps every second during 1 min ion exposures at low flux rates of 10 3 ions/cm 2 -s in order to reduce the chance of two sequential ions upsetting adjacent bits. The data were analyzed for the presence of adjacent upset bit locations in the physical memory plane, which were previously defined to constitute multiple upsets. Improvement in the time resolution of these measurements has provided more accurate estimates of multiple upsets. The results indicate that the percentage of multiples decreased from a high of 17% in the previous experiment to less than 1% for this new experimental technique. Consecutive double and triple upsets (reversals of bits) were detected. These were caused by sequential ions hitting the same bit, with one or two reversals of state occurring in a 1-min run. In addition to these results, a status review for these same parts covering 3.5 years of imprint damage recovery is also presented

  20. High resolution measurements of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the Fraunhofer oxigen bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Cecchi, G.; Toci, G.; Mazzinghi, P.

    2017-11-01

    Spectra of solar radiance reflected by leaves close to the Fraunhofer bands show the net contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence emission which adds to the reflected solar spectra. In a laboratory experiment, a low stray light, high resolution, 0.85 m double monochromator was used to filter radiation living leaves still attached to the plant in correspondence of the 687 nm and 760 nm O2 absorption bands. Reference spectra from a non fluorescent white reference were also acquired. Acquisition was performed by a Microchannel plate (MCP) intensified diode array with 512 elements. A fit of the spectral data outside the absorption lines allowed to retrieve the spectral base-line as a function of wavelength for the reference panel and the leaf. Reflectance functions were determined extending the Plascyck equation system to all the resolved lines of the oxygen absorption bands and using the base-lines for the continuum values. Fluorescence was deduced from the same equation system, using both the measured leaf and reference radiance spectra and the leaf reflectance fitting function.

  1. High-resolution measurements from the airborne Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. P.; Anand, J. S.; Vande Hey, J. D.; White, J.; Leigh, R. R.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is both a primary pollutant with direct health effects and a key precursor of the secondary pollutant ozone. This paper reports on the development, characterisation and test flight of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI) remote sensing system. The ANDI system includes an imaging UV/Vis grating spectrometer able to capture scattered sunlight spectra for the determination of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by way of DOAS slant column density and vertical column density measurements. Results are shown for an ANDI test flight over Leicester City in the UK on a cloud-free winter day in February 2013. Retrieved NO2 columns gridded to a surface resolution of 80 m × 20 m revealed hotspots in a series of locations around Leicester City, including road junctions, the train station, major car parks, areas of heavy industry, a nearby airport (East Midlands) and a power station (Ratcliffe-on-Soar). In the city centre the dominant source of NO2 emissions was identified as road traffic, contributing to a background concentration as well as producing localised hotspots. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant urban increment over the city centre which increased throughout the flight.

  2. Design and development of high-resolution atomic beam fluorescence spectroscopy facility for isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharyulu, G.V.S.G.; Sankari, M.; Kiran Kumar, P.V.; Suryanarayana, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    A high-resolution atomic beam fluorescence spectroscopy facility for the determination of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in atomic species has been designed and developed. A resistively heated graphite tube atomic beam source was designed, tested and integrated into a compact interaction chamber for atomic beam fluorescence experiments. The design of the laser-atom interaction chamber and the source has been modified in a phased manner so as to achieve sub-Doppler resolution. The system has been used to record the hyperfine spectrum of the D2 transitions of Rb and K isotopes. The spectral resolution achieved is ∼ 26 MHz and is adequate to carry out high resolution measurement of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of various atomic species. The other major advantage of the source is that it requires very small amounts of sample for achieving very good signal to noise ratio. (author)

  3. Functional exploratory data analysis for high-resolution measurements of urban particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, M Giovanna; Rocco, Giorgia; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Crocchianti, Stefano; Cappelletti, David

    2016-09-01

    In this work we propose the use of functional data analysis (FDA) to deal with a very large dataset of atmospheric aerosol size distribution resolved in both space and time. Data come from a mobile measurement platform in the town of Perugia (Central Italy). An OPC (Optical Particle Counter) is integrated on a cabin of the Minimetrò, an urban transportation system, that moves along a monorail on a line transect of the town. The OPC takes a sample of air every six seconds and counts the number of particles of urban aerosols with a diameter between 0.28 μm and 10 μm and classifies such particles into 21 size bins according to their diameter. Here, we adopt a 2D functional data representation for each of the 21 spatiotemporal series. In fact, space is unidimensional since it is measured as the distance on the monorail from the base station of the Minimetrò. FDA allows for a reduction of the dimensionality of each dataset and accounts for the high space-time resolution of the data. Functional cluster analysis is then performed to search for similarities among the 21 size channels in terms of their spatiotemporal pattern. Results provide a good classification of the 21 size bins into a relatively small number of groups (between three and four) according to the season of the year. Groups including coarser particles have more similar patterns, while those including finer particles show a more different behavior according to the period of the year. Such features are consistent with the physics of atmospheric aerosol and the highlighted patterns provide a very useful ground for prospective model-based studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The first full-resolution measurements of Auroral Medium Frequency Burst Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, N. L.; Labelle, J.; Weatherwax, A.; Hughes, J.

    2008-12-01

    Auroral MF burst is a naturally occurring auroral radio emission which appears unstructured on resolution of previous measurements, is observed in the frequency range of 0.8-4.5 MHz, and has typical amplitudes of around 10-14 V2/m2Hz, and durations of a few minutes. The emission occurs at substorm onset. Since Sept 2006, Dartmouth has operated a broadband (0-5 MHz) interferometer at Toolik Lake, Alaska (68° 38' N, 149° 36' W, 68.51 deg. magnetic latitude), designed for the study of auroral MF burst emissions. Normal operation involves taking snapshots of waveforms from four spaced antennas from which wave spectral and directional information is obtained. However, the experiment can also be run in "continuous mode" whereby the signal from a selected antenna is sampled continuously at 10 M samples/second. A "continuous mode" campaign was run 0800-1200 UT (~2200-0200 MLT) daily from March 21 to April 19, 2008. During this campaign more than twenty auroral MF burst emissions were observed, including three extraordinarily intense examples lasting approximately two minutes each. These observations represent the highest time and frequency resolution data ever collected of MF burst emissions. These data allow us to better characterize the null near twice the electron gyrofrequency identified in previous experiments, since examples of this feature observed during this campaign display a strong null ~50 kHz in bandwidth, with sharp boundaries and occasionally coincident with 2 fce auroral roar. These data also allow us to search for frequency-time structures embedded in MF-burst. One prominent feature appears to be a strong single frequency emission which broadens down to lower frequencies over time, spreading to approximately 500 kHz in bandwidth over ~10 ms. Among other features observed are a diffuse and unstructured emission, as well as what could potentially be several separate emission sources, with multiple emissions occurring simultaneously, appearing as weaker

