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Sample records for ultrafine grain formation

  1. The formation of PSB-like shear bands in cyclically deformed ultrafine grained copper processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.D.; Wang, Z.G.; Jiang, C.B.; Li, G.Y.; Alexandrov, I.V.; Valiev, R.Z

    2003-06-15

    Cyclic deformation was performed on ultrafine grained copper processed by ECAP. Shear bands (SBs) and adjacent microstructures were investigated using electron channeling contrast in scanning electron microscope. The possible formation mechanism of SB was discussed based on the characteristic distribution of defects introduced by ECAP.

  2. Ultrafine grain formation in Mg–Zn alloy by in situ precipitation during high-pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanqiang; Rosalie, Julian M.; Singh, Alok; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Tsuchiya, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A ultrafine-grained structure was produced in a Mg–3.4Zn (at.%) alloy subjected to high-pressure torsion (HPT) at ambient temperature. Hardness and X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the microstructure reached a steady state after three revolutions. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed equiaxed, dynamically recrystallized grains with an average diameter of 140 nm after 20 revolutions, substantially less than the steady-state grain size in pure Mg deformed by HPT. This is attributed to the formation of precipitates during processing, which impedes the growth of recrystallized grains

  3. Effect of reversion annealing on the formation of nano/ultrafine grained structure in 201 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Najafizadeh, Abbas; Kermanpur, Ahmad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, Ahad, E-mail: a.rezaee@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The secondary increase in the martensite content after reversion annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of thermally induced martensite due to carbide precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The smallest average grain size of 70 nm is achieved by annealing at 850 Degree-Sign C for 15 s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A fully austenitic structure with grain size of 100 nm and 1370 MPa yield strength. - Abstract: The formation of nano/ultrafine grain structure in a 201 austenitic stainless steel was investigated by the martensite thermomechanical treatment. Cast ingots were first homogenized, then hot-forged and solution-annealed to reduce the initial grain size. Cold rolling was then conducted down to 90% reduction in thickness, followed by reversion annealing at a temperature in the range of 1023-1173 K for 15-1800 s. The effect of reversion parameters on grain refinement was investigated. The resulting microstructures were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer, an X-ray diffractometer and a Feritscope. The hardness was measured by the Vickers method. The results show that a nano/ultrafine-grained structure formed in the initial stages of the reversion, but significant grain growth took place during the entire course of reversion. Initially lowered, the volume fraction of martensite increased again during the reversion treatment due to carbide precipitation. A fully austenitic nano grained 201 stainless steel with the average grain size of 100 nm was produced, possessing a yield strength of about 1370 MPa.

  4. Mechanisms of ultrafine-grained austenite formation under different isochronal conditions in a cold-rolled metastable stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada-Casero, C., E-mail: c.celada@cenim.csic.es [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, B.M. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Aranda, M.M. [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yang, J.-R. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Martin, D. San [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    The primary objective of this work is to obtain fundamental insights on phase transformations, with focus on the reaustenitization process (α′→γ transformation), of a cold-rolled (CR) semi-austenitic metastable stainless steel upon different isochronal conditions (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 °C/s). For this purpose, an exhaustive microstructural characterization has been performed by using complementary experimental such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), micro-hardness Vickers and magnetization measurements. It has been detected that all microstructural changes shift to higher temperatures as the heating rate increases. The reaustenitization occurs in two-steps for all heating rates, which is attributed to the chemical banding present in the CR state. The α′→γ transformation is controlled by the migration of substitutional alloying elements across the austenite/martensite (γ/α′) interface, which finally leads to ultrafine-grained reaustenitized microstructures (440–280 nm). The morphology of the martensite phase in the CR state has been found to be the responsible for such a grain refinement, along with the presence of χ-phase and nanometric Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al) precipitates that pin the austenite grain growth, especially upon slowly heating at 0.1 °C/s. - Highlights: •Ultrafine-grained austenite structures are obtained isochronally at 0.1–100 °C/s •The α′→γ transformation occurs in two steps due to the initial chemical banding •A diffusional mechanism governs the α′→γ transformation for all heating rates •The dislocation-cell-type of martensite promotes a diffusional mechanism •Precipitates located at α′/γ interfaces hinder the austenite growth.

  5. Characteristics of the stress-induced formation of R-phase in ultrafine-grained NiTi shape memory wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbricht, J.; Yawny, A.; Pelegrina, J.L.; Eggeler, G.; Yardley, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We investigated the stress-induced formation of R-phase in NiTi shape memory wires. •The R-phase related strains were isolated from the overall stress-strain-behavior. •The stress–strain characteristics of R-phase suggest a homogeneous transformation. •Thermography confirms the homogeneous R-phase formation in ultrafine-grained NiTi. -- Abstract: The transformation between the cubic B2 and monoclinic B19′ phases in ultrafine-grained pseudoelastic NiTi can occur as a two-step process involving the intermediate rhombohedral R-phase. Experimental work using differential scanning calorimetry, electrical resistance measurements and transmission electron microscopy has demonstrated the formation of this intermediate phase during thermal cycling and during mechanical loading. In the present paper, complementary mechanical and thermographic results are presented which allow to further assess the character of the stress-induced R-phase formation. The transformation from B2 to R-phase is demonstrated to occur homogeneously within the gauge length rather than via advancing Lüders-type transition regions as it is the case in the localized transformation from B2 or R-phase to B19′

  6. Fatigue mechanisms in ultrafine-grained copper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík; Svoboda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-9 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultrafine-grained copper * effect of purity * effect of temperature Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2007

  7. Formation of ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels by ball-milling and their mechanical properties after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.J.; Yamasaki, T.; Fukami, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316L-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass% TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316L-TiC powder mixtures for 125 h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, and the bulk materials with grain sizes between 100 and 400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles to pin grain boundaries and thereby maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. In order to clarify the effects of the neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of the ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels, Vickers microhardness measurements were performed before and after the irradiation of 1.14 x 10 23 n/m 2 and 1.14 x 10 24 n/m 2 . The hardness increased with increasing the dose of the irradiation. However, these increasing rates of the ultra-fine grained steels were much smaller than those of the coarse-grained SUS316L steels having grain sizes between 13 and 50 μm. (orig.)

  8. Reverse Taylor Tests on Ultrafine Grained Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Meyers, M. A.; Martin, M.; Thadhani, N. N.; Gregori, F.; Asaro, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Reverse Taylor impact tests have been carried out on ultrafine grained copper processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). Tests were conducted on an as-received OFHC Cu rod and specimens that had undergone sequential ECAP passes (2 and 8). The average grain size ranged from 30 μm for the initial sample to less than 0.5 μm for the 8-pass samples. The dynamic deformation states of the samples, captured by high speed digital photography were compared with computer simulations run in AUTODYN-2D using the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation with constants obtained from stress-strain data and by fitting to an experimentally measured free surface velocity trace. The constitutive response of copper of varying grain sizes was obtained through quasistatic and dynamic mechanical tests and incorporation into constitutive models

  9. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yongjia; Yamasaki, Tohru; Fukami, Takeshi; Mitamura, Tohru; Terasawa, Mititaka

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  10. Adiabatic shear localization in ultrafine grained 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingfeng, E-mail: biw009@ucsd.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Key Lab of Nonferrous Materials, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Rui; Zhou, Jindian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zezhou; Zhao, Shiteng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); Huang, Xiaoxia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Localized shear is an important mode of deformation; it leads to catastrophic failure with low ductility, and occurs frequently during high strain-rate deformation. The hat-shaped specimen has been successfully used to generate shear bands under controlled shock-loading tests. The microstructure in the forced shear band was characterized by optical microscopy, microhardness, and transmission electron microscopy. The true flow stress in the shear region can reach 800 MPa where the strain is about 2.2. The whole shear localization process lasts for about 100 μs. The shear band is a long and straight band distinguished from the matrix by boundaries. It can be seen that the grains in the boundary of the shear band are highly elongated along the shear direction and form the elongated cell structures (0.2 µm in width), and the core of the shear band consists of a number of recrystallized equiaxed grains with 0.2−0.3 µm in diameters, and the second phase particles distribute in the boundary of the ultrafine equiaxed new grains. The calculated temperature in the shear band can reach about 667 K. Finally, the formation of the shear band in the ultrafine grained 6061 aluminum alloy and its microstructural evolution are proposed.

  11. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu; Du, Lin-Xiu; Liu, Yong-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 μm, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4(± 0.6) μm, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. • Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. • Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. • Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET

  12. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirdel, M., E-mail: mshirdel1989@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  13. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  14. Potential of ultrafine grained materials as high performance penetrator materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The shear formability and the metal jet formability are important for the kinetic energy penetrator and the chemical energy penetrator, respectively. The shear formability of ultrafine grained (UFG steel was examined, mainly focusing on the effects of the grain shape on the shear characteristics. For this purpose, UFG 4130 steel having the different UFG structures, the lamellar UFG and the equiaxed UFG, was prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The lamellar UFG steel exhibited more sharper and localized shear band formation than the equiaxed UFG steel. This is because a lamellar UFG structure was unfavourable against grain rotation which is a main mechanism of the band propagation in UFG materials. Meanwhile, the metal jet formability of UFG OFHC Cu also processed by ECAP was compared to that of coarse grained (CG one by means of dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE tests. CG OFHC Cu exhibited the higher DTE ductility, i.e. better metal jet stability, than UFG OFHC Cu. The initial high strength and the lack of strain hardenability of UFG OFHC Cu were harmful to the metal jet formability.

  15. Twinning interactions induced amorphisation in ultrafine silicon grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhang, L.C., E-mail: liangchi.zhang@unsw.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhang, Y. [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)

    2016-03-21

    Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis on a severely deformed Al-Si composite material has revealed that partial dislocation slips and deformation twinning are the major plastic deformation carriers in ultrafine silicon grains. This resembles the deformation twinning activities and mechanisms observed in nano-crystalline face-centred-cubic metallic materials. While deformation twinning and amorphisation in Si were thought unlikely to co-exist, it is observed for the first time that excessive twinning and partial dislocation interactions can lead to localised solid state amorphisation inside ultrafine silicon grains.

  16. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 μm (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.

  17. Martensitic Transformation in Ultrafine-Grained Stainless Steel AISI 304L Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Werner Höppel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.

  18. Microstructural response of ultrafine-grained copper to fatigue loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Buksa, Michal; Wang, Q.; Zheng, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 512-518 ISSN 1335-1532. [Metallography 2007. Stará Lesná, 02.05.2007-04.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Ultrafine-grained copper * Fatigue * Softening/hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  19. Fatigue behaviour of ultrafine-grained copper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Svoboda, Milan; Bokůvka, O.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2005), s. 2-6 ISSN 1335-0803. [Degradácia konštrukčných materiálov 2005. Terchová - Biely Potok, 05.09.2005-07.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue * Ultra fine grained metals * equal chanel angular pressing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  20. Ultrafine grained steels processed by equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Hyuk; Park, Kyung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    Recent development of ultrafine grained (UFG) low carbon steels by using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and their room temperature tensile properties are reviewed, focusing on the strategies overcoming their inherent mechanical drawbacks. In addition to ferrite grain refinement, when proper post heat treatments are imposed, carbon atom dissolution from pearlitic cementite during ECAP can be utilized for microstructural modification such as uniform distribution of nano-sized cementite particles or microalloying element carbides inside UFG ferrite grains and fabrication of UFG ferrite/martensite dual phase steel. The utilization of nano-sized particles is effective on improving thermal stability of UFG low carbon ferrite/pearlite steel but less effective on improving its tensile properties. By contrast, UFG ferrite/martensite dual phase steel exhibits an excellent combination of ultrahigh strength, large uniform elongation and extensive strain hardenability

  1. Features of ultrafine-grained structure forming in Zr-1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, Ekaterina N.; Prosolov, Konstantin A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grabovetskaya, Galina P.; Mishin, Ivan P. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained structure forming by the method combined reversible hydrogenation and hot pressing in Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated. Preliminary hydrogenation to concentrations of (0.14–0.4) % at 873 K is found to lead to yield strength decreasing in Zr-1Nb alloy during hot pressing by 1,5–2 times. During uniaxial compression at (70–72) % under isothermal conditions at a temperature of 873 K in Zr-1Nb alloy, hydrogenated to concentration of 0.22 %, homogeneous ultrafine grained structure with an average grain size of 0,4 P m was formed. Key words: zirconium alloy, ultrafine-grained structure, hydrogen.

  2. High strength and utilizable ductility of bulk ultrafine-grained Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X. H.; Han, W. Z.; Huang, C. X.; Zhang, P.; Yang, G.; Wu, S. D.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2008-05-01

    Lack of plasticity is the main drawback for nearly all ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials, which restricts their practical applications. Bulk UFG Cu-Al alloys have been fabricated by using equal channel angular pressing technique. Its ductility was improved to exceed the criteria for structural utility while maintaining a high strength by designing the microstructure via alloying. Factors resulting in the simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of UFG Cu-Al alloys are the formation of deformation twins and their extensive intersections facilitating accumulation of dislocations.

  3. Effect of ultrafine grain on tensile behaviour and corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel was obtained by cold rolling and annealing. The tensile properties were investigated at room temperature. Comparing with coarse grained stainless steel, ultrafine grained sample showed higher strength and plasticity. In addition, grain size changed deformation orientation. The strain induced α'-martensite was observed in coarse grained 2205 duplex stainless steel with large strain. However, the grain refinement inhibited the transformation of α'-martensite;nevertheless, more deformation twins improved the strength and plasticity of ultrafine grained 2205 duplex stainless steel. In addition, the grain refinement improved corrosion resistance of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On tension-compression asymmetry in ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline metals

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a physically motivated computational study explaining the tension/compression (T/C) asymmetry phenomenon in nanocrystalline (nc) and ultrafine-grained (ufg) face centered cubic (fcc) metals utilizing a variational constitutive model where

  5. Bake hardening of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel produced by constrained groove pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alihosseini, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BH of UFG low carbon steel sheets was studied. ► Three passes of CGP are used for producing of UFG sheets. ► Maximum BH was achieved to the UFG specimen pre-strained 8% by baking at 250 °C. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. The ultra-fine grained sheets were produced by applying three passes of constrained groove pressing resulting the grains of 260–270 nm. The microstructure of ultra-fine grain specimens were characterized using electron back-scatter diffraction technique. Then, the bake hardenability of ultra-fine grain and coarse-grain samples were compared by pre-straining to 4, 6 and 8% followed by baking at 150 °C and 250 °C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 250 °C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 4%, 6% and 8% pre-strain, respectively. As for baking at 150 °C, these values were 170%, 168%, and 100%, respectively for 4%, 6% and 8% pre-strain. The maximum in bake hardenability (103 MPa) and final yield stress (563 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 8% followed by baking at 250 °C.

  6. Microstructure quantification of ultrafine grained pure copper fabricated by simple shear extrusion (SSE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherpour, E.; Qods, F.; Ebrahimi, R.; Miyamoto, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper commercially pure copper was processed by simple shear extrusion (SSE) technique up to 12 passes using the so-called route C. For SSE processing an appropriate die with a linear die profile was designed and constructed. Effect of SSE passes on isotropy and uniformity of microstructures are focused. Electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) was used to evaluate the microstructure of the deformed samples in three orthogonal planes. To investigate the microstructural uniformity EBSD maps were taken from center to periphery of the extrusion direction plane (ED-plane) samples. Significant evolution in grain refinement was achieved down to sub-micron grain size in all planes. Hardness measurements show a considerable increase in hardness of the material after the processing, which confirms the microstructural evolutions. EBSD scans revealed a homogeneous ultrafine grained microstructure after 12 passes. Micro-shear bands were found as potential sites for accelerating the formation of new grains by fragmentation of the initial grains. The total frequency of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries including Σ3 boundaries increased by the increasing of SSE passes. The higher fraction of low to high angle grain boundaries of SSE compared to equal channel angular pressing is an evidence for the cyclic behavior of SSE technique.

  7. Microstructure quantification of ultrafine grained pure copper fabricated by simple shear extrusion (SSE) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherpour, E., E-mail: e.bagherpour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Qods, F., E-mail: qods@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R., E-mail: ebrahimy@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miyamoto, H., E-mail: hmiyamot@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2016-09-30

    In the present paper commercially pure copper was processed by simple shear extrusion (SSE) technique up to 12 passes using the so-called route C. For SSE processing an appropriate die with a linear die profile was designed and constructed. Effect of SSE passes on isotropy and uniformity of microstructures are focused. Electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) was used to evaluate the microstructure of the deformed samples in three orthogonal planes. To investigate the microstructural uniformity EBSD maps were taken from center to periphery of the extrusion direction plane (ED-plane) samples. Significant evolution in grain refinement was achieved down to sub-micron grain size in all planes. Hardness measurements show a considerable increase in hardness of the material after the processing, which confirms the microstructural evolutions. EBSD scans revealed a homogeneous ultrafine grained microstructure after 12 passes. Micro-shear bands were found as potential sites for accelerating the formation of new grains by fragmentation of the initial grains. The total frequency of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries including Σ3 boundaries increased by the increasing of SSE passes. The higher fraction of low to high angle grain boundaries of SSE compared to equal channel angular pressing is an evidence for the cyclic behavior of SSE technique.

  8. Martensite phase reversion-induced nano/ ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel with magnificent mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shirdel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used in various applications requiring good corrosion resistance and formability. In the current study, the formation of nano/ ultrafine grained austenitic microstructure in a microalloyed AISI 304L stainless steel was investigated by the advanced thermomechanical process of reversion of strain-induced martensite. For this purpose, samples were subjected to heavy cold rolling to produce a nearly complete martensitic structure. Subsequently, a wide range of annealing temperatures (600 to 800°C and times (1 to 240 min were employed to assess the reversion behavior and to find the best annealing condition for the production of the nano/ultrafine grained austenitic microstructure. Microstructural characterizations have been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and magnetic measurement, whereas the mechanical properties were assessed by tensile and hardness tests. After thermomechanical treatment, a very fine austenitic structure was obtained, which was composed of nano sized grains of ~ 85 nm in an ultrafine grained matrix with an average grain size of 480 nm. This microstructure exhibited superior mechanical properties: high tensile strength of about 1280 MPa with a desirable elongation of about 41%, which can pave the way for the application of these sheets in the automotive industry.

  9. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirras, G.; Bouvier, S.; Gubicza, J.; Hasni, B.; Szilagyi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about ε VM = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  10. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouvier, S. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gubicza, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary); Hasni, B. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Szilagyi, T. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary)

    2009-11-25

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about {epsilon}{sub VM} = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  11. Efficiency of cloud condensation nuclei formation from ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Pierce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations are a key uncertainty in the assessment of the effect of anthropogenic aerosol on clouds and climate. The ability of new ultrafine particles to grow to become CCN varies throughout the atmosphere and must be understood in order to understand CCN formation. We have developed the Probability of Ultrafine particle Growth (PUG model to answer questions regarding which growth and sink mechanisms control this growth, how the growth varies between different parts of the atmosphere and how uncertainties with respect to the magnitude and size distribution of ultrafine emissions translates into uncertainty in CCN generation. The inputs to the PUG model are the concentrations of condensable gases, the size distribution of ambient aerosol, particle deposition timescales and physical properties of the particles and condensable gases. It was found in most cases that condensation is the dominant growth mechanism and coagulation with larger particles is the dominant sink mechanism for ultrafine particles. In this work we found that the probability of a new ultrafine particle generating a CCN varies from <0.1% to ~90% in different parts of the atmosphere, though in the boundary layer a large fraction of ultrafine particles have a probability between 1% and 40%. Some regions, such as the tropical free troposphere, are areas with high probabilities; however, variability within regions makes it difficult to predict which regions of the atmosphere are most efficient for generating CCN from ultrafine particles. For a given mass of primary ultrafine aerosol, an uncertainty of a factor of two in the modal diameter can lead to an uncertainty in the number of CCN generated as high as a factor for eight. It was found that no single moment of the primary aerosol size distribution, such as total mass or number, is a robust predictor of the number of CCN ultimately generated. Therefore, a complete description of the

  12. Interplay between grain structure and protein adsorption on functional response of osteoblasts: ultrafine-grained versus coarse-grained substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R D K; Nune, C; Pesacreta, T C; Somani, M C; Karjalainen, L P

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adsorption of proteins is the starting and primary biological response that occurs when a biomedical device is implanted in the physiological system. The biological response, however, depends on the surface characteristics of the device. Considering the significant interest in nano-/ultrafine surfaces and nanostructured coatings, we describe here, the interplay between grain structure and protein adsorption (bovine serum albumin: BSA) on osteoblasts functions by comparing nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) and coarse-grained (CG: grain size in the micrometer range) substrates by investigating cell-substrate interactions. The protein adsorption on NG/UFG surface was beneficial in favorably modulating biological functions including cell attachment, proliferation, and viability, whereas the effect was less pronounced on protein adsorbed CG surface. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions on protein adsorbed NG/UFG surface. The functional response followed the sequence: NG/UFG(BSA) > NG/UFG > CG(BSA) > CG. The differences in the cellular response on bare and protein adsorbed NG/UFG and CG surfaces are attributed to cumulative contribution of grain structure and degree of hydrophilicity. The study underscores the potential advantages of protein adsorption on artificial biomedical devices to enhance the bioactivity and regulate biological functions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Performance of surface on ultrafine grained Ti-0.2Pd in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Lai; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Kai; Zou, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Ti-0.2 wt% Pd (Ti-0.2Pd) which has high crevice corrosion resistance is highlighted for implant applications. In this work, Ti-0.2Pd alloy is subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for grain refinement. The effect of the microstructure on the surface performance of Ti-0.2Pd in a simulated body fluid (SBF) adding bovine serum albumin is investigated. Heat-treated specimens including furnace cooled (FC) and water quenched (WQ) specimens are also prepared for comparison. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by the tests of potentiodynamic polarization and the measurement of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composition and morphology of the surface after exposing to SBF 60 days were examined by X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results show an ultrafine grained microstructure with average grain size of 3.6 μm is obtained after ECAP. The ultrafine grained Ti-0.2Pd has higher corrosion resistance than AR(as-received), WQ and FC specimens. The quantitative analysis of the surface shows larger numbers of precipitations formed on ECAPed Ti-0.2Pd than those formed on heat-treated. The precipitation contains more oxygen, calcium and phosphorus on ECAPed specimen than those on other specimens. The Ca:P ratio is ranged from 1:0.7 to 1:4.4, no dependent on the specimen type. A larger Warburg resistance is obtained on WQ specimen indicating a denser layer formation on WQ specimen. The precipitation formed on WQ specimens is the least among three kinds of specimens. Palladium is not found on the surfaces after exposure to SBF.

  14. In-situ TEM observation of the response of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to extreme irradiation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atwani, O; Hinks, J A; Greaves, G; Gonderman, S; Qiu, T; Efe, M; Allain, J P

    2014-05-06

    The accumulation of defects, and in particular He bubbles, can have significant implications for the performance of materials exposed to the plasma in magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors. Some of the most promising candidates for deployment into such environments are nanocrystalline materials as the engineering of grain boundary density offers the possibility of tailoring their radiation resistance properties. In order to investigate the microstructural evolution of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten under conditions similar to those in a reactor, a transmission electron microscopy study with in situ 2 keV He(+) ion irradiation at 950 °C has been completed. A dynamic and complex evolution in the microstructure was observed including the formation of defect clusters, dislocations and bubbles. Nanocrystalline grains with dimensions less than around 60 nm demonstrated lower bubble density and greater bubble size than larger nanocrystalline (60-100 nm) and ultrafine (100-500 nm) grains. In grains over 100 nm, uniform distributions of bubbles and defects were formed. At higher fluences, large faceted bubbles were observed on the grain boundaries, especially on those of nanocrystalline grains, indicating the important role grain boundaries can play in trapping He and thus in giving rise to the enhanced radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials.

  15. High-cycle fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained austenitic stainless and TWIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S. [Materials Engineering Laboratory (4KOMT), Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Karjalainen, L.P., E-mail: pentti.karjalainen@oulu.fi [Materials Engineering Laboratory (4KOMT), Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2010-08-20

    High-cycle fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) 17Cr-7Ni Type 301LN austenitic stainless and high-Mn Fe-22Mn-0.6C TWIP steels were investigated in a reversed plane bending fatigue and compared to the behavior of steels with conventional coarse grain (CG) size. Optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine fatigue damage mechanisms. Testing showed that the fatigue limits leading to fatigue life beyond 4 x 10{sup 6} cycles were about 630 MPa for 301LN while being 560 MPa for TWIP steel, and being 0.59 and 0.5 of the tensile strength respectively. The CG counterparts were measured to have the fatigue limits of 350 and 400 MPa. The primary damage caused by fatigue took place by grain boundary cracking in UFG 301LN, while slip band cracking occurred in CG 301LN. However, in the case of TWIP steel, the fatigue damage mechanism is similar in spite of the grain size. In the course of cycling neither the formation of a martensite structure nor mechanical twinning occurs, but intense slip bands are created with extrusions and intrusions. Fatigue crack initiates preferentially on grain and twin boundaries, and especially in the intersection sites of slip bands and boundaries.

  16. Study of thermal stability of ultrafine-grained copper by means of electron back scattering diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, O.; Pantělejev, L.; Kunz, Ludvík

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2010), s. 209-213 ISSN 1345-9678 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultra-fine grained copper * thermal stability of microstructure * electron back scattering diffraction * grain size * texture Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2010

  17. Mechanical behavior of ultrafine-grained materials under combined static and dynamic loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine-grained (UFG materials have extensive prospects for engineering application due to their excellent mechanical properties. However, the grain size decrease reduces their strain hardening ability and makes UFG materials more susceptible to deformation instability such as shear localization. In most cases, critical shear strain is taken as the criterion for formation of shear localization under impact loading or adiabatic shear band (ASB. Recently, some researchers found that the formation of ASB was determined only by the dynamic loading process and had nothing to do with its static loading history. They proposed for coarse-grained metals a dynamic stored energy-based criterion for ASB and verified it by some experiments. In this study, we will focus on the shear localization behavior of UFG metals such as UFG titanium and magnesium alloy AZ31. Quasi-static loading and dynamic loading will be applied on the same specimen alternately. The shear localization behavior will be analyzed and the criterion of its formation will be evaluated.

  18. Strength and fatigue of an ultrafine-grained Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafizova Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of strength and fatigue on microstructure of the Al-Cu-Mg alloy has been investigated. Various microstructures of the alloy were produced: the one with a coarse-grained (CG structure after T6 heat treatment; the one with a homogeneous ultrafine-grained (UFG structure and the one with a bimodal (mixed structure, both processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP. The mean grain size and morphology of precipitates were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The ultimate tensile strength and the fatigue endurance limit were determined using the tensile and fatigue tests of standard specimens. It is established that the formation of a homogeneous UFG structure and of a bimodal (mixed structure alloy contributes to a significant increase in microhardness by 16% and 60%, and an increase of the ultimate tensile strength by 20 and 52%, respectively, as compared to the samples subjected to T6 heat treatment. Fatigue tests show that the alloy with a bimodal (mixed structure has the highest fatigue endurance limit, 45% higher than in the sample subjected to T6 heat treatment. In contrast, the formation of a homogeneous UFG structure enables increasing the fatigue endurance limit by 15% only.

  19. Segregation of solute elements at grain boundaries in an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Gang; Yao, Lan; Liao, Xiaozhou; Ringer, Simon P.; Chao Duan, Zhi; Langdon, Terence G.

    2011-01-01

    The solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) of an ultrafine grained (UFG) Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 200 o C was characterised using three-dimensional atom probe. Mg and Cu segregate strongly to the grain boundaries. In contrast, Zn does not always show clear segregation and may even show depletion near the grain boundaries. Trace element Si selectively segregates at some GBs. An increase in the number of ECAP passes leads to a decrease in the grain size but an increase in solute segregation at the boundaries. The significant segregation of alloying elements at the boundaries of ultrafine-grained alloys implies that less solutes will be available in the matrix for precipitation with a decrease in the average grain size. -- Research Highlights: → Atom probe tomography has been employed successfully to reveal unique segregation of solutes at ultrafine grained material. → Mg and Cu elements segregated strongly at the grain boundary of an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by 4-pass and 8-pass ECAP at 200 o C. Zn frequently depleted at GBs with a Zn depletion region of 7-15 nm in width on one or both sides of the GBs. Only a small fraction (3/13) of GBs were observed with a low level of Zn segregation where the combined Mg and Cu excess is over 3.1 atom/nm 2 . Si appeared selectively segregated at some of the GBs. → The increase in number of ECAP passes from 4 to 8 correlated with the increase in mean level segregation of Mg and Cu for both solute excess and peak concentration. → The change of plane normal of a grain boundary within 30 o only leads to a slight change in the solute segregation level.

  20. Micro-Arc Oxidation Enhances the Blood Compatibility of Ultrafine-Grained Pure Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine-grained pure titanium prepared by equal-channel angular pressing has favorable mechanical performance and does not contain alloy elements that are toxic to the human body. It has potential clinical value in applications such as cardiac valve prostheses, vascular stents, and hip prostheses. To overcome the material’s inherent thrombogenicity, surface-coating modification is a crucial pathway to enhancing blood compatibility. An electrolyte solution of sodium silicate + sodium polyphosphate + calcium acetate and the micro-arc oxidation (MAO technique were employed for in situ oxidation of an ultrafine-grained pure titanium surface. A porous coating with anatase- and rutile-phase TiO2 was generated and wettability and blood compatibility were examined. The results showed that, in comparison with ultrafine-grained pure titanium substrate, the MAO coating had a rougher surface, smaller contact angles for distilled water and higher surface energy. MAO modification effectively reduced the hemolysis rate; extended the dynamic coagulation time, prothrombin time (PT, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT; reduced the amount of platelet adhesion and the degree of deformation; and enhanced blood compatibility. In particular, the sample with an oxidation time of 9 min possessed the highest surface energy, largest PT and APTT values, smallest hemolysis rate, less platelet adhesion, a lesser degree of deformation, and more favorable blood compatibility. The MAO method can significantly enhance the blood compatibility of ultrafine-grained pure titanium, increasing its potential for practical applications.

  1. Ultrafine-grained Al composites reinforced with in-situ Al3Ti filaments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krizik, P.; Balog, M.; Nosko, M.; Riglos, M. V. C.; Dvořák, Jiří; Bajana, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 657, MAR (2016), s. 6-14 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Aluminum * Filament * In-situ metal matrix composite * Mechanical properties * Microstructure * Ultrafine-grained Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  2. Fatigue damage of ultrafine-grain copper in very-high cycle fatigue region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík; Navrátilová, Lucie; Bokůvka, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 528, - (2011), s. 7036-7040 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultrafine-grained microstructure * ultrasonic fatigue * crack initiation * copper Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.003, year: 2011

  3. Microstructure changes in superplastically deformed ultrafine-grained Al-3Mg-0.2Sc alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Kvapilová, Marie; Horita, Z.; Sklenička, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 306-312 ISSN 2218-5046 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ultrafine-grained microstructure * aluminium alloy * equal-channel angular pressing * electron back scatter diffraction Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  4. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Defect Structure and Durability of Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Betekhtin, V.I.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Sklenička, Václav; Narykova, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 10 (2011), s. 977-979 ISSN 1063-7850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : defect structure * ultrafine-grained aluminium * durability Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.565, year: 2011

  5. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  6. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh, E-mail: pourali2020@ut.ac.ir; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  7. Scratch-induced deformation in fine- and ultrafine-grained bulk alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhao, Yonghao; Yao, Wenlong; Mukherjee, Amiya K.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of two bulk α-alumina samples with 1.3 μm and 290 nm average grain sizes, respectively, was investigated using a nanoindenter in scratch mode, in combination with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. A ductile to brittle transition was observed in the fine-grained sample, while the ultrafine-grained sample exhibited predominantly ductile deformation with a fish-bone feature indicative of a stick-slip mechanism. These findings suggest that grain refinement can increase the potential for plastic deformation in ceramics.

  8. Enhanced radiation tolerance of ultrafine grained Fe–Cr–Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.; Yu, K.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Shao, L.; Maloy, S.A.; Hartwig, K.T.; Zhang, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrafine grained Fe-Cr-Ni alloy was processed by equal channel angular pressing technique. ► The overall Helium bubble density and dislocation loop density were reduced by grain refinement. ► The ultrafine grained microstructure alleviated radiation-induced hardening. - Abstract: The evolutions of microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–14Cr–16Ni (wt.%) alloy subjected to Helium ion irradiations were investigated. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) process was used to significantly reduce the average grain size from 700 μm to 400 nm. At a peak fluence level of 5.5 displacement per atom (dpa), helium bubbles, 0.5–2 nm in diameter, were observed in both coarse-grained (CG) and ultrafine grained (UFG) alloy. The density of He bubbles, dislocation loops, as well as radiation hardening were reduced in the UFG Fe–Cr–Ni alloy comparing to those in its CG counterpart. The results imply that radiation tolerance in bulk metals can be effectively enhanced by refinement of microstructures.

  9. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG and coarse grained (CG titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  10. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Denis V; Zemtsova, Elena G; Solokhin, Alexandr Yu; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Smirnov, Vladimir M

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions) and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  11. Effect of ageing on tensile behavior of ultrafine grained Al 6061 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P. Nageswara [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Singh, Dharmendra [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Bikaner 304001 (India); Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Max Planck Straße 1, Geb 33, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Jayaganthan, R., E-mail: rjayafmt@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2015-08-12

    In the present investigation, the ageing behavior of ultrafine grained (UFG) Al 6061 alloy, processed through multi-directional forging (MDF) at cryogenic temperature was investigated. The evolution of microstructure was investigated through transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction technique. The results indicate that homogeneous microstructure with an ultrafine grain morphology (average size 250 nm) was achieved through cryogenic forging of the alloy subjected to prior solutionising treatment. Tensile testing at room temperature revealed that MDFed material after ageing led to significant improvement in work hardening and its tensile ductility. Strengthening of the matrix through various mechanisms has been quantified with the existing models to estimate the yield strength of the as forged and peak aged material. The precipitation hardening response in UFG material is found to be 35% lower than that of the coarse grained material as observed in the present work.

  12. Microstructure and properties of ultrafine grain nickel 200 after hydrostatic extrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, R.; Krajewski, C.; Kamiński, J.; Spychalski, M.; Garbacz, H.; Pachla, W.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and properties of ultrafine grained nickel 200 obtained by hydrostatic extrusion processes. Microstructure was characterized by means of optical microscopy and electron transmission microscopy. Corrosion resistance was studied by impedance and potentiodynamic methods using an AutoLab PGSTAT 100 potentiostat in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution and in acidified (by addition of H2SO4) 0.1 M NaCl solution at pH = 4.2 at room temperature. Microhardness tests were also performed. The results showed that hydrostatic extrusion produces a heterogeneous, ultrafine-grained microstructure in nickel 200. The corrosive resistance tests showed that the grain refinement by hydrostatic extrusion is accompanied by a decreased corrosive resistance of nickel 200.

  13. Mechanical behavior and dynamic failure of high-strength ultrafine grained tungsten under uniaxial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Q.; Jiao, T.; Ramesh, K.T.; Ma, E.; Kecskes, L.J.; Magness, L.; Dowding, R.; Kazykhanov, V.U.; Valiev, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior (especially dynamic failure) of ultra-fine grained (UFG) tungsten (W) under uniaxial compression. The starting material is of commercial purity and large grain size. We utilized severe plastic deformation to achieve the ultrafine microstructure characterized by grains and subgrains with sizes of ∼500 nm, as identified by transmission electron microscopy. Results of quasi-static compression show that the UFG W behaves in an elastic-nearly perfect plastic manner (i.e., vanishing strain hardening), with its flow stress approaching 2 GPa, close to twice that of conventional coarse grain W. Post-mortem examinations of the quasi-statically loaded samples show no evidence of cracking, in sharp contrast to the behavior of conventional W (where axial cracking is usually observed). Under uniaxial dynamic compression (strain rate ∼10 3 s -1 ), the true stress-true strain curves of the UFG W exhibit significant flow softening, and the peak stress is ∼3 GPa. Furthermore, the strain rate sensitivity of the UFG W is reduced to half the value of the conventional W. Both in situ high-speed photography and post-mortem examinations reveal shear localization and as a consequence, cracking of the UFG W under dynamic uniaxial compression. These observations are consistent with recent observations on other body-centered cubic metals with nanocrystalline or ultrafine microstructures. The experimental results are discussed using existing models for adiabatic shear localization in metals

  14. Constitutive modeling of strain rate effects in nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained polycrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a variational two-phase constitutive model capable of capturing the enhanced rate sensitivity in nanocrystalline (nc) and ultrafine-grained (ufg) fcc metals. The nc/ufg-material consists of a grain interior phase and a grain boundary affected zone (GBAZ). The behavior of the GBAZ is described by a rate-dependent isotropic porous plasticity model, whereas a rate-independent crystal-plasticity model which accounts for the transition from partial dislocation to full dislocation mediated plasticity is employed for the grain interior. The scale bridging from a single grain to a polycrystal is done by a Taylor-type homogenization. It is shown that the enhanced rate sensitivity caused by the grain size refinement is successfully captured by the proposed model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Constitutive modeling of strain rate effects in nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained polycrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2011-05-01

    We present a variational two-phase constitutive model capable of capturing the enhanced rate sensitivity in nanocrystalline (nc) and ultrafine-grained (ufg) fcc metals. The nc/ufg-material consists of a grain interior phase and a grain boundary affected zone (GBAZ). The behavior of the GBAZ is described by a rate-dependent isotropic porous plasticity model, whereas a rate-independent crystal-plasticity model which accounts for the transition from partial dislocation to full dislocation mediated plasticity is employed for the grain interior. The scale bridging from a single grain to a polycrystal is done by a Taylor-type homogenization. It is shown that the enhanced rate sensitivity caused by the grain size refinement is successfully captured by the proposed model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new insight into ductile fracture of ultrafine-grained Al-Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailiang; Tieu, A Kiet; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Xiong; Liu, Mao; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie; Qin, Qinghua

    2015-04-08

    It is well known that when coarse-grained metals undergo severe plastic deformation to be transformed into nano-grained metals, their ductility is reduced. However, there are no ductile fracture criteria developed based on grain refinement. In this paper, we propose a new relationship between ductile fracture and grain refinement during deformation, considering factors besides void nucleation and growth. Ultrafine-grained Al-Mg alloy sheets were fabricated using different rolling techniques at room and cryogenic temperatures. It is proposed for the first time that features of the microstructure near the fracture surface can be used to explain the ductile fracture post necking directly. We found that as grains are refined to a nano size which approaches the theoretical minimum achievable value, the material becomes brittle at the shear band zone. This may explain the tendency for ductile fracture in metals under plastic deformation.