  5. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS

  6. High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

    2008-08-29

    Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 μm, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

  7. The measurement and calculation of the X-ray spatial resolution obtained in the analytical electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, J.R.; Williams, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray microanalytical spatial resolution is determined experimentally in various analytical electron microscopes by measuring the degradation of an atomically discrete composition profile across an interphase interface in a thin-foil of Ni-Cr-Fe. The experimental spatial resolutions are then compared with calculated values. The calculated spatial resolutions are obtained by the mathematical convolution of the electron probe size with an assumed beam-broadening distribution and the single-scattering model of beam broadening. The probe size is measured directly from an image of the probe in a TEM/SETEM and indirectly from dark-field signal changes resulting from scanning the probe across the edge of an MgO crystal in a dedicated STEM. This study demonstrates the applicability of the convolution technique to the calculation of the microanalytical spatial resolution obtained in the analytical electron microscope. It is demonstrated that, contrary to popular opinion, the electron probe size has a major impact on the measured spatial resolution in foils < 150 nm thick. (author)

  8. Measurement and simulation of the drift pulses and resolution in the micro-jet chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1983-01-01

    We have tested a prototype of a micro-jet chamber, using both a nitrogen laser and a 10GeV electron beam. The achieved resolution in the particle beam was sigma = 18μm for a lmm impact parameter and 22μm when averaging over the entire beam profile. The experimental results were compared to a Monte Carlo program which simulates the pulse shapes and resolution in drift chambers of any geometry. The main emphasis in our simulation analysis was to study various strategies for drift chambers in order to achieve the best possible timing resolution

  9. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to measure oxygen partial pressure (pO2) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO2 measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here, we report the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO2 measurements in small rodents’ cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 µm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. Most importantly, the properties of the probe allowed for the first direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO2, opening numerous possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies. PMID:20693997

  10. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadzić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Mandeville, Emiri T; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Boas, David A

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO(2) measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here we report to our knowledge the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO(2) measurements in small rodents' cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 microm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. The properties of the probe allowed for direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO(2), opening many possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies.

  11. High Time Resolution Measurements of VOCs from Vehicle Cold Starts: The Air Toxic Cold Start Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Huangfu, Y.; Vanderschelden, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Pollutants emitted during motor vehicle cold starts, especially in winter in some climates, is a significant source of winter time air pollution. While data exist for CO, NO, and total hydrocarbon emissions from federal testing procedures for vehicle emission certification, little is known about the emission rates of individual volatile organic compounds, in particular the air toxics benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde. Little is known about the VOC speciation and temperature dependence for cold starts. The US EPA vehicle emission model MOVES assumes that cold start emissions have the same speciation profile as running emissions. We examined this assumption by measuring cold start exhaust composition for 4 vehicles fueled with E10 gasoline over a temperature range of -4°C to 10°C in winter of 2015. The extra cold start emissions were determined by comparison with emissions during engine idling. In addition to CO and NOx measurements a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer was used to measure formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and C2-alkylbenzenes at high time resolution to compare with the cold start emission speciation profiles used in the EPA MOVES2014 model. The results show that after the vehicle was started, CO mixing ratios can reach a few percent of the exhaust and then drop to several ppmv within 2 minutes of idling, while NOx showed different temporal behaviors among the four vehicles. VOCs displayed elevated levels during cold start and the peak mixing ratios can be two orders higher than idling phase levels. Molar emission ratios relative to toluene were used to compare with the emission ratio used in MOVES2014 and we found the formaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratio was about 0.19, which is 5 times higher than the emission ratio used in MOVES2014 and the acetaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratios were 0.86-0.89, which is 8 times higher than the ones in MOVES2014. The C2-alkylbenzene-to-toluene ratio agreed well with moves. Our results

  12. Development of high speed integrated circuit for very high resolution timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mester, Christian

    2009-10-01

    A multi-channel high-precision low-power time-to-digital converter application specific integrated circuit for high energy physics applications has been designed and implemented in a 130 nm CMOS process. To reach a target resolution of 24.4 ps, a novel delay element has been conceived. This nominal resolution has been experimentally verified with a prototype, with a minimum resolution of 19 ps. To further improve the resolution, a new interpolation scheme has been described. The ASIC has been designed to use a reference clock with the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and generate all required timing signals internally, to ease to use within the framework of an LHC upgrade. Special care has been taken to minimise the power consumption. (orig.)

  13. Development of high speed integrated circuit for very high resolution timing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, Christian

    2009-10-15

    A multi-channel high-precision low-power time-to-digital converter application specific integrated circuit for high energy physics applications has been designed and implemented in a 130 nm CMOS process. To reach a target resolution of 24.4 ps, a novel delay element has been conceived. This nominal resolution has been experimentally verified with a prototype, with a minimum resolution of 19 ps. To further improve the resolution, a new interpolation scheme has been described. The ASIC has been designed to use a reference clock with the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and generate all required timing signals internally, to ease to use within the framework of an LHC upgrade. Special care has been taken to minimise the power consumption. (orig.)

  14. First measurements with new high-resolution gadolinium-GEM neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Etxegarai, Maddi; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Robinson, Linda; Ropelewski, Leszek; Schmidt, Susann; Streli, Christina; Thuiner, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer, NMX, require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The {\\mu}TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of $^{10}$B converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with an estimated efficiency of 10% at a wavelength of 2 {\\AA} and a position resolution better than 350 {\\mu}m.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIO CONTINUUM MEASUREMENTS OF THE NUCLEAR DISKS OF Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Leroy, A. K.; Condon, J.; Reichardt, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mazzarella, J. M.; Murphy, E. J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meier, D. S. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Momjian, E.; Ott, J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sakamoto, K. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Surace, J. A. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thompson, T. A., E-mail: ldb7et@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These new images have both the angular resolution to study the detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the galaxy merger and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, we achieve a resolution of 0.''081 × 0.''063 (29.9 × 23.3 pc) and resolve the radio emission surrounding both nuclei. We conclude from the decomposition of the radio spectral energy distribution that a majority of the 33 GHz emission is synchrotron radiation. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii (R {sub 50d}) of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, respectively, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (∼mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate extremely high molecular gas surface densities of 2.2{sub −1.0}{sup +2.1}×10{sup 5} (east) and 4.5{sub −1.9}{sup +4.5}×10{sup 5} (west) M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}, corresponding to total hydrogen column densities of N {sub H} = 2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +2.7}×10{sup 25} (east) and 5.6{sub −2.4}{sup +5.5}×10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} (west). The implied gas volume densities are similarly high, n{sub H{sub {sub 2}}}∼3.8{sub −1.6}{sup +3.8}×10{sup 4} (east) and ∼11{sub −4.5}{sup +12}×10{sup 4} cm{sup –3} (west). We also estimate very high luminosity surface densities of Σ{sub IR}∼4.2{sub −0.7}{sup +1.6}×10{sup 13} (east) and Σ{sub IR}∼9.7{sub −2.4}{sup +3.7}×10{sup 13} (west) L{sub ⊙} kpc{sup −2}, and star formation rate surface densities of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 10{sup 3.7} {sup ±} {sup 0.1} (east) and Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 10{sup 4.1} {sup ±} {sup 0.1}(west) M