  17. Micromechanical modelling of nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained metals: A short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    An overview of micromechanical models of strength and deformation behaviour of nanostructured and ultrafine grained metallic materials is presented. Composite models of nanomaterials, polycrystal plasticity based models, grain boundary sliding, the effect of non-equilibrium grain boundaries...... and nanoscale properties are discussed and compared. The examples of incorporation of peculiar nanocrystalline effects (like large content of amorphous or semi-amorphous grain boundary phase, partial dislocation GB emission/glide/GB absorption based deformation mechanism, diffusion deformation, etc.......) into the continuum mechanical approach are given. The possibilities of using micromechanical models to explore the ways of the improving the properties of nanocrystalline materials by modifying their structures (e.g., dispersion strengthening, creating non-equilibrium grain boundaries, varying the grain size...

  18. Grain growth in ultrafine titanium powders during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, B.B.; Godkhindi, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Grain growth behaviour of fine (∼3 μm) and attrition milled nanocrystalline (∼32 nm) titanium powers during sintering have been studied. The activation energies of grain growth (Q g ) in fine titanium were found to be 192.9 and 142.4 kJ/mol at lower and higher temperature ranges, respectively. The nanocrystalline titanium showed very low values of Q g (54.6 kJ/mol) at lower temperatures and it increased to 273.2 kJ/mol at higher temperatures. The constant (n) in nano Ti system was found to have unusually very high values of 6.5-8.2. The grain boundary rotation along with the diffusional processes could be the grain growth mechanism in nanocrystalline and in fine titanium powders

  19. Role of stress-assisted martensite in the design of strong ultrafine-grained duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Hung-Wei; Ooi, Steve Woei; Eizadjou, Mehdi; Breen, Andrew; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2015-01-01

    This work explains the occurrence of transformation-induced plasticity via stress-assisted martensite, when designing ultrafine-grained duplex steels. It is found that, when the austenite is reduced to a fine scale of about 300 nm, the initial deformation-induced microstructure can be dominated by parallel lamellae of ε martensite or mechanical twinning, which cannot efficiently provide nucleation sites for strain-induced martensite. Hence, α′ martensite nucleation occurs independently by a stress-assisted process that enhances transformation-induced plasticity in ultrafine-grained austenite. This metallurgical principle was validated experimentally by using a combination of transmission Kikuchi diffraction mapping, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe microscopy, and demonstrated theoretically by the thermodynamics model of stress-assisted martensite

  20. Mechanical Behavior of an Ultrafine/Nano Grained Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Fatemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of magnesium alloys is greatly limited because of their relatively low strength and ductility. An effective way to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is to refine the grains. As the race for better materials performance is never ending, attempts to develop viable techniques for microstructure refinement continue. Further refining of grain size requires, however, application of extreme value of plastic deformation on material. In this work, an AZ31 wrought magnesium alloy was processed by employing multipass accumulative back extrusion process. The obtained microstructure, texture, and room temperature compressive properties were characterized and discussed. The results indicated that grains of 80 nm to 1 μm size were formed during accumulative back extrusion, where the mean grain size of the experimental material was reduced by applying successive ABE passes. The fraction of DRX increased and the mean grain size of the ABEed alloy markedly lowered, as subsequent passes were applied. This helped to explain the higher yield stress govern the occurrence of twinning during compressive loading. Compressive yield and maximum compressive strengths were measured to increase by applying successive extrusion passes, while the strain-to-fracture dropped. The evolution of mechanical properties was explained relying on the grain refinement effect as well as texture change.

  1. A study of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qinxiang; Xiao, Gangfeng; Long, Hui; Cheng, Xiuquan; Yang, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine crystal. • Obtaining the refined ferritic grains with an size of 500 nm after stagger spinning. • Obtaining the equiaxial ferritic grains with an size of 600 nm after annealing. - Abstract: A new method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning and recrystallization annealing is proposed in this study. Two methods of the stagger spinning process are developed, the corresponding macroforming quality, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the spun tubes made of ASTM 1020 steel are analysed. The results reveal that a good surface smoothness and an improved spin-formability of spun parts can be obtained by the process combining of 3-pass spinning followed by a 580 °C × 0.5 h static recrystallization and 2-pass spinning with a 580 °C × 1 h static recrystallization annealing under the severe thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The ferritic grains with an average initial size of 50 μm are refined to 500 nm after stagger spinning under the 87% thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The equiaxial ferritic grains with an average size of 600 nm are generated through re-nucleation and grain growth by subsequent recrystallization annealing at 580 °C for 1 h heat preservation. The tensile strength of spun tubes has been founded to be proportional to the reciprocal of layer spacing of pearlite (LSP), and the elongation is inversely proportional to the reciprocal of LSP. This study shows that the developed method of stagger power spinning has the potential to be used to manufacture bulk metal components with nano/ultrafine grain structure

  2. Ultrafine-Grained Pure Ti Processed by New SPD Scheme Combining Drawing with Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, A. G.; Bobruk, E. V.; Raab, G. I.

    2018-05-01

    The paper displays the results of the studies and analysis of a promising severe plastic deformation scheme that implements the conditions of a non-monotonous impact during shear drawing of long-length bulk metal materials. The paper describes the efficiency of the proposed severe plastic deformation technique to form a gradient ultrafine-grained state in rod-shaped billets on the example of commercially pure Ti and its further development for future industrial applications.

  3. Growth behavior of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained Cu smooth specimens with a small hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Goto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained copper, stresscontrolled fatigue tests of round-bar specimens with a small blind hole as a crack starter were conducted. The hole was drilled on the surface where an intersection between the shear plane of the final ECAP processing and the specimen surface makes an angle of 45° or 90° with respect to the loading axis. At a low stress (  a = 90 MPa, the direction of crack paths was nearly perpendicular to the loading direction regardless of the location of the hole. Profile of crack face was examined, showing the aspect ratio (b/a of b/a = 0.82. At a high stress (  a = 240 MPa, although the growth directions inclined 45° and 90° to the loading-axis were observed depending on the location of the drilling hole, crack faces in these cracks were extended along one set of maximum shear stress planes, corresponding to the final ECAP shear plane. The value of aspect ratios was b/a = 0.38 and 1.10 for the cracks with 45° and 90° inclined path directions, respectively. The role of deformation mode at the crack tip areas on crack growth behavior were discussed in terms of the mixed-mode stress intensity factor. The crack path formation at high stress amplitudes was affected by the in-plane shear-mode deformation at the crack tip.

  4. Flow processes at low temperatures in ultrafine-grained aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinh, Nguyen Q.; Szommer, Peter; Csanadi, Tamas; Langdon, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the flow behavior of pure aluminum at low temperatures. Samples were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) to give a grain size of ∼1.2 μm and compression samples were cut from the as-pressed billets and tested over a range of strain rates at temperatures up to 473 K. The results show the occurrence of steady-state flow in these highly deformed samples and a detailed analysis gives a low strain rate sensitivity and an activation energy similar to the value for grain boundary diffusion. By using depth-sensing indentation testing and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that grain boundary sliding occurs in this material at low temperatures. This result is attributed to the presence of high-energy non-equilibrium boundaries in the severely deformed samples

  5. Plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine grained freestanding aluminum thin films revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Kobler, Aaron; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Schryvers, Dominique; Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Kübel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In-situ bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanomechanical tensile testing and in-situ automated crystallographic orientation mapping in TEM were combined to unravel the elementary mechanisms controlling the plasticity of ultrafine grained Aluminum freestanding thin films. The characterizations demonstrate that deformation proceeds with a transition from grain rotation to intragranular dislocation glide and starvation plasticity mechanism at about 1% deformation. The grain rotation is not affected by the character of the grain boundaries. No grain growth or twinning is detected

  6. Plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine grained freestanding aluminum thin films revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrissi, Hosni, E-mail: hosni.idrissi@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Kobler, Aaron [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials (KIT and TUD) at Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD), Petersenstr. 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Schryvers, Dominique [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane [Matters and Materials Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Université catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Kübel, Christian [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-03-10

    In-situ bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanomechanical tensile testing and in-situ automated crystallographic orientation mapping in TEM were combined to unravel the elementary mechanisms controlling the plasticity of ultrafine grained Aluminum freestanding thin films. The characterizations demonstrate that deformation proceeds with a transition from grain rotation to intragranular dislocation glide and starvation plasticity mechanism at about 1% deformation. The grain rotation is not affected by the character of the grain boundaries. No grain growth or twinning is detected.

  7. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  8. Room temperature deformation mechanisms in ultrafine-grained materials processed by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.Q.; Dirras, G.F.; Benyoucef, M.; Bacroix, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine-grained (uf-g) and microcrystalline-grained (mc-g) irons have been fabricated by hot isostatic pressing of nanopowders. The mechanical properties have been characterized by compressive tests at room temperature and the resulting microstructures and textures have been determined by combining electron back scatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A transition of the deformation mode, from work hardening to work softening occurs for grain sizes below ∼1 μm, reflecting a transition of the deformation mode from homogeneous to localized deformation into shear bands (SBs). The homogeneous deformation is found to be lattice dislocation-based while the deformation within SBs involves lattice dislocations as well as boundary-related mechanisms, possibly grain boundary sliding accommodated by boundary opening

  9. Investigation of ultrafine grained AA1050 fabricated by accumulative roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lihong; Lu, Cheng; Li, Huijun; Deng, Guanyu; Tieu, Kiet

    2014-01-01

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) is an effective method to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG) sheet materials with high strength. In this work, fully annealed AA1050 sheet with an initial thickness of 1.5 mm was processed by ARB up to five cycles. The microstructure was examined by optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that ARB is a promising process for fabricating ultrafine grained structures in aluminium sheets and the average grain size after 5-cycle ARB reached approximately 300 nm. Meanwhile, a remarkable enhancement in the strength was achieved and the value was about three times the strength of starting material. The microstructure at the bond interface introduced during ARB was investigated and its influence was discussed in detail. In addition, the microstructure and mechanical properties after ARB were compared with that after deformation by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to the same strain. It has been found that ARB is more efficient in grain refinement and strengthening, which can be attributed to the different deformation modes of the two techniques

  10. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of novel ultra-fine grained Cu–Nb composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primorac, Mladen-Mateo [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria); Abad, Manuel David; Hosemann, Peter [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Kreuzeder, Marius [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria); Maier, Verena [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria); Erich-Schmid Institute for Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Leoben (Austria); Kiener, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kiener@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria)

    2015-02-11

    Ultra-fine grained materials exhibit outstanding properties and are therefore favorable for prospective applications. One of these promising systems is the composite assembled by the body centered cubic niobium and the face centered cubic copper. Cu–Nb composites show a high hardness and good thermal stability, as well as a high radiation damage tolerance. These properties make the material interesting for use in nuclear reactors. The aim of this work was to create a polycrystalline ultra-fine grained composite for high temperature applications. The samples were manufactured via a powder metallurgical route using high pressure torsion, exhibiting a randomly distributed oriented grain size between 100 and 200 nm. The mechanical properties and the governing plastic deformation behavior as a function of temperature were determined by high temperature nanoindentation up to 500 °C. It was found that in the lower temperature regions up to 300 °C the plastic deformation is mainly governed by dislocation interactions, such as dislocation glide and the nucleation of kink pairs. For higher temperatures, thermally activated processes at grain boundaries are proposed to be the main mechanism governing plastic deformation. This mechanistic view is supported by temperature dependent changes in hardness, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume, and activation energy.

  11. An investigation on microstructure and mechanical propertiesof a Nb-microalloyed nano/ultrafine grained 201 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaei Baghbadorani, H., E-mail: h.samaeibaghbadorani@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouldshare 84916-63763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjati, P.; Rezaee, A.; Moallemi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-11

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanical properties of a nano/ultrafine grained Nb-containing 201 austenitic stainless steel. For this purpose, 90% cold rolled sheets with fully martensitic microstructure were isothermally annealed at 900 °C for different times of 1 to 1800 s, leading to the reversion of strain- induced α′-martensite to austenite and significant grain refinement. Ferritescopy, X-ray diffractometery and optical/electron microscopy techniques along with hardness measurements and tensile tests were used to study the evolution in microstructure and mechanical properties in the course of annealing. It was found that heavy cold-rolling promoted formation of Nb-rich carbonitrides which effectively retarded the growth of fine reverted austenite grains. The obtained results showed that the complete transformation of martensite to austenite took about 60 s with the corresponding austenite grain size of about 90 nm. This sample had an ultrahigh yield strength of 1170 MPa, which was almost four times higher than that of the raw material and outstanding elongation of 37%. Further, the true stress–strain curves of the reversion annealed samples revealed two distinct uniform elongation stages (stage I and stage II), whereas, the onset of stage II was concurrent with pronounced strain hardening. This was related to the sharp increase in the formation of α′-martensite upon tensile straining.

  12. The role of martensitic transformation on bimodal grain structure in ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.; Ngan, A.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metastable AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to different cold rolling reductions from 70% to 93%, followed by annealing at 700 °C for 300 min to form ultrafine grained (UFG) austenite with different grain structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation were used to characterize the martensitic transformation, in order to relate it to the bimodal distribution of the austenite grain size after subsequent annealing. The results showed that the martensite morphology changed from lath type in the 60% rolled sample to a mixture of lath and dislocation-cell types in the higher rolling reductions. Calculation of the Gibbs free energy change during the reversion treatment showed that the reversion mechanism is shear controlled at the annealing temperature and so the morphology of the reverted austenite is completely dependent on the morphology of the deformation induced martensite. It was found that the austenite had a bimodal grain size distribution in the 80% rolled and annealed state and this is related to the existence of different types of martensite. Increasing the rolling reduction to 93% followed by annealing caused changing of the grain structure to a monomodal like structure, which was mostly covered with small grains of around 300 nm. The existence of bimodal austenite grain size in the 80% rolled and annealed 304L stainless steel led to the improvement of ductility while maintaining a high tensile strength in comparison with the 93% rolled and annealed sample

  13. Unconfined twist : a simple method to prepare ultrafine grained metallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y. (Yonghao); Liao, Xiaozhou; Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

    2004-01-01

    A new simple method - unconfined twist was employed to prepare ultrafine grained (UFG) Fe,wire. A coarse grained (CG) Fe wire with a diameter of 0.85 mm was fixed at one end, and twisted at the other end. After maximum twist before fracture, in the cross-sectional plane, concentrically deformed layers with a width of several micrometers formed surrounding the center axis of the wire. The near-surface deformed layers consist of lamella grains with a width in submicrometer range. In the longitudinal plane, deformed bands (with a width of several micrometers) formed uniformly, which were composed of lamella crystallites (with a width in submicrometer range). The tensile yield strength and ultimate strength of the twisted Fe wire are increased by about 150% and 100% compared with the values of its CG counterpart.

  14. On tension-compression asymmetry in ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline metals

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan

    2010-12-01

    We present a physically motivated computational study explaining the tension/compression (T/C) asymmetry phenomenon in nanocrystalline (nc) and ultrafine-grained (ufg) face centered cubic (fcc) metals utilizing a variational constitutive model where the nc-metal is modeled as a two-phase material consisting of a grain interior phase and a grain boundary affected zone (GBAZ). We show that the existence of voids and their growth in GBAZ renders the material pressure sensitivity due to porous plasticity and that the utilized model provides a physically sound mechanism to capture the experimentally observed T/C asymmetry in nc- and ufg-metals. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrafine-Grained Precipitation Hardened Copper Alloys by Swaging or Accumulative Roll Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Altenberger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand in the industry for conductive high strength copper alloys. Traditionally, alloy systems capable of precipitation hardening have been the first choice for electromechanical connector materials. Recently, ultrafine-grained materials have gained enormous attention in the materials science community as well as in first industrial applications (see, for instance, proceedings of NANO SPD conferences. In this study the potential of precipitation hardened ultra-fine grained copper alloys is outlined and discussed. For this purpose, swaging or accumulative roll-bonding is applied to typical precipitation hardened high-strength copper alloys such as Corson alloys. A detailed description of the microstructure is given by means of EBSD, Electron Channeling Imaging (ECCI methods and consequences for mechanical properties (tensile strength as well as fatigue and electrical conductivity are discussed. Finally the role of precipitates for thermal stability is investigated and promising concepts (e.g. tailoring of stacking fault energy for grain size reduction and alloy systems for the future are proposed and discussed. The relation between electrical conductivity and strength is reported.

  16. Two-step sintering of ultrafine-grained barium cerate proton conducting ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Siwei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lingling; Brinkman, Kyle; Chen, Fanglin

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-fine grained dense BaZr 0.1 Ce 0.7 Y 0.1 Yb 0.1 O 3−δ (BZCYYb) ceramics have been successfully prepared via a two-step sintering method. Co-precipitation method has been adopted to prepare nano-sized BZCYYb precursors with an average particle size of 30 nm. By controlling the sintering profile, an average grain size of 184 nm was obtained for dense BZCYYb ceramics via the two-step sintering method, compared to 445 nm for the conventional sintered samples. The two-step sintered BZCYYb samples showed less impurity and an enhanced electrical conductivity compared with the conventional sintered ones. Further, the two-step sintering method was applied to fabricate anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using BZCYYb as the electrolyte, resulting in dense ultrafine-grained electrolyte membranes and porous anode substrates with fine particles. Due to the reduced ohmic as well as polarization resistances, the maximum power output of the cells fabricated from the two-step sintering method reached 349 mW m −2 at 700 °C, significantly improved from 172 mW cm −2 for the conventional sintered cells, suggesting that two-step sintering method is very promising for optimizing the microstructure and thus enhancing the electrochemical performances for barium cerate based proton-conducting SOFCs.

  17. On the strengthening behavior of ultrafine-grained nickel processed from nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Q.H.; Dirras, G.; Ramtani, S.; Gubicza, J.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens having grain sizes in the range of 0.25-5 μm were processed by a spark plasma sintering method. The resulting microstructures were characterized by electron backscattering diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compression tests were carried out at room temperature and at a strain rate of 1.6 x 10 -4 s -1 . It was found that the fine-grained microstructure and the presence of NiO phase were the main strengthening factors in the as-processed bulk materials. The contribution of the oxide phase to strengthening was even more pronounced for lower grain sizes. This contribution was calculated as the difference between the measured strength and the value obtained from a Hall-Petch plot of oxide-free samples, and this yielded a flow stress increment of about 635 MPa for the lowest grain size studied here. In addition, a transition from work-hardening to -softening occurred for materials having a mean grain size smaller than about 300 nm and having boundaries that could have been weakened by the presence of a high amount of NiO phase.

  18. Possible Gems and Ultra-Fine Grained Polyphase Units in Comet Wild 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsforth, Z.; Butterworth, A. L.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Westphal, A. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D.; Ogliore, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bechtel, H. A.; Ebel, D. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    GEMS and ultrafine grained polyphase units (UFG-PU) in anhydrous IDPs are probably some of the most primitive materials in the solar system. UFG-PUs contain nanocrystalline silicates, oxides, metals and sulfides. GEMS are rounded approximately 100 nm across amorphous silicates containing embedded iron-nickel metal grains and sulfides. GEMS are one of the most abundant constituents in some anhydrous CPIDPs, often accounting for half the material or more. When NASA's Stardust mission returned with samples from comet Wild 2 in 2006, it was thought that UFG-PUs and GEMS would be among the most abundant materials found. However, possibly because of heating during the capture process in aerogel, neither GEMS nor UFG-PUs have been clearly found.

  19. Immersed friction stir welding of ultrafine grained accumulative roll-bonded Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, M.; Danesh Manesh, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, ultrafine grained strips of commercial pure strain hardenable aluminum (AA1050) were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. These strips were joined by friction stir welding (FSW) in immersed (underwater) and conventional (in-air) conditions to investigate the effect of the immersion method on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint, aiming to reduce the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the joint. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to evaluate the microstructure, showing smaller grains and subgrains in the stir zone of the immersed FSW condition with respect to the conventional FSW method. The hardness and tensile properties of the immersed friction stir welded sample and ARBed base metal show more similarity compared to the conventional friction stir welded sample. Moreover, the aforementioned method can result in the enhancement of the superplasticity tendency of the material.

  20. Kinetic, volumetric and structural effects induced by liquid Ga penetration into ultrafine grained Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, Mehrnoosh; Peterlechner, Martin; Schafler, Erhard; Divinski, Sergiy V.; Wilde, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic, volumetric and structural effects induced by penetration of liquid Ga in ultrafine grained (UFG) Al produced by severe plastic deformation using high-pressure torsion were studied by isothermal dilatometric measurements, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Severe plastic deformation changed the distribution of impurities and their segregation was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Two-stage length changes of UFG Al were observed which are explained by counteracting effects of expansion due to grain boundary segregation of Ga and contraction due to precipitation and recrystallization. After applying Ga, the kinetics of the liquid Ga penetration in UFG Al is studied in-situ in the electron microscope by the “first appearance” method and the time scales are in agreement with those inducing the volumetric changes

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of spot friction stir welded ultrafine grained 1050 Al and conventional grained 6061-T6 Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.F.; Fujii, H.; Tsuji, N.

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafine grained (UFGed) 1050 Al plates with a thickness of 2 mm, which were produced by the accumulative roll bonding technique after 5 cycles, were spot friction stir welded to 2 mm thick 6061-T6 Al alloy plates at different rotation speeds. Although the UFGed 1050 Al plates were used as the lower plates in order to reduce the heat generation therein during the welding process, the initial nano-sized lamellar structure still transformed into an equiaxial grain structure with a grain size of about 5.9 µm in the stir zone of the joints. Simultaneously, coarsening of the precipitates and formation of large quantities of nano-sized subgrains were found in the stir zone of the 6061 Al alloy plates. Microstructural observation by high resolution transmission electron microscope showed that the two plates were bonded through a transitional layer with a thickness of about 15 nm, within which a lot of screw dislocations formed due to the frictional force between the two plates. A mechanical properties evaluation revealed that the maximum shear tensile load can reach about 4127 N and the joints fractured just outside the hook region in the lower 1050 Al plate

  2. Fatigue property and fatigue cracks of ultra-fine grained copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, Q.; Du, Z.; Liu, X.; Kunz, Ludvík

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 682 (2011), s. 231-237 ISSN 1013-9826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ultrafine-grained copper * equal channel angular pressing * fatigue * fatigue cracks Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Microstructural influence on low-temperature superplasticity of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Woo Gyeom; Lee, Chong Soo; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural influence on low-temperature superplastic behavior of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated. The deformed structures were analyzed with the increment of strain by transmission electron microscopy. Also, a series of tensile tests were carried out on ultrafine-grained (UFG) samples to measure elongation at temperature of 973 K and at strain rates of 10 -4 to 10 -2 s -1 . The results indicated that elongation was significantly increased with increasing ECAP straining from 4 to 8 revealing more high-angle grain boundaries. Deformation mechanisms for UFG structure were analyzed in the context of inelastic deformation theory, which consisted of dislocation glide and grain boundary sliding

  4. Contributions to yield strength in an ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy after DC current annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yiheng; He, Lizi; Zhou, Yizhou; Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy was prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP). The evolution of the yield strength and microstructures of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy after direct electric current (DC current) annealing at 150–400 °C for 1 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the cryoECAPed and annealed samples at 150–250 °C, the predominant boundaries are high angle boundaries (HABs) (>60%), many dislocations accumulate at subgrain and/or grain boundaries, the yield strength (126–159 MPa) mainly comes from the dislocation and grain boundary strengthening contributions. While an unusual increase in the yield strength (by 8.1–11.2%) observed in samples annealed at 150–200 °C is attributed to an additional strengthening contribution from the more HABs having stable structures which can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 300–400 °C, the microstructures are free of dislocations, the yield strength (29–45 MPa) comes from the grain boundary strengthening contribution. With the application of DC current, the larger grain size, lower dislocation density and higher fraction of LABs having misorientation angle between 3−7° in samples annealed at 150–250 °C result in the lower yield strength, while the smaller average grain sizes in samples annealed at 300–400 °C cause the higher yield strength.

  5. Contributions to yield strength in an ultrafine grained 1050 aluminum alloy after DC current annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yiheng [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); He, Lizi, E-mail: helizi@epm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhou, Yizhou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong [Key Lab of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-09-30

    The ultrafine grained (UFG) 1050 aluminum alloy was prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP). The evolution of the yield strength and microstructures of UFG 1050 aluminum alloy after direct electric current (DC current) annealing at 150–400 °C for 1 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction pattern (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the cryoECAPed and annealed samples at 150–250 °C, the predominant boundaries are high angle boundaries (HABs) (>60%), many dislocations accumulate at subgrain and/or grain boundaries, the yield strength (126–159 MPa) mainly comes from the dislocation and grain boundary strengthening contributions. While an unusual increase in the yield strength (by 8.1–11.2%) observed in samples annealed at 150–200 °C is attributed to an additional strengthening contribution from the more HABs having stable structures which can act as effective barriers to dislocation motion during tensile deformation. When annealing at 300–400 °C, the microstructures are free of dislocations, the yield strength (29–45 MPa) comes from the grain boundary strengthening contribution. With the application of DC current, the larger grain size, lower dislocation density and higher fraction of LABs having misorientation angle between 3−7° in samples annealed at 150–250 °C result in the lower yield strength, while the smaller average grain sizes in samples annealed at 300–400 °C cause the higher yield strength.

  6. Elastocaloric effects in ultra-fine grained NiTi microwires processed by cold-drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient elastocaloric cooling in shape memory alloys requires a stable superelastic behavior in which high yield strength is needed. Here Ni50.4Ti49.6 microwires with diameter 130 μm and ultra-fine grains ∼30 nm were prepared by multi-step cold-drawing and low-temperature annealing. Enhanced cyclic stability of the elastocaloric effects induced by the superelastic training was demonstrated. The pre-trained microwire showed a stable ΔSe 43 J/(kg K with a broad working temperature range ΔT ∼ 70 K. The superelastic trained microwire, with giant and stable ΔSe over a wide working temperature window, may act as a promising elastocaloric cooling material for minor-sized devices.

  7. Synthesis and Mechanical Characterisation of an Ultra-Fine Grained Ti-Mg Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Alfreider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of lightweight materials such as titanium and magnesium in various technical applications, for example aerospace, medical implants and lightweight construction is well appreciated. The present study is an attempt to combine and improve the mechanical properties of these two materials by forming an ultra-fine grained composite. The material, with a composition of 75 vol% (88.4 wt% Ti and 25 vol% (11.4 wt% Mg , was synthesized by powder compression and subsequently deformed by high-pressure torsion. Using focused ion beam machining, miniaturised compression samples were prepared and tested in-situ in a scanning electron microscope to gain insights into local deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. Results show outstanding yield strength of around 1250 MPa, which is roughly 200 to 500 MPa higher than literature reports of similar materials. The failure mode of the samples is accounted for by cracking along the phase boundaries.

  8. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  9. Influence of 45S5 Bioglass addition on microstructure and properties of ultrafine grained (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, K., E-mail: kamil.kowalski@put.poznan.pl [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Jana Pawla II 24, 61-138 Poznan (Poland); Jurczyk, M.U. [Division of Mother’s and Child’s Health, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznan (Poland); Wirstlein, P.K. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Reproduction, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznan (Poland); Jakubowicz, J.; Jurczyk, M. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Jana Pawla II 24, 61-138 Poznan (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafine grained composites were formed by consolidating mechanically alloyed powders. • Mechanical properties were sensitive to the content of 45S5 Bioglass in Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr alloy. • Fluoride treated composites displayed superior corrosion resistance in Ringer solution. • Composites modified with MgF{sub 2} have a higher degree of biocompatibility in comparison with the unmodified reference material. - Abstract: Bulk samples of an ultrafine grained (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-x wt% 45S5 Bioglass (x = 0, 5) and (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composites have been synthesized by consolidating mechanically alloyed powders. The influence of the chemical composition on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of bulk composites were studied. The sintering of (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass powders led to the formation of a bulk composite with grain size of approx. 95 nm. The corrosion behavior of Mg-based composites before and after hydrofluoric acid treatment was also investigated. The ultrafine grained (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass composite was more corrosion resistant than the bulk Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr alloy after HF treatment. The in vitro biocompatibility of synthesized composites was evaluated and compared with microcrystalline magnesium. Magnesium, (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass and (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composites modified with MgF{sub 2} have a higher degree of biocompatibility in comparison with the unmodified reference material.

  10. Influence of Solution and Aging Treatment Conditions on the Formation of Ultrafine-Grained Structure of CuFe2 Alloy Processed by Rolling with Cyclic Movement of Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbańczyk-Gucwa A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of second phase particles on grain refinement in CuFe2 alloy has been investigated by using rolling with the cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR method. Two different population of second phase particles of Fe: coherent, about 10 nm in diameter and about 100 nm in size were obtained by applying aging treatment followed at 500°C for 2 h and at 700°C for 24 h respectively. In addition, solution treated samples were deformed by RCMR method at the same parameters. The microstructures of the CuFe2 alloy were analyzed using light microscope (LM, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD microscope technique and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM. The presence of high-density of coherent Fe particles in the matrix inhibits recovery process and in the result obtained grain/subgrain boundaries have diffused character and are weakly visible. The largest particles which are not coherent with the matrix act as an effective barrier against the boundary motion.

  11. Development of ultra-fine grained W-TiC and their mechanical properties for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)]. E-mail: kurishi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Amano, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arakawa, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Hiraoka, Y. [Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Takida, T. [A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Takebe, K. [A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Matsui, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructural evolution and radiation hardening were examined for fine-grained W-0.3 wt%TiC (grain size of 0.9 {mu}m) and commercially available pure W (20 {mu}m). Both materials were neutron irradiated at 563 K to 9 x 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Post-irradiation examinations showed that the microstructural changes and the degree of hardening due to irradiation were significantly reduced for fine-grained W-0.3TiC compared with pure W, demonstrating the significance of grain refinement to improve radiation resistance. In order to develop ultra-fine grained W-TiC compacts with nearly full densification, the fabrication process was modified, so that W-(0.3-0.7)%TiC with 0.06-0.2 {mu}m grain size and 99% of relative density was fabricated. The achievable grain refinement depended on TiC content and milling atmosphere. The three-point bending fracture strength at room temperature for ultra-fine grained W-TiC compacts of powder milled in H{sub 2} reached approximately 1.6-2 GPa for composition near 0.5%TiC.

  12. Thermal Stability of Ultrafine Grained Pure Copper Prepared by Large Strain Extrusion Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangxian Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine grained (UFG pure copper chips with improved material strength have been successfully prepared by large strain extrusion machining (LSEM. However, the thermal stability of the UFG chips has been a key characteristic that has restricted their use in practical applications. To understand the influence of annealing temperature and annealing time on their microstructures and mechanical properties, the UFG chips were subjected to isochronous and isothermal annealing treatments as well as Vickers hardness tests in the present study. From the results, we found that the UFG chips maintain high hardness when annealing at temperatures up to 160 °C but begin to exhibit a reduction in their hardness while the annealing temperature reached above 200 °C. When annealed at 280 °C for 10–240 min, the grain size increased slightly and reached a stable value of 2 µm with an increase in annealing time and with a decrease in the hardness of the chips. These results indicated that UFG pure copper chips have good thermal stability at temperatures below 160 °C.

  13. Thin Bioactive Zn Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coating Deposited on Ultrafine Grained Titanium Substrate: Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolov, Konstantin A.; Belyavskaya, Olga A.; Muehle, Uwe; Sharkeev, Yurii P.

    2018-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Zn substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on the surface of ultrafine-grained titanium substrates. Cross section transmission electron microscopy provided information about the morphology and texture of the thin film while in-column energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the coating. The Zn substituted hydroxyapatite coating was formed by an equiaxed polycrystalline grain structure. Effect of substrate crystallinity on the structure of deposited coating is discussed. An amorphous TiO2 sublayer of 8 nm thickness was detected in the interface between the polycrystalline coating and the Ti substrate. Its appearance in the amorphous state is attributed to prior to deposition etching of the substrate and subsequent condensation of oxygen-containing species sputtered from the target. This layer contributes to the high coating-to-substrate adhesion. The major P-O vibrational modes of high intensity were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The Zn substituted hydroxyapatite could be a material of choice when antibacterial osteoconductive coating with a possibility of withstanding mechanical stress during implantation and service is needed.

  14. Dry-sliding tribological properties of ultrafine-grained Ti prepared by severe plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Peiqing; Ma Jiqiang; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Yang Jun; Liu Weimin; Xue Qunji; Valiev, Ruslan Z.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the tribological properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti prepared by severe plastic deformation under dry sliding against AISI52100 steel in ambient environment and at varying load and sliding speed. Worn surfaces of the UFG Ti were examined with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. It was found that the wear rate of the UFG Ti under dry sliding was of the magnitude of 10 -3 mm 3 m -1 , which is lower than that of the annealed coarse-grained (CG) Ti. The wear rate of the UFG Ti increased with the load, while it decreased with the sliding speed. The friction coefficient of the UFG Ti was in the range of 0.45-0.60, slightly lower than that of the CG Ti, and did not change with the load and sliding time after the initial transient period. The friction coefficient increased with increasing sliding speed to a maximum point and then decreased. The wear mechanism of the UFG Ti was micro-ploughing and delamination. The worn surfaces were covered by a TiO 2 layer. These results demonstrated that UFG structures improved the wear resistance but did not significantly affect the friction coefficient of Ti

  15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of neutron irradiated ultrafine grained ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsabbagh, Ahmad, E-mail: ahalsabb@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sarkar, Apu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Miller, Brandon [ATR National Scientific User Facility, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Burns, Jatuporn [Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Squires, Leah; Porter, Douglas; Cole, James I. [ATR National Scientific User Facility, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Murty, K.L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Neutron irradiation effects on ultra-fine grain (UFG) low carbon steel prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been examined. Counterpart samples with conventional grain (CG) sizes have been irradiated alongside with the UFG ones for comparison. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to 1.37 dpa. Atom probe tomography revealed manganese and silicon-enriched clusters in both UFG and CG steel after neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were characterized using microhardness and tensile tests, and irradiation of UFG carbon steel revealed minute radiation effects in contrast to the distinct radiation hardening and reduction of ductility in its CG counterpart. After irradiation, micro hardness indicated increases of around 9% for UFG versus 62% for CG steel. Similarly, tensile strength revealed increases of 8% and 94% respectively for UFG and CG steels while corresponding decreases in ductility were 56% versus 82%. X-ray quantitative analysis showed that dislocation density in CG increased after irradiation while no significant change was observed in UFG steel, revealing better radiation tolerance. Quantitative correlations between experimental results and modeling were demonstrated based on irradiation induced precipitate strengthening and dislocation forest hardening mechanisms.

  16. Thin Bioactive Zn Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coating Deposited on Ultrafine-Grained Titanium Substrate: Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Prosolov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on the surface of ultrafine-grained titanium substrates. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy provided information about the morphology and texture of the thin film while in-column energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the coating. The Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite coating was formed by an equiaxed polycrystalline grain structure. Effect of substrate crystallinity on the structure of deposited coating is discussed. An amorphous TiO2 sublayer of 8-nm thickness was detected in the interface between the polycrystalline coating and the Ti substrate. Its appearance in the amorphous state is attributed to prior to deposition etching of the substrate and subsequent condensation of oxygen-containing species sputtered from the target. This layer contributes to the high coating-to-substrate adhesion. The major P–O vibrational modes of high intensity were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a material of choice when antibacterial osteoconductive coating with a possibility of withstanding mechanical stress during implantation and service is needed.

  17. Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility of ultrafine-grained titanium with hierarchical porous surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, C.Y.; Nie, F.L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Cheng, Y.; Wei, S.C.; Valiev, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk ultrafine-grained Ti (UFG Ti) was successfully fabricated by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique in the present study, and to further improve its surface biocompatibility, surface modification techniques including sandblasting, acid etching and alkali treatment were employed to produce a hierarchical porous surface. The effect of the above surface treatments on the surface roughness, wettability, electrochemical corrosion behavior, apatite forming ability and cellular behavior of UFG Ti were systematically investigated with the coarse-grained Ti as control. Results show that UFG-Ti with surface modification had no pitting corrosion and presented low corrosion rate in simulated body fluids (SBF). The hierarchical porous surface yielded by surface modification enhanced the ability of UFG Ti to form a complete apatite layer when soaked in SBF and promoted osteoblast-like cells attachment and proliferation in vitro, which promises to have a significant impact on increasing bone-bonding ability and reducing healing time when implanted due to faster tissue integration.

  18. Influence of competition between intragranular dislocation nucleation and intergranular slip transfer on mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Tomohito; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Aoyagi, Yoshiteru; Shimokawa, Tomotsugu

    2013-01-01

    Huge-scale atomistic simulations of shear deformation tests to the aluminum polycrystalline thin film containing the Frank-Read source are performed to elucidate the relationship between the inter- and intragranular plastic deformation processes and the mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained metals. Two-types of polycrystalline models, which consist of several grain boundaries reproducing easy and hard slip transfer, respectively, are prepared to investigate the effect of grain boundary on flow stress. While the first plastic deformation occurs by the dislocation bow-out motion within the grain region for both models, the subsequent plastic deformation is strongly influenced by the resistance of the slip transfer by dislocation transmission through grain boundaries. The influence of the competition between the intragranular dislocation nucleation and intergranular slip transfer on the material strength is considered. The nanostructured material's strength depending on local defect structures associated with grain size and dislocation source length is assessed quantitatively. (author)

  19. Strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grained Al-Mg-Si alloy processed by hydrostatic extrusion – Influence of ageing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrominski, Witold, E-mail: wichr@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wenner, Sigurd [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Marioara, Calin D. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Holmestad, Randi [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lewandowska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-04

    Microstructure of hydrostatically extruded Al-Mg-Si alloy was studied by the combination of electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Three different grain types which feature various defects arrangements were detected. Post deformation ageing at two temperatures caused different precipitation phenomena which were strongly dependent on type of grain boundaries in the considered grain types. Thus, a combination of plastic deformation and ageing resulted in a material with complex microstructure. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, contributions of different strengthening mechanisms were estimated and compared to experimental results. A good agreement between obtained data points confirmed that depending on grain type, different strengthening mechanisms are operative and the overall strength is a sum of hardening given by each of them. Ageing of ultrafine grain structure results in efficient precipitation strengthening. On the other hand ageing causes annihilation of low and high angle grains boundaries in which leads to softening of investigated material. This effect cannot be compensated by precipitation hardening.

  20. Significant Corrosion Resistance in an Ultrafine-Grained Al6063 Alloy with a Bimodal Grain-Size Distribution through a Self-Anodic Protection Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shakoori Oskooie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bimodal microstructures of Al6063 consisting of 15, 30, and 45 vol. % coarse-grained (CG bands within the ultrafine-grained (UFG matrix were synthesized via blending of high-energy mechanically milled powders with unmilled powders followed by hot powder extrusion. The corrosion behavior of the bimodal specimens was assessed by means of polarization, steady-state cyclic polarization and impedance tests, whereas their microstructural features and corrosion products were examined using optical microscopy (OM, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The bimodal Al6063 containing 15 vol. % CG phase exhibits the highest corrosion resistance among the bimodal microstructures and even superior electrochemical behavior compared with the plain UFG and CG materials in the 3.5% NaCl solution. The enhanced corrosion resistance is attributed to the optimum cathode to anode surface area ratio that gives rise to the formation of an effective galvanic couple between CG areas and the UFG matrix. The operational galvanic coupling leads to the domination of a “self-anodic protection system” on bimodal microstructure and consequently forms a uniform thick protective passive layer over it. In contrast, the 45 vol. % CG bimodal specimen shows the least corrosion resistance due to the catastrophic galvanic corrosion in UFG regions. The observed results for UFG Al6063 suggest that metallurgical tailoring of the grain structure in terms of bimodal microstructures leads to simultaneous enhancement in the electrochemical behavior and mechanical properties of passivable alloys that are usually inversely correlated. The mechanism of self-anodic protection for passivable metals with bimodal microstructures is discussed here for the first time.

  1. Analysis of Strengthening Mechanisms in an Artificially Aged Ultrafine Grain 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study adopted a quantitative approach to investigating the mechanical properties, and their relationship to the microstructural features, of precipitation-strengthened 6061 aluminum alloy processed through accumulative roll bonding (ARB and aging heat treatment.  To serve this purpose, the contributions of different strengthening mechanisms including grain refinement, precipitation, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening to the yield strength of five-cycle ARB samples processed under pre-aged (ARBed and aged (ARBed+Aged conditions were examined and compared. Microstructural characterizations were performed on the samples through the transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Also, the mechanical properties of the samples were investigated through the tensile test. The obtained results showed that an equiaxed ultrafine grain structure with nano-sized precipitates was created in the both ARBed and ARBed+Aged samples. The grain refinement was the predominant strengthening mechanism which was estimated to contribute 151 and 226 MPa to the ARBed and ARBed+Aged samples, respectively, while the dislocation and Orowan strengthening mechanisms were ranked second with regard to their contributions to the ARBed and ARBed+Aged samples, respectively. The overall yield strength, calculated through the root mean square summation method, was found to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined yield strength. It was also found that the presence of non-shearable precipitates, which interfered with the movement of the dislocations, would be effective for the simultaneous improvement of the strength and ductility of the ARBed+Agedsample .

  2. Gentamicin-Eluting Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Grown on the Ultrafine-Grained Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Sima Hashemi; Hadjizadeh, Afra

    2017-08-01

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials is the most appropriate choices for the applications as orthopedic and dental implants. In this regard, ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium with an enhanced mechanical properties and surface energy has attracted more attention. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes grown on the titanium could enhance bone bonding, cellular response and are good reservoirs for loading drugs and antibacterial agents. This article investigates gentamicin loading into and release from the TiO 2 nanotubes, grown on the UFG compared to coarse-grained (CG) titanium substrate surfaces. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was employed to produce the UFG structure titanium. TiO 2 nanotubes were grown by the anodizing technique on both UFG and CG titanium substrate surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging confirmed TiO 2 nanotube growth on the surface. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis results show that the amount of gentamicin load-release in the anodized UFG titanium sample is higher than that of CG one which can be explained in terms of thicker TiO 2 nanotube arrays layer formed on UFG sample. Moreover, the anodized UFG titanium samples released the drug in a longer time than CG (1 day for the UFG titanium vs. 3 h for the CG one). Regarding wettability analysis, anodized UFG titanium sample showed more enhanced hydrophilicity than CG counterpart. Therefore, the significantly smaller grain size of pure titanium provided by the ECAP technique coupled with appropriate subsequent anodization treatment not only offers a good combination of biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties but also it provides a delayed release condition for gentamicin.

  3. Strain localization and fatigue crack initiation in ultrafine-grained copper in high- and giga-cycle region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Navrátilová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, JAN (2014), s. 202-208 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2001; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * Strain localization * Stability of ultrafine-grained structure * UFG Cu Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  4. Fatigue properties of ultra-fine grain Cu–Cr alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.J.; Du, Z.Z.; Luo, L.; Wang, W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The UFG Cu–Cr alloys processed by ECAP possess high strength and sufficient ductility. ► The ECAPed sample with UFG under strain controlled fatigue exhibited cyclic softening and lower fatigue limit compared to the unECAPed one. ► That cyclic softening of UFG Cu–Cr alloy is associated with some dislocation annihilation and the substructure recovery. ► Shear bands, microcracks and final fracture of UFG Cu–Cr fatigue samples occur predominantly along the shear plane corresponding to the last ECAP. - Abstract: A precipitation-hardening copper based alloy (Cu–0.6 wt.% Cr) was selected and the ultra-fine grain (UFG) microstructure was obtained by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The alloys tensile behaviors and fatigue properties were investigated experimentally, the results indicated that the Cu–Cr alloy processed by ECAP possessed high strength and sufficient ductility and the 12-passes ECAPed sample with UFG under strain controlled fatigue exhibited cyclic softening and lower fatigue limit compared to the unECAPed one. Moreover, the shear bands on the surface of cycled samples were also studied by scanning electron microscopy, the results showed that the oriented distribution of defects along the shear plane in the last ECAP processing was one of the major mechanisms of SBs formation.

  5. Achieving excellent thermal stability and very high activation energy in an ultrafine-grained magnesium silver rare earth alloy prepared by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan MD, F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Panigrahi, S.K., E-mail: skpanigrahi@iitm.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Ultrafine-grained microstructure of a QE22 alloy prepared by Friction Stir processing (FSP) is isochronally annealed to study the thermal stability and grain growth kinetics. The FSPed microstructure of QE22 alloy is thermally stable under ultrafine-grained regime up to 300 °C and the activation energy required for grain growth is found to be exceptionally high as compared to conventional ultrafine-grained magnesium alloys. The high thermal stability and activation energy of the FSPed QE22 alloy is due to Zener pinning effect from thermally stable eutectic Mg{sub 12}Nd and fine precipitates Mg{sub 12}Nd{sub 2}Ag and solute drag effect from segregation of Neodymium (Nd) solute atoms at grain boundaries.

  6. Spectral analysis in overmodulated holographic reflection gratings recorded with BB640 ultrafine grain emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Abellán, P.; Madrigal, R.; Fimia, A.

    2015-05-01

    Silver halide emulsions have been considered one of the most energetic sensitive materials for holographic applications. Nonlinear recording effects on holographic reflection gratings recorded on silver halide emulsions have been studied by different authors obtaining excellent experimental results. In this communication specifically we focused our investigation on the effects of refractive index modulation, trying to get high levels of overmodulation. We studied the influence of the grating thickness on the overmodulation and its effects on the transmission spectra for a wide exposure range by use of two different thickness ultrafine grain emulsion BB640, thin films (6 μm) and thick films (9 μm), exposed to single collimated beams using a red He-Ne laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) with Denisyuk configuration obtaining a spatial frequency of 4990 l/mm recorded on the emulsion. The experimental results show that high overmodulation levels of refractive index could offer some benefits such as high diffraction efficiency (reaching 90 %), increase of grating bandwidth (close to 80 nm), making lighter holograms, or diffraction spectra deformation, transforming the spectrum from sinusoidal to approximation of square shape. Based on these results, we demonstrate that holographic reflection gratings spectra recorded with overmodulation of refractive index is formed by the combination of several non-linear components due to very high overmodulation. This study is the first step to develop a new easy multiplexing technique based on the use of high index modulation reflection gratings.

  7. Investigation of fatigue crack growth rate of Al 5484 ultrafine grained alloy after ECAP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynk, Tomasz; Rasinski, Marcin; Pakiela, Zbigniew; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Olejnik, Lech [Faculty of Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    During the last decade equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has emerged as a widely used fabrication route of ultrafine-grained (UFG) metals and alloys. Enhanced mechanical properties of UFG materials produced by severe plastic deformation, with a grain size smaller than 1 {mu}m, have been reported in a large number of publications. However, the higher strength does not imply higher resistance to fatigue both high- and low-cyclic. In fact, due to reduced plasticity, higher fatigue crack propagation rates are reported for UFG materials, particularly in low-amplitude range. The aim of this work was to investigate fatigue crack propagation in samples of Al 5483 alloy subjected to ECAP treatment. Because of small dimensions of the coupons processed by ECAP, non-standard, mini-samples were used in a crack propagation tests. Two test procedures were used to estimate stress intensity factor (K). The first was based on optical measurements of crack length from images recorded during the test. The second method was based on digital image correlation (DIC), which was used to determine K value directly from displacement field near the crack tip. Comparison of these two methods is made and the relationship between the intensity of ECAP process (measured in terms of the number of ECAP passes) and fatigue crack propagation rates proposed. In addition to fatigue resistance, the results of tensile tests carried out with mini-samples are presented. Applicability of such samples in the investigations of the mechanical properties of UFG materials is discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Formation and evolution of ultrafine particles produced by radiolysis and photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelaine, G.J.; Perrin, M.L.; Renoux, A.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented, concerning the formation, the size distribution, and the behavior of ultrafine particles produced by alpha disintegration of actinium and uv irradiation in filtered and natural atmospheric air. The characterization of these particles is obtained by electrical aerosol analyzer and diffusion battery method. Measurements are made in the range between 0.003 and 0.5 micrometer. Some qualitative indications are obtained on the different mechanisms which govern the evolution of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere (nucleation, coagulation, and condensation). It is now well established that the photo-oxydation of SO 2 in the atmosphere leads to the production of sulphuric acid and of sulphate, which are usually found in the form of submicronic particles. This paper concerns the evolution of ultrafine particles generated in the presence of a preexisting aerosol. They are either instantaneously produced by the alpha disintegrations of actinium 219 or continuously produced by the transformation of SO 2 under uv irradiation

  9. Fatigue behavior and damage characteristic of ultra-fine grain low-purity copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Changzheng; Wang Qingjuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Zheng Maosheng [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China)], E-mail: mszhengnw@sohu.com; Li Jindou; Huang Meiquan; Jia Qingming; Zhu Jiewu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Kunz, Ludvik; Buksa, Michal [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno 61662 (Czech Republic)

    2008-02-25

    The S-N and Coffin-Manson plot, cyclic stress-strain response, changes of microstructure, and the surface morphology of ultra-fine grain (UFG) low-purity copper processed by ECAP were tested and observed in present study. And the formation mechanism of shear bands was discussed in detail. The results show that the UFG Cu represents longer lifetime under stress-controlled fatigue, but lower fatigue resistance under strain-controlled fatigue when compared with the coarse grain counterpart. Cyclic stress-strain responses of UFG Cu under stress-controlled fatigue alter from cyclic softening to cyclic hardening as stress amplitude decreases. But the responses always show cyclic softening under strain-controlled fatigue in present testing. By electron back scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscope technique, the shear bands were discovered on the surface of all cycled samples and no grain coarsening was discovered near the shear bands, which indicated that there was no inevitable relationship between formation of SBs and cyclic softening/grain coarsening. The discovery should be related to impurities in copper. The oriented distribution of defects along the shear plane in the last ECAP processing is one of the major mechanisms of SBs formation.

  10. Fatigue behavior and damage characteristic of ultra-fine grain low-purity copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Changzheng; Wang Qingjuan; Zheng Maosheng; Li Jindou; Huang Meiquan; Jia Qingming; Zhu Jiewu; Kunz, Ludvik; Buksa, Michal

    2008-01-01

    The S-N and Coffin-Manson plot, cyclic stress-strain response, changes of microstructure, and the surface morphology of ultra-fine grain (UFG) low-purity copper processed by ECAP were tested and observed in present study. And the formation mechanism of shear bands was discussed in detail. The results show that the UFG Cu represents longer lifetime under stress-controlled fatigue, but lower fatigue resistance under strain-controlled fatigue when compared with the coarse grain counterpart. Cyclic stress-strain responses of UFG Cu under stress-controlled fatigue alter from cyclic softening to cyclic hardening as stress amplitude decreases. But the responses always show cyclic softening under strain-controlled fatigue in present testing. By electron back scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscope technique, the shear bands were discovered on the surface of all cycled samples and no grain coarsening was discovered near the shear bands, which indicated that there was no inevitable relationship between formation of SBs and cyclic softening/grain coarsening. The discovery should be related to impurities in copper. The oriented distribution of defects along the shear plane in the last ECAP processing is one of the major mechanisms of SBs formation

  11. Ultrafine Ceramic Grains Embedded in Metallic Glass Matrix: Achieving Superior Wear Resistance via Increase in Both Hardness and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Wen, Mao; Dai, Xuan; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Kan

    2018-05-09

    As structural materials, crystalline or metallic glass materials have attracted scientific and practical interests. However, some mechanisms involving critical size and shear bands have adverse effects on their mechanical properties. Here, we counter these two effects by introducing a special structure with ultrafine ceramic grains (with a diameter of ∼2.0 nm) embedded into a metallic glass matrix, wherein the grains are mainly composed of a Ta-W-N solid solution structure in nature, surrounded by a W-based amorphous matrix that contains Ta and N atoms. Such a structure is in situ formed during preparation, which combines the merits of both phases to achieve simultaneous increase in hardness and toughness relative to references (pure TaN and W) and thus superior wear resistance. Even more remarkable, a favorable variation of increased hardness but reduced elasticity modulus can be induced by this structure. Intrinsically, ultrafine ceramic grains (free of dislocations), embedded in the metallic glass matrix, could prevent shear band propagation within the glass matrix and further improve the hardness of the matrix material. In return, such glass matrix allows for stiffness neutralization and structural relaxation to reduce the elasticity modulus of ceramic grains. This study will offer a new guidance to fabricate ultrahigh-performance metal-based composites.

  12. Enhanced Impact Toughness at Ambient Temperatures of Ultrafine-Grained Al-26 wt.% Si Alloy Produced by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghua; Yuan, Ting; Shi, Jun; Zhang, Lingling; Ma, Aibin; Song, Dan

    2018-05-01

    Overcoming general brittleness of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys is in urgent need for expanding their application in automotive, aerospace and construction industries. A unique phenomenon was observed that bulk ultrafine-grained Al-26 wt.% Si alloy, produced by severe plastic deformation via equal-channel angular pressing, exhibited higher toughness at the impact temperature of - 196 100 °C than the coarse-grained casting alloy. The improvement in impact toughness at all testing temperatures was mainly due to the homogeneous ultrafine-grained structure with the breakage of brittle primary silicon crystals, which generated more and deeper fracture dimples that consumed much higher fracture energy. It indicates the advantage of bulk ultrafine-grained Al-Si alloys and spurs their application interest at various ambient temperatures.

  13. Submicron and ultrafine grained hardmetals for microdrills and metal cutting inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gille, G.; Szesny, B.; Dreyer, K.; Berg, H. van den; Schidt, J.; Gestrich, T.; Leitner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Although round tools as carbide drills and mills are dominating by far the application of submicron and ultrafine hardmetals the consumption for PCB microdrills had the strongest growth rate over the last decade. This paper deals with the latest developments of ultrafine hardmetals and their application for PCB microdrills and metal cutting inserts. Based on optimized processing and properties such as hardness, hot hardness, toughness, strength and wear resistance a new generation of microdrills is presented. In particular the failure probability of the microdrills could be considerably reduced and the number of drilling strokes was nearly doubled. Combining improved pressing behavior with proper doping and optimized processing new applications of submicron and ultrafine hardmetals could be obtained by using complex shaped metal cutting inserts. Apart from these application examples the paper gives some insight into fundamental investigations an sintering and properties of ultrafine hardmetals and shows in particular the influence of milling, doping and sintering an the properties of ultrafine hardmetals. The paper also presents a new ultrafine WC grade showing a 0.1 μm WC intercept of a sintered WC - 10 wt % Co structure and a hardness of HV 30 = 2050 for a 1 wt % mixed VC/Cr 3 C 2 doping. (author)

  14. Influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the sintering and functional properties of an ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel obtained from ball-milled powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C., E-mail: clement.keller@insa-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Tabalaiev, K.; Marnier, G. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Noudem, J. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sauvage, X. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hug, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-05-17

    In this work, 316L samples with submicrometric grain size were sintered by spark plasma sintering. To this aim, 316L powder was first ball-milled with different conditions to obtain nanostructured powder. The process control agent quantity and milling time were varied to check their influence on the crystallite size of milled powder. Samples were then sintered by spark plasma sintering using different sets of sintering parameters (temperature, dwell time and pressure). For each sample, grain size and density were systematically measured in order to investigate the influence of the sintering process on these two key microstructure parameters. Results show that suitable ball-milling and subsequent sintering can be employed to obtain austenitic stainless steel samples with grain sizes in the nanometer range with porosity lower than 3%. However, ball-milling and subsequent sintering enhance chromium carbides formation at the sample surface in addition to intragranular and intergranular oxides in the sample as revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that using Boron nitride together with graphite foils to protect the mold from powder welding prevent such carbide formation. For mechanical properties, results show that the grain size refinement strongly increases the hardness of the samples without deviation from Hall-Petch relationship despite the oxides formation. For corrosion resistance, grain sizes lower than a few micrometers involve a strong decrease in the pitting potential and a strong increase in passivation current. As a consequence, spark plasma sintering can be considered as a promising tool for ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steel.

  15. The influence of grain size on the strain-induced martensite formation in tensile straining of an austenitic 15Cr–9Mn–Ni–Cu stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisko, A.; Misra, R.D.K.; Talonen, J.; Karjalainen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve understanding on the behavior of ultrafine-grained austenitic stainless steels during deformation, the influence of the austenite grain size and microstructure on the strain-induced martensite transformation was investigated in an austenitic 15Cr–9Mn–Ni–Cu (Type 204Cu) stainless steel. By different reversion treatments of the 60% cold-rolled sheet, varying grain sizes from ultrafine (0.5 μm), micron-scale (1.5 μm), fine (4 μm) to coarse (18 μm) were obtained. Some microstructures also contained a mixture of ultrafine or micron-scale and coarse initially cold-worked austenite grains. Samples were tested in tensile loading and deformation structures were analyzed after 2%, 10% and 20% engineering strains by means of martensite content measurements, scanning electron microscope together with a electron backscatter diffraction device and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the martensite nucleation sites and the rate of transformation vary. In ultrafine grains strain-induced α′-martensite nucleates at grain boundaries and twins, whereas in coarser grains as well as in coarse-grained retained austenite, α′-martensite formation occurs at shear bands, sometimes via ε-martensite. The transformation rate of strain-induced α′-martensite decreases with decreasing grain size to 1.5 μm. However, the rate is fastest in the microstructure containing a mixture of ultrafine and retained cold-worked austenite grains. There the ultrafine grains transform quite readily to martensite similarly as the coarse retained austenite grains, where the previous cold-worked microstructure is still partly remaining

  16. Microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of ultrafine grained commercial pure copper during the accumulative roll bonding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattah-alhosseini, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imantalab, O., E-mail: o.imantalab@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshavarz, M.K. [Department of Engineering Physics, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-01-05

    In this study, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of commercial pure copper processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size of samples decreased. An Ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of about 200 nm was achieved after four cycles of ARB. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of pure copper with the UFG microstructure was reached about 360 MPa and 396 MPa (about 400% and 100% higher than that of the annealed state), respectively. All ARB-processed copper samples showed lower strain hardening exponent in comparison with the annealed state. Moreover, the strain hardening rate increased with increasing ARB cycles up to 3 cycles and then decreased.

  17. Microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of ultrafine grained commercial pure copper during the accumulative roll bonding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah-alhosseini, A.; Imantalab, O.; Mazaheri, Y.; Keshavarz, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of commercial pure copper processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size of samples decreased. An Ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of about 200 nm was achieved after four cycles of ARB. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of pure copper with the UFG microstructure was reached about 360 MPa and 396 MPa (about 400% and 100% higher than that of the annealed state), respectively. All ARB-processed copper samples showed lower strain hardening exponent in comparison with the annealed state. Moreover, the strain hardening rate increased with increasing ARB cycles up to 3 cycles and then decreased.

  18. Grain processes in massive star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfire, M.G.; Cassinelli, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment

  19. Ultrafine-grained porous titanium and porous titanium/magnesium composites fabricated by space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yuanshen, E-mail: yuanshen.qi@monash.edu [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Contreras, Karla G. [Monash Institute of Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jung, Hyun-Do [Liquid Processing & Casting Technology R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun-Ee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Gwanggyo, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lapovok, Rimma [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Estrin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.estrin@monash.edu [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NUST MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-01

    Compaction of powders by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a novel space holder method was employed to fabricate metallic scaffolds with tuneable porosity. Porous Ti and Ti/Mg composites with 60% and 50% percolating porosity were fabricated using powder blends with two kinds of sacrificial space holders. The high compressive strength and good ductility of porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg obtained in this way are believed to be associated with the ultrafine grain structure of the pore walls. To understand this, a detailed electron microscopy investigation was employed to analyse the interface between Ti/Ti and Ti/Mg particles, the grain structures in Ti particles and the topography of pore surfaces. It was found that using the proposed compaction method, high quality bonding between particles was obtained. Comparing with other powder metallurgy methods to fabricate Ti with an open porous structure, where thermal energy supplied by a laser beam or high temperature sintering is essential, the ECAP process conducted at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C was shown to produce unique properties. - Highlights: • Porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg composite scaffolds were fabricated successfully. • Space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation was first used in this application. • Silicon particles as sacrificial space holders were used for the first time. • Ultrafine-grained microstructure and good bonding between particles were obtained. • Good preosteoblast cell response to as-manufactured porous Ti was achieved.

  20. CYCLIC PLASTIC BEHAVIOR AND FATGIUE LIFE OF AZ91 ALLOY IN AS-CAST AND ULTRAFINE-GRAINED STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Fintová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue properties of magnesium alloy AZ91 in as-cast and in ultrafine-grained state prepared by equal channel angular pressing were investigated. The fatigue strength in the low-cycle fatigue region was found to be substantially improved by the severe plastic deformation, whereas the improvement in the high-cycle fatigue region is negligible. The cyclic plastic response in both states is qualitatively similar; short initial softening is followed by a long cyclic hardening. The observed fatigue behavior was discussed in terms of specific microstructural features of both states and on the basis of cyclic slip localization and fatigue crack initiation. 

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding between Ultrafine Grained 1050 and 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafine grained (UFGed 1050 Al plates with a thickness of 2 mm, which were produced by the accumulative roll bonding technique after five cycles, were friction stir butt welded to 2 mm thick 6061-T6 Al alloy plates at a different revolutionary pitch that varied from 0.5 to 1.25 mm/rev. In the stir zone, the initial nano-sized lamellar structure of the UFGed 1050 Al alloy plate transformed into an equiaxial grain structure with a larger average grain size due to the dynamic recrystallization and subsequent grain growth. However, an equiaxial grain structure with a much smaller grain size was simultaneously formed in the 6061 Al alloy plates, together with coarsening of the precipitates. Tensile tests of the welds obtained at different welding speeds revealed that two kinds of fracture modes occurred for the specimens depending on their revolutionary pitches. The maximum tensile strength was about 110 MPa and the fractures were all located in the stir zone close to the 1050 Al side.

  2. Development of a new ultrafine grained dual phase steel and examination of the effect of grain size on tensile deformation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B.

    2014-04-01

    Ultrafine grained dual phase (DP) steels are among the newest grades of DP steels that incorporate the uniform distribution of fine martensite particles (in the order of 1–2 μm) within a ferrite matrix. These new grades of steels have been developed in response to the world's demand for decreasing the fuel consumption in automobiles by increasing the strength to weight ratio. In the present research, a new kind of ultrafine grained DP (UFG-DP) steel with an average grain size of about 2 μm as well as a coarse grained DP (CG-DP) steel with an average grain size of about 5.4 μm was produced by consecutive intercritical annealing and cold rolling of low carbon AISI 8620 steel. The martensite volume fraction for both microstructures was the same and about 50 percent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructural examination and room temperature tensile deformation analyses were performed on both UFG-DP and CG-DP steels and their deformation behavior in terms of strength, elongation and strain hardening was studied and compared. Room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests revealed that for a given martensite volume fraction, yield and tensile strengths were not very sensitive to martensite morphology. However, uniform and total elongation values were noticeably affected by refining martensite particles. The higher plasticity of fine martensite particles as well as the more uniform strain distribution within the UFG-DP microstructure resulted in higher strain hardenability and, finally, the higher ductility of the UFG-DP steel.

  3. Preparation of high-performance ultrafine-grained AISI 304L stainless steel under high temperature and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk ultra-fine grained (UFG AISI 304L stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was prepared by a high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP method using nanocrystalline AISI 304L stainless steel powders obtained from ball milling. Samples were sintered in high-pressure conditions using the highest martensite content of AISI 304L stainless steel powders milled for 25 h. Analyses of phase composition and grain size were accomplished by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. By comparing the reverse martensite transformation under vacuum and HTHP treat, we consider that pressure can effectively promote the change in the process of transformation. Compared with the solid-solution-treated 304L, the hardness and yield strength of the samples sintered under HTHP are considerably higher. This method of preparation of UFG bulk stainless steel may be widely popularised and used to obtain UFG metallic materials with good comprehensive performance.

  4. Correlation of microstructure and strain hardening behavior in the ultrafine-grained Nb-bearing dual phase steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatei Kalashami, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A., E-mail: ahmad_k@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghassemali, E. [Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Department of Materials and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping (Sweden); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Ultrafine-grained dual phase (DP) steels with different Nb contents (0.00, 0.06 and 0.12 wt%) were produced by cold-rolling followed by intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite starting microstructure at 770 °C for different holding times. Scanning electron microscopy, equipped with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector, nanoindentation and tensile testing were used to characterize microstructural evolutions and their correlations to the strain hardening and fracture behavior. EBSD results confirmed the retardation effect of Nb on recrystallization. It was found that the strains stored in the grains and density of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) were increased with the addition of Nb. Strain hardening analysis showed that plastic deformation of the DP steels occurred in three distinct stages, which based on the EBSD results, nanoindentation and fracture analysis, were controlled by microstructural features such martensite volume fraction and size, density of GNDs and individual ferrite and martensite tensile properties.

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured and Ultrafine Grained Materials under Shock Wave Loadings. Experimental Data and Results of Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Features of mechanical behavior of nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine grained (UFG) metal and ceramic materials under quasistatic and shock wave loadings are discussed in this report. Multilevel models developed within the approach of computational mechanics of materials were used for simulation mechanical behavior of UFG and NS metals and ceramics. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data are presented. Models of mechanical behavior of nanostructured metal alloys takes into account a several structural factors influencing on the mechanical behavior of materials (type of a crystal lattice, density of dislocations, a size of dislocation substructures, concentration and size of phase precipitation, and distribution of grains sizes). Results show the strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of UFG and polycrystalline alloys is various in a range from 103 up to 106 1/s. But the difference of the Hugoniot elastic limits of a UFG and coarse-grained alloys may be not considerable. The spall strength, the yield stress of UFG and NS alloys are depend not only on grains size, but a number of factors such as a distribution of grains sizes, a concentration and sizes of voids and cracks, a concentration and sizes of phase precipitation. Some titanium alloys with grain sizes from 300 to 500 nm have the quasi-static yield strength and the tensile strength twice higher than that of coarse grained counterparts. But the spall strength of the UFG titanium alloys is only 10 percents above than that of coarse grained alloys. At the same time it was found the spall strength of the bulk UFG aluminium and magnesium alloys with precipitation strengthening is essentially higher in comparison of coarse-grained counterparts. The considerable decreasing of the strain before failure of UFG alloys was predicted at high strain rates. The Hugoniot elastic limits of oxide nanoceramics depend not only on the porosity, but also on sizes and volume distribution of voids.

  6. Local thermal property analysis by scanning thermal microscopy of an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.A. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China) and Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: guofuan@yahoo.com; JI, Y.L. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China); Trannoy, N. [Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Lu, J. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) was used to map thermal conductivity images in an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). It is found that the deformed surface layer shows different thermal conductivities that strongly depend on the grain size of the microstructure: the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured surface layer decreases obviously when compared with that of the coarse-grained matrix of the sample. The role of the grain boundaries in thermal conduction is analyzed in correlation with the heat conduction mechanism in pure metal. A theoretical approach, based on this investigation, was used to calculate the heat flow from the probe tip to the sample and then estimate the thermal conductivities at different scanning positions. Experimental results and theoretical calculation demonstrate that SThM can be used as a tool for the thermal property and microstructural analysis of ultrafine-grained microstructures.

  7. Effect of strain path on microstructure, deformation texture and mechanical properties of nano/ultrafine grained AA1050 processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, M.; Reihanian, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borhani, E., E-mail: e.borhani@semnan.ac.ir [Department of Nano Technology, Nano Materials Group, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Commercial pure Al sheets were severe plastically deformed at room temperature by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) and cross accumulative roll bonding (CARB). Change in strain path was imposed during CARB by rotating the sheets with 90° around the normal direction axis between each cycle. Microstructural evolution of processed sheets was studied by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis and revealed that nano/ultrafine grains (NG/UFG) with the average grain size of 380 nm and 155 nm were formed by both processing routes after eight cycles, respectively. The fraction of high angle grain boundaries and mean misorientation angle of the boundaries in the CARB were 49% and 40.20°, respectively, in comparison to that of ARB sample (41% and 37.37°). Deformation texture evolution demonstrated that the change in strain path leads to the formation of strong orientation along the β-fiber. The major texture components for ARB specimens were Brass {011}<211> and S {123}<634> while those for CARB were Brass {011}<211> and Goss {011}<100>. The CARB processed specimen exhibited the tensile strength, microhardness and elongation of about 230 MPa, 92 HV and 13% compared with ARB sample (180 MPa, 80 HV and 10.5%) after eight cycles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of tensile fracture surface of specimens revealed ductile type fracture.

  8. Grain formation in cool stellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of dust grains in the stellar envelope are investigated for the case of oxygen-rich stars, where the mass loss occurs as a result of the radiation pressure on the dust grains. The number density of grains, the final grain sizes, and the final amount of metals remaining in gaseous states are calculated based on the grain-nucleation theory proposed by Yamamoto and Hasegawa and Draine and Salpeter. It is shown that, even if we base our calculations on the Lothe-Pound nucleation rate equation instead of the classical, homogeneous nucleation rate equation, the proposed theory gives a number density of grains quite similar to that based on the classical rate equation. The approximate solution of the flow, in this paper, brings physical insight to the problem of how the formation of grains couples the flow passing the sonic point. The metals in the outer envelope remain in gaseous state by the amount of 1--10% of the initial content for the mass-loss rate of 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and by less than 1% for the massloss are less than 3 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . Species of metals condensed onto the grains are also discussed

  9. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 391. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ultrafine-grained material * cobalt * ball milling * spark plasma sintering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/391/pdf

  10. Characterizing deformed ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline materials using transmission Kikuchi diffraction in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimby, Patrick W.; Cao, Yang; Chen, Zibin; Han, Shuang; Hemker, Kevin J.; Lian, Jianshe; Liao, Xiaozhou; Rottmann, Paul; Samudrala, Saritha; Sun, Jingli; Wang, Jing Tao; Wheeler, John; Cairney, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: The recent development of transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) in a scanning electron microscope enables fast, automated orientation mapping of electron transparent samples using standard electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) hardware. TKD in a scanning electron microscope has significantly better spatial resolution than conventional EBSD, enabling routine characterization of nanocrystalline materials and allowing effective measurement of samples that have undergone severe plastic deformation. Combining TKD with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides complementary chemical information, while a standard forescatter detector system below the EBSD detector can be used to generate dark field and oriented dark field images. Here we illustrate the application of this exciting new approach to a range of deformed, ultrafine grained and nanocrystalline samples, including duplex stainless steel, nanocrystalline copper and highly deformed titanium and nickel–cobalt. The results show that TKD combined with EDS is a highly effective and widely accessible tool for measuring key microstructural parameters at resolutions that are inaccessible using conventional EBSD

  11. The Production of Material with Ultrafine Grain Structure in Al-Zn Alloy in the Process of Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymaneka M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminium alloy family, Al-Zn materials with non-standard chemical composition containing Mg and Cu are a new group of alloys, mainly owing to their high strength properties. Proper choice of alloying elements, and of the method of molten metal treatment and casting enable further shaping of the properties. One of the modern methods to produce materials with submicron structure is a method of Rapid Solidification. The ribbon cast in a melt spinning device is an intermediate product for further plastic working. Using the technique of Rapid Solidification it is not possible to directly produce a solid structural material of the required shape and length. Therefore, the ribbon of an ultrafine grain or nanometric structure must be subjected to the operations of fragmentation, compaction, consolidation and hot extrusion.