  16. Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Radan; Homola, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2007), s. 10-12 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/04/P141; GA ČR GA203/02/1326; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/03/0249 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) QLK4-CT-2002-02323; US FDA (US) FD-U-002250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * refractive index Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.934, year: 2007

  17. Advanced Technologies for Ultrahigh Resolution and Functional Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Gorczynska, "Frequency domain optical coherence tomography techniques in eye imaging," Acta Physica Polonica A , vol. 102, pp. 739-46, 2002/12/ 2002. [57] S...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a . REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  18. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. High resolution deformation measurements at active volcanoes: a new remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, M. K.; Scharff, L.; Gerst, A.; Meier, K.; Falk, S.; Peters, G.; Ripepe, M.

    2013-12-01

    It is known from observations at different volcanoes using ULP seismic observations that the volcanic edifice deforms slightly prior to an eruption. It can be expected that immediately prior to an eruption the largest deformation should occur in the vicinity of the vent. However, placing instruments at the vent is impossible as they will be destroyed during an eruption. Here we present new, high temporal resolution (up to 300Hz) deformation measurement that utilizes the phase information of a frequency modulated Doppler radar system. We decompose the Doppler signal into two parts, one part which allows us to measure speeds significantly above 0.5m/s (i.e. the movement of volcanic ash and clasts). The other part utilizes the slow phase changes of the signal reflected from non-moving objects, i.e. the volcanic edifice. This signal is used to measure very slow and longer term deformations, which are the main subject of this study. The method has been tested measuring the displacement of high rise buildings during strong winds. It can be shown that displacements down to 50 μm can be resolved without a problem. We apply this method to different data sets collected at Stromboli volcano, Italy, as well as Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala. At Stromboli we observed the NE crater once in 2008 and once in 2011. During both campaigns we observe on average a displacement between 1 and 5mm before different eruptions. This displacement can be interpreted as a widening of the conduit prior to an eruption. In a couple of cases even an oscillatory movement is observed with frequencies of about 0.5Hz. Finite element modeling of the rise of a pressurized slug indicates that deformations at the crater rim on the order of a 1mm or less are certainly reasonable. In the case of Santiaguito volcano prior to an eruption we observe a pre eruptive displacement 5-15mm and after the end of an eruption a displacement of up to 1m before the next eruption occurs. This can be interpreted as in

  20. Cosmological implications of the MAXIMA-1 high-resolution cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stompor, R.; Abroe, M.; Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Barbosa, D.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lee, A.T.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological implications of the new constraints on the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy derived from a new high-resolution analysis of the MAXIMA-1 measurement. The power spectrum indicates excess power at lsimilar to 860 over the average level of power at 411 less than or equal to l less than or equal to 785. This excess is statistically significant at the similar to 95 percent confidence level. Its position coincides with that of the third acoustic peak, as predicted by generic inflationary models selected to fit the first acoustic peak as observed in the data. The height of the excess power agrees with the predictions of a family of inflationary models with cosmological parameters that are fixed to fit the CMB data previously provided by BOOMERANG-LDB and MAXIMA-1 experiments. Our results therefore lend support for inflationary models and more generally for the dominance of adiabatic coherent perturbations in the structure formation of the universe. At the same time, they seem to disfavor a large variety of the nonstandard (but inflation-based) models that have been proposed to improve the quality of fits to the CMB data and the consistency with other cosmological observables. Within standard inflationary models, our results combined with the COBE/Differential Microwave Radiometer data give best-fit values and 95 percent confidence limits for the baryon density, Omega (b)h(2)similar or equal to 0.033 +/- 0.013, and the total density, Omega =0.9(-0.16)(+0.18). The primordial spectrum slope (n(s)) and the optical depth to the last scattering surface (tau (c)) are found to be degenerate and to obey the relation n(s) similar or equal to (0.99 +/- 0.14) + 0.46tau (c), for tau (c) less than or equal to 0.5 (all at 95 percent confidence levels)

  1. Atmospheric QBO and ENSO indices with high vertical resolution from GNSS radio occultation temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Hallgeir; Ladstädter, Florian; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Steiner, Andrea K.

    2018-03-01

    We provide atmospheric temperature variability indices for the tropical troposphere and stratosphere based on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) temperature measurements. By exploiting the high vertical resolution and the uniform distribution of the GNSS RO temperature soundings we introduce two approaches, both based on an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first method utilizes the whole vertical and horizontal RO temperature field from 30° S to 30° N and from 2 to 35 km altitude. The resulting indices, the leading principal components, resemble the well-known patterns of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropics. They provide some information on the vertical structure; however, they are not vertically resolved. The second method applies the EOF analysis on each altitude level separately and the resulting indices contain information on the horizontal variability at each densely available altitude level. They capture more variability than the indices from the first method and present a mixture of all variability modes contributing at the respective altitude level, including the QBO and ENSO. Compared to commonly used variability indices from QBO winds or ENSO sea surface temperature, these new indices cover the vertical details of the atmospheric variability. Using them as proxies for temperature variability is also of advantage because there is no further need to account for response time lags. Atmospheric variability indices as novel products from RO are expected to be of great benefit for studies on atmospheric dynamics and variability, for climate trend analysis, as well as for climate model evaluation.

  2. Design consideration on the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, H.; Chida, K.; Mizobuchi, A.; Miyahara, A.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum production for the high-energy heavy-ion accelerator poses special problems concerning beam-gas molecule and beam-wall interactions. In this paper, summary of the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system and design criteria of the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system are presented. On-beam pressure of 4 x 10 -11 Torr is achieved in the TARN ultrahigh vacuum system, of which experiences through the construction and the operation are described and discussed. With emphasis on the application of newly developed technique in the fabrication of vacuum chamber and ultrahigh vacuum pump for the synchrotron ultrahigh vacuum system. (author)

  3. Innovations in Measuring Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Children with LI: Exploring the Accessibility of a Visual Analogue Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol…

  4. A Numerical Method to Generate High Temporal Resolution Precipitation Time Series by Combining Weather Radar Measurements with a Nowcast Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this paper is temporal interpolation of precipitation observed by weather radars. Precipitation measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution are, in general, desired for urban drainage applications. An advection-based interpolation method is developed which uses methods...

  5. High Resolution Measurements of Nitrous Oxide (N2O in the Elbe Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Brase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is one of the most important greenhouse gases and a major sink for stratospheric ozone. Estuaries are sites of intense biological production and N2O emissions. We aimed to identify hot spots of N2O production and potential pathways contributing to N2O concentrations in the surface water of the tidal Elbe estuary. During two research cruises in April and June 2015, surface water N2O concentrations were measured along the salinity gradient of the Elbe estuary by using a laser-based on-line analyzer coupled to an equilibrator. Based on these high-resolution N2O profiles, N2O saturations, and fluxes across the surface water/atmosphere interface were calculated. Additional measurements of DIN concentrations, oxygen concentration, and salinity were performed. Highest N2O concentrations were determined in the Hamburg port region reaching maximum values of 32.3 nM in April 2015 and 52.2 nM in June 2015. These results identify the Hamburg port region as a significant hot spot of N2O production, where linear correlations of AOU-N2Oxs indicate nitrification as an important contributor to N2O production in the freshwater part. However, in the region with lowest oxygen saturation, sediment denitrification obviously affected water column N2O saturation. The average N2O saturation over the entire estuary was 201% (SD: ±94%, with an average estuarine N2O flux density of 48 μmol m−2 d−1 and an overall emission of 0.18 Gg N2O y−1. In comparison to previous studies, our data indicate that N2O production pathways over the whole estuarine freshwater part have changed from predominant denitrification in the 1980s toward significant production from nitrification in the present estuary. Despite a significant reduction in N2O saturation compared to the 1980s, N2O concentrations nowadays remain on a high level, comparable to the mid-90s, although a steady decrease of DIN inputs occurred over the last decades. Hence, the Elbe estuary still

  6. Development of a measure of model fidelity for mental health Crisis Resolution Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Bond, Gary R; Ruud, Torleif; Ivanecka, Ada; Gray, Richard; Osborn, David; Nolan, Fiona; Henderson, Claire; Mason, Oliver; Goater, Nicky; Kelly, Kathleen; Ambler, Gareth; Morant, Nicola; Onyett, Steve; Lamb, Danielle; Fahmy, Sarah; Brown, Ellie; Paterson, Beth; Sweeney, Angela; Hindle, David; Fullarton, Kate; Frerichs, Johanna; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    Crisis Resolution Teams (CRTs) provide short-term intensive home treatment to people experiencing mental health crisis. Trial evidence suggests CRTs can be effective at reducing hospital admissions and increasing satisfaction with acute care. When scaled up to national level however, CRT implementation and outcomes have been variable. We aimed to develop and test a fidelity scale to assess adherence to a model of best practice for CRTs, based on best available evidence. A concept mapping process was used to develop a CRT fidelity scale. Participants (n = 68) from a range of stakeholder groups prioritised and grouped statements (n = 72) about important components of the CRT model, generated from a literature review, national survey and qualitative interviews. These data were analysed using Ariadne software and the resultant cluster solution informed item selection for a CRT fidelity scale. Operational criteria and scoring anchor points were developed for each item. The CORE CRT fidelity scale was then piloted in 75 CRTs in the UK to assess the range of scores achieved and feasibility for use in a 1-day fidelity review process. Trained reviewers (n = 16) rated CRT service fidelity in a vignette exercise to test the scale's inter-rater reliability. There were high levels of agreement within and between stakeholder groups regarding the most important components of the CRT model. A 39-item measure of CRT model fidelity was developed. Piloting indicated that the scale was feasible for use to assess CRT model fidelity and had good face validity. The wide range of item scores and total scores across CRT services in the pilot demonstrate the measure can distinguish lower and higher fidelity services. Moderately good inter-rater reliability was found, with an estimated correlation between individual ratings of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.76). The CORE CRT Fidelity Scale has been developed through a rigorous and systematic process. Promising initial testing indicates

  7. Volume measurement of thalami in normal Chinese Han nationality adults by the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Guo Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of thalamus in 1000 healthy Chinese Han nationality adults, and to analyze the relationship between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume, to provide reliable data for the construction of database of Chinese adults' digital standard brain. Methods: Totally 1000 healthy Chinese adults of Han nationality aged from 18 to 80 years were recruited.They were divided into 5 groups by age: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-80 years. Each group included 100 males and 100 females. Brain images were obtained on a 1.5 T MR, and the outline of thalami was drawn with Aquariusws software. Then the thalamic volume was calculated automatically. The volumes of left and right thalamus were compared by paired sample t-test. Thalamic volumes of the same side were compared between males and females by independent sample t-test. And thalamic volumes of different age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationships between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume were analyzed respectively. Results: The males' standardized volumes of left and right thalamus of healthy Chinese Han nationality adults were (5776 ± 780), (5655 ± 759) mm 3 , and they were (5464 ±573), (5360 ± 542) mm 3 for female. The males' thalamic volume was more than the females' on the same side (t=2.245, 2.200, P<0.01). The left thalamic volumes of various age groups were (6180 ± 534), (6047 ± 562), (5426 ± 471), (5552 ± 526), (4866 ± 552) mm 3 , respectively, while the right thalamic volumes of the 5 groups were (6069 ± 532), (5895 ± 539), (5357 ± 480), (5396 ± 445),(4791 ± 558)mm 3 , respectively. There were statistically significant difference among the 5 groups (F=165.686, 165.235, P<0.01). The left and right thalamic volume were all negatively correlated with age (r=-0.633, -0.645, P<0.05). Conclusions: With high resolution 1.5 T MR scanner,grey matter and white matter can be depicted clearly and the outline

  8. Development of high time-resolution laser flash equipment for thermal diffusivity measurements using miniature-size specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Namba, Chusei; Kosuda, Michinori; Maeda, Yukio.