  12. Influence of grain structure on the deformation mechanism in martensitic shear reversion-induced Fe-16Cr-10Ni model austenitic alloy with low interstitial content: Coarse-grained versus nano-grained/ultrafine-grained structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challa, V.S.A. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra2@utep.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Somani, M.C. [Center for Advanced Steels Research, The University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Wang, Z.D. [State Key Laboratory for Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-04-20

    Nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) materials characterized by high strength-high ductility combination are excellent vehicles to obtain an unambiguous understanding of deformation mechanisms vis-à-vis their coarse-grained counterparts. In this context, the innovative concept of phase reversion-induced NG/UFG structure enabled achieving high strength besides comparable ductility, for instance, in metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the phase reversion process, severe deformation of austenite at room temperature (typically ~60–80%) transforms face-centered cubic austenite (γ) to body centered cubic martensite (α′). Upon annealing, martensite reverts to austenite leading to extensive grain refinement. The objective of the present study to fundamentally understand the deformation mechanisms in NG/UFG structure in relation to that of the coarse-grained (CG) structure was accomplished by combining depth-sensing nanoscale experiments on an Fe-16Cr-10Ni model austenitic alloy conducted at different strain rates, followed by the study of structural evolution in the deformed zone using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the high strength NG/UFG steel (YS~585 MPa), stacking faults and nanotwins contributed to the enhanced ductility (El~35%), while in the case of low strength (YS~260 MPa) coarse-grained (CG) counterpart, ductility was also high (El~40%), but chiefly due to strain-induced martensite, which points to a clear case of grain size effect (and the corresponding level of strength). The distinct change in the deformation mechanism from stacking faults and twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) in the NG structure to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) in the CG structure is elucidated in terms of austenite stability-strain energy relationship. The insights on the relationship between grain structure (and strength) and deformation mechanisms are envisaged to be important in providing a new direction for the futuristic design of high strength

  13. Microstructure, microtexture and precipitation in the ultrafine-grained surface layer of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by sliding friction treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanxia [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Yang, Yanqing, E-mail: yqyang@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Feng, Zongqiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao, Guangming; Huang, Bin; Luo, Xian [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Wei [Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Precipitate redistribution and texture evolution are usually two concurrent aspects accompanying grain refinement induced by various surface treatment. However, the detailed precipitate redistribution characteristics and process, as well as crystallographic texture in the surface refined grain layer, are still far from full understanding. In this study, we focused on the microstructural and crystallographic features of the sliding friction treatment (SFT) induced surface deformation layer in a 7050 aluminum alloy. With the combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high angle angular dark field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) observations, a surface ultrafine grain (UFG) layer composed of both equiaxed and lamellar ultrafine grains and decorated by high density of coarse grain boundary precipitates (GBPs) were revealed. Further precession electron diffraction (PED) assisted orientation mapping unraveled that high angle grain boundaries rather than low angle grain boundaries are the most favorable nucleation sites for GBPs. The prominent precipitate redistribution can be divided into three successive and interrelated stages, i.e. the mechanically induced precipitate dissolution, solute diffusion and reprecipitation. The quantitative prediction based on pipe diffusion along dislocations and grain boundary diffusion proved the distribution feasibility of GBPs around UFGs. Based on PED and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses, the crystallographic texture of the surface UFG layer was identified as a shear texture composed of major rotated cube texture (001) 〈110〉 and minor (111) 〈112〉, while that of the adjoining lamellar coarse grained matrix was pure brass. The SFT induced surface severe shear deformation is responsible for texture evolution. - Highlights: •The surface ultrafine grain layer in a 7050 aluminum alloy was focused. •Precipitate redistribution and texture evolution were discussed. •The quantitative prediction proved the

  14. Achieving ultrafine grained and homogeneous AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite with well-developed high angle grain boundaries through accumulative press bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirkhanlou, Sajjad, E-mail: s.amirkhanlou@aut.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Askarian, Masoomeh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Carreño, Fernando [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM-CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    Aluminum matrix nanocomposites with 2 vol% ZnO nanoparticles were produced using accumulative press bonding (APB) as a very effective and novel severe plastic deformation process. Microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of specimens were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile test. Microstructure of AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite showed a uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles throughout the aluminum matrix. STEM and EBSD observations revealed that ultrafine-grained Al/ZnO nanocomposite with the average grain size of <500 nm and well-developed high angle grain boundaries (80% high angle boundaries and 37° average misorientation angle) was successfully obtained by performing 14 cycles of the APB process. When the number of APB cycles increased the tensile strength of Al/ZnO nanocomposite improved and reached 228 MPa after 14 cycles, which was 2.6 and 1.3 times greater than the obtained values for annealed (raw material, 88 MPa) and monolithic aluminum (180 MPa), respectively.

  15. Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ngan, A.H.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Jabbari, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, an ultrafine grained (UFG) AISI 304L stainless steel with the average grain size of 650 nm was successfully welded by both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW). GTAW was applied without any filler metal. FSW was also performed at a constant rotational speed of 630 rpm and different welding speeds from 20 to 80 mm/min. Microstructural characterization was carried out by High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) with Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation, microhardness measurements and tensile tests were also performed to study the mechanical properties of the base metal and weldments. The results showed that the solidification mode in the GTAW welded sample is FA (ferrite–austenite) type with the microstructure consisting of an austenite matrix embedded with lath type and skeletal type ferrite. The nugget zone microstructure in the FSW welded samples consisted of equiaxed dynamically recrystallized austenite grains with some amount of elongated delta ferrite. Sigma phase precipitates were formed in the region ahead the rotating tool during the heating cycle of FSW, which were finally fragmented into nanometric particles and distributed in the weld nugget. Also there is a high possibility that the existing delta ferrite in the microstructure rapidly transforms into sigma phase particles during the short thermal cycle of FSW. These suggest that high strain and deformation during FSW can promote sigma phase formation. The final austenite grain size in the nugget zone was found to decrease with increasing Zener–Hollomon parameter, which was obtained quantitatively by measuring the peak temperature, calculating the strain rate during FSW and exact examination of hot deformation activation energy by considering the actual grain size before the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Mechanical properties observations showed that the welding

  16. The effect of impurity level on ultrafine-grained microstructures and their stability in low stacking fault energy silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, Zoltan; Gubicza, Jeno; Kawasaki, Megumi; Chinh, Nguyen Q.; Fogarassy, Zsolt; Langdon, Terence G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Effect of impurity content on microstructure in ECAP-processed silver was studied. → There is a lower degree of twinning in the less pure material for high strains. → The samples processed for 4-16 passes showed self-annealing during storage at RT. → Small increase of impurity level resulted in a much better stability at RT. - Abstract: The effect of impurity content on the evolution of microstructure in low stacking fault energy silver processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) was studied. The SPD-processing was carried out on 4N5 and 4N purity Ag samples by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 16 passes. It was found that, although the minimum grain size and the maximum dislocation density were not affected by the different impurity atom content, there is a lower degree of twinning in the less pure material for high number of passes. The small increase of impurity level from 4N5 to 4N in Ag resulted in a significantly better thermal stability at room temperature for the ultrafine-grained microstructures obtained by ECAP.

  17. Current status of ultra-fine grained W-TiC development for use in irradiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, H [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Kobayashi, S [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama-shi 790-8577 (Japan); Nakai, K [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama-shi 790-8577 (Japan); Arakawa, H [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Matsuo, S [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Takida, T [ALMT. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Takebe, K [ALMT. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Kawai, M [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC with a high purity matrix of low dislocation density is expected to exhibit improve resistance to irradiation with neutrons and helium ions and the room temperature mechanical properties. Aiming at such UFG W-TiC with the desired microstructure, powders of W with 0.25-0.8 wt% TiC additions were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), where purified H{sub 2} and Ar were used as the MA atmosphere. Microstructural observations and room- and high-temperature mechanical tests were performed for UFG W-TiC before and after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 2x10{sup 24} n m{sup -2} at 873 K. It is shown that the MA atmosphere significantly affects grain refinement, room-temperature strength and high-temperature tensile plasticity of UFG W-TiC. W-0.5TiC with H{sub 2} in MA (W-0.5TiC-H{sub 2}) shows a larger strain rate sensitivity of flow stress, m, of 0.5{approx}0.6 at temperatures from 1673 to 1973 K, which is a feature of superplastic materials. Whereas W-0.5TiC-Ar shows a smaller m value of approximately 0.2. No radiation hardening is recognized in UFG W-0.5TiC-H{sub 2} and W-0.5TiC-Ar.

  18. Current status of ultra-fine grained W-TiC development for use in irradiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, H; Kobayashi, S; Nakai, K; Arakawa, H; Matsuo, S; Takida, T; Takebe, K; Kawai, M

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC with a high purity matrix of low dislocation density is expected to exhibit improve resistance to irradiation with neutrons and helium ions and the room temperature mechanical properties. Aiming at such UFG W-TiC with the desired microstructure, powders of W with 0.25-0.8 wt% TiC additions were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), where purified H 2 and Ar were used as the MA atmosphere. Microstructural observations and room- and high-temperature mechanical tests were performed for UFG W-TiC before and after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 2x10 24 n m -2 at 873 K. It is shown that the MA atmosphere significantly affects grain refinement, room-temperature strength and high-temperature tensile plasticity of UFG W-TiC. W-0.5TiC with H 2 in MA (W-0.5TiC-H 2 ) shows a larger strain rate sensitivity of flow stress, m, of 0.5∼0.6 at temperatures from 1673 to 1973 K, which is a feature of superplastic materials. Whereas W-0.5TiC-Ar shows a smaller m value of approximately 0.2. No radiation hardening is recognized in UFG W-0.5TiC-H 2 and W-0.5TiC-Ar

  19. Comparison of the monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained low carbon steels processed by continuous and conventional equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, T.; Böhner, A.; Höppel, H.W.; Göken, M.; Valiev, R.Z.; Maier, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► UFG low-carbon steel was successfully processed by continuous ECAP-Conform. ► Continuously processed UFG steel shows high performance. ► High monotonic strength and good ductility. ► Microstructural stability under cyclic loading in the LCF regime. ► Established concepts can be used for predicting the properties. - Abstract: In the current study the mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel processed by conventional equal channel angular pressing and a continuous equal channel angular pressing-Conform process were investigated. Both monotonic and cyclic properties were determined for the steel in either condition and found to be very similar. Microstructural analyses employing electron backscatter diffraction were used for comparison of the low carbon steels processed by either technique. Both steels feature very similar grain sizes and misorientation angle distributions. With respect to fatigue life the low carbon steel investigated shows properties similar to ultra-fine grained interstitial-free steel processed by conventional equal channel angular pressing, and thus, the general fatigue behavior can be addressed following the same routines as proposed for interstitial-free steel. In conclusion, the continuously processed material exhibits very promising properties, and thus, equal channel angular pressing-Conform is a promising tool for production of ultra-fine grained steels in a large quantity

  20. Mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained structure formed in Al-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk-Cieslak, B.; Lewandowska, M.; Mizera, J.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical properties (microhardness, yield stress) of two model Al-Li alloys by the Equal-Channel-Angular-Extrusion (ECAE) process. The applied ECAE process reduced the grain size from an initial value of ∼300 μm to a value of ∼0.7 μm leading to profound increase of plastic flow resistance. Such an increase is related to the grain size refinement and strengthening due to Li atoms in solid solution. Microhardness data confirm the Hall - Petch relation for grain sizes not available so far in Al-Li alloys. (author)

  1. Ultrafine and fine particle formation in a naturally ventilated office as a result of reactions between ozone and scented products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Dijken, F. v.

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafine and fine particle formation as a result of chemical reactions between ozone and four different air fresheners and a typical lemon-scented domestic cleaner was studied in a fully furnished, naturally ventilated office. The study showed that under conditions representative of those...

  2. Characterization of ultra-fine grained aluminum produced by accumulative back extrusion (ABE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alihosseini, H.; Faraji, G.; Dizaji, A.F.; Dehghani, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructural evolutions and microhardness of AA1050 subjected to one, two and three passes of accumulative back extrusion (ABE) were investigated. The microstructural evolutions were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that applying three passes of accumulative back extrusion led to significant grain refinement. The initial grain size of 47 μm was refined to the grains of 500 nm after three passes of ABE. Increasing the number of passes resulted in more decrease in grain size, better microstructure homogeneity and increase in the microhardness. The cross-section of ABEed specimen consisted of two different zones: (i) shear deformation zone, and (ii) normal deformation zone. The microhardness measurements indicated that the hardness increased from the initial value of 31 Hv to 67 Hv, verifying the significant microstructural refinement via accumulative back extrusion. - Highlights: ► A significant grain refinement can be achieved in AA1050, Al alloy by applying ABE. ► Microstructural homogeneity of ABEed samples increased by increasing the number of ABE cycles. ► A substantial increase in the hardness, from 31 Hv to 67 Hv, was recorded.

  3. Dynamic restoration of severely predeformed, ultrafine-grained pure Cu at 373 K observed in situ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Eisenlohr, P.; Petrenec, M.; Sklenička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 134, DEC (2017), s. 329-334 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ECAP * Dynamic grain coarsening * UFG copper * In situ Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  4. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  5. Evolution of mechanical properties of ultrafine grained 1050 alloy annealing with electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yiheng; He, Lizi; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yizhou; Wang, Ping; Cui, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and microstructures of 1050 aluminum alloy prepared by equal channel angular pressing at cryogenic temperature (cryoECAP) after electric current annealing at 90–210 °C for 3 h were investigated by tensile test, electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). An unexpected annealing-induced strengthening phenomenon occurs at 90–210 °C, due to a significant decrease in the density of mobile dislocations after annealing, and thus a higher yield stress is required to nucleate alternative dislocation sources during tensile test. The electric current can enhance the motion of dislocations, lead to a lower dislocation density at 90–150 °C, and thus shift the peak annealing temperature from 150 °C to 120 °C. Moreover, the electric current can promote the migration of grain boundaries at 150–210 °C, result in a larger grain size at 150 °C and 210 °C, and thus causes a lower yield stress. The sample annealed with electric current has a lower uniform elongation at 90–120 °C, and the deviation in the uniform elongation between samples annealed without and with electric current becomes smaller at 150–210 °C. - Highlights: • An unexpected annealing-induced strengthening phenomenon occurs at 90–210 °C. • The d. c. current can enhance the motion of dislocations at 90–150 °C, and thus shift the peak annealing temperature from 150 °C to 120 °C. • The d. c. current can promote the grain growth at 150–210 °C, and thus cause a lower yield stress. • The DC annealed sample has a lower uniform elongation at 90–120 °C.

  6. In vitro and in vivo studies of ultrafine-grain Ti as dental implant material processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Baili; Li, Zhirui; Diao, Xiaoou [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xin, Haitao, E-mail: xhthmj@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Xiaorui; Wu, Yulu; Li, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Guo, Yazhou [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characterization of ultrafine-grain pure titanium (UFG-Ti) after sandblasting and acid-etching (SLA) and to evaluate its biocompatibility as dental implant material in vitro and in vivo. UFG-Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Microstructure and yield strength were investigated. The morphology, wettability and roughness of the specimens were analyzed after they were modified by SLA. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded onto the specimens to evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. For the in vivo study, UFG-Ti implants after SLA were embedded into the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. Osseointegration was investigated though micro-CT analysis, histological assessment and pull-out test. The control group was CP-Ti. UFG-Ti with enhanced mechanical properties was produced by four passes of ECAP in B{sub C} route at room temperature. After SLA modification, the hierarchical porous structure on its surface exhibited excellent wettability. The adhesion, proliferation and viability of cells cultured on the UFG-Ti were superior to that of CP-Ti. In the in vivo study, favorable osseointegration occurred between the implant and bone in CP and UFG-Ti groups. The combination intensity of UF- Ti with bone was higher according to the pull-out test. This study supports the claim that UFG-Ti has grain refinement with outstanding mechanical properties and, with its excellent biocompatibility, has potential for use as dental implant material. - Highlights: • Yield strength and Vickers hardness of Ti are improved significantly after it is grain-refined by ECAP process. • The hierarchical micro-porous structure with superior wettability could be formed on the surface of ECAP Ti after SLA. • The results in vitro exhibited excellent cell biocompatibility of UFG-Ti after sandblasting and acid-etching. • The osseointegration between UFG-Ti implant and surrounding bone could

  7. In vitro and in vivo studies of ultrafine-grain Ti as dental implant material processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Baili; Li, Zhirui; Diao, Xiaoou; Xin, Haitao; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Xiaorui; Wu, Yulu; Li, Kai; Guo, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characterization of ultrafine-grain pure titanium (UFG-Ti) after sandblasting and acid-etching (SLA) and to evaluate its biocompatibility as dental implant material in vitro and in vivo. UFG-Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Microstructure and yield strength were investigated. The morphology, wettability and roughness of the specimens were analyzed after they were modified by SLA. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded onto the specimens to evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. For the in vivo study, UFG-Ti implants after SLA were embedded into the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. Osseointegration was investigated though micro-CT analysis, histological assessment and pull-out test. The control group was CP-Ti. UFG-Ti with enhanced mechanical properties was produced by four passes of ECAP in B_C route at room temperature. After SLA modification, the hierarchical porous structure on its surface exhibited excellent wettability. The adhesion, proliferation and viability of cells cultured on the UFG-Ti were superior to that of CP-Ti. In the in vivo study, favorable osseointegration occurred between the implant and bone in CP and UFG-Ti groups. The combination intensity of UF- Ti with bone was higher according to the pull-out test. This study supports the claim that UFG-Ti has grain refinement with outstanding mechanical properties and, with its excellent biocompatibility, has potential for use as dental implant material. - Highlights: • Yield strength and Vickers hardness of Ti are improved significantly after it is grain-refined by ECAP process. • The hierarchical micro-porous structure with superior wettability could be formed on the surface of ECAP Ti after SLA. • The results in vitro exhibited excellent cell biocompatibility of UFG-Ti after sandblasting and acid-etching. • The osseointegration between UFG-Ti implant and surrounding bone could be

  8. Effect of Cryorolling and Aging on Fatigue Behavior of Ultrafine-grained Al6061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahpour, M.; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H.; Karimzadeh, F.

    2016-05-01

    The effects of cryorolling (rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature) and heat treatment on tensile and high-cycle fatigue properties and fatigue crack growth rate of Al6061 alloy have been investigated in the present work. First, the solid solution-treated bulk Al6061 alloy was subjected to cryorolling with 90% total thickness reduction and subsequent short annealing at 205°C for 5 min and peak aging at 148°C for 39 h to achieve grain refinement and simultaneous improvement of the strength and ductility. Then, hardness measurements, tensile tests, fatigue life, and fatigue crack growth rate tests including fractography analyses using scanning electron microscopy were performed on bulk Al6061 alloy, cryorolled (CR), and cryorolled material followed by peak aging (PA). The PA specimen showed improved yield strength by 24%, ultimate tensile strength by 20%, and ductility by 12% as compared with the bulk Al6061 alloy. It is shown that the fatigue strength of both CR and PA specimens under a high-cycle fatigue regime are larger than that of the bulk Al6061 alloy. Also, fatigue crack growth rates of the CR and PA specimens show significant enhancement in fatigue crack growth resistances as compared with the bulk Al6061 alloy, as a result of grain refinement.

  9. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, M.; Krizik, P.; Yan, M.; Simancik, F.; Schaffer, G.B.; Qian, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al 2 O 3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d 50 =1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  10. Magnetic properties of ultrafine-grained cobalt samples obtained from consolidated nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellah, F.; Cherif, S.M.; Schoenstein, F.; Jouini, N.; Dirras, G. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2011-08-15

    Co powders having nominal average particle size of 50 and 240 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or the emerging spark plasma sintering (SPS) compaction processes. Bulk polycrystalline aggregates were obtained, having average grain sizes of about 200 and 300 nm, respectively. It is found that both nanoparticles and consolidated samples exhibit a soft ferromagnetic behavior. The magnetization reversal likely occurs by nucleation/propagation process. However, a curling process can be involved in the magnetization reversal for the smaller particles. The dynamic measurements provide for the consolidated samples magnetic parameters corresponding to bulk cobalt with vanishing anisotropy. The contribution of the intergranular region is found to be negligible. We can infer that the used consolidation routes insure a good magnetic interfacial contact between the particles. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Dynamic testing at high strain rates of an ultrafine-grained magnesium alloy processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Joshi, S.; Azevedo, K.; Ma, E.; Ramesh, K.T.; Figueiredo, R.B.; Langdon, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    A ZK60 magnesium alloy was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K to produce a grain size of ∼0.8 μm and it was then tested under dynamic conditions at strain rates up to 4.0 x 10 3 s -1 using a split-Hopkinson bar. The stress-strain curves in dynamic testing exhibited upwards concave curvature suggesting the occurrence of twinning. Examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that dislocation slip played a major role in the flow behavior with dislocation accumulation as the main source of work hardening. An identification of Burgers vectors revealed the extensive presence of prismatic dislocations. Rod-shaped Mg 1 (Zn,Zr) 1 precipitates present in the as-received alloy become fragmented and overaged during ECAP.

  12. The formation of small grains in shocks in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony P.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous and silicate grains swept up, and betatron accelerated, by supernova-generated shock waves in the interstellar medium are exposed to grain destructive processing. The degree of grain destruction is determined by the differential gas-grain and grain-grain velocities, which lead to sputtering of the grain surface and grain core disruption (deformation, vaporization and shattering), respectively. The threshold pressure for grain shattering in grain-grain collisions (100 k bar) is considerably lower than that for vaporization (approximately 5 M bar). Therefore, collisions between grains shatter large grains into smaller fragments (i.e., small grains and PAH's). Using a new algorithms for the destructive processes, it was possible to model the formation fo small grain fragments in grain-grain collisions in the warm phase of the interstellar medium. It was found that in one cycle through the warm medium (approximately 3 x 10(sup 6) years) of order 1-2% of the total grain mass is shattered into particles with radii of less than 50 A.

  13. Ultrafine-grained magnesium–lithium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion: Low-temperature superplasticity and potential for hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunoshita, Hirotaka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Edalati, Kaveh, E-mail: kaveh.edalati@zaiko6.zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Furui, Mitsuaki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-07-29

    A Mg–Li alloy with 8 wt% Li was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the process of high-pressure torsion (HPT) to achieve ultrafine grains with an average grain size of ~500 nm. Tensile testing with an initial strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} showed that the alloy exhibited superplasticity at a temperature of 323 K or higher. Tensile testing in boiling water confirmed that the specimens were elongated to 350–480% at 373 K under the initial strain rates of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} to {sup 1}0{sup −2} s{sup −1} with a strain rate sensitivity of ~0.3. The current study suggests that not only superplastic forming but also superplastic hydroforming should be feasible after the grain refinement using the HPT method.

  14. Ultrafine-grained magnesium–lithium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion: Low-temperature superplasticity and potential for hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunoshita, Hirotaka; Edalati, Kaveh; Furui, Mitsuaki; Horita, Zenji

    2015-01-01

    A Mg–Li alloy with 8 wt% Li was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the process of high-pressure torsion (HPT) to achieve ultrafine grains with an average grain size of ~500 nm. Tensile testing with an initial strain rate of 10 −3 s −1 showed that the alloy exhibited superplasticity at a temperature of 323 K or higher. Tensile testing in boiling water confirmed that the specimens were elongated to 350–480% at 373 K under the initial strain rates of 10 −3 s −1 to 1 0 −2 s −1 with a strain rate sensitivity of ~0.3. The current study suggests that not only superplastic forming but also superplastic hydroforming should be feasible after the grain refinement using the HPT method

  15. Frequent ultrafine particle formation and growth in Canadian Arctic marine and coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Douglas B.; Burkart, Julia; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Lizotte, Martine; Boivin-Rioux, Aude; Blais, Marjolaine; Mungall, Emma L.; Boyer, Matthew; Irish, Victoria E.; Massé, Guillaume; Kunkel, Daniel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Papakyriakou, Tim; Bertram, Allan K.; Bozem, Heiko; Gosselin, Michel; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-11-01

    The source strength and capability of aerosol particles in the Arctic to act as cloud condensation nuclei have important implications for understanding the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. It has been shown in several Arctic regions that ultrafine particle (UFP) formation and growth is a key contributor to aerosol number concentrations during the summer. This study uses aerosol number size distribution measurements from shipboard expeditions aboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen in the summers of 2014 and 2016 throughout the Canadian Arctic to gain a deeper understanding of the drivers of UFP formation and growth within this marine boundary layer. UFP number concentrations (diameter > 4 nm) in the range of 101-104 cm-3 were observed during the two seasons, with concentrations greater than 103 cm-3 occurring more frequently in 2016. Higher concentrations in 2016 were associated with UFP formation and growth, with events occurring on 41 % of days, while events were only observed on 6 % of days in 2014. Assessment of relevant parameters for aerosol nucleation showed that the median condensation sink in this region was approximately 1.2 h-1 in 2016 and 2.2 h-1 in 2014, which lie at the lower end of ranges observed at even the most remote stations reported in the literature. Apparent growth rates of all observed events in both expeditions averaged 4.3 ± 4.1 nm h-1, in general agreement with other recent studies at similar latitudes. Higher solar radiation, lower cloud fractions, and lower sea ice concentrations combined with differences in the developmental stage and activity of marine microbial communities within the Canadian Arctic were documented and help explain differences between the aerosol measurements made during the 2014 and 2016 expeditions. These findings help to motivate further studies of biosphere-atmosphere interactions within the Arctic marine environment to explain the production of UFP and their growth to sizes

  16. In situ TEM study of the effect of M/A films at grain boundaries on crack propagation in an ultra-fine acicular ferrite pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yong; Xiao Furen; Zhang Jingwu; Shan Yiyin; Wang Wei; Yang Ke

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural refinement of structural materials generally improves their tensile properties but deteriorates their fatigue properties. However, pipeline steels with ultra-fine acicular ferrite (UFAF) possess not only high strength and toughness, but also a low fatigue-crack-growth rate (FCGR) and long fatigue-propagation life. In this paper, the micro-fracture mechanisms of an UFAF pipeline steel are investigated by in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that a grain-boundary-film structure composed of martensite/austenite could significantly influence the crack propagating behavior in the UFAF steel, consequently lowering the FCGR by enhancing roughness-induced crack closure during cyclic loading

  17. Numerical simulation of the mechanical behavior of ultrafine- and coarse-grained Zr-Nb alloys over a wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbenta, V. A.; Skripnyak, N. V.; Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results on the development of theoretical methods of evaluation and prediction of mechanical properties of Zr-Nb alloys over a range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1. The mechanical behavior of coarse- and ultrafine-grained Zr-1Nb (E110) was investigated numerically. The ranges of strain rates and temperatures in which the mechanical behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy can be described using modified models of Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong were defined. The results can be used in engineering analysis of designed technical systems for nuclear reactors.

  18. Texture analysis of a friction stir welded ultrafine grained Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamanian, Morteza, E-mail: shamanian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadnezhad, Mahyar [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5A9 (Canada)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Aluminum matrix composite was successfully bonded using friction stir welding. • After welding process the fraction of low angle boundary area rapidly decreases. • The grain growth in the NZ is related the increase of temperature during the FSW. • The aluminum matrix composite has a strong Rotated Cube texture. • The weld nugget has a Rotated Cube and shear texture. - Abstract: In recent years, several studies have been focused on friction stir welding of aluminum alloys, and some researchers have also been reported on welding of aluminum-based composites. In the present research, ultrafine grained sheets of aluminum matrix composite (Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The aluminum composite sheets were then joined by friction stir welding. The present work describes the effect of the FSW process on the microstructure and crystallographic textures in the base metal and weld nugget. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results demonstrated the existence of different grain orientations within the weld nugget as compared to the base metal. Al composite plates have a Rotated Cube texture component. Moreover, in the nugget, grain structure with Rotated Cube and shear texture developed. Friction stir welding coarsened the grain size in the weld zone from the original grain size of 3–17 μm.

  19. Texture analysis of a friction stir welded ultrafine grained Al–Al2O3 composite produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamanian, Morteza; Mohammadnezhad, Mahyar; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum matrix composite was successfully bonded using friction stir welding. • After welding process the fraction of low angle boundary area rapidly decreases. • The grain growth in the NZ is related the increase of temperature during the FSW. • The aluminum matrix composite has a strong Rotated Cube texture. • The weld nugget has a Rotated Cube and shear texture. - Abstract: In recent years, several studies have been focused on friction stir welding of aluminum alloys, and some researchers have also been reported on welding of aluminum-based composites. In the present research, ultrafine grained sheets of aluminum matrix composite (Al–Al 2 O 3 ) were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The aluminum composite sheets were then joined by friction stir welding. The present work describes the effect of the FSW process on the microstructure and crystallographic textures in the base metal and weld nugget. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results demonstrated the existence of different grain orientations within the weld nugget as compared to the base metal. Al composite plates have a Rotated Cube texture component. Moreover, in the nugget, grain structure with Rotated Cube and shear texture developed. Friction stir welding coarsened the grain size in the weld zone from the original grain size of 3–17 μm

  20. Influence of Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles on the thermal stability of ultra-fine grained copper prepared by high pressure torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Cizek, J; Kuzel, R; Islamgaliev, R K

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) Cu (grain size 80 nm) containing 0.5 wt.% Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles (size 20 nm) was prepared by high pressure torsion (HPT). Positron lifetime spectroscopy was employed to characterize the microstructure of this material, especially with respect to types and concentration of lattice defects. The evolution of microstructure with increasing temperature was studied by positron lifetime spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. The thermal stability of the Cu + 0.5 wt.% Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanocomposite was compared with that of pure UFG Cu prepared by the same technique. The processes taking place during thermal recovery of the initial nanoscale structure in both studied materials are described. (author)

  1. Study on the Effect of Laser Welding Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Grained 304L Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihane Nafar Dehsorkhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an ultrafine grained (UFG 304L stainless steel with the average grain size of 300 nm was produced by a combination of cold rolling and annealing. Weldability of the UFG sample was studied by Nd: YAG laser welding under different welding conditions. Taguchi experimental design was used to optimize the effect of frequency, welding time, laser current and laser pulse duration on the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties. X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Optical Microscope (OM, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, microhardness measurements and tension tests were conducted to characterize the sample after thermomechanical processing and laser welding. The results showed that the ultrafine grained steel had the yield strength of 1000 Mpa and the total elongation of 48%, which were almost three times higher than those of the as-received sample. The microstructure of the weld zone was shown to be a mixture of austenite and delta ferrite. The microhardness of the optimized welded sample (315 HV0.5 was found to be close to the UFG base metal (350 HV. It was also observed that the hardness of the heat affected zone (HAZ was  lower than that of the weld zone, which was related to the HAZ grain growth during laser welding. The results of optimization also showed that the welding time was the most important parameter affecting the weld strength. Overall, the study showed that laser welding could be an appropriate and alternative welding technique for the joining of UFG steels.

  2. Formation of dust grains with impurities in red giant winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Among the several proposed carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIB's) are impurities in small dust grains, especially in iron oxide grains (Huffman 1977) and silicate grains (Huffman 1970). Most promising are single ion impurities since they can reproduce the observed band widths (Whittet 1992). These oxygen-rich grains are believed to originate mostly in the mass flows from red giants and in supernovae ejecta (e.g. Gehrz 1989). A question of considerable impact for the origin of DIB's is therefore, whether these grains are produced as mainly clean crystals or as some dirty materials. A formalism has been developed that allows tracking of the heterogeneous growth of a dust grain and its internal structure during the dust formation process. This formalism has been applied to the dust formation in the outflow from a red giant star.

  3. New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kok Lung; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    that are important for preventing Fanconi anemia (FA) in man. As part of an analysis of the roles of these proteins in mitosis, we identified a novel class of anaphase bridge structure, called an ultra-fine anaphase bridge (UFB). These UFBs are also defined by the presence of a SNF2 family protein called PICH...

  4. Concurrent strengthening of ultrafine-grained age-hardenable Al-Mg alloy by means of high-pressure torsion and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yongpeng; Goto, Wataru; Hirosawa, Shoichi; Horita, Zenji; Lee, Seungwon; Matsuda, Kenji; Terada, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the age-hardening behavior and precipitate microstructures of severely-deformed and then artificially-aged Al-13.4 wt%Mg alloy has been investigated by Vickers hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). The combined processing of high-pressure torsion (HPT) and aging treatment at a temperature below spinodal lines results in a higher attained hardness of ∼HV296 with an age-hardenability (i.e ΔHV31 ± 2) comparable to that of the undeformed specimen without HPT (i.e. ΔHV33 ± 2). The corresponding TEM microstructures consist of modulated structures associated with spinodal decomposition, and quantitative estimation of the amplitude, as well as the wavelength, of Mg fluctuations was successfully conducted by APT for the first time for this alloy system. The linear relationship between the increment of Vickers hardness and the estimated amplitude of the undeformed specimen supposed that Kato's spinodal-hardening mechanism works even in the HPTed specimen with a high number density of grain boundaries. Therefore, our proposed strategy; i.e. taking advantage of spinodal decomposition, is regarded as a convincing approach to achieving concurrent strengthening by ultrafine-grained and precipitation hardenings for the alloys that decompose via spinodal decomposition.

  5. Increasing strength, ductility and impact toughness of ultrafine-grained 6063 aluminium alloy by combining ECAP and a high-temperature short-time aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L W; Schoenherr, R; Hockauf, M

    2010-01-01

    Since fully-dense ultrafine or nanocrystalline bulk materials can be processed, there has been an increasing scientific interest in several plastic deformation (SPD) procedures, particularly in the last decade. Especially the equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) has widely been investigated due to its ability of producing billets sufficiently large for industrial applications in functional or structural components. The significant strength increase based on grain refinement is typically accompanied by a significant decrease in ductility and toughness. Within this work, a new methodology was applied for combining ECAP with a subsequent high-temperature short-time aging for the 6063 aluminium alloy. An increase in strength, ductility as well as impact toughness regarding its coarse grained counterparts was reached. More precisely, ultimate tensile strength, elongation to failure and impact toughness were increased by 46%, 21% and 40% respectively. This was observed after only one run of ECAP at room temperature in a solid-solution treated condition and an aging at 170 0 C for 18 minutes. The regular aging time for maximum strength at 170 0 C is around 6 hours. Longer exposure times lead to recrystallisation and, as for regular aging, it leads to overaging, both causing a decrease of properties. The work demonstrates a strategy for an efficient processing of commercial Al-Mg-Si alloys with outstanding mechanical properties.

  6. Phase volume fractions and strain measurements in an ultrafine-grained NiTi shape-memory alloy during tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.L.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Frenzel, J.; Schmahl, W.W.; Eggeler, G.

    2010-01-01

    An ultrafine-grained pseudoelastic NiTi shape-memory alloy wire with 50.9 at.% Ni was examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction during in situ uniaxial tensile loading (up to 1 GPa) and unloading. Both macroscopic stress-strain measurements and volume-averaged lattice strains are reported and discussed. The loading behavior is described in terms of elasto-plastic deformation of austenite, emergence of R phase, stress-induced martensitic transformation, and elasto-plastic deformation, grain reorientation and detwinning of martensite. The unloading behavior is described in terms of stress relaxation and reverse plasticity of martensite, reverse transformation of martensite to austenite due to stress relaxation, and stress relaxation of austenite. Microscopically, lattice strains in various crystallographic directions in the austenitic B2, martensitic R, and martensitic B19' phases are examined during loading and unloading. It is shown that the phase transformation occurs in a localized manner along the gage length at the plateau stress. Phase volume fractions and lattice strains in various crystallographic reflections in the austenite and martensite phases are examined over two transition regions between austenite and martensite, which have a width on the order of the wire diameter. Anisotropic effects observed in various crystallographic reflections of the austenitic phase are also discussed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the tensile loading behavior, both macroscopically and microscopically, of NiTi shape-memory alloys.

  7. High temperature tensile properties and their application to toughness enhancement in ultra-fine grained W-(0-1.5)wt% TiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)], E-mail: kurishi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Takida, T.; Takebe, K. [A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kawai, M. [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshida, N. [Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC consolidates are very promising for use as divertors in fusion reactors, however, the assurance of room-temperature ductility of UFG W-TiC remains unsettled. The assurance requires a sufficient degree of plastic working for the consolidates and thus overcoming of poor plastic workability in UFG W-TiC by applying superplasticity. Therefore, the magnitudes of elongation to fracture and flow stress which are important measures for plastic working were examined for UFG W-(0-1.5)%TiC (in wt%) at 1673-1973 K where superplasticity occurs without appreciable grain growth. It is shown that the elongation and flow stress are strongly dependent on TiC addition and atmosphere (Ar, H{sub 2}) during mechanical alloying (MA). As the TiC addition increases, the elongation significantly increases without appreciable increase in the flow stress level. W-TiC fabricated with MA in H{sub 2} exhibits larger elongation and larger strain rate sensitivity of flow stress than W-TiC with MA in Ar. These results were applied to perform plastic working and the room-temperature bend test results for plastic worked W-1.0%TiC are shown.

  8. New Paradigm for Plasma Crystal Formation with weak grain interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Morfill, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    New results for non-linear grain screening, non-linear ion drag and non-linear collective attractions appropriate for existing experiments are used for the first time together to explain the observed phenomena of plasma condensation. Based on the physics of collective non-linear grain attraction a paradigm for plasma crystal formation is formulated according to which plasma the crystal formation is due to localization of grains in weak non-linear collective attraction wells. Nonlinearity in screening is an important feature of new paradigm and takes into account that the grain charges are large. The physical consequence of large non-linearity is the presence of relative large attraction potential well at distances several times larger then the non-linear screening radius. Calculated location of the potential well is of the order of the observed inter-grain distances in plasma crystals and the calculated deepness of the potential well determining the temperature of phase transition is close to that observed. The calculations of the deepness of the attraction collective well and the critical value of the coupling constant are performed using an assumption that the collective attraction length is larger than the non-linear screening length. The concept of collective grain interaction in complex plasmas is considered for the case where the non-linear screening is fully determining the collective attraction well

  9. Fabrication and formation mechanism of poly (L-lactic acid ultrafine multi-porous hollow fiber by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Z. Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA ultrafine multi-porous hollow fibers are fabricated by electrospinning with methylene dichloride as solvent. The Kirkendall effect has been widely applied for the fabrication of hollow structure in metals and inorganic materials. In this study, a conceptual extension is proposed for the formation mechanism: the development of porous hollow fiber undergoes three stages. The initial stage is the generation of small voids or pits on the surface of the fiber via surface diffusion and phase separation; the second stage is the formation of multi-pores penetrating the core of the fiber through the interaction of Kirkendall effect, surface diffusion and phase separation; the third stage is dominated by surface diffusion of the core material along the pore surface. To explore the formation conditions, the factors including ambient temperature, relativity humidity (R. H., molecular weight and fiber diameter are studied. The longitudinal and cross sectional morphologies of these fibers are examined by scanning electron micrograph (SEM. The results show that the prerequisite for the formation of uniform porous hollow PLLA fibers include moderate ambient temperature (10~20°C and appropriate molecular weight for the PLLA, as well as the diameter of the fiber in the range of several micrometers to about 100 nanometers.

  10. On the thermal stability of ultrafine-grained Al stabilized by in-situ amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Martin, E-mail: martin.balog@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 83102 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hu, Tao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Krizik, Peter [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 83102 Bratislava (Slovakia); Castro Riglos, Maria Victoria [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9.500 (8400) Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Saller, Brandon D.; Yang, Hanry; Schoenung, Julie M.; Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Bulk Al materials with average grain sizes of 0.47 and 2.4 µm, were fabricated by quasi-isostatic forging consolidation of two types of Al powders with average particle sizes of 1.3 and 8.9 μm, respectively. By utilizing the native amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film on the Al powders surfaces, a continuous, ∼7 nm thick, am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network was formed in situ in the Al specimens. Systematic investigation of the changes to the am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network embedded in the Al matrix upon heating and annealing up to 600 °C was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At the same time, the stability of the Al grain structure was studied by transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), and TEM. The am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network remained stable after annealing at 400 °C for 24 h. In-situ TEM studies revealed that at temperatures ≥450 °C, phase transformation of the am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network to crystalline γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles occurred. After annealing at 600 °C for 24 h the transformation was completed, whereby only nanometric γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with an average size of 28 nm resided on the high angle grain boundaries of Al. Due to the pinning effect of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the Al grain and subgrain structures remained unchanged during annealing up to 600 °C for 24 h. The effect of the am-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}→γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} transformation on the mechanical properties of ultrafine- and fine-grained Al is discussed from the standpoint of the underlying mechanisms.

  11. FORMATION INNOVATIVELY FOCUSED INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE GRAIN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Latynin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The perspective scheme of infrastructure of the modern grain market is directed on perfection merchandising grains by means of liquidation of is material disproportions between its participants for decrease in logistical costs counting upon 1 t grains, and creations of the alternative organized channel merchandising, providing a direct output on the wholesale market of direct commodity producers of grain and their participation in distribution of profit received from export. Elimination of is material disproportions on all circuit passage of grain from the supplier of production up to the end user is necessary for connecting with the organization merchandising on principles of logistics. It will allow to ensure the general synergistic effect exceeding total effect at separate participants of a circuit. The structure of Association participants of the grain market, is directed on creation mutual interest by a deepening specialization of each participant merchandising, consolidations of their investment resources to development of this circuit, to decrease in logistical costs. Feature of the modern period functioning of the grain market is necessity acceleration of scientific and technical progress on the basis of innovative processes. Innovative activity causes necessity of faster development of an infrastructure of the grain market. One directions promotion of innovations is development in region techno park formations. Their advantage consists in an opportunity initiators of new technologies independently to carry out their scientific and design development and to advance a grain husbandry through commercialization and a transfer. With a view modernization of a regional infrastructure of the grain market in modern conditions creation electronic trading platform, introduction system of electronic commerce is extremely actual. By means of electronic technologies economic attitudes in the market essentially change, giving to them scale

  12. Inter- and intragranular plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine-grained Al thin films: An in situ TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.; Boé, A.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the elementary deformation mechanisms in small-grained metals has been the subject of numerous recent studies. In the submicron range, mechanisms other than intragranular dislocation mechanisms, such as grain boundary (GB)-based mechanisms, are active and can explain the deviations from the Hall–Petch law. Here, we report observations performed during in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests on initially dislocation-free Al thin films with a mean grain size around 250 nm prepared by microfabrication techniques. Intergranular plasticity is activated at the onset of plasticity. It consists of the motion of dislocations in the GB plane irrespective of the GB character. Surface imperfections, such as GB grooves, are supposed to trigger intergranular plasticity. At larger deformations, the motion of the intergranular dislocations leads to GB sliding and eventually cavitation. In the meantime, GB stress-assisted migration and dislocation emission inside the grain from GB sources have also been observed. The observation of these different mechanisms during the deformation provides an important insight into the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  13. In situ study of thermally activated flow and dynamic restoration of ultrafine-grained pure Cu at 373 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blum, W.; Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Petrenec, M.; Eisenlohr, P.; Sklenička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 24 (2017), s. 4514-4521 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cu * dynamic grain coarsening * dynamic recovery * ECAP * in situ * stress relaxation * UFG Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2016

  14. Formation of intra-island grain boundaries in pentacene monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Yu; Duhm, Steffen; Rabe, Jürgen P; Rudolf, Petra; Koch, Norbert

    2011-12-21

    To assess the formation of intra-island grain boundaries during the early stages of pentacene film growth, we studied sub-monolayers of pentacene on pristine silicon oxide and silicon oxide with high pinning centre density (induced by UV/O(3) treatment). We investigated the influence of the kinetic energy of the impinging molecules on the sub-monolayer growth by comparing organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) and supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). For pentacene films fabricated by OMBD, higher pentacene island-density and higher polycrystalline island density were observed on UV/O(3)-treated silicon oxide as compared to pristine silicon oxide. Pentacene films deposited by SuMBD exhibited about one order of magnitude lower island- and polycrystalline island densities compared to OMBD, on both types of substrates. Our results suggest that polycrystalline growth of single islands on amorphous silicon oxide is facilitated by structural/chemical surface pinning centres, which act as nucleation centres for multiple grain formation in a single island. Furthermore, the overall lower intra-island grain boundary density in pentacene films fabricated by SuMBD reduces the number of charge carrier trapping sites specific to grain boundaries and should thus help achieving higher charge carrier mobilities, which are advantageous for their use in organic thin-film transistors.

  15. LABORATORY STRATEGIES FOR HYDRATE FORMATION IN FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, L.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Fine‐grained sediments limit hydrate nucleation, shift the phase boundary and hinder gas supply. Laboratory experiments in this study explore different strategies to overcome these challenges, including the use of a more soluble guest molecule rather than methane, grain‐scale gas‐storage within porous diatoms, ice‐to‐hydrate transformation to grow lenses at predefined locations, forced gas injection into water saturated sediments, and long‐term guest molecule transport. Tomographic images, thermal and pressure data provide rich information on hydrate formation and morphology. Results show that hydrate formation is inherently displacive in fine‐grained sediments; lenses are thicker and closer to each other in compressible, high specific surface area sediments subjected to low effective stress. Temperature and pressure trajectories follow a shifted phase boundary that is consistent with capillary effects. Exo‐pore growth results in freshly formed hydrate with a striped and porous structure; this open structure becomes an effective pathway for gas transport to the growing hydrate front. Ice‐to‐hydrate transformation goes through a liquid stage at pre‐melt temperatures; then, capillarity and cryogenic suction compete, and some water becomes imbibed into the sediment faster than hydrate reformation. The geometry of hydrate lenses and the internal hydrate structure continue evolving long after the exothermal response to hydrate formation has completely decayed. Multiple time‐dependent processes occur during hydrate formation, including gas, water and heat transport, sediment compressibility, reaction rate and the stochastic nucleation process. Hydrate formation strategies conceived for this study highlight the inherent difficulties in emulating hydrate formation in fine‐grained sediments within the relatively short time‐scale available for laboratory experiments.

  16. LABORATORY STRATEGIES FOR HYDRATE FORMATION IN FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, L.

    2018-04-02

    Fine‐grained sediments limit hydrate nucleation, shift the phase boundary and hinder gas supply. Laboratory experiments in this study explore different strategies to overcome these challenges, including the use of a more soluble guest molecule rather than methane, grain‐scale gas‐storage within porous diatoms, ice‐to‐hydrate transformation to grow lenses at predefined locations, forced gas injection into water saturated sediments, and long‐term guest molecule transport. Tomographic images, thermal and pressure data provide rich information on hydrate formation and morphology. Results show that hydrate formation is inherently displacive in fine‐grained sediments; lenses are thicker and closer to each other in compressible, high specific surface area sediments subjected to low effective stress. Temperature and pressure trajectories follow a shifted phase boundary that is consistent with capillary effects. Exo‐pore growth results in freshly formed hydrate with a striped and porous structure; this open structure becomes an effective pathway for gas transport to the growing hydrate front. Ice‐to‐hydrate transformation goes through a liquid stage at pre‐melt temperatures; then, capillarity and cryogenic suction compete, and some water becomes imbibed into the sediment faster than hydrate reformation. The geometry of hydrate lenses and the internal hydrate structure continue evolving long after the exothermal response to hydrate formation has completely decayed. Multiple time‐dependent processes occur during hydrate formation, including gas, water and heat transport, sediment compressibility, reaction rate and the stochastic nucleation process. Hydrate formation strategies conceived for this study highlight the inherent difficulties in emulating hydrate formation in fine‐grained sediments within the relatively short time‐scale available for laboratory experiments.

  17. Microstructural evolution by heating at 1673-2373 K in ultra-fine grained W-(0.25-1.5)%TiC consolidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Kurishita, H.; Arakawa, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC consolidates with nearly full densification are expected to be very promising for their use as divertors and structural materials exposed to irradiation environments because they exhibit good resistance to irradiations with fast neutrons, helium-ions and hydrogen-ions. In view of exposure to high heat loading on divertors, it is necessary to examine microstructural evolution due to high temperature heating in UFG W-TiC consolidates, which is closely related to recrystallization embrittlement. The objective of this study is to clarify how the microstructures in UFG W-TiC consolidates change with annealing at 1673-2373 K, with emphasis on the effects of TiC additions and nano-sized Ar bubbles retained in UFG W-TiC consolidates fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) in an Ar atmosphere. UFG W-(0.25, 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, 1.5)%TiC (in wt%) consolidates were fabricated by powder metallurgical methods utilizing MA with 3MPDA (three mutually perpendicular directions agitation) bail mill in an atmosphere of purified H 2 (MA-H 2 ) or Ar (MA-Ar), followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1623 K. Thin foils for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were prepared from each of the as-HIPed consolidates and subjected to annealing in vacuum at temperatures from 1673 to 2373 K for 3.6 ks by radio-frequency induction heating. TEM examinations and EDX analyses were made using a JEM-2000FX and JEM-4000FX operating at 200 and 400 kV, respectively. It is shown that the as-HIPed specimens exhibit equiaxed grain sizes of 40 to 200 nm which decrease with increasing TiC addition, but the grain size tends to saturate around 1 wt% TiC addition. The nano-sized Ar bubbles in W-TiC with MA-Ar are observed in approximately half of the grains and provide a significant grain refinement effect: The grain size in W-TiC with MA-Ar is approximately half of that with MA-H 2 . Such Ar bubbles are retained even after heating at

  18. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Fe-14Cr and ODS Fe-14Cr model alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A., E-mail: mauger@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Leguey, T., E-mail: leguey@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Munoz, A., E-mail: amunoz@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Castro, V. de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Fernandez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@ciemat.es [National Fusion Laboratory-CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garces, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Departamento de Metalurgia Fisica, CENIM (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pareja, R., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Reduced activation ferritic Fe-14 wt%Cr and Fe-14 wt%Cr-0.3 wt%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing followed by forging and heat treating. The alloy containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} developed a submicron-grained structure with homogeneous dispersion of oxide nanoparticles that enhanced the tensile properties in comparison to the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} free alloy. Strengthening induced by the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion appears to be effective up to 873 K, at least. A uniform distribution of Cr-rich precipitates, stable upon a heat treatment at 1123 K for 2 h, was also found in both alloys.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Fe-14Cr and ODS Fe-14Cr model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Munoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Fernandez, P.; Garces, G.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic Fe-14 wt%Cr and Fe-14 wt%Cr-0.3 wt%Y 2 O 3 alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing followed by forging and heat treating. The alloy containing Y 2 O 3 developed a submicron-grained structure with homogeneous dispersion of oxide nanoparticles that enhanced the tensile properties in comparison to the Y 2 O 3 free alloy. Strengthening induced by the Y 2 O 3 dispersion appears to be effective up to 873 K, at least. A uniform distribution of Cr-rich precipitates, stable upon a heat treatment at 1123 K for 2 h, was also found in both alloys.

  1. Ultrafine Ag/MnO{sub x} nanowire-constructed hair-like nanoarchitecture: In situ synthesis, formation mechanism and its supercapacitive property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yonghe; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yuefei, E-mail: yfzhang@bjut.edu.cn

    2015-09-25

    Graphical abstract: In this work, novel hair-like (HL) nanoarchitectures constructed by ultrafine MnO{sub x} nanowires (∼7 nm) entrapped with Ag nanoparticle were first synthesized by facile in situ reaction between Ag nanowires and KMnO{sub 4}, and a following hydrothermal method. The as-prepared HL Ag/MnO{sub x} nanocomposites as electrode delivered a high specific capacitance and good cycle stability. - Highlights: • Ultrafine MnO{sub x} nanowires with Ag nanoparticle dispersed on were in situ prepared. • Kirkendall effect and Ostwald ripening mechanism ascribed to developed morphology. • Desirable specific capacitance and cyclability made it candidate for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Hair-like (HL) nanoarchitectures constructed by ultrafine MnO{sub x} nanowires (∼7 nm) with ultrafine Ag nanoparticles anchored on were synthesized by in situ facile reaction between silver (Ag) nanowires and potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}), and followed by a following hydrothermal method. Based on a serious of time-dependent experiments, an orderly merged Kirkendall effect and dissolution-recrystallization (Ostwald ripening) mechanism were proposed for the formation of this novel morphology. The as-prepared HL Ag/MnO{sub x} nanocomposites as electrode exhibited a high specific capacitance (526 Fg{sup −1} at scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} and 450 Fg{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 Ag{sup −1}), good rate capability (ca. 45.5% retention with reference to 205 Fg{sup −1} at 50 times higher current density of 5 Ag{sup −1}) and desirable cycle stability (ranging from initial of 237 Fg{sup −1} to 185 Fg{sup −1} after 800 cycles and still maintaining 87% retention compared to 800th cycle after another 2800 cycles at current density of 2 Ag{sup −1}). Such desirable performance could be attributed to HL Ag/MnO{sub x} nanocomposites core (tubular nanosheets) with uniform dispersion of the ultrafine Ag nanoparticals provides a direct pathway for electron

  2. High-coercivity ultrafine-grained anisotropic Nd–Fe–B magnets processed by hot deformation and the Nd–Cu grain boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Nagashima, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Schrefl, T.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    The grain boundary diffusion process using an Nd 70 Cu 30 eutectic alloy has been applied to hot-deformed anisotropic Nd–Fe–B magnets, resulting in a substantial enhancement of coercivity, from 1.5 T to 2.3 T, at the expense of remanence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the areal fraction of an Nd-rich intergranular phase increased from 10% to 37%. The intergranular phase of the hot-deformed magnet initially contained ∼55 at.% ferromagnetic element, while it diminished to an undetectable level after the process. Microscale eutectic solidification of Nd/NdCu as well as a fine lamellae structure of Nd 70 (Co,Cu) 30 /Nd were observed in the intergranular phase. Micromagnetic simulations indicated that the reduction of the magnetization in the intergranular phases leads to the enhancement of coercivity in agreement with the experimental observation

  3. High Strength-High Ductility Combination Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steels Through Introduction of High Degree of Strain at Room Temperature Followed by Ultrarapid Heating During Continuous Annealing of a Nb-Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yonggang; Di, Hongshuang; Hu, Meiyuan; Zhang, Jiecen; Misra, R. D. K.

    2017-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained dual-phase (UFG-DP) steel consisting of ferrite (1.2 μm) and martensite (1 μm) was uniquely processed via combination of hot rolling, cold rolling and continuous annealing of a low-carbon Nb-microalloyed steel. Room temperature tensile properties were evaluated and fracture mechanisms studied and compared to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. In contrast to the CG-DP steel, UFG-DP had 12.7% higher ultimate tensile strength and 10.7% greater uniform elongation. This is partly attributed to the increase in the initial strain-hardening rate, decrease in nanohardness ratio of martensite and ferrite. Moreover, a decreasing number of ferrite grains with {001} orientation increased the cleavage fracture stress and increased the crack initiation threshold stress with consequent improvement in ductility UFG-DP steel.

  4. Zirconium dioxide ultrafine powders formation in ultra-high frequency discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triotskij, V.N.; Kurkin, E.N.; Torbov, V.I.; Berestenko, V.I.; Torbova, O.D.; Gurov, S.V.; Alekseev, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    ZrO 2 fine powders of 30...60 nm particle size were synthesized by ZrCl 4 oxidation in a flow of oxygen microwave plasma. Oxygen flow rate and ZrCl 4 feeding rate were the defining parameters effecting on powder particles size at constant discharge power.At predominant contribution of the coalescence process into ZrO 2 powder particles formation their heterogeneous growth was shown necessary to take into account. 16 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Formation of dust grains in the ejecta of SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozasa, Takashi; Hasegawa, Hiroichi; Nomoto, Kenichi

    1989-01-01

    Formation of dust grains in the ejecta of SN 1987A is investigated on the basis of a theory of homogeneous nucleation and grain growth. The formation of dust grains in the gas ejected from a heavy element-rich mantle is considered, including the effects of latent heat released during grain growth and of radiation from the photosphere. It is shown that dust grains can condense in the heavy-element-rich mantle, and that the time of formation strongly depends on the temperature structure in the ejecta. Moreover, the formation of dust grains is retarded by the strong SN radiation field and the effect of latent heat deposited during grain growth. 41 refs

  6. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • GO-doped PLGA–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofibers with diameter of about 130 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. • Incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk to the PLGA nanofibers accelerates osteoblast differentiation and formation of new bone. • Mechanical properties of composite nanofiber mats had been significantly improved after embedding with GO nanosheets. • Nanostructured composite scaffolds effectively accelerate mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and formation of new bone.

  7. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Weili [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); He, Jianxin, E-mail: hejianxin771117@163.com [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Sang, Feng [Department of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Treatment and Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wang, Qian [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Chen, Li [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cui, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Ding, Bin [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201600 (China)

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • GO-doped PLGA–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofibers with diameter of about 130 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. • Incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk to the PLGA nanofibers accelerates osteoblast differentiation and formation of new bone. • Mechanical properties of composite nanofiber mats had been significantly improved after embedding with GO nanosheets. • Nanostructured composite scaffolds effectively accelerate mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and formation of new bone.

  8. Effect of acicular ferrite formation on grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X.L.; Wei, R.; Wu, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure of acicular ferrite and its formation for the grain refinement of coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone of high strength low-alloy bainite steels were studied using three-dimensional reconstruction technique. Crystallographic grain size was analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction. It was revealed that the microstructure in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone consisted of predominantly bainite packets and a small proportion of acicular ferrite. Acicular ferrite was of lath or plate-like rather than needle or rod-like morphology. Tempering of the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone showed that the acicular ferrite was more stable than the bainite, indicating that the acicular ferrite was formed prior to bainite. The acicular ferrite laths or plates divided the prior austenite grains into smaller and separate regions, and confining the bainite transformed at lower temperatures in the smaller regions and hence leading to the grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone.

  9. Effect of acicular ferrite formation on grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.L.; Wei, R. [Institute of Advanced Steels and Welding Technology, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Systems Science on Metallurgical Processing, Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wu, K.M., E-mail: wukaiming@wust.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Steels and Welding Technology, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Systems Science on Metallurgical Processing, Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The microstructure of acicular ferrite and its formation for the grain refinement of coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone of high strength low-alloy bainite steels were studied using three-dimensional reconstruction technique. Crystallographic grain size was analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction. It was revealed that the microstructure in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone consisted of predominantly bainite packets and a small proportion of acicular ferrite. Acicular ferrite was of lath or plate-like rather than needle or rod-like morphology. Tempering of the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone showed that the acicular ferrite was more stable than the bainite, indicating that the acicular ferrite was formed prior to bainite. The acicular ferrite laths or plates divided the prior austenite grains into smaller and separate regions, and confining the bainite transformed at lower temperatures in the smaller regions and hence leading to the grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone.

  10. Sedimentary controls on modern sand grain coat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Worden, Richard H.; Utley, James; Hodgson, David M.

    2017-05-01

    Coated sand grains can influence reservoir quality evolution during sandstone diagenesis. Porosity can be reduced and fluid flow restricted where grain coats encroach into pore space. Conversely pore-lining grain coats can restrict the growth of pore-filling quartz cement in deeply buried sandstones, and thus can result in unusually high porosity in deeply buried sandstones. Being able to predict the distribution of coated sand grains within petroleum reservoirs is thus important to help find good reservoir quality. Here we report a modern analogue study of 12 sediment cores from the Anllóns Estuary, Galicia, NW Spain, collected from a range of sub-environments, to help develop an understanding of the occurrence and distribution of coated grains. The cores were described for grain size, bioturbation and sedimentary structures, and then sub-sampled for electron and light microscopy, laser granulometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Anllóns Estuary is sand-dominated with intertidal sand flats and saltmarsh environments at the margins; there is a shallowing/fining-upwards trend in the estuary-fill succession. Grain coats are present in nearly every sample analysed; they are between 1 μm and 100 μm thick and typically lack internal organisation. The extent of grain coat coverage can exceed 25% in some samples with coverage highest in the top 20 cm of cores. Samples from muddy intertidal flat and the muddy saltmarsh environments, close to the margins of the estuary, have the highest coat coverage (mean coat coverage of 20.2% and 21.3%, respectively). The lowest mean coat coverage occurs in the sandy saltmarsh (10.4%), beyond the upper tidal limit and sandy intertidal flat environments (8.4%), close to the main estuary channel. Mean coat coverage correlates with the concentration of clay fraction. The primary controls on the distribution of fine-grained sediment, and therefore grain coat distribution, are primary sediment transport and deposition processes that

  11. Microstructure and texture of a nano-grained complex Al alloy fabricated by accumulative roll-bonding of dissimilar Al alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hee; Jeon, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Kwang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    An ultrafine grain (UFG) complex lamella aluminum alloy sheet was successfully fabricated by ARB process using AA1050 and AA6061. The lamella thickness of the alloy became thinner and elongated to the rolling direction with increasing the number of ARB cycles. By TEM observation, it is revealed that the aspect ratio of UFGs formed by ARB became smaller with increasing the number of ARB cycles. In addition, the effect of ARB process on the development of deformation texture at the quarter thickness of ARB-processed sheets was clarified. ARB process leaded to the formation of the rolling texture with shear texture and weak cube orientation. The subdivision of the grains to the rolling direction began to occur after 3 cycles of the ARB, resulting in formation of ultrafine grains with small aspect ratio. After 5 cycles, the ultrafine grained structure with the average grain diameter of 560 nm develops in almost whole regions of the sample.

  12. Giant Young’S Modulus Variations in Ultrafine-Grained Copper Caused by Texture Changes at Post-Spd Heat Treatment / Gigantyczne Zmiany Modułu Younga W Ultra Drobnoziarnistej Miedzi Spowodowane Przez Zmiany Tekstury W Trakcie Obróbki Cieplnej Po SPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal-Val P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of annealing on dynamic Young’s modulus, E, of ultrafine-grained (UFG copper obtained by combined severe plastic deformation (SPD is investigated. It is established that Young’s modulus in the SPD-prepared samples exceeds that in the coarse-grained fully annealed (CGFA samples by 10 to 20 %. Isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures between 90 and 630°С leads to a sharp decrease of Young’s modulus for annealing temperatures above 210°С. After annealing at 410°С, the value of E reaches its minimal value that is 35 % lower than E in CGFA samples (total change in E is about 47 % of the initial value. Further annealing at higher temperatures leads to an increase in Young’s modulus. It is shown, that the unusual behavior of Young’s modulus is caused by formation of the axial texture in the SPD-treated samples which then is replaced by the texture during the post-SPD heat treatment.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN SIZE AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS ON THE FORMATION OF INTERSTELLAR ICE MANTLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T., E-mail: tap74@cornell.edu [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry of dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote grain-mantle build-up, with most ices forming on the mid-sized grains. As collapse proceeds, the more abundant, smallest grains cool and become the dominant ice carriers; the large population of small grains means that this ice is distributed across many grains, with perhaps no more than 40 monolayers of ice each (versus several hundred assuming a single grain size). This effect may be important for the subsequent processing and desorption of the ice during the hot-core phase of star formation, exposing a significant proportion of the ice to the gas phase, increasing the importance of ice-surface chemistry and surface–gas interactions.

  14. The Effects of Grain Size and Temperature Distributions on the Formation of Interstellar Ice Mantles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T.

    2016-02-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry of dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote grain-mantle build-up, with most ices forming on the mid-sized grains. As collapse proceeds, the more abundant, smallest grains cool and become the dominant ice carriers; the large population of small grains means that this ice is distributed across many grains, with perhaps no more than 40 monolayers of ice each (versus several hundred assuming a single grain size). This effect may be important for the subsequent processing and desorption of the ice during the hot-core phase of star formation, exposing a significant proportion of the ice to the gas phase, increasing the importance of ice-surface chemistry and surface-gas interactions.

  15. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2014), s. 221-227 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2014

  16. Multiple void formation in plasmas containing multispecies charged grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Bogaerts, A.; Yu, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Self-organized separation of charged-dust species in two-dimensional dusty plasmas is studied by means of molecular-dynamics simulation. The multispecies dust grains, interacting through a screened Coulomb potential with a long-range attractive component, are confined by an external quadratic potential and subjected to a radially outward ion drag force. It is found that, in general, the species are spatially separated by bandlike dust-free (or void) regions, and grains of the same species tend to populate a common shell. At large ion drag and/or large plasma screening, a central disklike void as well as concentric bandlike voids separating the different species appear. Because of the outward drag and the attractive component of the dust-dust interaction forces, highly asymmetrical states consisting of species-separated dust clumps can also exist despite the fact that all the forces are either radial or central

  17. Influence of transport mechanisms on nucleation and grain structure formation in DC cast aluminium alloy ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, M.; Založnik, M.; Kumar, A.; Combeau, H.; Jarry, P.; Waz, E.

    2012-01-01

    The grain structure formation in direct chill (DC) casting is directly linked to nucleation, which is generally promoted by inoculation. Inoculation prevents defects, but also modifies the physical properties by changing the microstructure. We studied the coupling of the nucleation on inoculant particles and the grain growth in the presence of melt flow induced by thermosolutal convection and of the transport of free-floating equiaxed grains. We used a volume-averaged two-phase multiscale model with a fully coupled description of phenomena on the grain scale (nucleation on grain refiner particles and grain growth) and on the product scale (macroscopic transport). The transport of inoculant particles is also modeled, which accounts for the inhomogeneous distribution of inoculant particles in the melt. The model was applied to an industrial sized (350mm thick) DC cast aluminium alloy ingot. A discretised nuclei size distribution was defined and the impact of different macroscopic phenomena on the grain structure formation was studied: the zone and intensity of nucleation and the resulting grain size distribution. It is shown that nucleation in the presence of macroscopic transport cannot be explained only in terms of cooling rate, but variations of composition, nuclei density and grain density, all affected by transport, must be accounted for.

  18. The Formation of Formaldehyde on Interstellar Carbonaceous Grain Analogs by O/H Atom Addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, Alexey; Jäger, Cornelia [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Jonusas, Mindaugas; Krim, Lahouari, E-mail: alexey.potapov@uni-jena.de [Department of Chemistry, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8233, MONARIS, Paris F-75005 (France)

    2017-09-10

    An understanding of possible scenarios for the formation of astrophysically relevant molecules, particularly complex organic molecules, will bring us one step closer to the understanding of our astrochemical heritage. In this context, formaldehyde is an important molecule as a precursor of methanol, which in turn is a starting point for the formation of more complex organic species. In the present experiments, for the first time, following the synthesis of CO, formaldehyde has been produced on the surface of interstellar grain analogs, hydrogenated fullerene-like carbon grains, by O and H atom bombardment. The formation of H{sub 2}CO is an indication for a possible methanol formation route in such systems.

  19. Formation of bands of ultrafine beryllium particles during rapid solidification of Al-Be alloys: Modeling and direct observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, J.W.; Tanner, L.E.; Smith, P.M.; Wall, M.A.; Aziz, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid solidification of dilute hyper-eutectic and monotectic alloys sometimes produces a dispersion of ultrafine randomly-oriented particles that lie in arrays parallel to the advancing solidification front. The authors characterize this effect in Al-Be where Be-rich particles with diameters on the order of 10 nm form in arrays spaced approximately 25 nm apart, and they present a model of macroscopically steady state but microscopically oscillatory motion of the solidification front to explain this unusual microstructure. The proposed mechanism involves; (i) the build-up of rejected solute in a diffusional boundary layer which slows down the growing crystal matrix, (2) the boundary layer composition entering a metastable liquid miscibility gap, (3) homogeneous nucleation of solute rich liquid droplets in the boundary layer, and crystallization of these droplets, and (4) growth of the matrix past the droplets and its reformation into a planar interface. The size of the Be-rich particles is limited by the beryllium supersaturation in the diffusional boundary layer. A numerical model was developed to investigate this solidification mechanism, and the results of the model are in good agreement with experimental observations of rapidly solidified Al-5 at.% Be

  20. Stacking fault tetrahedra formation in the neighbourhood of grain boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, M; Van Swygenhoven, H; Victoria, M

    2003-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations are performed to study the role of the grain boundary (GB) during the cascade evolution in irradiated nanocrystalline Ni. At all primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies in cascades near GBs, the damage produced after cooling down is vacancy dominated. Truncated stacking fault tetrahedra (TSFTs) are easily formed at 10 keV and higher PKA energies. At the higher energies a complex partial dislocation network forms, consisting of TSFTs. The GB acts as an interstitial sink without undergoing major structural changes.

  1. Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Z.H.; Weschler, Charles J.; Han, IK

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined the co-formation of hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides (collectively presented as H2O2*) as well as submicron particles, including ultra-fine particles (UFP), resulting from the reactions of ozone (O-3) with a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... higher than typical indoor levels. When O-3 was added to a 25-m(3) controlled environmental facility (CEF) containing the 23 VOC mixture, both H2O2* and submicron particles were formed. The 2-h average concentration of H2O2* was 1.89 +/- 0.30ppb, and the average total particle number concentration was 46...... to achieve saturated concentrations of the condensable organics. When the 2 terpenes were removed from the O-3/23 VOCs mixture, no H2O2* or particles were formed, indicating that the reactions of O-3 With the two terpenes were the key processes contributing to the formation of H2O2* and submicron particles...

  2. EVIDENCE FOR H{sub 2} FORMATION DRIVEN DUST GRAIN ALIGNMENT IN IC 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B-G; De Buizer, J.; Charcos-Llorens, M. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N211-3 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Piirola, V. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Clemens, D. P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Uomoto, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lazarian, A.; Hoang, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Vornanen, T., E-mail: bg@sofia.usra.edu [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland)

    2013-10-01

    In the interstellar medium (ISM), molecular hydrogen is expected to form almost exclusively on the surfaces of dust grains. Due to that molecule's large formation energy (–4.5 eV), several dynamical effects are likely associated with the process, including the alignment of asymmetric dust grains with the ambient magnetic field. Such aligned dust grains are, in turn, believed to cause the broadband optical/infrared polarization observed in the ISM. Here, we present the first observational evidence for grain alignment driven by H{sub 2} formation, by showing that the polarization of the light from stars behind the reflection nebula IC 63 appears to correlate with the intensity of H{sub 2} fluorescence. While our results strongly suggest a role for 'Purcell rockets' in grain alignment, additional observations are needed to conclusively confirm their role. By showing a direct connection between H{sub 2} formation and a probe of the dust characteristics, these results also provide one of the first direct confirmations of the grain-surface formation of H{sub 2}. We compare our observations to ab initio modeling based on Radiative Torque Alignment (RAT) theory.

  3. Crystallographic contribution to the formation of the columnar grain structure in cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.; Itoh, K.; Okamoto, K.; Hashimoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the crystallographic contribution to the formation of the columnar grain structure, the geometric and crystallographic alignments of columnar grains in cobalt films were investigated on the basis of magnetic and optical measurements. The films were deposited by sputtering at an incidence angle of 45 on glass substrates heated at 332 K. The film thickness ranged from 20 to 850 nm. Above 50 nm the columnar grains align in the direction parallel to the incidence plane and form a two-degree crystallographic orientation. The packing density of columnar grains decreases with increasing thickness when the thickness exceeds 50 nm. From these results we conclude that the crystal habit appearing on column tops induces the two-degree orientation through geometric selection and aligns the selected columnar grains in the parallel direction. (orig.)

  4. Formation of Hydroxylamine on Dust Grains via Ammonia Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco; Lemaire, Jean-Louis; Garrod, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    The quest to detect prebiotic molecules in space, notably amino acids, requires an understanding of the chemistry involving nitrogen atoms. Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) is considered a precursor to the amino acid glycine. Although not yet detected, NH2OH is considered a likely target of detection with ALMA. We report on an experimental investigation of the formation of hydroxylamine on an amorphous silicate surface via the oxidation of ammonia. The experimental data are then fed into a simulation of the formation of NH2OH in dense cloud conditions. On ices at 14 K and with a modest activation energy barrier, NH2OH is found to be formed with an abundance that never falls below a factor 10 with respect to NH3. Suggestions of conditions for future observations are provided.

  5. FORMATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE ON DUST GRAINS VIA AMMONIA OXIDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Lemaire, Jean-Louis [Paris Observatory, F-75014 Paris (France); Garrod, Robin T., E-mail: gvidali@syr.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The quest to detect prebiotic molecules in space, notably amino acids, requires an understanding of the chemistry involving nitrogen atoms. Hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) is considered a precursor to the amino acid glycine. Although not yet detected, NH{sub 2}OH is considered a likely target of detection with ALMA. We report on an experimental investigation of the formation of hydroxylamine on an amorphous silicate surface via the oxidation of ammonia. The experimental data are then fed into a simulation of the formation of NH{sub 2}OH in dense cloud conditions. On ices at 14 K and with a modest activation energy barrier, NH{sub 2}OH is found to be formed with an abundance that never falls below a factor 10 with respect to NH{sub 3}. Suggestions of conditions for future observations are provided.

  6. Annealing Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Al Composites Reinforced with Nano-Al2O3 by Rotary Swaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cunguang; Wang, Wenwen; Guo, Zhimeng; Sun, Chunbao; Volinsky, Alex A.; Paley, Vladislav

    2018-03-01

    Microstructure evolution and variations in mechanical properties of Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite produced by powder metallurgy were investigated and compared with commercially pure aluminum (Al-1050) after furnace annealing. Fine gas-atomized Al powder compacts were first sintered in flowing nitrogen, subsequently consolidated into wires by rotary swaging and eventually annealed at 300 and 500 °C for 24 h each. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy was utilized to document the microstructure evolution. Rotary swaging was proven to lead to a marked decrease in grain size. After heavy swaging to true deformation degree of φ = 6 and annealing at 500 °C, obvious recrystallization was observed at Al-1050's existing grain boundaries and the crystals began to grow perpendicular to the flow direction. In the Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite, fabricated from d 50 = 6 μm Al powder, recrystallization partially occurred, while grains were still extremely fine. Due to the dual role of fine-grained Al2O3 dispersion strengthening, the nanocomposite showed improved mechanical performance in terms of tensile strength, approximately twice higher than Al-1050 after annealing at 500 °C.