    1994-01-01

    For measurements of thermal diffusivity of miniature-size specimens heavily irradiated by neutrons, a new Q-switched laser-flash instrument was developed. In the present instrument the time-resolution was improved to 0.1 ms by using a laser-pulse width of 25 ns. The realization of high time-resolution made it possible to measure the thermal diffusivity of thin specimens. It is expected that copper of 0.7 mm thick, and SUS 304 of 0.1 mm could be used for the measurements. In case of ATJ graphite, 0.5 mm thick specimen could be used for the reliable measurement in the temperature range of 300-1300 K. (author)

  9. Electrophysiological measures of conflict detection and resolution in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily; Conklin, Kathy; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2011-09-21

    Conflict detection and resolution is crucial in a cognitive task like the Stroop task. Previous studies have identified an early negativity component (N(inc)) as a prominent marker of Stroop conflict in event-related potentials (ERPs). However, to what extent this ERP component reflects conflict detection and/or resolution is still unclear. Here, we report a Stroop task in which the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of color and word stimuli presentation was manipulated in order to disentangle the roles of conflict detection and conflict resolution in generating Stroop-related ERP components. Separating the word from the color information gives us precise control over the timing of conflict. If the N(inc) is related with conflict resolution it should be absent when the word appears during response preparation, as in a long-latency positive SOA. Our data shows that the N(inc) occurs in all SOAs, even after a response has been made, supporting its role in the detection of stimulus conflict rather than conflict resolution. The use of SOA manipulation therefore allows for the examination of a wider temporal spectrum of interference in order to specify the functions of this conflict-related component. These results provide insight into the neural signatures of conflict processes, and have implications for models of cognitive control mechanisms in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular density modulation type ultrahigh vacuum gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Gen-ichi; Komada, Kazutaka; Mizuno, Hajime

    1978-01-01

    When pressure is measured in ultrahigh vacuum region, with an ionization gauge one of the causes producing the measuring limit is its dark current due to so-called soft X-ray effect and ion desorption. A kind of the modulation gauge provided with a modulation electrode is described in this paper. If a plate is vibrating perpendicularly to its surface in the sufficiently low pressure gas to satisfy molecular conditions (molecular density n), the molecular density in the space in front of the plate is expected to vary with time, affected by the vibration of the plate. When the vacuum gauge is placed in this space, the modulated current is proportional to pressure P, which is not related to the current due to soft X-ray effect and ion desorption. The other cause of determining the pressure-measuring limit is noises, among which only the noise coherent with the vibration of the plate affects the measurement. To avoid the induced current by this type of noise, it is considered to use the pulse-counting technique using an electron multiplier. It is anticipated that the induced currents generated from electrical noises and mechanical vibrations can be avoided almost completely by this method. As a result, the theoretical measuring limit may be estimated at approximately 5 x 10 -13 Torr, if the mean residence time in the collision of molecules with the plate is assumed to be 1 sec, the sensitivity of the vacuum gauge S is 20 Torr -1 , electron current Ie is 2 x 10 -3 A and modulation coefficient m is 3 x 10 -3 . (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Prospects for Measuring Abundances of >20 Elements with Low-resolution Stellar Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Cargile, Phillip [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the evolution of the Milky Way calls for the precise abundance determination of many elements in many stars. A common perception is that deriving more than a few elemental abundances ([Fe/H], [ α /Fe], perhaps [C/H], [N/H]) requires medium-to-high spectral resolution, R ≳ 10,000, mostly to overcome the effects of line blending. In a recent work, we presented an efficient and practical way to model the full stellar spectrum, even when fitting a large number of stellar labels simultaneously. In this paper, we quantify to what precision the abundances of many different elements can be recovered, as a function of spectroscopic resolution and wavelength range. In the limit of perfect spectral models and spectral normalization, we show that the precision of elemental abundances is nearly independent of resolution, for a fixed exposure time and number of detector pixels; low-resolution spectra simply afford much higher S/N per pixel and generally larger wavelength range in a single setting. We also show that estimates of most stellar labels are not strongly correlated with one another once R ≳ 1000. Modest errors in the line-spread function, as well as small radial velocity errors, do not affect these conclusions, and data-driven models indicate that spectral (continuum) normalization can be achieved well enough in practice. These results, to be confirmed with an analysis of observed low-resolution data, open up new possibilities for the design of large spectroscopic stellar surveys and for the reanalysis of archival low-resolution data sets.

  12. Metrological 2iOF fibre-optic system for position and displacement measurement with 31 pm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Karolina; Świåtkowski, Michał; Kunicki, Piotr; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we describe a high sensitivity intensity fibre-optic displacement sensor with tens of picometre resolution combined with a sub-picometre resolution interferometric calibration system. Both integrated components form the so-called "2 in one ferrule" system 2iOF. The design and construction of the presented device depend on integrating two sensors' systems within one fibre-optic measuring head, which allows performing in situ calibration process with no additional time-consuming adjustment procedure. The resolution of the 2iOF system is 31 pm/Hz1/2 obtained with an interferometric Fabry-Perot based calibration system—providing accuracy better than tens of fm/Hz1/2 within 1 MHz bandwidth in the measurement range of up to 100 μm. The direct response from the intensity sensor is then the 2iOF output one. It is faster and more convenient to analyze in comparison, with much better resolution (3 orders of magnitude higher) but on the other hand also more time consuming and dependent on the absolute sample position interferometer. The proposed system is flexible and open to various applications. We will present the results of the piezoelectrical actuator displacement measurements, which were performed using the developed system.

  13. Measuring the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of proteins at high spatial resolution by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Zehl, Martin; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-01-01

    , and eventually all of the protecting hydrogen bonds will transiently break as the protein-according to thermodynamic principles-cycles through partially unfolded states that correspond to excited free energy levels. As a result, all of the backbone amides will eventually become temporarily solvent....../dysfunction and conformational dynamics requires in many cases higher resolution and ultimately single-residue resolution. In this Account, we summarize our efforts to achieve single-residue deuterium levels in proteins by electron-based or laser-induced gas-phase fragmentation methods. A crucial analytical requirement...

  14. Measurement of the time resolution of small SiPM-based scintillation counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we evaluated the timing resolution of SiPM-based scintillation detector on a 1-GeV electron beam "extracted" from VEPP-4M. We tested small scintillation crystals of pure CsI, YAP, LYSO, and LFS-3 with HAMAMATSU S10362-33-025C and S13360-3050CS. The CsI scintillator together with HAMAMATSU S13360-3050CS demonstrated the best results. Nevertheless, the achieved time resolution of ~80 ps (RMS) relates mainly to the photodetector itself. It makes the silicon photomultiplier an attractive candidate to replace other devices in applications where sub-nanosecond accuracy is required.

  15. Resolving mass flux at high spatial and temporal resolution using GRACE intersatellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Klosko, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    resolution. Using 4° × 4° blocks at 10-day intervals, we estimate the mass of surplus or deficit water over a 52° × 60° grid centered on the Amazon basin for July 2003. We demonstrate that the recovered signals are coherent and correlate well with the expected hydrological signal....... the estimation of static monthly parameters. Through an analysis of the GRACE data residuals, we show that the fundamental temporal and spatial resolution of the GRACE data is 10 days and 400 km. We present an approach similar in concept to altimetric methods that recovers submonthly mass flux at a high spatial...