  7. Effect of Mo addition on the microstructure and hardness of ultrafine-grained Ni alloys processed by a combination of cryorolling and high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Garima [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary); Huang, Yi [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO171BJ (United Kingdom); Sarma, V. Subramanya [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Langdon, Terence G. [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO171BJ (United Kingdom); Gubicza, Jenő, E-mail: jeno.gubicza@ttk.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary)

    2017-03-14

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the grain size, lattice defect structure and hardness of nickel (Ni) processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD). The SPD processing was applied to Ni samples with low (~0.3 at%) and high (~5 at%) Mo concentrations by a consecutive application of cryorolling and high-pressure torsion (HPT). The grain size and the dislocation density were determined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray line profile analysis, respectively. In addition, the hardness values in the centers, half-radius and peripheries of the HPT-processed disks were determined after ½, 5 and 20 turns. The results show the higher Mo content yields a dislocation density about two times larger and a grain size about 30% smaller. The smallest value of the grain size was ~125 nm and the highest measured dislocation density was ~60×10{sup 14} m{sup −2} for Ni-5% Mo. For the higher Mo concentration, the dislocation arrangement parameter was larger indicating a less clustered dislocation structure due to the hindering effect of Mo on the rearrangement of dislocations into low energy configurations. The results show there is a good correlation between the dislocation density and the yield strength using the Taylor equation. The α parameter in this equation is slightly lower for the higher Mo concentration in accordance with the less clustered dislocation structure.

  8. Ultrafine tungsten as a plasma-facing component in fusion devices: effect of high flux, high fluence low energy helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Atwani, O.; Gonderman, Sean; Allain, J.P.; Efe, Mert; Klenosky, Daniel; Qiu, Tian; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas; Bystrov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the response of ultrafine-grained tungsten materials to high-flux, high-fluence, low energy pure He irradiation. Ultrafine-grained tungsten samples were exposed in the Pilot-PSI (Westerhout et al 2007 Phys. Scr. T128 18) linear plasma device at the Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER) in Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. The He flux on the tungsten samples ranged from 1.0 × 10 23 –2.0 × 10 24  ions m −2  s −1 , the sample bias ranged from a negative (20–65) V, and the sample temperatures ranged from 600–1500 °C. SEM analysis of the exposed samples clearly shows that ultrafine-grained tungsten materials have a greater fluence threshold to the formation of fuzz by an order or magnitude or more, supporting the conjecture that grain boundaries play a major role in the mechanisms of radiation damage. Pre-fuzz damage analysis is addressed, as in the role of grain orientation on structure formation. Grains of (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) orientation showed only pore formation, while (0 0 1) oriented grains showed ripples (higher structures) decorated with pores. Blistering at the grain boundaries is also observed in this case. In situ TEM analysis during irradiation revealed facetted bubble formation at the grain boundaries likely responsible for blistering at this location. The results could have significant implications for future plasma-burning fusion devices given the He-induced damage could lead to macroscopic dust emission into the fusion plasma. (paper)

  9. Martensite shear phase reversion-induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy: The effect of interstitial alloying elements and degree of austenite stability on phase reversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Madison Hall Room 217, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-1430 (United States); Zhang, Z.; Venkatasurya, P.K.C. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Madison Hall Room 217, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-1430 (United States); Somani, M.C.; Karjalainen, L.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, Oulu 90014 (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Development of a novel process involving phase-reversion annealing process. {yields} Austensite stability strongly influences development of nanograined structure. {yields} Interstitial elements influence microstructural evolution during annealing. - Abstract: We describe here an electron microscopy study of microstructural evolution associated with martensitic shear phase reversion-induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) structure in an experimental Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy with very low interstitial content. The primary objective is to understand and obtain fundamental insights on the influence of degree of austenite stability (Fe-16Cr-10Ni, 301LN, and 301 have different austenite stability index) and interstitial elements (carbon and nitrogen) in terms of phase reversion process, microstructural evolution during reversion annealing, and temperature-time annealing sequence. A relative comparison of Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy with 301LN and 301 austenitic stainless steels indicated that phase reversion in Fe-16Cr-10Ni occurred by shear mechanism, which is similar to that observed for 301, but is different from the diffusional mechanism in 301LN steel. While the phase reversion in the experimental Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy and 301 austenitic stainless steel occurred by shear mechanism, there were fundamental differences between these two alloys. The reversed strain-free austenite grains in Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy were characterized by nearly same crystallographic orientation, where as in 301 steel there was evidence of break-up of martensite laths during reversion annealing resulting in several regions of misoriented austenite grains in 301 steel. Furthermore, a higher phase reversion annealing temperature range (800-900 deg. C) was required to obtain a fully NG/UFG structure of grain size 200-600 nm. The difference in the phase reversion and the temperature-time sequence in the three stages is explained in terms of Gibbs free energy change that

  10. Formation Timescales of Amosphous Rims on Lunar Grains Derived from ARTEMIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, Jasper S.

    2018-01-01

    The weathering of airless bodies exposed to space is a fundamental process in the formation and evolution of planetary surfaces. At the Moon, space weathering induces a variety of physical, chemical, and optical changes including the formation of nanometer-sized amorphous rims on individual lunar grains. These rims are formed by vapor redeposition from micrometeoroid impacts and ion irradiation-induced amorphization of the crystalline matrix. For ion irradiation-induced rims, however, laboratory experiments of the depth and formation timescales of these rims stand in stark disagreement with observations of lunar soil grains. We use observations by the Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon to compute the mean ion flux to the lunar surface between 10 eV and 5 MeV and convolve this flux with ion irradiation-induced vacancy production rates as a function of depth calculated using the Stopping Range of Ions in Matter model. By combining these results with laboratory measurements of the critical fluence for charged-particle amorphization in olivine, we can predict the formation timescale of amorphous rims as a function of depth in olivinic grains. This analysis resolves two outstanding issues: (1) the provenance of >100 nm amorphous rims on lunar grains and (2) the nature of the depth-age relationship for amorphous rims on lunar grains.

  11. A mechanism for the formation of equiaxed grains in welds of aluminum-lithium alloy 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D.C.; Wang, G.-X.; Srivatsan, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this technical note, the formation and presence of a zone of equiaxed grains (EQZ) along the fusion boundary of welded aluminum-lithium alloy 2090 using filler metals containing zirconium and lithium is presented and discussed. However, no EQZ was evident in welded joints of alloy 2090 using the commercial filler metals: aluminum alloy 2319 and 4145. Under identical conditions, aluminum-lithium alloy 2090 was fusion welded using several new filler metals containing various amounts of zirconium and lithium. Results reveal an increase in the width of the zone of equiaxed grains with an increase in zirconium and lithium content in the filler metal. A viable mechanism for the formation of equiaxed grains and its relationship to filler metal composition is highlighted

  12. Against the grain : French and German preference formation on agricultural trade during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    In Against the Grain, Gerry Alons presents her research on French and German preference formation on agricultural trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s. In this process, the French and German governments were confronted with contradictory domestic and international pressure. While the farm

  13. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorena, Rheo B.; Jung, Sang-Guen; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Woojin

    2007-01-01

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including α- and β-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168 nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170 ppm and acetic acid at 0.260 ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440 min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments

  14. Spurious Grain Formation at Cross-Sectional Expansion During Directional Solidification: Influence of Thermosolutal Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, M.; Lauer, M.; Upadhyay, S. R.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2018-04-01

    Formation of spurious grains during directional solidification (DS) of Al-7 wt.% Si and Al-19 wt.% Cu alloys through an abrupt increase in cross-sectional area has been examined by experiments and by numerical simulations. Stray grains were observed in the Al-19 wt.% Cu samples and almost none in the Al-7 wt.% Si. The locations of the stray grains correlate well where numerical solutions indicate the solute-rich melt to be flowing up the thermal gradient faster than the isotherm velocity. It is proposed that the spurious grain formation occurred by fragmentation of slender tertiary dendrite arms was enhanced by thermosolutal convection. In Al-7 wt.% Si, the dendrite fragments sink in the surrounding melt and get trapped in the dendritic array growing around them, and therefore they do not grow further. In the Al-19 wt.% Cu alloy, on the other hand, the dendrite fragments float in the surrounding melt and some find conducive thermal conditions for further growth and become stray grains.

  15. The Role of Grain Orientation and Grain Boundary Characteristics in the Mechanical Twinning Formation in a High Manganese Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterner, Vadim; Timokhina, Ilana B.; Rollett, Anthony D.; Beladi, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the dependence of mechanical twinning on grain orientation and grain boundary characteristics was investigated using quasi in-situ tensile testing. The grains of three main orientations (i.e., , , and parallel to the tensile axis (TA)) and certain characteristics of grain boundaries (i.e., the misorientation angle and the inclination angle between the grain boundary plane normal and the TA) were examined. Among the different orientations, and were the most and the least favored orientations for the formation of mechanical twins, respectively. The orientation was intermediate for twinning. The annealing twin boundaries appeared to be the most favorable grain boundaries for the nucleation of mechanical twinning. No dependence was found for the inclination angle of annealing twin boundaries, but the orientation of grains on either side of the annealing twin boundary exhibited a pronounced effect on the propensity for mechanical twinning. Annealing twin boundaries adjacent to high Taylor factor grains exhibited a pronounced tendency for twinning regardless of their inclination angle. In general, grain orientation has a significant influence on twinning on a specific grain boundary.

  16. Beta-Tin Grain Formation in Aluminum-Modified Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    The limited number of independent β-Sn grain orientations that typically form during solidification of Sn-based solders and the resulting large β-Sn grain size have major effects on overall solder performance and reliability. This study analyzes whether additions of Al to Sn-Cu and Sn-Cu-Ag alloys can be used to change the grain size, morphology, and twinning structures of atomized (as-solidified) and re-melted (reflowed) β-Sn dendrites as determined using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction for as-solidified and reflow cycled (20-250°C, 1-5 cycles) Sn-Cu-Al and Sn-Ag-Cu-Al drip atomized spheres (260 μm diameter). The resulting microstructures were compared to as-solidified and reflow cycled Sn-Ag-Cu spheres (450 μm diameter) as well as as-solidified Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag microstructures from the literature. Previous literature observations reporting reductions in undercooling and β-Sn grain size with Al micro-alloying additions could not be correlated to the presence of the Cu9Al4 phase or Al solute. The as-solidified spheres displayed no change in β-Sn dendrite structure or grain size when compared to non-Al-modified alloys, and the reflow cycled spheres produced high undercoolings (22-64°C), indicating a lack of potent nucleation sites. The current findings highlighted the role of Ag in the formation of the interlaced twinning structure and demonstrated that with deliberate compositional choices, formation of the alloy's β-Sn grain structure (cyclical twinning versus interlaced twinning) could be influenced, in both the as-solidified and reflow cycled states, though still not producing the fine-grain sizes and multiple orientations desired for improved thermomechanical properties.

  17. Study of vacancy-type defects by positron annihilation in ultrafine-grained aluminum severely deformed at room and cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, L.H.; Lu, C.; He, L.Z.; Zhang, L.C.; Guagliardo, P.; Tieu, A.K.; Samarin, S.N.; Williams, J.F.; Li, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial-purity aluminum was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature (RT-ECAP) and cryogenic temperature (CT-ECAP) with liquid nitrogen cooling between two successive passes. It was found that the RT-ECAPed samples showed equiaxed microstructure after 4 and 8 ECAP passes, while the CT-ECAPed samples displayed slightly elongated microstructure and slightly smaller grain size. Moreover, the CT-ECAPed samples had higher hardness values than the RT-ECAPed samples subjected to the same amount of deformation. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the evolution of vacancy-type defects during the ECAP deformation process. The results showed that three types of defects existed in the ECAPed samples: vacancies associated with dislocations, bulk monovacancies and bulk divacancies. The CT-ECAPed samples had a higher fraction of monovacancies and divacancies. These two types of defects are the major vacancy-type defects that can work as dislocation pinning centers and induce hardening, resulting in higher hardness values in the CT-ECAPed samples. A quantitative relationship between material hardness and the defect concentration and defect diffusion coefficient has been established.

  18. Monte Carlo kinetics simulations of ice-mantle formation on interstellar grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Robin

    2015-08-01

    The majority of interstellar dust-grain chemical kinetics models use rate equations, or alternative population-based simulation methods, to trace the time-dependent formation of grain-surface molecules and ice mantles. Such methods are efficient, but are incapable of considering explicitly the morphologies of the dust grains, the structure of the ices formed thereon, or the influence of local surface composition on the chemistry.A new Monte Carlo chemical kinetics model, MIMICK, is presented here, whose prototype results were published recently (Garrod 2013, ApJ, 778, 158). The model calculates the strengths and positions of the potential mimima on the surface, on the fly, according to the individual pair-wise (van der Waals) bonds between surface species, allowing the structure of the ice to build up naturally as surface diffusion and chemistry occur. The prototype model considered contributions to a surface particle's potential only from contiguous (or "bonded") neighbors; the full model considers contributions from surface constituents from short to long range. Simulations are conducted on a fully 3-D user-generated dust-grain with amorphous surface characteristics. The chemical network has also been extended from the simple water system previously published, and now includes 33 chemical species and 55 reactions. This allows the major interstellar ice components to be simulated, such as water, methane, ammonia and methanol, as well as a small selection of more complex molecules, including methyl formate (HCOOCH3).The new model results indicate that the porosity of interstellar ices are dependent on multiple variables, including gas density, the dust temperature, and the relative accretion rates of key gas-phase species. The results presented also have implications for the formation of complex organic molecules on dust-grain surfaces at very low temperatures.

  19. The effect of grain refinement and silicon content on grain formation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.C.; Dahle, A.K.; StJohn, D.H.; Hutt, J.E.C. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mining, Minerals and Mater. Eng.

    1999-01-15

    The effect of increasing the amount of added grain refiner on grain size and morphology has been investigated for a range of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. The results show a transition in grain size at a silicon concentration of about 3 wt% in unrefined alloys; the grain size decreasing with silicon content before the transition, and increasing beyond the transition point. A change in morphology also occurs with increased silicon content. The addition of grain refiner leads to greater refinement for silicon contents below the transition point than for those contents above the transition point, while the transition point seems to remain unchanged. The slope of the grain size versus silicon content curve after the transition seems to be unaffected by the degree of grain refinement. The results are related to the competitive processes of nucleation and constitutional effects during growth and their impact on nucleation kinetics. (orig.) 13 refs.

  20. Radiation-induced grain subdivision and bubble formation in U3Si2 at LWR temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiankai; Gong, Bowen; He, Lingfeng; Harp, Jason; Tonks, Michael; Lian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    U3Si2, an advanced fuel form proposed for light water reactors (LWRs), has excellent thermal conductivity and a high fissile element density. However, limited understanding of the radiation performance and fission gas behavior of U3Si2 is available at LWR conditions. This study explores the irradiation behavior of U3Si2 by 300 keV Xe+ ion beam bombardment combining with in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The crystal structure of U3Si2 is stable against radiation-induced amorphization at 350 °C even up to a very high dose of 64 displacements per atom (dpa). Grain subdivision of U3Si2 occurs at a relatively low dose of 0.8 dpa and continues to above 48 dpa, leading to the formation of high-density nanoparticles. Nano-sized Xe gas bubbles prevail at a dose of 24 dpa, and Xe bubble coalescence was identified with the increase of irradiation dose. The volumetric swelling resulting from Xe gas bubble formation and coalescence was estimated with respect to radiation dose, and a 2.2% volumetric swelling was observed for U3Si2 irradiated at 64 dpa. Due to extremely high susceptibility to oxidation, the nano-sized U3Si2 grains upon radiation-induced grain subdivision were oxidized to nanocrystalline UO2 in a high vacuum chamber for TEM observation, eventually leading to the formation of UO2 nanocrystallites stable up to 80 dpa.

  1. Ultrafine portland cement performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By mixing several binder materials and additions with different degrees of fineness, the packing density of the final product may be improved. In this work, ultrafine cement and silica fume mixes were studied to optimize the properties of cement-based materials. This research was performed in mortars made of two types of cement (ultrafine Portland cement and common Portland cement and two types of silica fume with different particle-size distributions. Two Portland cement replacement ratios of 4% and 10% of silica fume were selected and added by means of a mechanical blending method. The results revealed that the effect of the finer silica fume mixed with the coarse cement enhances the mechanical properties and pore structure refinement at a later age. This improvement is somewhat lower in the case of ultrafine cement with silica fume.

  2. Grain Formation Processes in Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Outflows: Testing the Metastable Eutectic Condensation Hypothesis and Measuring Atom-Grain & Grain-Grain Sticking Coefficients (A Sub-orbital Investigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph

    An experimentally-based model of grain formation in oxygen-rich circumstellar outflows that includes vapor-solid nucleation, grain growth, thermal annealing and grain aggregation in sufficient detail to predict the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the shells for comparison with observations of a wide range of stellar sources still lacks critical data. In order to gather this data we propose to conduct a series of laboratory experiments using our proven experimental system and microgravity condensation, growth and grain aggregation experiments on sounding rockets with a flight-proven payload provided by Dr. Yuki Kimura of Hokkaido University. We have proposed that solids from a hydrogen-rich, supersaturated, Fe-Mg-SiO vapor condense at metastable eutectic points in this ternary phase diagram. Because the FeOMgO system is totally miscible (has no eutectic or metastable eutectic compositions), this predicts that condensates will be pure Mg-silicate or Fe-silicate grains and that no primary condensate will be a mixed Fe-Mg-silicate. We have shown that this observation leads to a logical explanation as to why pure magnesium olivine and enstatite minerals are detected in circumstellar winds rather than the mixed Mg-Fe-silicate grains that might otherwise be expected (Rietmeijer, Nuth & Karner, 1999). This simplifying hypothesis has been built into our models of circumstellar condensation and growth. However, these experimental results require confirmation and testing since they should apply to other, quite similar condensable systems. We propose to test this hypothesis by condensing solids from the Fe-Mg-AlO ternary vapor system. Since FeO-MgO miscibility also applies to this system, the primary condensates from such a vapor should consist of pure amorphous Fe-aluminates and Mg-aluminates. No mixed Fe-Mg-spinels should be detected as primary condensates if this hypothesis is correct, just as none were detected for the FeO-MgO-SiO system. Confirmation of this

  3. Chevrel phases superconductive and ultrafine powders synthesis and characterization; Synthese et caracterisation de poudres ultrafines supraconductrices de phases de Chevrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even-Boudjada, S

    1994-12-01

    This work deals with the Chevrel phases superconductive and ultrafine powders synthesis and characterization. The first part of this study presents some new way of synthesis (precipitation, coprecipitation) of Chevrel phases precursors powders (PbS, SnS, MoS{sub 2}) and their characterizations (X-ray fluorescence analysis, ICP mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and laser granulometry). These new synthesis methods lead to quasi spherical morphology grains and very weak size grains (0.2 to 0.5 {mu}m) whereas the chemical preparation from the solid state elements gives very different morphology grains (small plates) with a size of 1 to 20 {mu}m. In the second part is shown the interest of the binary Mo{sub 6} S{sub 8} as precursor in the synthesis of ternary superconductive phases (Li, Ni, Cu, Pb). The last part presents the formation reaction of the phase PbMo{sub 6} S{sub 8} and its main chemical and physical properties. Thus some calorimetric measures associated with X-ray diffraction analysis have been realized and have allowed to understand the different reactions occurring during the PbMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} synthesis. (O.L.). 100 refs., figs., tabs.

  4. Seasonal variations of ultra-fine and submicron aerosols in Taipei, Taiwan: implications for particle formation processes in a subtropical urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Cheung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of atmospheric ultra-fine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm and submicron particles (PM1, d ≤ 1 µm in an east Asian urban area, which are hypothesized to be affected by the interchange of summer and winter monsoons. An observation experiment was conducted at TARO (Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory, an urban aerosol station in Taipei, Taiwan, from October 2012 to August 2013. The measurements included the mass concentration and chemical composition of UFPs and PM1, as well as the particle number concentration (PNC and the particle number size distribution (PSD with size range of 4–736 nm. The results indicated that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with a peak level of 18.5 µg m−3 in spring, whereas the highest concentration of UFPs was measured in summertime with a mean of 1.64 µg m−3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents of PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9  ×  103 cm−3 in autumn to 19.4  ×  103 cm−3 in spring. Median concentrations for respective size distribution modes peaked in different seasons. The nucleation-mode PNC (N4 − 25 peaked at 11.6  ×  103 cm−3 in winter, whereas the Aitken-mode (N25 − 100 and accumulation-mode (N100 − 736 PNC exhibited summer maxima at 6.0  ×  103 and 3.1  ×  103 cm−3, respectively. The change in PSD during summertime was attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributed to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, clear photochemical production of particles was observed, mostly in the summer season

  5. Formation of incoherent deformation twin boundaries in a coarse-grained Al-7Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. B.; Zhang, K.; Bjørge, R.; Tao, N. R.; Marthinsen, K.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. J.

    2015-08-01

    Deformation twinning has rarely been observed in coarse grained Al and its alloys except under some extreme conditions such as ultrahigh deformation strain or strain rates. Here, we report that a significant amount of Σ3 deformation twins could be generated in a coarse-grained Al-7 Mg alloy by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). A systematic investigation of the Σ3 boundaries shows that they are Σ3{112} type incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs). These ITBs have formed by gradual evolution from copious low-angle deformation bands through -twist Σ boundaries by lattice rotation. These findings provide an approach to generate deformation twin boundaries in high stacking fault energy metallic alloys. It is suggested that high solution content of Mg in the alloy and the special deformation mode of DPD played an important role in formation of the Σ and ITBs.

  6. The spatial distribution of microfabric around gravel grains: indicator of till formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KalväNs, Andis; Saks, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Till micromorphology studies in thin sections is an established tool in the field of glacial geology. Often the thin sections are inspected only visually with help of mineralogical microscope. This can lead to subjective interpretation of observed structures. More objective method used in till micromorphology is measurement of apparent microfabric, usually seen as preferred orientation of elongated sand grains. In theses studies only small fraction of elongated sand grains often confined to small area of thin section usually are measured. We present a method for automated measurement of almost all elongated sand grains across the full area of the thin section. Apparently elongated sand grains are measured using simple image analysis tools, the data are processed in a way similar to regular till fabric data and visualised as a grid of rose diagrams. The method allows to draw statistical information about spatial variation of microfabric preferred orientation and fabric strength with resolution as fine as 1 mm. Late Weichselian tills from several sites in Western Latvia were studied and large variations in fabric strength and spatial distribution were observed in macroscopically similar till units. The observed types of microfabric spatial distributions include strong, monomodal and uniform distribution; weak and highly variable in small distances distribution; consistently bimodal distribution and domain-like pattern of preferred sand grain orientation. We suggest that the method can be readily used to identify the basic deformation and sedimentation processes active during the final stages of till formation. It is understood that the microfabric orientation will be significant affected by nearby large particles. The till is highly heterogonous sediment and the source of microfabric perturbations observed in thin section might lie outside the section plane. Therefore we suggest that microfabric distribution around visible sources of perturbation - gravel grains cut

  7. Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Christa; Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Dwek, Eli; Maund, Justyn R; Fox, Ori; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele; Day-Jones, Avril C

    2014-07-17

    The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions, but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1 to 0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae in the first few years after explosion. Observations of the spectral evolution of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40 to 240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength-dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (exceeding one micrometre) grains, which resist destruction. At later times (500 to 900 days), the near-infrared thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the dust source from the circumstellar medium to the ejecta. This provides the link between the early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

  8. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: c.carrasco@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: r.galvan@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: linz@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.

  9. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura; Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra; Flock, Mario; Menten, Karl; Testi, Leonardo; Torrelles, José M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10 −3 M ⊙ , depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings

  10. Formation of {1 0 0} textured columnar grain structure in a non-oriented electrical steel by phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Li; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangp@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, Ning; Zong, Cui; Xia, Dongsheng; Mao, Weimin

    2014-04-01

    This study confirms the effect of anisotropic strain energy on the formation of {1 0 0} textured columnar grain structure induced by temperature gradient during γ to α phase transformation in pure hydrogen atmosphere. Results indicate that high temperature gradient in pure hydrogen atmosphere induces a significant strain energy difference across grain boundaries during γ to α phase transformation, leading to the formation of {1 0 0} texture with columnar grains. Given its simplicity in processing and its ability to obtain good texture-related magnetic properties, the proposed approach is helpful to the development of new types of non-oriented electrical steel. - Highlights: • A strong {1 0 0} texture with columnar grains was obtained. • Good texture and magnetic properties are attributed to the anisotropic strain energy. • The anisotropy in elastic strain energy was induced by the temperature gradient. • The phase transformation rate affects columnar grain morphology.

  11. Dust grain charges in a nuclear-track plasma and the formation of dynamic vortex dust structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, V.A.; Khudyakov, A.V.; Filinov, V.S.; Vladimirov, V.I.; Deputatova, L.V.; Krutov, D.V.; Nefedov, A.P.; Fortov, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented from Monte Carlo calculations of the electric charge of dust grains in a plasma produced during the slowing down of the radioactive decay products of californium nuclei in neon. The dust grain charging is explained for the first time as being due to the drift of electrons and ions in an external electric field. It is shown that the charges of the grains depend on their coordinates and strongly fluctuate with time. The time-averaged grain charges agree with the experimental data obtained on ordered liquidlike dust structures in a nuclear-track plasma. The time-averaged dust grain charges are used to carry out computer modeling of the formation of dynamic vortex structures observed in experiments. Evidence is obtained of the fact that the electrostatic forces experienced by the dust grains are potential in character

  12. Connecting macroscopic observables and microscopic assembly events in amyloid formation using coarse grained simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah S Bieler

    Full Text Available The pre-fibrillar stages of amyloid formation have been implicated in cellular toxicity, but have proved to be challenging to study directly in experiments and simulations. Rational strategies to suppress the formation of toxic amyloid oligomers require a better understanding of the mechanisms by which they are generated. We report Dynamical Monte Carlo simulations that allow us to study the early stages of amyloid formation. We use a generic, coarse-grained model of an amyloidogenic peptide that has two internal states: the first one representing the soluble random coil structure and the second one the [Formula: see text]-sheet conformation. We find that this system exhibits a propensity towards fibrillar self-assembly following the formation of a critical nucleus. Our calculations establish connections between the early nucleation events and the kinetic information available in the later stages of the aggregation process that are commonly probed in experiments. We analyze the kinetic behaviour in our simulations within the framework of the theory of classical nucleated polymerisation, and are able to connect the structural events at the early stages in amyloid growth with the resulting macroscopic observables such as the effective nucleus size. Furthermore, the free-energy landscapes that emerge from these simulations allow us to identify pertinent properties of the monomeric state that could be targeted to suppress oligomer formation.

  13. On the formation of an ultrafine-duplex structure facilitated by severe shear deformation in a Ti–20Mo β-type titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Wu, X.; Stoica, M.; Calin, M.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Xia, K.

    2012-01-01

    Severe plastic deformation in the form of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been adopted to introduce severe shear strain into a Ti–20 wt.% Mo β-type titanium alloy to elucidate the aging response of the severely deformed β matrix. Upon isothermal aging in the (α + β) phase field, selective heterogeneous α nucleation and growth resulted in a mixed precipitation microstructure. An ultrafine-duplex (α + β) structure composed of equiaxed α precipitates formed inside the shear bands (SBs) created during ECAP, whereas acicular α precipitates were favoured outside the SBs. This distinct precipitation structure has been correlated to the structural characteristics of the SBs: high disorder with dislocation cells characteristic of low-angle boundaries and enhanced atomic diffusivity. The highly disordered structure results in a weak variant selection and thereby promotes randomly orientated α precipitation without obeying the Burgers orientation relationship. Furthermore, the enhanced atomic diffusivity facilitates rapid growth of the α nuclei to form the ultrafine-duplex (α + β) structure.

  14. A Novel, Extremely Elongated, and Endocellular Bacterial Symbiont Supports Cuticle Formation of a Grain Pest Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Bin; Okude, Genta; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Futahashi, Ryo; Moriyama, Minoru; Meng, Xian-Ying; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2017-09-26

    The saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Silvanidae), is a cosmopolitan stored-product pest. Early studies on O. surinamensis in the 1930s described the presence of peculiar bacteriomes harboring endosymbiotic bacteria in the abdomen. Since then, however, the microbiological nature of the symbiont has been elusive. Here we investigated the endosymbiotic system of O. surinamensis in detail. In the abdomen of adults, pupae, and larvae, four oval bacteriomes were consistently identified, whose cytoplasm was full of extremely elongated tubular bacterial cells several micrometers wide and several hundred micrometers long. Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified the symbiont as a member of the Bacteroidetes , in which the symbiont was the most closely related to the endosymbiont of a grain pest beetle, Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae). The symbiont was detected in developing embryos, corroborating vertical symbiont transmission through host generations. The symbiont gene showed AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, plausibly reflecting degenerative evolution of the symbiont genome. When the symbiont infection was experimentally removed, the aposymbiotic insects grew and reproduced normally, but exhibited a slightly but significantly more reddish cuticle and lighter body mass. These results indicate that the symbiont of O. surinamensis is not essential for the host's growth and reproduction but contributes to the host's cuticle formation. Symbiont genome sequencing and detailed comparison of fitness parameters between symbiotic and aposymbiotic insects under various environmental conditions will provide further insights into the symbiont's biological roles for the stored-product pest. IMPORTANCE Some beetles notorious as stored-product pests possess well-developed symbiotic organs called bacteriomes for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria, although their biological roles have been poorly understood. Here we report

  15. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Macrosegregation and Grain Formation Caused by Convection Associated with Directional Solidification Through Cross-Section Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Masoud; Lauer, Mark; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David; Grugel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrical Al-7 wt% Silicon, Al-19 wt% Copper and Lead-6 wt% Antimony alloy samples were directionally solidified (DS) with liquid above, solid below, and gravity pointing down, in graphite crucibles having an abrupt cross-sectional increase. These alloys have similar solidification shrinkage but are expected to have different degrees of thermosolutal convection during solidification. Microstructures in the DS samples in the vicinity of the section change have been studied in order to examine the effect of convection associated with the combined influence of thermosolutal effects and solidification shrinkage. Extensive radial and axial macrosegregation associated with cross-section change is observed. It also appears that steepling and local primary alpha-phase remelting resulting from convection are responsible for stray grain formation at the reentrant corners. Preliminary results from a numerical model, which includes solidification shrinkage and thermosolutal convection in the mushy zone, indicate that these regions are prone to solutal remelting of dendrites.

  17. Investigation on the asymmetry of thermal condition and grain defect formation in the customary directional solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D; Wu, Q; Hollad, S; Bührig-Polaczek, A

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the non-uniformity of the thermal condition and the corresponding grain defect formation in the customary Bridgman process were investigated. The casting clusters in radial alignment were directionally solidified in a Bridgman furnace. It was found that in the casting cluster, the shadow side facing the central rod was ineffectively heated in the hot zone and ineffectively cooled in the cooling zone during withdrawal, compared with the heater side facing the furnace heater. The metallographic examination of the simplified turbine blades exhibited that the platforms on the shadow side are very prone to stray grain formation, while the heater side reveals a markedly lower tendency for that. The asymmetric thermal condition causes the asymmetrical formation of these grain defects. This non-uniformity of the thermal condition should be minimized as far as possible, in order to effectively optimize the quality of the SC superalloy components.

  18. The role of grain size in He bubble formation: Implications for swelling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atwani, O.; Nathaniel, J. E.; Leff, A. C.; Muntifering, B. R.; Baldwin, J. K.; Hattar, K.; Taheri, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline metals are postulated as radiation resistant materials due to their high defect and particle (e.g. Helium) sink density. Here, the performance of nanocrystalline iron films is investigated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using He irradiation at 700 K. Automated crystal orientation mapping is used in concert with in-situ TEM to explore the role of grain orientation and grain boundary character on bubble density trends. Bubble density as a function of three key grain size regimes is demonstrated. While the overall trend revealed an increase in bubble density up to a saturation value, grains with areas ranging from 3000 to 7500 nm2 show a scattered distribution. An extrapolated swelling resistance based on bubble size and areal density indicated that grains with sizes less than 2000 nm2 possess the greatest apparent resistance. Moreover, denuded zones are found to be independent of grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary misorientation angle.

  19. An alternative explanation for evidence that xenon depletion, pore formation, and grain subdivision begin at different local burnups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to interpret the recent observation that xenon depletion, pore formation, and grain subdivision occur successively at increasing local burnups, a rate-theory-based model is used to investigate the nucleation and growth of cavities during low-temperature irradiation of UO 2 in the presence of irradiation-induced interstitial-loop formation and growth. Consolidation of the dislocation structure takes into account the generation of forest dislocations and capture of interstitial dislocation loops. The loops accumulate and ultimately evolve into a low-energy cellular dislocation structure. The cell walls have been previously identified as recrystallization nuclei. The calculations indicate that nanometer-size bubbles are associated with this cellular dislocation structure while the observed micron-size bubbles are presumed to be either preexisting pores deformed by adjacent grains and/or new pores formed in the new recrystallized grain-boundary junctions. Subsequent to recrystallization, gas released from the recrystallized grains feeds the preexisting pores and the recrystallized grains may appear to form a preferential concentration of subdivided grains around the growing pores. This picture is illustrated in a sequence of photomicrographs of irradiated U 3 O 8

  20. A Novel, Extremely Elongated, and Endocellular Bacterial Symbiont Supports Cuticle Formation of a Grain Pest Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hirota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Silvanidae, is a cosmopolitan stored-product pest. Early studies on O. surinamensis in the 1930s described the presence of peculiar bacteriomes harboring endosymbiotic bacteria in the abdomen. Since then, however, the microbiological nature of the symbiont has been elusive. Here we investigated the endosymbiotic system of O. surinamensis in detail. In the abdomen of adults, pupae, and larvae, four oval bacteriomes were consistently identified, whose cytoplasm was full of extremely elongated tubular bacterial cells several micrometers wide and several hundred micrometers long. Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified the symbiont as a member of the Bacteroidetes, in which the symbiont was the most closely related to the endosymbiont of a grain pest beetle, Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae. The symbiont was detected in developing embryos, corroborating vertical symbiont transmission through host generations. The symbiont gene showed AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, plausibly reflecting degenerative evolution of the symbiont genome. When the symbiont infection was experimentally removed, the aposymbiotic insects grew and reproduced normally, but exhibited a slightly but significantly more reddish cuticle and lighter body mass. These results indicate that the symbiont of O. surinamensis is not essential for the host’s growth and reproduction but contributes to the host’s cuticle formation. Symbiont genome sequencing and detailed comparison of fitness parameters between symbiotic and aposymbiotic insects under various environmental conditions will provide further insights into the symbiont’s biological roles for the stored-product pest.

  1. Nitrogen chemistry on dust grains: the formation of hydroxylamine, precursor to glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Shi, Jianming; Hopkins, Tyler; Garrod, Rob; He, Jiao

    2015-08-01

    In ices coating dust grains in molecular clouds, nitrogen-containing molecules - mostly NH3 - are present in sizable quantity, up to 15-20% with respect to water ice, the largest component. We studied the oxidation of ammonia in a series of experiments using beams of oxygen and ammonia in various configurations (co-deposition and sequential deposition with various NH3:O ratios). We detected the formation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and other products, depending on the degree of oxidation. A simulation of a dense cloud with input from experimental data shows that on and in ices at 14 K and with modest activation energy for reaction, NH2OH is easily formed and its abundance never falls below a tenth of the NH3 abundance. Strategies for detection of hydroxylamine in the ISM will be presented.This work is supported by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Division (grant No.1311958 to G.V.). R.T.G. acknowledges the support of the NASA Astrophysics Theory Program (grant No. NNX11AC38G).

  2. Effect of grain refiner on intermetallic phase formation in directional solidification of 6xxx series wrought Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, G.; O' Reilly, K.; Cantor, B. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Adv. Mat. and Composites; Hamerton, R.; Worth, J.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of a grain refiner on the formation of intermetallic phases in a directionally solidified (Bridgman grown) model 6xxx series wrought Al alloy has been investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A base alloy with and without Al-Ti-B grain refiner was directionally solidified in a Bridgman furnace at growth velocities in the range of 5-120 mm/min. In both cases, the Fe-containing intermetallic phases present were found to be mainly {alpha}-AlFeSi and {beta}-AlFeSi. However, in the alloy with grain refiner solidified at 5mm/min, Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} was also observed. Quantitative XRD results indicated that the addition of Al-Ti-B grain refiner has a strong influence on the relative quantities of intermetallic phases forming during solidification at different growth velocities, which was also confirmed by TEM observations. TEM observations also show that depending on where the {beta}-AlFeSi particles solidified e.g. grain boundaries or triple grain junctions, the size and morphology of the particles may change dramatically. TiB{sub 2} particles were observed to nucleate {beta}-AlFeSi at low and high growth velocities in the 6xxx series Al alloys. (orig.)

  3. The role of grain size in He bubble formation: Implications for swelling resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Atwani, O., E-mail: oelatwan25@gmail.com [Drexel University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nathaniel, J.E.; Leff, A.C. [Drexel University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Muntifering, B.R. [Department of Radiation Solid Interactions, Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Baldwin, J.K. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hattar, K. [Department of Radiation Solid Interactions, Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Taheri, M.L. [Drexel University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Nanocrystalline metals are postulated as radiation resistant materials due to their high defect and particle (e.g. Helium) sink density. Here, the performance of nanocrystalline iron films is investigated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using He irradiation at 700 K. Automated crystal orientation mapping is used in concert with in-situ TEM to explore the role of grain orientation and grain boundary character on bubble density trends. Bubble density as a function of three key grain size regimes is demonstrated. While the overall trend revealed an increase in bubble density up to a saturation value, grains with areas ranging from 3000 to 7500 nm{sup 2} show a scattered distribution. An extrapolated swelling resistance based on bubble size and areal density indicated that grains with sizes less than 2000 nm{sup 2} possess the greatest apparent resistance. Moreover, denuded zones are found to be independent of grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary misorientation angle.

  4. Shear localization and microstructure in coarse grained beta titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingfeng, E-mail: biw009@ucsd.edu [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States of America (United States); Key Lab of Nonferrous Materials, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Li, Zezhou [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States of America (United States); Ma, Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Zhao, Shiteng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States of America (United States); Xie, Fangyu [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Adiabatic shear localization plays an important role in the deformation and failure of the coarse grained beta titanium alloy Ti-5 Al-5 Mo-5 V-1 Cr-1 Fe with grain size about 1 mm at high strain rate deformation. Hat shaped specimens with different nominal shear strains are used to induce the formation of shear bands under the controlled shock-loading experiments. The true stress in the specimens can reach about 1040 MPa where the strain is about 1.83. The whole shear localization process lasts about 35 μs. The microstructures within the shear band are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy / electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the width of the shear bands decreases with increasing nominal shear strain, and the grains in the transition region near the shear band are elongated along the shear band, and the core of the shear band consists of the ultrafine deformed grains with width of 0.1 μm and heavy dislocations. With the aims of accommodating the imposed shear strain and maintaining neighboring grain compatibility, the grain subdivision continues to take place within the band. A fiber texture is formed in the core of the shear band. The calculated temperature rise in the shear band can reach about 722 K. Dynamic recovery is responsible for the formation of the microstructure in coarse grained beta titanium alloy.

  5. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane U. Keogh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm. Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number and particle mass inventories in other developed countries.

  6. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  7. Grain formation in the expanding gas flow around cool luminous stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of solid particles in interstellar space has been revealed by the extinction of starlight in UV, visible and IR. The important sources of interstellar grains are considered to be cool luminous mass loss stars. (author)

  8. Analysis of stray grain formation in single crystal CMSX-4 superalloy; Analyse der Bildung von Fehlkoernern in einer einkristallinen CMSX-4-Superlegierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmiela, Bartosz; Sozanska, Maria; Cwajna, Jan [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Materials Science; Szeliga, Dariusz [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Materials Science; Jarczyk, Jerzy [ALD Vacuum Technologies, Hanau (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Modern single crystal (SX) turbine blades are fabricated by directional solidification using a grain selector. The grain selection process was investigated by numerical simulation and verified by the experiment. A coupled ProCAST and cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model was used in this study. According to the latest literature data, we designed the grain selector. Simulation confirmed an optimal grain selection efficiency of the applied selector geometry. The obtained experimental results reveal the possibility of stray grain formation in SX castings with a designed selector, in contrast to the simulation results. (orig.)

  9. Formation of molecular hydrogen on carbonaceous grains from the interstellar medium. Role of the surface, her relaxation, her morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachellerie, D.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of H 2 in the interstellar medium, from two hydrogen atoms, is a fundamental question in astrophysics. This very exothermic reaction is indeed the first step of a series of essential reactions for the interstellar physical-chemistry that takes place on the surface of interstellar dust grains. In the warm regions of the ISM, diffuse clouds and Photodissociation regions, the invoked formation mechanism is the Eley-Rideal heterogeneous catalysis reaction, in which one H atom is initially chemisorbed. The grains have mainly carbonaceous graphitic-like composition. Previous theoretical works carried out using constrained geometries were unable to explain the formation of H 2 in the observed rovibrationnal states (v≤5). In order to take into account the degrees of freedom of all relevant atoms, we have built, from the Brenner potential, a new potential that models the graphene H-H system.With this potential, we have completed a classical molecular dynamics study of the formation of H 2 . This work has been performed for collision energies of the impinging H atoms from 0.015 eV to 0.2 eV and for surface temperature of 0, 10 and 30 K. One of the salient results is that the reaction cross section is directly related with the shape of the potential seen by the impinging H atom. Furthermore, the rovibrationnal distribution obtained by allowing the surface atoms to move is in better agreement with the one observed by astrophysicists (v≤6), the surface absorbs a large part (∼25%) of the available energy. Some works about the influence of: an additional H atom upon the surface or a possible porous structure of the grains, on the formation of H 2 are presented in appendices. (author)

  10. Laboratory Experiments on the Low-temperature Formation of Carbonaceous Grains in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulvio, Daniele; Góbi, Sándor; Jäger, Cornelia; Kereszturi, Ákos; Henning, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The life cycle of cosmic dust grains is far from being understood and the origin and evolution of interstellar medium (ISM) grains is still under debate. In the ISM, the cosmic dust destruction rate is faster than the production rate by stellar sources. However, observations of ISM refractory matter suggest that to maintain a steady amount of cosmic grains, some supplementary production mechanism takes place. In this context, we aimed to study possible reformation mechanisms of cosmic grains taking place at low temperature directly in the ISM. The low-temperature condensation of carbonaceous materials has been investigated in experiments mimicking the ISM conditions. Gas-phase carbonaceous precursors created by laser ablation of graphite were forced to accrete on cold substrates (T ≈ 10 K) representing surviving dust grains. The growing and evolution of the condensing carbonaceous precursors have been monitored by MIR and UV spectroscopy under a number of experimental scenarios. For the first time, the possibility to form ISM carbonaceous grains in situ is demonstrated. The condensation process is governed by carbon chains that first condense into small carbon clusters and finally into more stable carbonaceous materials, of which structural characteristics are comparable to the material formed in gas-phase condensation experiments at very high temperature. We also show that the so-formed fullerene-like carbonaceous material is transformed into a more ordered material under VUV processing. The cold condensation mechanisms discussed here can give fundamental clues to fully understand the balance between the timescale for dust injection, destruction, and reformation in the ISM.

  11. Exploring bainite formation kinetics distinguishing grain-boundary and autocatalytic nucleation in high and low-Si steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, Ashwath M.; Sietsma, Jilt; Santofimia, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Bainite formation in steels begins with nucleation of bainitic ferrite at austenite grain boundaries (γ/γ interfaces). This leads to creation of bainitic ferrite/austenite interfaces (α/γ interfaces). Bainite formation continues through autocatalysis with nucleation of bainitic ferrite at these newly created α/γ interfaces. The displacive theory of bainite formation suggests that the formation of bainitic ferrite is accompanied by carbon enrichment of surrounding austenite. This carbon enrichment generally leads to carbide precipitation unless such a reaction is thermodynamically or kinetically unfavourable. Each bainitic ferrite nucleation event is governed by an activation energy. Depending upon the interface at which nucleation occurs, a specific activation energy would be related to a specific nucleation mechanism. On the basis of this concept, a model has been developed to understand the kinetics of bainite formation during isothermal treatments. This model is derived under the assumptions of displacive mechanism of bainite formation. The fitting parameters used in this model are physical entities related to nucleation and microstructural dimensions. The model is designed in such a way that the carbon redistribution during bainite formation is accounted for, leading to prediction of transformation kinetics both with and without of carbide precipitation during bainite formation. Furthermore, the model is validated using two different sets of kinetic data published in the literature.

  12. Ultrafine particles in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, L M; Harrison, R M; Maynard, A D; Maynard, R L

    2003-01-01

    Following the recognition that airborne particulate matter, even at quite modest concentrations, has an adverse effect on human health, there has been an intense research effort to understand the mechanisms and quantify the effects. One feature that has shone through is the important role of ultrafine particles as a contributor to the adverse effects of airborne particles. In this volume, many of the most distinguished researchers in the field provide a state-of-the-art overview of the scientific and medical research on ultrafine particles. Contents: Measurements of Number, Mass and Size Distr

  13. Comparative study of He bubble formation in nanostructured reduced activation steel and its coarsen-grained counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, J. H.; Ji, Y. Z.; Xia, L. D.; Liu, H. P.; Yun, D.; He, C. H.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2018-03-01

    High temperature (550 °C) He ions irradiation was performed on nanostructured (NS) and coarsen-grained (CG) reduced activation steel to investigate the effects of GBs/interfaces on the formation of bubbles during irradiation. Experimental results showed that He bubbles were preferentially trapped at dislocations and/or grain boundaries (GBs) for both of the samples. Void denuded zones (VDZs) were observed in the CG samples, while VDZs near GBs were unobvious in NS sample. However, both the average bubble size and the bubble density in peak damage region of the CG sample were significantly larger than that observed in the NS sample, which indicated that GBs play an important role during the irradiation, and the NS steel had better irradiation resistance than its CG counterpart.

  14. Detection of Ultrafine Anaphase Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Nielsen, Christian F; Hickson, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs) are thin DNA threads linking the separating sister chromatids in the anaphase of mitosis. UFBs are thought to form when topological DNA entanglements between two chromatids are not resolved prior to anaphase onset. In contrast to other markers of defective...

  15. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich body of literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), and there is strong support for an important role of ultrafine (nanosized) particles. At present, relatively few human health or epidemiology ...

  16. Grain boundary corrosion and alteration phase formation during the oxidative dissolution of UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Alteration behavior of UO 2 pellets following reaction under unsaturated drip-test conditions at 90 C for up to 10 years was examined by solid phase and leachate analyses. Sample reactions were characterized by preferential dissolution of grain boundaries between the original press-sintered UO 2 granules comprising the samples, development of a polygonal network of open channels along the intergrain boundaries, and spallation of surface granules that had undergone severe grain boundary corrosion. The development of a dense mat of alteration phases after 2 years of reaction trapped loose granules, resulting in reduced rates of particulate U release. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases that formed on the present samples was similar to that observed in surficial weathering zones of natural uraninite (UO 2 ) deposits, with alkali and alkaline earth uranyl silicates representing the long-term solubility-limiting phases for U in both systems

  17. Modeling the effects of cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier on microporosity formation in Al A356 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, J.G.; Huang, J.; Asada, J.; Akiba, K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-06-15

    Cast Aluminum-Silicon alloys are used in numerous automotive and industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low density and excellent castability. The presence of trapped gas and or shrinkage pores in certain locations within castings has been shown to influence fatigue life. These micromechanical defects can be found most anywhere in a casting depending on processing conditions. A large amount of porosity located in the center of the cast material thickness may have no effect on mechanical properties or fatigue performance. A smaller, isolated pore near a surface may have a significant impact on mechanical properties. Hence, it is important to develop a comprehensive model to predict the size, location and distribution of microporosity in castings. In this work, we model the effect of various casting process parameters on microporosity formation for aluminum A356 alloy castings. The process parameters include cooling rate, hydrogen content, grain refiner and modifier. The proposed two-dimensional model predicts the size, morphology and distribution of microporosity at a given location in the casting. The method couples a mathematical model of porosity evolution with a probabilistic grain structure prediction model. The porosity evolution model is based on the simultaneous solution of the continuity and momentum equations for the metal and the mass conservation equation for the dissolved gas. The nucleation and growth of grains are simulated with a probabilistic method that uses the information from a heat transfer simulation, i.e. temperature and solid fraction, to determine the transition rules for grain evolution. The simulation results correlate well with experimental observation of porosity in cast structures. (orig.)

  18. ON THE FORMATION OF BENZOIC ACID AND HIGHER-ORDER BENZENE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICE GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Turner, Andrew M.; Chakravarty, Harish K.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    With a binary ice mixture of benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions, the formation of benzene carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe for the formation of new species during the chemical processing of the ice mixture and during the following temperature-programmed desorption. Newly formed benzene carboxylic acid species, i.e., benzoic acid, as well as meta - and para -benzene dicarboxylic acid, were assigned using newly emerging bands in the infrared spectrum; a reaction mechanism, along with rate constants, was proposed utilizing the kinetic fitting of the coupled differential equations.

  19. Microbial pathways and palaeoenvironmental conditions involved in the formation of phosphorite grains, Safaga District, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Walid; El-Kammar, Ahmed; Saunders, Martin; Morsy, Rania; Kong, Charlie

    2015-07-01

    Phosphatic grains of the shallow marine phosphorite deposits of Egypt are classified as either phosphatic bioclasts preserving biological structure (e.g. skeletal fragments such as fish bones and teeth) or phosphatic peloids and intraclasts. This study describes the destructive and constructive microbial pathways represented by bioerosion of bones by endolithic cyanobacteria and accretion of phosphatic peloids by bacteria. The palaeoenvironmental conditions and post-depositional/diagenetic history of these grains have also been considered. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the phosphatic peloids under transmitted light microscopy are composed mainly of microspheres (0.5 to 2.5 μm) similar in shape and size to coccoid-like bacteria. Chemical mapping showed that these microspheres are composed of carbonate-fluorapatite (CFA) and surrounded by degraded carbonaceous matrix. These grains are suggested to be reworked from pre-existing microbial mats during transgressive-regressive cycles affecting the southern Tethyan Campanian-Maastrichtian shallow continental shelf. The bioerosion of phosphatic bones is characterized by a network of meandering microborings that penetrated inward from the bone surface by endolithic cyanobacteria. The bioerosion of bones resulted in a gradual centripetal digestion and conversion of bones into micritic phosphate peloids. The bioerosion mechanism is probably started in the acidic sheath surrounding cyanobacteria followed by supersaturation of PO4 and reprecipitation of crystalline CFA as electron dense remineralized rims. Electron microprobe microanalyses showed that the remineralized microbored areas are higher in CaO, P2O5, and F and depleted in Cl, relative to unaltered bones. A gradual demineralization of remineralized rims followed by dissolution of cyanobacterial cells is probably occurred during diagenesis and meteoric water alteration leaving behind empty microborings. Bone exposed to meteoric water

  20. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae from Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyaz Ahmad Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n=2x=24 (diploid. Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n=4x=48 (tetraploid in addition to normal meiocytes (2n=24 during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1. Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species.

  1. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogert, A. C. A. [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Öberg, K. I. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F., E-mail: aboogert@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H{sub 2}O ices form at extinctions of A{sub K} = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A{sub V} = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H{sub 2}O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10{sup –5} relative to N{sub H}) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH{sub 3}OH abundance (<3%-8% relative to H{sub 2}O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A{sub K} increases as a function of A{sub K}. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R{sub V} ∼ 3.5 (A{sub K} = 0.71) and R{sub V} ∼ 5.0 (A{sub K} = 1.47). For lines of sight with A{sub K} > 1.0 mag, the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A{sub 7.4}/A{sub K} continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.

  2. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Chiar, J. E.; Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G.; Öberg, K. I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H 2 O ices form at extinctions of A K = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A V = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H 2 O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10 –5 relative to N H ) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH 3 OH abundance ( 2 O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A K increases as a function of A K . Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R V ∼ 3.5 (A K = 0.71) and R V ∼ 5.0 (A K = 1.47). For lines of sight with A K > 1.0 mag, the τ 9.7 /A K ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ 9.7 /A K ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A 7.4 /A K continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts

  3. Ultrafine particles in concrete: Influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties and application to concrete mix design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties was investigated. In the context of this work, ultrafine particles (reactive and inert materials) are particles finer than cement. Due to the development of effective superplasticizers, the incorporation of ultrafine particles in concrete is nowadays possible. Different minerals, usually considered inert, were tested. These minerals were also used in combination with reactive silica fume. The modified Andreassen model was used to optimise the particle size distribution and thus the packing density of the complete mix composition. Heat of hydration, compressive strength, shrinkage, frost resistance and the microstructure were investigated.The influence of different ultrafine inert materials on the cement hydration was investigated. The results show that most of the minerals have an accelerating effect. They provide nucleation sites for hydration products and contribute in that way to a faster dissolution of cement grains. Minerals containing calcium were found to influence the early stage of hydration as well. These minerals shortened the dormant period of the cement hydration, the effect is known from limestone filler in self-compacting concrete. In a first test series on concrete, different ultrafine inert particles were used to replace cement. That was done in several ways; with constant water content or constant w/c. The results from this test series show that the best effect is achieved when cement is replaced by suitable ultrafines while the w/c is kept constant. In doing so, the compressive strength can be increased and shrinkage can be reduced. The microstructure is improved and becomes denser with improved packing at microlevel. Efficiency factors (k values) for the ultrafine inert materials were calculated from the compressive strength results. The k values are strongly dependent on the mode of cement replacement, fineness and type of the replacement material and curing time. Drying

  4. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  5. Enhanced H2O formation through dust grain chemistry in X-ray exposed environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.

    Context. The ultraluminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231, which shows signs of both black hole accretion and star formation, exhibits very strong water rotational lines between lambda = 200-670 mu m, comparable to the strength of the CO rotational lines. High-redshift quasars also show similar CO and H2O

  6. Studies on formation and structures of ultrafine Cu precipitates in Fe-Cu model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels using positron quantum dot confinement in the precipitates by their positron affinity. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-034 (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Masayuki; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Tang, Zheng; Yubuta, Kunio [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Positron annihilation experiments on Fe-Cu model dilute alloys of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been performed after neutron irradiation in JMTR. Nanovoids whose inner surfaces were covered by Cu atoms were clearly observed. The nanovoids transformed to ultrafine Cu precipitates by dissociating their vacancies after annealing at around 400degC. The nanovoids and the ultrafine Cu precipitates are strongly suggested to be responsible for irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Effects of Ni, Mn and P addition on the nanovoid and Cu precipitate formations were also studied. The nanovoid formation was enhanced by Ni and P, but suppressed by Mn. The Cu precipitates after annealing around 400degC were almost free from these doping elements and hence were pure Cu in the chemical composition. Furthermore the Fermi surface of the 'embedded' Cu precipitates with a body centered cubic crystal structure was obtained from two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in a Fe-Cu single crystal and was agreed well with that from a band structure calculation. Theoretical calculation of positron confinement in Fe-Cu model alloys showed that a positron quantum dot state induced by positron affinity is attained for the embedded precipitates larger than 1 nm. A new position sensitive detector with a function of one dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (1D-ACAR) has been developed that enables high resolution experiments over wide ranges of momentum distribution. (author)

  7. Grain boundary characteristics and texture formation in a medium carbon steel during its austenitic decomposition in a high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.D.; Esling, C.; Lecomte, J.S.; He, C.S.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2005-01-01

    A 12-T magnetic field has been applied to a medium plain carbon steel during the diffusional decomposition of austenite and the effect of a high magnetic field on the distribution of misorientation angles, grain boundary characteristics and texture formation in the ferrite produced has been investigated. The results show that a high magnetic field can cause a considerable decrease in the frequency of low-angle misorientations and an increase in the occurrence of low Σ coincidence boundaries, in particular the Σ3 of ferrite. This may be attributed to the elevation in the transformation temperature caused by the magnetic field and, therefore, the reduction of the transformation stress. The wider temperature range for grain growth offers longer time to the less mobile Σ boundaries to enlarge their areas. Moreover, the magnetic field can enhance the transverse field-direction fiber ( parallel TFD). It can be assumed that the effects of the field were caused by the dipolar interaction between the magnetic moments of Fe atoms

  8. Transient β-hairpin formation in α-synuclein monomer revealed by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hang; Ma, Wen [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Han, Wei [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Schulten, Klaus, E-mail: kschulte@ks.uiuc.edu [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Parkinson’s disease, originating from the intrinsically disordered peptide α-synuclein, is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 5% of the population above age 85. It remains unclear how α-synuclein monomers undergo conformational changes leading to aggregation and formation of fibrils characteristic for the disease. In the present study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations (over 180 μs in aggregated time) using a hybrid-resolution model, Proteins with Atomic details in Coarse-grained Environment (PACE), to characterize in atomic detail structural ensembles of wild type and mutant monomeric α-synuclein in aqueous solution. The simulations reproduce structural properties of α-synuclein characterized in experiments, such as secondary structure content, long-range contacts, chemical shifts, and {sup 3}J(H{sub N}H{sub C{sub α}})-coupling constants. Most notably, the simulations reveal that a short fragment encompassing region 38-53, adjacent to the non-amyloid-β component region, exhibits a high probability of forming a β-hairpin; this fragment, when isolated from the remainder of α-synuclein, fluctuates frequently into its β-hairpin conformation. Two disease-prone mutations, namely, A30P and A53T, significantly accelerate the formation of a β-hairpin in the stated fragment. We conclude that the formation of a β-hairpin in region 38-53 is a key event during α-synuclein aggregation. We predict further that the G47V mutation impedes the formation of a turn in the β-hairpin and slows down β-hairpin formation, thereby retarding α-synuclein aggregation.

  9. Correlation between Bieniawski’s RMR index and Barton’s Q index in fine-grained sedimentary rock formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Fernández-Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From the XX century, various rock mass classification systems have been proposed. Among them, the Bieniawski’s RMR system and Barton’s Q system have emerged as the most used rock mass classification worldwide. Correlations between both indices have been proposed, usually with a wide scattering of the data used in deriving the equations. However, it has been observed that correlations established for a specific geological unit fit better. The aim of this paper is to propose a correlation between RMR and Q indices for fine-grained sedimentary rock formations, normally found in the area of Bilbao (Spain, by means of the collected data during the excavation of the tunnel Etxebarri-Casco Viejo of the line 3 of the Metropolitan Railway of Bilbao. Obtained equation shows a high correlation coefficient and a unique relationship between the two classification systems has been proposed, not depending on the choice of the independent variable.

  10. Formation mechanisms and sequence response of authigenic grain-coating chlorite: evidence from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authigenic grain-coating chlorite is widely distributed in the clastic rocks of many sedimentary basins around the world. These iron minerals were mainly derived from flocculent precipitates formed when rivers flow into the ocean, especially in deltaic environments with high hydrodynamic conditions. At the same time, sandstone sequences with grain-coating chlorites also tend to have relatively high glauconite and pyrite content. EPMA composition analysis shows that glauconites with “high Al and low Fe” content indicate slightly to semi-saline marine environments with weak alkaline and weakly reducing conditions. By analyzing the chlorite-containing sandstone bodies of the southern Sichuan Xujiahe Formation, this study found that chlorite was mainly distributed in sedimentary microfacies, including underwater distributary channels, distributary channels, shallow lake sandstone dams, and mouth bars. Chlorite had a tendency to form in the upper parts of sandstone bodies with signs of increased base level, representing the influence of marine (lacustrine transgression. This is believed to be influenced by megamonsoons in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region during the Late Triassic Epoch. During periods of abundant precipitation, river discharges increased and more Fe particulates flowed into the ocean (lake. In the meantime, increases or decreases in lake level were only affected by precipitation for short periods of time. The sedimentary environment shifted from weakly oxidizing to weak alkaline, weakly reducing conditions as sea level increased, and Fe-rich minerals as authigenic chlorite and glauconite began to form and deposit.

  11. Dependence of corrosion properties of AISI 304L stainless steel on the austenite grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabooni, Soheil; Rashtchi, Hamed; Eslami, Abdoulmajid; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Enayati, Mohammad Hossein; Raeissi, Keyvan; Imani, Reihane Faghih [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Ngan, Alfonso Hing Wan [The Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-07-15

    The corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels is known to be hampered by the loss of chromium available for passive surface layer formation as a result of chromium carbide precipitation at austenite grain boundaries during annealing treatments. Although high-temperature annealing can promote carbide dissolution leading to better corrosion resistance, grain coarsening also results, which would lead to poorer mechanical properties. Processing methods to achieve both good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are thus highly desirable for austenitic stainless steels. In the present study, we show that the corrosion resistance of AISI 304L stainless steel can be improved by grain refinement into the ultrafine-grained regime. Specifically, samples with different austenite grain sizes in the range of 0.65-12 μm were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. All samples showed a typical passive behavior with similar corrosion potential, but the corrosion current density decreased significantly with decreasing grain size. The results show that the sample with the finest grain size had the best corrosion resistance due to a higher resistance of the passive layer to pitting attacks. This study indicates that grain refinement which improves mechanical properties can also significantly improve the corrosion resistance of AISI 304L stainless steel.

  12. Direct insight into grains formation in Si layers grown on 3C-SiC by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Portail, Marc; Vennéguès, Philippe; Alquier, Daniel; Michaud, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated the influence of the 3C-SiC layer on the subsequent growth of Si epilayers. We were able to give a direct evidence that the rotation in the Si epilayer of 90° around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of an antiphase boundary in the 3C-SiC layer as shown in the figure above. Thus, increasing the layer thickness of the 3C-SiC leads to a direct improvement of the crystalline quality of the subsequent Si epilayer. (a) Cross-section bright-field TEM image of the Si/3C-SiC layer stack along two 3C-SiC zone axes [1 −1 0] and [1 1 0] (equivalent to [1 −1 1] and [1 1 2] in Si, respectively), (b) dark field image selecting a (2 0 −2) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset, (c) dark field image selecting a (−1 1 −1) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset. The dotted white line in the images show the position of the defect in the 3C-SiC layer. - Abstract: This work presents a structural study of silicon (Si) thin films grown on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) by chemical vapor deposition. The presence of grains rotated by 90° around the growth direction in the Si layer is directly related to the presence of antiphase domains on the 3C-SiC surface. We were able to provide a direct evidence that the 90° rotation of Si grains around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in 3C-SiC layer. Increasing the 3C-SiC thickness reduces the APBs density on 3C-SiC surface leading to a clear improvement of the uppermost Si film crystal quality. Furthermore, we observed by high resolution plan-view TEM images the presence of hexagonal Si domains limited to few nm in size. These hexagonal Si domains are inclusions in small Si grains enclosed in larger ones rotated by 90°. Finally, we propose a model of grains formation in the Si layer taking into consideration the effect

  13. Investigations of the Formation of Molecular Hydrogen on Dust Grain Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Roser, Joseph E.; Manico, Giulio; Pirronello, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    In the last four years we have been working to investigate the formation of molecular hydrogen on surfaces of materials of astrophysical interest, such as silicates, carbonaceous particles and ices, and in conditions approximating the ones present in a variety of astrophysical environments. Our experimental studies - the first of their kind and complemented with computer simulations and theoretical analyses - have given not only hydrogen recombination rates under different ISM conditions, but they have also offered new insights into this fundamental astrophysical problem. Here we summarize our experimental methods and most significant results.

  14. Grains of Nonferrous and Noble Metals in Iron-Manganese Formations and Igneous Rocks of Submarine Elevations of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, O. N.; Astakhova, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    Iron-manganese formations and igneous rocks of submarine elevations in the Sea of Japan contain overlapping mineral phases (grains) with quite identical morphology, localization, and chemical composition. Most of the grains conform to oxides, intermetallic compounds, native elements, sulfides, and sulfates in terms of the set of nonferrous, noble, and certain other metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Ag, Pd, and Pt). The main conclusion that postvolcanic hydrothermal fluids are the key sources of metals is based upon a comparison of the data of electron microprobe analysis of iron-manganese formations and igneous rocks dredged at the same submarine elevations in the Sea of Japan.

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the development of laser-aided, noncontacting, realtime, in-process dressing method using a grinding stone with ultrafine abrasive grains, and study on techniques for applying the method to grinding stone of superthin blades; 1998 nendo laser wo mochiita choteiryu toishi no hisesshoku real time inprocess dressing ho no kaihatsu oyobi gokuusuha toishi eno tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A new noncontacting dressing method using a laser as a tool has been studied and developed, in order to develop environment-compatible, energy-saving type machining machines. In this study, a cup-shaped grinding stone is developed for grinding performance testing by micron-order diamond abrasive powder, used for producing a grinding stone of superthin blades, is mixed with a cast iron binder, molded and sintered. In the grinding performance test, zirconia as a work is ground at a constant pressure to the grinding stone working surface before and after the laser-aided dressing, to analyze grinding/removal efficiency and grinding resistance. The grinding stone working surface conditions are observed by a scanning electron microscope after the laser-aided dressing, to correlate the surface conditions with the grinding data. It is found that the laser-aided dressing method needs no lubricant, is clean, cutting grinding time when incorporated in the machining process, suitable for grinding stone of low stiffness and ultrathin blades by use of ultrafine abrasive grains, suffering no exfoliation of the diamond grains, and hence economical. (NEDO)

  16. Erratic Male Meiosis Resulting in 2n Pollen Grain Formation in a 4x Cytotype (2n=28 of Ranunculus laetus Wall. ex Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two accessions were studied for male meiosis in Ranunculus laetus from the cold regions of Northwest Himalayas. One accession showed the presence of 14 bivalents at diakinesis and regular segregation of bivalents at anaphase I which lead to normal tetrad formation with four n microspores and consequently n pollen grains and 100% pollen fertility. Second accession from the same locality revealed the erratic meiosis characterized by the presence of all the 28 chromosomes as univalents in meiocytes at metaphase I. Univalent chromosomes failed to segregate during anaphases and produced restitution nuclei at meiosis I and II. These restitution nuclei resulted into dyads and triads which subsequently produced two types of apparently fertile pollen grains. On the basis of size, the two types of pollen grains were categorized as n (normal reduced and 2n (unreduced, 1.5-times larger than the n pollen grains. The estimated frequency of 2n pollen grains from dyads and triads (61.59% was almost the same as that of the observed one (59.90%, which indicated that 2n pollen grains in R. laetus were the result of dyads and triads. The present paper herein may provide an insight into the mechanisms of the formation of various intraspecific polyploids through sexual polyploidization in R. laetus.

  17. Towards mathematical model of grain sub-division and rim structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mikiyasu; Kitajima, Shoichi; Sonoda, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The high burnup LWR UO 2 fuels show a notable micro-structural change around pellet outer zone and it called rim structure. It is observed at temperature as low as 400degC so that fission track and cascade mixing could be the key mechanism. SEM observation revealed that the structure primarily appear on free surfaces of UO 2 , indicating strong sink for point defects may have a big role. And as generic observations, increase of lattice parameter indicates extensive amount of vacancies are stored in high burnup fuel, which may induce the restructuring interacting with dislocations of high density at high burnup. Considering these observations a model of reaction-diffusion process of defects with irradiation induced transport is proposed. The equations are investigated numerically. The model indicates that an instability starts when dislocation network starts intensive interaction with vacancy flux which is modified by interstitial diffusion between spatial segments. It appeared to be similar to the Turing type instability which indicates that the rim structure formation is one kind of the self-organizing processes of open reaction-diffusion systems. (author)

  18. Numerical study of the impact of inoculant and grain transport on macrosegregation and microstructure formation during solidification of an Al-22%Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveito, K O; M'Hamdi, M; Bedel, M; Zaloz'nik, M; Combeau, H; Kumar, A; Dutta, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the nucleation law for nucleation on Al-Ti-B inoculant particles, of the motion of inoculant particles and of the motion of grains on the predicted macrosegregation and microstructure in a grain-refined Al-22 wt.% Cu alloy casting. We conduct the study by numerical simulations of a casting experiment in a side-cooled 76×76×254 mm sand mould. Macrosegregation and microstructure formation are studied with a volume-averaged two-phase model accounting for macroscopic heat and solute transport, melt convection, and transport of inoculant particles and equiaxed grains. On the microscopic scale it accounts for nucleation on inoculant particles with a given size distribution (and corresponding activation undercooling distribution)and for the growth of globular solid grains. The growth kinetics is described by accounting for limited solute diffusion in both liquid and solid phases and for convective effects. We show that the consideration of a size distribution of the inoculants has a strong impact on the microstructure(final grain size) prediction. The transport of inoculants significantly increases the microstructure heterogeneities and the grain motion refines the microstructure and reduces the microstructure heterogeneities.

  19. Preparation of ultrafine grained copper nanoparticles via immersion deposit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Kesbi, Fatemeh; Rashidi, Ali Mohammad; Astinchap, Bandar

    2018-03-01

    Today, the exploration about synthesis of nanoparticles is much of interest to materials scientists. In this work, copper nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by immersion deposit method in the absence of any stabilizing and reducing agents. Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate as precursor salt and distilled water and Ethylene glycol as solvents were used. The copper nanoparticles were deposited on plates of low carbon steel. The effects of copper sulfate concentrations and solvent type were investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy were taken to investigate the crystallite size, crystal structure, and morphology and size distribution and the growth process of the nanoparticles of obtained Cu particles. The results indicated that the immersion deposit method is a particularly suitable method for synthesis of semispherical copper nanoparticles with the crystallites size in the range of 22 to 37 nm. By increasing the molar concentration of copper sulfate in distilled water solvent from 0.04 to 0.2 M, the average particles size is increased from 57 to 81 nm. The better size distribution of Cu nanoparticles was achieved using a lower concentration of copper sulfate. By increasing the molar concentration of copper sulfate in water solvent from 0.04 to 0.2, the location of the SPR peak has shifted from 600 to 630 nm. The finer Cu nanoparticles were formed using ethylene glycol instead water as a solvent. Also, the agglomeration and overlapping of nanoparticles in ethylene glycol were less than that of water solvent.

  20. Ultrafine grained Cu processed by compression with oscillatory torsion

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rodak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is a study of Cu microstructure after severe plastic deformation process by usingcompression with oscillatory torsion test.Design/methodology/approach: Cu samples were deformed at torsion frequency (f) changed from 0 Hz(compression) to 1.8 Hz under a constant torsion angle (α) ≈8° and compression speed (v)=0.1mm/s. Structuralinvestigations were conducted by using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Findings: The structural analysis ma...

  1. Age of origin of the polymetamorphosed Copperton Formation, Namaqua-Natal Province, determined by single grain zircon Pb-Pb dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Griffin, G.; Kroener, A.; Humphreys, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Copperton Formation of the Areachap Group in the Northern Cape Province is a strongly metamorphosed, predominantly metavolcanic unit which contains several massive sulphide deposits. Previous work on this unit has established a complex metamorphic history, the four main phases of which are fairly well dated by a combination of methods; however, the age of origin is still poorly constrained. Zircons extracted from the Smouspan Gneiss Member of the Copperton formation are euhedral and show a crystal habit which indicates an igneous and probably volcanic origin, with no discernable metamorphic component. Whole-grain thermal evaporation on four such zircon grains yielded a precise set of 207 Pb/ 206 Pb data which establishes a 1 285 ± 14 Ma age for the origin of the Smouspan Gneiss and Copperton Formation. Indications of a ∼1 600 Ma age from other parts of the Areachap Group should be treated with caution until more reliable data are obtained. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  2. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  3. Ultracentrifugation for ultrafine nanodiamond fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniakhin, S. V.; Besedina, N. A.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Shvidchenko, A. V.; Eidelman, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for ultrafine fractionation of nanodiamonds using the differential centrifugation in the fields up to 215000g. The developed protocols yield 4-6 nm fraction giving main contribution to the light scattering intensity. The desired 4-6 nm fraction can be obtained from various types of initial nanodiamonds: three types of detonation nanodiamonds differing in purifying methods, laser synthesis nanodiamonds and nanodiamonds made by milling. The characterization of the obtained hydrosols was conducted with Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential measurements, powder XRD and TEM. According to powder XRD and TEM data ultracentrifugation also leads to a further fractionation of the primary diamond nanocrystallites in the hydrosols from 4 to 2 nm.