  16. Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Robert S. Jr.; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-01-01

    The performance of soft-copy displays plays a significant role in the overall image quality of a digital radiographic system. In this work, we discuss methods to characterize the resolution and noise of both cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. We measured the image quality of five different commercial display devices, representing both CRT and LCD technologies, using a high-quality charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated using the line technique, correcting for the MTF of the CCD camera and the display pixel size. The normalized noise power spectrum (NPS) was computed from two-dimensional Fourier analysis of uniform images. To separate the effects of pixel structure from interpixel luminance variations, we created structure-free images by eliminating the pixel structures of the display device. The NPS was then computed from these structure-free images to isolate interpixel luminance variations. We found that the MTF of LCDs remained close to the theoretical limit dictated by their inherent pixel size (0.85±0.08 at Nyquist frequency), in contrast to the MTF for the two CRT displays, which dropped to 0.15±0.08 at the Nyquist frequency. However, the NPS of LCDs showed significant peaks due to the subpixel structure, while the NPS of CRT displays exhibited a nearly flat power spectrum. After removing the pixel structure, the structured noise peaks for LCDs were eliminated and the overall noise magnitude was significantly reduced. The average total noise-to-signal ratio for CRT displays was 6.55%±0.59%, of which 6.03%±0.24% was due to interpixel luminance variations, while LCD displays had total noise to signal ratios of 46.1%±5.1% of which 1.50%±0.41% were due to interpixel luminance variations. Depending on the extent of the blurring and prewhitening processes of the human visual system, the magnitude of the display noise (including pixel structure) potentially perceived by the

  17. High-Resolution Spectral Measurement of High Temperature CO2 and H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    a major constituent which critically controls the infrared radiative transfer in the telluric atmosphere. Their absorption bands are distributed over... movement to prevent cracking. Also, the continuous Q = s/) spectrum spectral coverage filament ceramic fiber, brand AB-312 manufactured by resolution the 3M

  18. Erythrocyte orientation and lung conductivity analysis with a high temporal resolution FEM model for bioimpedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbrich, M.; Paluchowski, P.; Muehlsteff, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a simple and cheap method to acquirehemodynamic parameters. In this work, the influence of three dynamic physiological sources has been analyzed using a model of the humanthorax with a high temporal resolution. Therefore, simulations havebeen conducted using the

  19. Estimation of residual stress in cold rolled iron-disks from strain measurements on the high resolution Fourier diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    The results of estimating residual stresses in cold rolled iron disks by measurements with the high resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor are presented. These measurements were made for calibration of magnetic and ultrasonic measurements carried out at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing in Saarbrucken (Germany). The tested objects were cold rolled steel disks of 2.5 mm thickness and diameter of about 500 mm used for forming small, gas pressure tanks. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out at the scattering angle 2θ=+152 d eg with resolution Δd/d=1.5·10 -3 . The gauge volume was chosen according to the magnetic measurements lateral resolution 20x20 mm 2 . In the nearest future the neutron diffraction measurements with cold rolled iron disks at the scattering angle 2θ=±90 0 are planned. Also the texture analysis will be included in the Rietveld refinement procedure for more correct calculation of residual stress fields in the cold rolled materials. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lifeng, E-mail: yu.lifeng@mayo.edu; Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  1. Patient-specific quantification of image quality: An automated method for measuring spatial resolution in clinical CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Jeremiah, E-mail: jeremiah.sanders@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Hurwitz, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an automated technique for evaluating the spatial resolution characteristics of clinical computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: Twenty one chest and abdominopelvic clinical CT datasets were examined in this study. An algorithm was developed to extract a CT resolution index (RI) analogous to the modulation transfer function from clinical CT images by measuring the edge-spread function (ESF) across the patient’s skin. A polygon mesh of the air-skin boundary was created. The faces of the mesh were then used to measure the ESF across the air-skin interface. The ESF was differentiated to obtain the line-spread function (LSF), and the LSF was Fourier transformed to obtain the RI. The algorithm’s ability to detect the radial dependence of the RI was investigated. RIs measured with the proposed method were compared with a conventional phantom-based method across two reconstruction algorithms (FBP and iterative) using the spatial frequency at 50% RI, f{sub 50}, as the metric for comparison. Three reconstruction kernels were investigated for each reconstruction algorithm. Finally, an observer study was conducted to determine if observers could visually perceive the differences in the measured blurriness of images reconstructed with a given reconstruction method. Results: RI measurements performed with the proposed technique exhibited the expected dependencies on the image reconstruction. The measured f{sub 50} values increased with harder kernels for both FBP and iterative reconstruction. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm was able to detect the radial dependence of the RI. Patient-specific measurements of the RI were comparable to the phantom-based technique, but the patient data exhibited a large spread in the measured f{sub 50}, indicating that some datasets were blurrier than others even when the projection data were reconstructed with the same reconstruction algorithm and kernel. Results from the observer study substantiated this

  2. Ultra-high temperature direct propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araj, K.J.; Slovik, G.; Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.

    1987-01-01

    Potential advantages of ultra-high exhaust temperature (3000 K - 4000 K) direct propulsion nuclear rockets are explored. Modifications to the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to achieve these temperatures are described. Benefits of ultra-high temperature propulsion are discussed for two missions - orbit transfer (ΔV = 5546 m/s) and interplanetary exploration (ΔV = 20000 m/s). For such missions ultra-high temperatures appear to be worth the additional complexity. Thrust levels are reduced substantially for a given power level, due to the higher enthalpy caused by partial disassociation of the hydrogen propellant. Though technically challenging, it appears potentially feasible to achieve such ultra high temperatures using the PBR

  3. Methods For Electron Bunch Measurement With Resolution Of The Order Of 1 Fs And 1 Nm

    CERN Document Server

    Tron, A M

    2004-01-01

    Methods for bunch length and shape monitoring with femtosecond resolution by means of time converting photochronography of the bunch radiation in the range of visible light using photoelectron camera of new principle of its operation, and for monitoring the transverse bunch size, based on new beam cross section wire scanner technique where the depth of electron escapement being not more than 1 nm is used, are described. Main limitation, caused by space charge effect, is considered.

  4. The point-spread function measure of resolution for the 3-D electrical resistivity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, Greg A.; Routh, Partha S.

    2009-02-01

    The solution appraisal component of the inverse problem involves investigation of the relationship between our estimated model and the actual model. However, full appraisal is difficult for large 3-D problems such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We tackle the appraisal problem for 3-D ERT via the point-spread functions (PSFs) of the linearized resolution matrix. The PSFs represent the impulse response of the inverse solution and quantify our parameter-specific resolving capability. We implement an iterative least-squares solution of the PSF for the ERT experiment, using on-the-fly calculation of the sensitivity via an adjoint integral equation with stored Green's functions and subgrid reduction. For a synthetic example, analysis of individual PSFs demonstrates the truly 3-D character of the resolution. The PSFs for the ERT experiment are Gaussian-like in shape, with directional asymmetry and significant off-diagonal features. Computation of attributes representative of the blurring and localization of the PSF reveal significant spatial dependence of the resolution with some correlation to the electrode infrastructure. Application to a time-lapse ground-water monitoring experiment demonstrates the utility of the PSF for assessing feature discrimination, predicting artefacts and identifying model dependence of resolution. For a judicious selection of model parameters, we analyse the PSFs and their attributes to quantify the case-specific localized resolving capability and its variability over regions of interest. We observe approximate interborehole resolving capability of less than 1-1.5m in the vertical direction and less than 1-2.5m in the horizontal direction. Resolving capability deteriorates significantly outside the electrode infrastructure.

  5. An FPGA-Integrated Time-to-Digital Converter Based on a Ring Oscillator for Programmable Delay Line Resolution Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the architecture of a time-to-digital converter (TDC, specially intended to measure the delay resolution of a programmable delay line (PDL. The configuration, which consists of a ring oscillator, a frequency divider (FD, and a period measurement circuit (PMC, is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. The ring oscillator realized in loop containing a PDL and a look-up table (LUT generates periodic oscillatory pulses. The FD amplifies the oscillatory period from nanosecond range to microsecond range. The time-to-digital conversion is based on counting the number of clock cycles between two consecutive pulses of the FD by the PMC. Experiments have been conducted to verify the performance of the TDC. The achieved relative errors for four PDLs are within 0.50%–1.21% and the TDC has an equivalent resolution of about 0.4 ps.

  6. Experimental study to optimize time resolution and detection limit of online 222Rn-in-water measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C.; Philipsborn, H. von

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to detect short-term variations of the activity concentration of 222 Rn in water by online monitoring with temporal resolutions of a few minutes and a lower limit of detection of about 1 Bq/l enhances the applicability of such measurements. New applications would be possible in the field of hydro-geology in which Rn is used as tracer gas, the monitoring of pumping procedures, for the study of exchange processes during groundwater sampling and for various applications with geophysical effects. A suitable, simple method is the measuring principle proposed by Surbeck (Fribourg) some years ago which is based on the separation of air and water by a diffusion membrane. Process parameters enhancing the time resolution of the method as well as the efficiency of different radon detectors have been studied. (orig.) [de

  7. Ultrahigh-pressure transitions in solid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, H.; Hemley, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    During the past five years, major progress has been made in the experimental study of solid hydrogen at ultrahigh pressures as a result of developments in diamond-cell technology. Pressures at which metallization has been predicted to occur have been reached (250--300 Gigapascals). Detailed studies of the dynamic, structural, and electronic properties of dense hydrogen reveal a system unexpectedly rich in physical phenomena, exhibiting a variety of transitions at ultrahigh pressures. This colloquium explores the study of dense hydrogen as an archetypal problem in condensed-matter physics

  8. Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2009-06-15

    We briefly describe the energy loss processes of ultrahigh-energy protons, heavier nuclei and {gamma}-rays in interactions with the universal photon fields of the Universe. We then discuss the modification of the accelerated cosmic-ray energy spectrum in propagation by the energy loss processes and the charged cosmic-ray scattering in the extragalactic magnetic fields. The energy lost by the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays goes into {gamma}-rays and neutrinos that carry additional information about the sources of highest energy particles. The new experimental results of the HiRes and the Auger collaborations are discussed in view of the predictions from propagation calculations.

  9. A method for neutron dosimetry in ultrahigh flux environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ougouag, A.M.; Wemple, C.A.; Rogers, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for neutron dosimetry in ultrahigh flux environments is developed, and devices embodying it are proposed and simulated using a Monte Carlo code. The new approach no longer assumes a linear relationship between the fluence and the activity of the nuclides formed by irradiation. It accounts for depletion of the original ''foil'' material and for decay and depletion of the formed nuclides. In facilities where very high fluences are possible, the fluences inferred by activity measurements may be ambiguous. A method for resolving these ambiguities is also proposed and simulated. The new method and proposed devices should make possible the use of materials not traditionally considered desirable for neutron activation dosimetry

  10. High-resolution photofission measurements in 238U and 232Th. Progress report, June 1, 1980-February 10, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancman, H.

    1981-02-01

    Intense proton beam currents from the Dynamitron at Brooklyn College have been used to generate gamma rays of variable energy from a number of (p,γ) resonances in various nuclei. Spectra of photofission fragments of 238 U and 232 Th have been measured with an average gamma ray energy resolution of approx. 300 eV. Structure in the photofission cross section of 232 Th was observed at approx. 6176 keV

  11. A high resolution reflecting crystal spectrometer to measure 3 keV pionic hydrogen and deuterium X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badertscher, A.; Bogdan, M.; Goudsmit, P.F.A.; Knecht, L.; Leisi, H.J.; Schroeder, H.C.; Sigg, D.; Zhao, Z.G.; Chatellard, D.; Egger, J.P.; Jeannet, E.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Gabathuler, K.; Simons, L.M.; Rusi El Hassani, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reflecting crystal spectrometer consisting of three cylindrically bent quartz (110) crystals is described. It was designed to measure the 3 keV K β X-rays from pionic hydrogen and deuterium. Charge coupled devices (CCDs) were used as X-ray detectors. Projecting the reflexes of all three crystals on one common focus, an instrumental energy resolution below 1 eV was obtained at an energy of 2.9 keV. (orig.)

  12. A chronometric exploration of high-resolution 'sensitive TMS masking' effects on subjective and objective measures of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Herring, Jim; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used to evaluate masking was objective in nature. Recent studies have begun to incorporate subjective measures of vision, alongside objective ones. The current study goes beyond previous work in two regards. First, we explored both objective vision (an orientation discrimination task) and subjective vision (a stimulus visibility rating on a four-point scale), across a wide range of time windows with high temporal resolution. Second, we used a very sensitive TMS-masking paradigm: stimulation was at relatively low TMS intensities, with a figure-8 coil, and the small stimulus was difficult to discriminate already at baseline level. We hypothesized that this should increase the effective temporal resolution of our paradigm. Perhaps for this reason, we are able to report a rather interesting masking curve. Within the classical-masking time window, previously reported to encompass broad SOAs anywhere between 60 and 120 ms, we report not one, but at least two dips in objective performance, with no masking in-between. The subjective measure of vision did not mirror this pattern. These preliminary data from our exploratory design suggest that, with sensitive TMS masking, we might be able to reveal visual processes in early visual cortex previously unreported.

  13. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu Urkac, E.; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Kaya, N.; Ila, D.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Ezdesir, A.; Tek, Z.

    2007-08-01

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  14. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokullu Urkac, E. [Department of Materials Science, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: emelsu@gmail.com; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Kaya, N. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ezdesir, A. [R and D Department, PETKIM Holding A.S., Aliaga, Izmir 35801 (Turkey); Tek, Z. [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  15. Mixing two sets of noisy measurements changes the N-dependence of resolution to a fourth-root power law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahani, Alireza S; Carlsson, A E; Wessel, R

    2004-01-01

    If noise is uncorrelated during repeated measurements of the same physical variable, averaging these measurements improves the accuracy of estimating the variable. When two values of a variable are measured separately, the smallest separation of these two values that can be discriminated with a certain reliability (resolution) is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of measurements employed. However, if measurements for these two values are mixed together, they need to be clustered before being averaged. Distinguishing mixed clusters with small separations can be thought of as a problem of deciding the number of components in a finite mixture model. Using the likelihood ratio, the second-moment estimator, and the k-means clustering methods, we will show that a similarly defined resolution for the mixed scenario is, approximately, inversely proportional to the fourth-root of the number of measurements. The observed fourth-root law is explained in terms of some more intuitive properties of the problem. We also conclude that, assuming that the fourth-root law is universal, the methods reported here are near-optimal

  16. Electrostatic ion trap and Fourier transform measurements for high-resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K. G.; Gadkari, S. C.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of an electrostatic ion trap for high-resolution mass spectrometry. The trap works on purely electrostatic fields and hence trapping and storing of ions is not mass restrictive, unlike other techniques based on Penning, Paul, or radio frequency quadrupole ion traps. It allows simultaneous trapping and studying of multiple mass species over a large mass range. Mass spectra were recorded in ''dispersive'' and ''self-bunching'' modes of ions. Storage lifetimes of about 100 ms and mass resolving power of about 20 000 could be achieved from the fifth harmonic Fourier transform spectrum of Xe ions recorded in the self-bunching mode

  17. Technique for measuring hot plsma electron temperture by soft X-ray spectra with increased resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, V.A.; Kabanovskij, S.V.; Lyadina, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of improving time resolution of amplitude spectrometers used for diagnostics of hot plasma in tokamaks are discussed. The circuit of an analog-to-digital processor for processing signals coming from detectors is suggested. The converter comprises 8 similar channels each of them including an input shaper, differential discriminator with a wide energy band; fast shaper with shaping time of 0.1-0.2 μs, analog delay circuit, linear transmission circuit, control device, slow shaping circuit, differential discriminator with a narrow energy band, digital intensimeter. Model test of the described channel is conducted; it confirmed correctness of the applied method

  18. Measurements of spatially resolved high resolution spectra of laser-produced plasmas. FY 83 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, U.

    1984-01-01

    A high resolution grazing incidence spectrograph, provided by the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has been installed on the Omega laser facility of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This 3 meter instrument, with a 1200 lines/mm grating blazed at 2 0 35', has produced extremely high quality spectra in the wavelength region 10 A to 100 A. Spectra have been obtained from glass microballoon targets that are coated with a variety of high-Z materials. Transitions from the Na-like and Ne-like ionization stages of Fe, Ni, Cu, and Kr have been identified

  19. HIGH-TIME-RESOLUTION MEASUREMENTS OF THE POLARIZATION OF THE CRAB PULSAR AT 1.38 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Słowikowska, Agnieszka [Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Lubuska 2, 65-265 Zielona Góra (Poland); Stappers, Benjamin W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harding, Alice K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); O' Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C. [Astrophysics Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP12, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J. [Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, we obtained high-time-resolution measurements of the full polarization of the Crab pulsar. At a resolution of 1/8192 of the 34 ms pulse period (i.e., 4.1 μs), the 1.38 GHz linear-polarization measurements are in general agreement with previous lower-time-resolution 1.4 GHz measurements of linear polarization in the main pulse (MP), in the interpulse (IP), and in the low-frequency component (LFC). We find the MP and IP to be linearly polarized at about 24% and 21% with no discernible difference in polarization position angle. However, contrary to theoretical expectations and measurements in the visible, we find no evidence for significant variation (sweep) in the polarization position angle over the MP, the IP, or the LFC. We discuss the implications, which appear to be in contradiction to theoretical expectations. We also detect weak circular polarization in the MP and IP, and strong (≈20%) circular polarization in the LFC, which also exhibits very strong (≈98%) linear polarization at a position angle of 40° from that of the MP or IP. The properties are consistent with the LFC, which is a low-altitude component, and the MP and IP, which are high-altitude caustic components. Current models for the MP and IP emission do not readily account for the absence of pronounced polarization changes across the pulse. We measure IP and LFC pulse phases relative to the MP consistent with recent measurements, which have shown that the phases of these pulse components are evolving with time.

  20. Estimated UV clutter levels at 10-100 meter sensor pixel resolution extrapolated from recent Polar Bear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, M.; Huguenin, R.; Weinberg, M.; Huffman, R.; Eastes, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the results obtained at 1304 A wavelength from an analysis of the AFGL Polar Bear experiment. The basic measurement equipment provided data of a spatial resolution of 20 km over a large portion of the earth. The instrumentation also provided sampled outputs as the footprint scanned along the measurement track. The combination of the fine scanning and large area coverage provided opportunity for a spatial power spectral analysis that in turn provided a means for extrapolation to finer spatial scale

  1. A fiber-optic interferometer with subpicometer resolution for dc and low-frequency displacement measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. T.; Pratt, J. R.; Howard, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic interferometer optimized for best performance in the frequency range from dc to 1 kHz, with displacement linearity of 1% over a range of ± 25 nm, and noise-limited resolution of 2 pm. The interferometer uses a tunable infrared laser source (nominal 1550 nm wavelength) with high amplitude and wavelength stability, low spontaneous self-emission noise, high sideband suppression, and a coherence control feature that broadens the laser linewidth and dramatically lowers the low-frequency noise in the system. The amplitude stability of the source, combined with the use of specially manufactured ''bend-insensitive'' fiber and all-spliced fiber construction, results in a robust homodyne interferometer system, which achieves resolution of 40 fm Hz -1/2 above 20 Hz and approaches the shot-noise-limit of 20 fm