  4. Preparation and characterization of ultrafine alumina via sol-gel polymeric route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, D.M. [Ceramic Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Abu-Ayana, Y.M. [Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: yosreya20@gmail.com

    2008-10-15

    Ultrafine alumina powder was prepared through resin formation between urea and formaldehyde. Aluminium stearate soap was introduced during resin preparation. Ethylene glycol was used to terminate the thermosetting reaction. Calcination of the product was carried out at 700, 1000, 1100, 1300 and 1400 deg. C to obtain aluminium oxide. IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis indicated the occupation of Al{sup 3+} at different sites in the polymer network (C=O, -NH{sub 2}, C-O, -NH, and -CH{sub 2}OH). X-ray diffraction of powder calcined at 1000 deg. C revealed the presence of a mixture of {alpha}- and {theta}-alumina together, while a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-alumina phases were obtained on calcination at 1400 deg. C. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination of the powder fired at 700 deg. C showed uniform grains in the form of clusters with average size between 22.02 and 30.5 nm. Clusters are multi-particles as evident from the electron diffraction pattern. Crystallite size of alumina powder calcined at 1000 deg. C was found to be {approx}25.67 nm, while that of powder calcined at1400 deg. C was {approx}30.52 nm. The calculated specific surface area of alumina powder calcined at 1000 deg. C was 59.17 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, while that calcined at 1400 deg. C was 49.77 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy of ultrafine 316L stainless steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei, E-mail: twshyr@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ju [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wur, Ching-Shuei [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-01

    An as-received 316L stainless steel fiber with a diameter of 20 μm was drawn using a bundle drawing process at room temperature to form ultrafine stainless steel fibers with diameters of 12, 8, and 6 μm. The crystalline phases of the fibers were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile fitting technique. The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to nanoscale sizes after the drawing process. XRD analysis and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope observations showed that the newly formed α′-martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. The magnetic property was measured using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic anisotropy of the fibers was observed by applying a magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The results showed that the microstructure anisotropy including the shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the orientation of the crystalline phases strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation of the 316L SS fiber occurred during the cold drawn. • The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to the nanoscale. • The newly formed martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. • The drawing process caused the magnetic easy axis to be aligned with the fiber axis. • The microstructure anisotropy strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ultrafine well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.L.; Wang, H.B.; Lu, Q.H.; Du, G.H.; Peng, L.; Du, Y.Q.; Zhang, S.M.; Yao, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafine well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles were directly prepared in aqueous solution using controlled coprecipitation method. The structure, size, size distributions and magnetic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles, characterized by TEM, XRD and VSM, indicated the formation of single domain nanoparticles with average size smaller than 5 nm. The magnetic nanoparticles show superparamagnetism and a lower saturation magnetization is found as a consequence of smaller particle size. The relevant conditions for obtaining these magnetic colloids are discussed and the so-prepared magnetic nanoparticles are stable in a wide pH range

  7. Excitation of collective plasma modes during collisions between dust grains and the formation of dust plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.A.; Morfill, G.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    Dust plasma crystals have recently been produced in experiments in a number of laboratories. For dust crystallization to occur, there should exist an efficient mechanism for the cooling of the dust plasma component. It is shown that the excitation of collective plasma modes during collisions between the grains may serve as the required cooling mechanism. The excitation of dust sound waves is found to be most efficient. It is shown that the cooling of dust grains via the excitation of collective plasma modes can be even more efficient than that due to collisions with neutral particles, which was previously considered to be the only mechanism for cooling of the dust plasma component. At present, the first experiments are being carried out to study collisions between individual dust grains. High efficiency of the excitation of plasma modes caused by collisions between dust grains is attributed to the coherent displacement of the plasma particles that shield the grains. it is shown that the excitation efficiency is proportional to the fourth power of the charge of the dust grains and to a large power of their relative velocity, and is independent of their mass. The results obtained can be checked in experiments studying how the binary collisions between dust grains and the pressure of the neutral component influence the dust crystallization

  8. Unraveling the atomic structure of ultrafine iron clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Kun; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Qingxiao; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Unraveling the atomic structures of ultrafine iron clusters is critical to understanding their size-dependent catalytic effects and electronic properties. Here, we describe the stable close-packed structure of ultrafine Fe clusters for the first

  9. Formation of multiple stoichiometric phases in binary systems by combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion: Experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; Schillinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic extremal principle has been used by the authors to treat the evolution of binary and multicomponent systems under the assumption that all phases are nearly stoichiometric. Up to now only bulk diffusion has been taken into account. The concept is now extended to combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion possible in each newly formed phase. The grains are approximated by cylinders allowing interface diffusion along the top and bottom of the grains and grain boundary diffusion along the mantle with different interface/grain boundary diffusion coefficients. A consistent analysis yields an effective diffusion coefficient taking into account the combined interface/grain boundary and bulk diffusion of each individual component. The current concept is applied to the Cu–Sn couple which has been studied by a number of researchers. The results of simulations are compared with experiments at 200 °C on solid systems reported in the literature as well as with our experiments at 250 °C with liquid Sn.

  10. Study on preparation of ultrafine lead tungstate for radiation protection and γ-ray shielding of the gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Licheng; He Ping; Zhou Yuanlin; Song Kaiping; Yang Kuihua

    2012-01-01

    Lead tungstate combines the radiation shielding properties of tungsten and lead, and it is quite distinctive to manufacture lead tungstate with ultra-fine granularity to enhance its capacity of radiation shielding. The grain size of lead tungstate has direct impact on the ability of its protection from radioactive materials. the smaller the grain size and more uniform dispersion of lead tungstate, the better protective ability it is going to be. In this paper, soft-template synthesis was introduced to prepare ultra-fine PbWO 4 . Rigorous experiment conditions are settled to ensure the access to obtain ultra-fine, homogeneous lead tungstate product, and it is better than other physical and chemical preparation methods. The surface-active agent for the soft template, with S-60 for the water system W/O microemulsion zone, was used to synthesize successfully ultra-fine PbWO 4 . It was shown that dispersing agent S-60 in the soft template method produced ultra-fine PbWO 4 with uniform granularity distribution. By using orthogonal experimental method, the best experimental conditions were obtained as follows: S-60 as surfactant dispersant with diluted 30 times concentration, solutions with pH9, 0.01 mol/L concentration of reactant, 1300 rpm of stirring speed and slowly adding drops of Na 2 WO 4 solution into Pb (Ac) 2 solution. Based on the optimal experimental conditions, the product of ultra-fine product for the anti-radiation protection filler has been made. The fine packing for the preparation of tungsten the gamma rays on the gloves is an average capacity of 5% or so. (authors)

  11. Unidirectional splitting and uniting of rays in the cambium of Platanus accompanying the formation of interlocked grain in wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyszyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental changes in the cambium producing interlocked grain wood of Platanus, were determined by an analysis of successive late xylem layers (TLX at the borders of the annual rings. Intensive splitting and uniting of rays were observed. These occured by intrusion of fusiform cells into the rays and by loss of the fusiform initials which formed the strands separating the rays, respectively. Uniting of rays was unidirectional within the large areas of cambium (domain, so was the splitting, too. There were domains of Z and S-type. Orientation of splitting and uniting of rays at a particular locality of the cambium was reversed at irregular time intervals. It appears that the reason for these reversals was slow movement of domain pattern. The occurrence of alternating Z and S domains brought about the alternation of the grain inclination from right to left and back again in the interlocked-grained wood.

  12. A new and superior ultrafine cementitious grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    Sealing fractures in nuclear waste repositories concerns all programs investigating deep burial as a means of disposal. Because the most likely mechanism for contaminant migration is by dissolution and movement through groundwater, sealing programs are seeking low-viscosity sealants that are chemically, mineralogically, and physically compatible with the host rock. This paper presents the results of collaborative work directed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and supported by Whiteshell Laboratories, operated by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. The work was undertaken in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an underground nuclear waste repository located in a salt formation east of Carlsbad, NM. This effort addresses the technology associated with long-term isolation of nuclear waste in a natural salt medium. The work presented is part of the WIPP plugging and sealing program, specifically the development and optimization of an ultrafine cementitious grout that can be injected to lower excessive, strain-induced hydraulic conductivity in the fractured rock termed the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ) surrounding underground excavations. Innovative equipment and procedures employed in the laboratory produced a usable cement-based grout; 90% of the particles were smaller than 8 microns and the average particle size was 4 microns. The process involved simultaneous wet pulverization and mixing. The grout was used for a successful in situ test underground at the WIPP. Injection of grout sealed microfractures as small as 6 microns (and in one rare instance, 3 microns) and lowered the gas transmissivity of the DRZ by up to three orders of magnitude. Following the WIPP test, additional work produced an improved version of the grout containing particles 90% smaller than 5 microns and averaging 2 microns. This grout will be produced in dry form, ready for the mixer

  13. Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of the Quiescent Medium of Nearby Clouds. I. Ice Formation and Grain Growth in Lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, A.; Chiar, J.; Knez, C.; Öberg, K.; Mundy, L.; Pendleton, Y.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dishoeck, van E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 {$μ$}m) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H$_{2}$O ices form at extinctions of A

  14. High toughness in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICRCG) heat-affected zone (HAZ) of low carbon microalloyed steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jun, E-mail: hujunral@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Lin-Xiu [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Jun [Institute of Materials Research, School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xie, Hui; Gao, Cai-Ru [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Motivated by the small lattice mismatch between ferrite and vanadium nitride (VN), we describe here the welding thermal cycle simulation that provides high toughness in the ICRCG HAZ of low carbon V–N steel. This unique behavior is attributed to the formation of ultra-fine grained ferrite along prior austenite grain boundaries generated by the first pass welding thermal cycle with high misorientation boundaries, where V(C, N) precipitates provide potential nucleation sites for ferrite, leading to extraordinary refinement of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. Nitrogen stimulates the precipitation behavior of V(C, N). The nucleation of high density of V(C, N) precipitates consumes carbon-content in the austenite, leading to decrease in the carbon-content in the M/A constituent, with consequent decrease in hardness. The increase in toughness is explained in terms of Griffith's crack propagation theory.

  15. High toughness in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICRCG) heat-affected zone (HAZ) of low carbon microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jun; Du, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Xie, Hui; Gao, Cai-Ru; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the small lattice mismatch between ferrite and vanadium nitride (VN), we describe here the welding thermal cycle simulation that provides high toughness in the ICRCG HAZ of low carbon V–N steel. This unique behavior is attributed to the formation of ultra-fine grained ferrite along prior austenite grain boundaries generated by the first pass welding thermal cycle with high misorientation boundaries, where V(C, N) precipitates provide potential nucleation sites for ferrite, leading to extraordinary refinement of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent. Nitrogen stimulates the precipitation behavior of V(C, N). The nucleation of high density of V(C, N) precipitates consumes carbon-content in the austenite, leading to decrease in the carbon-content in the M/A constituent, with consequent decrease in hardness. The increase in toughness is explained in terms of Griffith's crack propagation theory

  16. Atmospheric ultrafine aerosol number concentration and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Himachal Unit, ... a significant increase indicating impact of vehicular onslaught on pure air of this hilly region. 1. .... Meteorological conditions during ultrafine measurement days in 2008 at: (a) Mohal and ..... Claiborne C and Koenig J 1999 Episodes of high coarse.

  17. Grain boundary corrosion and alteration phase formation during the oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2} pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    Alteration behavior of UO{sub 2} pellets following reaction under unsaturated drip-test conditions at 90 C for up to 10 years was examined by solid phase and leachate analyses. Sample reactions were characterized by preferential dissolution of grain boundaries between the original press-sintered UO{sub 2} granules comprising the samples, development of a polygonal network of open channels along the intergrain boundaries, and spallation of surface granules that had undergone severe grain boundary corrosion. The development of a dense mat of alteration phases after 2 years of reaction trapped loose granules, resulting in reduced rates of particulate U release. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases that formed on the present samples was similar to that observed in surficial weathering zones of natural uraninite (UO{sub 2}) deposits, with alkali and alkaline earth uranyl silicates representing the long-term solubility-limiting phases for U in both systems.

  18. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance; Ott, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25 h of driving two cars, and 22 visits to restaurants. Cooking on gas or electric stoves and electric toaster ovens was a major source of UFP, with peak personal exposures often exceeding 100,000 particles/cm³ and estimated emission rates in the neighborhood of 10¹² particles/min. Other common sources of high UFP exposures were cigarettes, a vented gas clothes dryer, an air popcorn popper, candles, an electric mixer, a toaster, a hair dryer, a curling iron, and a steam iron. Relatively low indoor UFP emissions were noted for a fireplace, several space heaters, and a laser printer. Driving resulted in moderate exposures averaging about 30,000 particles/cm³ in each of two cars driven on 17 trips on major highways on the East and West Coasts. Most of the restaurants visited maintained consistently high levels of 50,000-200,000 particles/cm³ for the entire length of the meal. The indoor/outdoor ratios of size-resolved UFP were much lower than for PM₂.₅ or PM₁₀, suggesting that outdoor UFP have difficulty in penetrating a home. This in turn implies that outdoor concentrations of UFP have only a moderate effect on personal exposures if indoor sources are present. A time-weighted scenario suggests that for typical suburban nonsmoker lifestyles, indoor sources provide about 47% and outdoor sources about 36% of total daily UFP exposure and in-vehicle exposures add the remainder (17%). However, the effect of one smoker in the home results in an overwhelming increase in the importance of indoor sources (77% of the total).

  19. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  1. Grain Refinement and Texture Mitigation in Low Boron Containing TiAl-Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Ulrike; Witusiewicz, Victor T.

    2017-12-01

    Controlling the grain size and texture of lamellar TiAl-alloys is essential for well-balanced creep and fatigue properties. Excellent refinement and texture mitigation are achieved in aluminum lean alloys by low boron additions of 0.2 at.%. This amount is sufficient to promote in situ formation of ultrafine borides during the last stages of body centered cubic (BCC) solidification. The borides subsequently serve as nucleation sites for hexagonal close packed (HCP) during the BCC-HCP phase transformation. Bridgman solidification experiments with alloy Ti-43Al-8Nb-0.2C-0.2B were performed under a different growth velocity, i.e., cooling rate, to evaluate the HCP grain size distribution and texture. For slow-to-moderate cooling rates, about 65% of HCP grains are randomly oriented, despite the pronounced texture of the parent BCC phase resulting from directional solidification. For high cooling rates, obtained by quenching, texture mitigation is less pronounced. Only 28% of the HCP grains are randomly oriented, the majority being crystallographic variants of the Burgers orientation relationship.

  2. Glass Formation of n-Butanol: Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations Using Gay-Berne Potential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gui-long; Zhang, Yong-hong; Huang, Shi-ping

    2012-04-01

    Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations based on Gay-Berne potential model, we have simulated the cooling process of liquid n-butanol. A new set of GB parameters are obtained by fitting the results of density functional theory calculations. The simulations are carried out in the range of 290-50 K with temperature decrements of 10 K. The cooling characteristics are determined on the basis of the variations of the density, the potential energy and orientational order parameter with temperature, whose slopes all show discontinuity. Both the radial distribution function curves and the second-rank orientational correlation function curves exhibit splitting in the second peak. Using the discontinuous change of these thermodynamic and structure properties, we obtain the glass transition at an estimate of temperature Tg=120±10 K, which is in good agreement with experimental results 110±1 K.

  3. Grain Nucleation and Growth in Deformed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: An In Situ TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, J.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, C.; Prokofiev, E.; Valiev, R.; Eggeler, G.

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates the evolution of nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures in plastically deformed NiTi. Two deformed NiTi alloys were subjected to in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 400 and 550 °C: an amorphous material state produced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a mostly martensitic partly amorphous alloy produced by wire drawing. In situ annealing experiments were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution from the initial nonequilibrium states toward energetically more favorable microstructures. In general, the formation and evolution of nanocrystalline microstructures are governed by the nucleation of new grains and their subsequent growth. Austenite nuclei which form in HPT and wire-drawn microstructures have sizes close to 10 nm. Grain coarsening occurs in a sporadic, nonuniform manner and depends on the physical and chemical features of the local environment. The mobility of grain boundaries in NiTi is governed by the local interaction of each grain with its microstructural environment. Nanograin growth in thin TEM foils seems to follow similar kinetic laws to those in bulk microstructures. The present study demonstrates the strength of in situ TEM analysis and also highlights aspects which need to be considered when interpreting the results.

  4. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  5. The TiCl{sub 3} catalyst in NaAlH{sub 4} for hydrogen storage induces grain refinement and impacts on hydrogen vacancy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.; Eijt, S.W.H. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Huot, J. [Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, Quebec (Canada); Kockelmann, W.A. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Wagemaker, M. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Mulder, F.M. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.m.mulder@tudelft.nl

    2007-09-15

    TiCl{sub 3} acts as an efficient catalyst for NaAlH{sub 4} (sodium alanate), altering its hydrogen sorption kinetics and reversibility considerably. In order to clarify its role, we performed in situ neutron diffraction experiments on protonated catalysed and uncatalysed NaAlH{sub 4}. The phase transformations were monitored in the first two reaction steps during hydrogen release and in the second step during reloading. Our study for the first time provides clear indications that both Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1-x} and NaCl formed act as grain refiner for Al and NaH, respectively, preventing particle growth. Particle sizes generally stay small upon desorption and reloading of TiCl{sub 3} catalysed NaAlH{sub 4}, while significant particle growth is observed for uncatalysed NaAlH{sub 4}. The small crystallite sizes and observed hydrogen vacancy formation greatly facilitate the mass transfer during loading and unloading. This study underlines the importance of grain refining for achieving reversibility and faster kinetics of the hydrogen sorption processes, with a crucial double role played by the catalyst.

  6. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  7. Preparation of ultrafine poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) fibres via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ultrafine poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS) fibres have been prepared for the first time by electrospinning. The spinning solutions (NaPSS aqueous solutions) in varied concentrations were studied for electrospinning into ultrafine fibres. The results indicated that the smooth fibre could be formed when the ...

  8. Networks of ultra-fine Ag nanocrystals in a Teflon AF (registered) matrix by vapour phase e-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A; Bayer, I S; Marken, B; Pounds, T D; Norton, M G

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated nanocomposite thin films comprising silver (Ag) nanoparticles dispersed in a Teflon AF (registered) polymer matrix using electron-beam-assisted physical vapour deposition. Four different Ag nanoparticle volume fillings (20%, 35%, 70% and 75%) were achieved by varying the relative metal-polymer evaporation rates with the formation of highly crystalline Ag nanoparticles regardless of the filling ratio. The present fabrication technique allowed full control over dispersion uniformity of nanoparticles in the polymer network. At 20% and 35% metal volume fillings, the nanocomposite film morphology consists of a uniformly dispersed assembly of equiaxed isolated Ag nanoparticles. At higher metal volume fractions the nanocomposite structures displayed two different and unique Ag nanoparticle arrangements within the polymer matrix. In particular, at 70% metal filling, the formation of irregularly shaped clusters of individually assembled nanocrystals was observed. At a slightly higher volume filling (75%), larger irregularly shaped Ag nanocrystals that appeared to be the result of coalescence and grain growth were observed. Finally, a composite theory developed by Tandon and Weng was used to estimate various elastic properties of the nanocomposite films. At high metal filling, the reinforcing effect of the Ag nanoparticles was reflected as approximately a sixfold increase in the elastic modulus compared to the virgin polymer film. Possible applications of such ultra-fine metal nanoparticles networks are discussed

  9. Suppression of Boride Formation in Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Pairings of Parent Superalloy Materials with Different Compositions and Grain Structures and Resulting Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Susanne; Singer, Robert F.

    2014-07-01

    Two Ni-based superalloys, columnar grained Alloy 247 and single-crystal PWA1483, are joined by transient liquid phase bonding using an amorphous brazing foil containing boron as a melting point depressant. At lower brazing temperatures, two different morphologies of borides develop in both base materials: plate-like and globular ones. Their ratio to each other is temperature dependent. With very high brazing temperatures, the deleterious boride formation in Alloy 247 can be totally avoided, probably because the three-phase-field moves to higher alloying element contents. For the superalloy PWA1483, the formation of borides cannot be completely avoided at high brazing temperatures as incipient melting occurs. During subsequent solidification of these areas, Chinese-script-like borides precipitate. The mechanical properties (tensile tests at room and elevated temperatures and short-term creep rupture tests at elevated temperatures) for brazed samples without boride precipitation are very promising. Tensile strengths and creep times to 1 pct strain are comparable, respectively, higher than the ones of the weaker parent material for all tested temperatures and creep conditions (from 90 to 100 pct rsp. 175 to 250 pct).

  10. Microphase separation and the formation of ion conductivity channels in poly(ionic liquid)s: A coarse-grained molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyman, Alexander; Bier, Markus; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2018-05-01

    We study generic properties of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in bulk solution and under confinement. The influence of different side chain lengths on the spatial properties of the PIL systems and on the ionic transport mechanism is investigated in detail. Our results reveal the formation of apolar and polar nanodomains with increasing side chain length in good agreement with previous results for molecular ionic liquids. The ion transport numbers are unaffected by the occurrence of these domains, and the corresponding values highlight the potential role of PILs as single-ion conductors in electrochemical devices. In contrast to bulk behavior, a pronounced formation of ion conductivity channels in confined systems is initiated in close vicinity to the boundaries. We observe higher ion conductivities in these channels for increasing PIL side chain lengths in comparison with bulk values and provide an explanation for this effect. The appearance of these domains points to an improved application of PILs in modern polymer electrolyte batteries.

  11. Physical properties and microstructure performance of ultrafine nanocrystals reinforced laser 3D print microlaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianing; Xia, Chunzhi; Liu, Peng; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Congwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine nanocrystals, nanorods and amorphous phases were produced in such LRP microlaminates. • The amorphous/nanocrystalline interface owned a high bonding energy. • Amorphous/nanocrystalline interface may retard growth of nanocrystals in a certain extent. • Due to production of amorphous, lots of microscale ASNPs were produced. • Ultrafine nanocrystals had the high interface energy, which became the driving force of the atomic motions. - Abstract: Rapid prototyping based on laser alloying was used to produce ultrafine nanocrystals (UN) reinforced three-dimensional microlaminates. Such microlaminates were fabricated on a TA1 alloy by laser rapid prototyping (LRP) of Stellite 20–TiN–B 4 C mixed powders to produce a bottom layer; then Stellite 20–TiN–B 4 C–Sb powders were deposited on such bottom-layer in order to form an upper-layer. There is an excellent metallurgical combination between such two layer; the upper-layer shows a better wear resistance than that of the bottom layer. The Sb addition promoted lots of UN to be produced, and lots of the nanorods were also produced in such microlaminates, their growth was retarded by agglomeration of UN in a certain extent. Such UN had the high interface energy, which became the driving force of atomic motions, favoring formation of a compact fine structure

  12. Physical properties and microstructure performance of ultrafine nanocrystals reinforced laser 3D print microlaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianing, E-mail: jn2369@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Xia, Chunzhi [Provincial Laboratory of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Liu, Peng; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Congwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Ultrafine nanocrystals, nanorods and amorphous phases were produced in such LRP microlaminates. • The amorphous/nanocrystalline interface owned a high bonding energy. • Amorphous/nanocrystalline interface may retard growth of nanocrystals in a certain extent. • Due to production of amorphous, lots of microscale ASNPs were produced. • Ultrafine nanocrystals had the high interface energy, which became the driving force of the atomic motions. - Abstract: Rapid prototyping based on laser alloying was used to produce ultrafine nanocrystals (UN) reinforced three-dimensional microlaminates. Such microlaminates were fabricated on a TA1 alloy by laser rapid prototyping (LRP) of Stellite 20–TiN–B{sub 4}C mixed powders to produce a bottom layer; then Stellite 20–TiN–B{sub 4}C–Sb powders were deposited on such bottom-layer in order to form an upper-layer. There is an excellent metallurgical combination between such two layer; the upper-layer shows a better wear resistance than that of the bottom layer. The Sb addition promoted lots of UN to be produced, and lots of the nanorods were also produced in such microlaminates, their growth was retarded by agglomeration of UN in a certain extent. Such UN had the high interface energy, which became the driving force of atomic motions, favoring formation of a compact fine structure.

  13. Development and applications of ultrafine aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or so, a variety of new technologies has been developed to produce sub-micron powders. Among the products attracting interest is nanoaluminium which is being evaluated in specialist propulsion and exothermic end-uses. This paper examines the advances made in 'nanopowder' production in the context of the existing aluminium powder industry where finest commercial grades have a median size of ∼6 μm (one or two orders of magnitude coarser than nanopowders) and which today supplies the markets being targeted by nanopowders with coarser, but effective products. Are there genuine market opportunities for nanoaluminium and if so, how will they be produced? One the one hand there are the novel nanopowder production methods which are high yielding but generally slow and costly, while on the other, there is the very fine fraction from conventional atomising routes which generate a very low yield of sub-micron powder but which nevertheless can translate into a meaningful rate as part of the bulk production. Can conventional routes ever hope to make sufficient volumes of nanopowders cost effectively and which will be the favoured routes in future? Moreover, what of the 'ultrafine' size range (∼0.5-5 μm) which is of more immediate potential interest to today's powder users. This paper seeks to identify the near term opportunities for application of low volume/high value ultrafine and nano powders

  14. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  15. THE FORMATION OF THE PRIMITIVE STAR SDSS J102915+172927: EFFECT OF THE DUST MASS AND THE GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, S.; Banerjee, R.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the formation of the extremely metal-poor star SDSS J102915+172927 is of fundamental importance to improve our knowledge on the transition between the first and second generation of stars in the universe. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of dust-enriched halos during the early stages of the collapse process including a detailed treatment of the dust physics. We employ the astrochemistry package krome coupled with the hydrodynamical code enzo assuming grain-size distributions produced by the explosion of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of 20 and 35 M ⊙ primordial stars, which are suitable to reproduce the chemical pattern of the SDSS J102915+172927 star. We find that the dust mass yield produced from Population III SNe explosions is the most important factor that drives the thermal evolution and the dynamical properties of the halos. Hence, for the specific distributions relevant in this context, the composition, the dust optical properties, and the size range have only minor effects on the results due to similar cooling functions. We also show that the critical dust mass to enable fragmentation provided by semi-analytical models should be revised, as we obtain values one order of magnitude larger. This determines the transition from disk fragmentation to a more filamentary fragmentation mode, and suggests that likely more than one single SN event or efficient dust growth should be invoked to get such high dust content.

  16. THE FORMATION OF THE PRIMITIVE STAR SDSS J102915+172927: EFFECT OF THE DUST MASS AND THE GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovino, S.; Banerjee, R. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Grassi, T. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schleicher, D. R. G., E-mail: stefano.bovino@uni-hamburg.de [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the formation of the extremely metal-poor star SDSS J102915+172927 is of fundamental importance to improve our knowledge on the transition between the first and second generation of stars in the universe. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of dust-enriched halos during the early stages of the collapse process including a detailed treatment of the dust physics. We employ the astrochemistry package krome coupled with the hydrodynamical code enzo assuming grain-size distributions produced by the explosion of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of 20 and 35 M {sub ⊙} primordial stars, which are suitable to reproduce the chemical pattern of the SDSS J102915+172927 star. We find that the dust mass yield produced from Population III SNe explosions is the most important factor that drives the thermal evolution and the dynamical properties of the halos. Hence, for the specific distributions relevant in this context, the composition, the dust optical properties, and the size range have only minor effects on the results due to similar cooling functions. We also show that the critical dust mass to enable fragmentation provided by semi-analytical models should be revised, as we obtain values one order of magnitude larger. This determines the transition from disk fragmentation to a more filamentary fragmentation mode, and suggests that likely more than one single SN event or efficient dust growth should be invoked to get such high dust content.

  17. [The development of pollen grains and formation of pollen tubes in higher plants : I. Quantitative measurements of the DNA-content of generative and vegetative nuclei in the pollen grain and pollen tube of Petunia hybrida mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesemann, C U

    1971-01-01

    The DNA-content of generative and vegetative nuclei in mature pollen grains of four Petunia hybrida mutants was determined by cytophotometry. In addition the DNA-content of generative and vegetative nuclei in the pollen tube of two of these four mutants (virescens-2 n and ustulata-2 n) was cytophotometrically measured.The DNA-values found in the generative nuclei indicate that the DNA-replication continues in the mature pollen grain and comes to an end only after the migration of the nuclei into the pollen tube. These data are in disagreement with the results of DNA-measurements described for a limited number of other species which all show completion of DNA-synthesis during the maturation stage of the pollen grains.The vegetative nuclei of the four Petunia mutants studied show significant differences in the onset of the degenerative phase. Extreme variation is manifested in the ustulata-2 n mutant in which the degeneration of nuclei may reach the final stage in the maturing pollen grain. However in this mutant vegetative nuclei with an unaltered DNA-content may also be demonstrated in the pollen tube. Some of the vegetative nuclei in the pollen tube of ustulata-2 n exhibit an increased amount of DNA which could be the result of differential DNA-replication in the vegetative nuclei. The decrease of the DNA-content in a certain fraction of the vegetative nuclei in the maturing pollen grain does not agree with observations made in other species by several authors who report DNA constancy until the pollen grain is fully mature.The data obtained from the analysis of the four Petunia hybrida mutants point to an important role of the vegetative nucleus in the development of the pollen tube. The Petunia hybrida mutants may be regarded as especially favourable material for investigations concerning the function of the vegetative cell in the development of the pollen grain and pollen tube.

  18. ULTRAFINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS VS. PATIENTS WTH COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to particulate air pollution. The dosimetry of ultrafine aerosols (diameter # 0.1 :m) is not well characterized in the healthy or diseas...

  19. Summertime observations of elevated levels of ultrafine particles in the high Arctic marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan D.; Bozem, Heiko; Thomas, Jennie L.; Law, Kathy; Hoor, Peter; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Herber, Andreas; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by increasing levels of open ocean in the Arctic summer and the lack of prior altitude-resolved studies, extensive aerosol measurements were made during 11 flights of the NETCARE July 2014 airborne campaign from Resolute Bay, Nunavut. Flights included vertical profiles (60 to 3000 m above ground level) over open ocean, fast ice, and boundary layer clouds and fogs. A general conclusion, from observations of particle numbers between 5 and 20 nm in diameter (N5 - 20), is that ultrafine particle formation occurs readily in the Canadian high Arctic marine boundary layer, especially just above ocean and clouds, reaching values of a few thousand particles cm-3. By contrast, ultrafine particle concentrations are much lower in the free troposphere. Elevated levels of larger particles (for example, from 20 to 40 nm in size, N20 - 40) are sometimes associated with high N5 - 20, especially over low clouds, suggestive of aerosol growth. The number densities of particles greater than 40 nm in diameter (N > 40) are relatively depleted at the lowest altitudes, indicative of depositional processes that will lower the condensation sink and promote new particle formation. The number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN; measured at 0.6 % supersaturation) are positively correlated with the numbers of small particles (down to roughly 30 nm), indicating that some fraction of these newly formed particles are capable of being involved in cloud activation. Given that the summertime marine Arctic is a biologically active region, it is important to better establish the links between emissions from the ocean and the formation and growth of ultrafine particles within this rapidly changing environment.

  20. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  1. Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Microstructural investigation of grain stability in cryomilled inconel 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Lee, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Lavernia, E.J.; Shin, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    The grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline Inconel 625 powders prepared by cryomilling (mechanical milling under a liquid nitrogen environment) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average grain size of powders after 8 hours cryomilling was 22 nm. Along with this fine structure, ultrafine NiO and Cr 2 O 3 oxide particles were distributed in the cryomilled material with average size of 3 nm. It was found that the grain size remain under 250 nm after 4 hours heat treatment at 800 C, which correspond to T/T m ∝0.65. The cryomilled Inconel 625 showed improved grain stability compared to that of conventional Inconel 625 and cryomilled pure-Ni, due to the particle pinning of grain boundary by the oxide particles in addition to solute drag. (orig.)

  3. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  4. Laser Enhanced System for Ultra-Fine Microstructure Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ray T

    2002-01-01

    .... High-speed polymer-based EO modulator arrays and polymer-based optical true-time delay modules have been built through the existing programs involving UT Austin (Chen), USC (Steier), UCLA (Fetterman) and Univ. of Washington (Dalton...

  5. Aggregation and network formation in self-assembly of protein (H3.1) by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. B.; Farmer, B. L.

    2014-11-01

    Multi-scale aggregation to network formation of interacting proteins (H3.1) are examined by a knowledge-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation as a function of temperature and the number of protein chains, i.e., the concentration of the protein. Self-assembly of corresponding homo-polymers of constitutive residues (Cys, Thr, and Glu) with extreme residue-residue interactions, i.e., attractive (Cys-Cys), neutral (Thr-Thr), and repulsive (Glu-Glu), are also studied for comparison with the native protein. Visual inspections show contrast and similarity in morphological evolutions of protein assembly, aggregation of small aggregates to a ramified network from low to high temperature with the aggregation of a Cys-polymer, and an entangled network of Glu and Thr polymers. Variations in mobility profiles of residues with the concentration of the protein suggest that the segmental characteristic of proteins is altered considerably by the self-assembly from that in its isolated state. The global motion of proteins and Cys polymer chains is enhanced by their interacting network at the low temperature where isolated chains remain quasi-static. Transition from globular to random coil transition, evidenced by the sharp variation in the radius of gyration, of an isolated protein is smeared due to self-assembly of interacting networks of many proteins. Scaling of the structure factor S(q) with the wave vector q provides estimates of effective dimension D of the mass distribution at multiple length scales in self-assembly. Crossover from solid aggregates (D ˜ 3) at low temperature to a ramified fibrous network (D ˜ 2) at high temperature is observed for the protein H3.1 and Cys polymers in contrast to little changes in mass distribution (D ˜ 1.6) of fibrous Glu- and Thr-chain configurations.

  6. Facile fabrication of gold nanoparticle on zein ultrafine fibers and their application for catechol biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Dawei; Li, Guohui; Luo, Lei; Ullah, Naseeb; Wei, Qufu; Huang, Fenglin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (A) Formation mechanism of A-CZNF and (B) reaction principle and formation mechanism of A-CZUF biosensor. - Highlights: • We utilized the hydrophobic protein nanofibers to fabricate a laccase-based biosensor for the first time. • The composite containing gold nanoparticles was prepared by combining electrospinning and one-step reduction method, which is a novel nanomaterial. • It is noticeable that the laccase biosensor showed a high electrochemical response and electrochemical activity toward catechol. • The novel biosensor will offer a simple, convenient and high efficient method for detecting polyphenolic compounds in environment. - Abstract: A novel laccase biosensor based on a new composite of laccase–gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers (CZUF) has been fabricated for catechol determination in real solution samples. Firstly, crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers containing gold nanoparticles (A-CZUF) were prepared by combining electrospinning and one-step reduction method using poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as reducing and crosslinking agent. A smooth morphology and relative average distribution of A-CZUF were depicted by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that PEI molecules attached to the surface of the zein ultrafine fibers via the reaction of functional groups between PEI and glyoxal. The results obtained from ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV–vis spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for A-CZUF confirmed the existence of Au NPS coated on the surface of CZUF. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to detect the electrochemical performance of the proposed biosensor. The results demonstrated that this biosensor possessed a high sensitive detection to catechol, which was attributed to the direct electron transfer (DET

  7. Rapid preparation of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} by SO{sub 2} storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei; Sha, Feng; Qiao, Xian Shu; Zhao, Tian Xiang; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Jian Bin [College of Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this work, a green and efficient process was developed for the preparation of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} with layered nanostructure surface via the reaction of BaCl{sub 2} with a SO{sub 2} storage material (SO{sub 2}SM) at room temperature. The absorption of SO{sub 2} with equimolar ethylenediamine (EDA) and ethylene glycol (EG) afforded SO{sub 2}SM, which not only offered alkyl sulfite but also released EDA and EG that served as efficient surfactants to promote the formation of BaSO{sub 3} with spherical morphology and porous structure in the process of synthesis of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3}. The factors affecting the morphology and size of BaSO{sub 3} particle were assessed by investigating the effects of SO{sub 2}SM concentration, BaCl{sub 2} concentration, stirring time and speed. It was found that a higher SO{sub 2}SM concentration led to a higher degree of supersaturation, and the particle size of BaSO{sub 3} could be reduced by increasing SO{sub 2}SM concentration. Moreover, under the identified optimal reaction conditions, ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} was obtained with an average diameter of 450 nm. In addition, a plausible formation process of BaSO{sub 3} was proposed to explain the observed reaction results. Overall, the developed process in this work provides an efficient method for the capture, utilization, and conversion of SO{sub 2} into a valuable chemical.

  8. Impact of High-Temperature, High-Pressure Synthesis Conditions on the Formation of the Grain Structure and Strength Properties of Intermetallic Ni3Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, K. V.; Boyangin, E. N.; Krylova, T. A.; Pshenichnikov, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the preliminary load on 3Ni+Al powder mixture and the impact of the duration of the delay in application of compacting pressure to synthesis product under the conditions of continuous heating of the mixture up to its self-ignition on the grain size and strength properties of the synthesized Ni3Al intermetallide material have been studied. The grain structure of the intermetallide synthesized under pressure was studied by means of metallography, transmission electron microscopy and EBSD analysis, with the dependence of ultimate tensile strength on the grain size in the synthesized intermetallide having been investigated at room temperature and at temperatures up to 1000°C. It is shown that an increase in the pressure preliminarily applied to the initial mixture compact results in reduced grain size of the final intermetallide, whereas an increase in pre-compaction time makes the grain size increased. A decrease in the grain size increases the ultimate tensile strength of the intermetallide. The maximum value of the ultimate tensile strength in the observed anomalous temperature dependence of this strength exhibits a shift by 200°C toward higher temperatures, and the ultimate strength of the synthesized intermetallide at 1000°C increases roughly two-fold.

  9. Polymer degradation and ultrafine particles - Potential inhalation hazards for astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, J.; Oberdoerster, G.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exposure to ultrafine particles results in an increased interstiatilization of the particles which is accompanied by an acute pathological inflammation, rats were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles by intratracheal instillation and by inhalation. Both acute intratracheal instillation and subchronic inhalation studies on rats show that ultrafine TiO2 particles access the pulmonary interstitium to a larger extent than fine particles and that they elicit an inflammatory response as indicated by PMN increase in lavaged cells. The release of ultrafine particles into the air of an enclosed environment from a thermodegradation event or from other sources is a potential hazard for astronauts. Knowing the mechanisms of action is a prerequisite for technical or medical countermeasures.

  10. Effect of grain refinement by severe plastic deformation on the next-neighbor misorientation distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.S.; Beausir, B.; Gu, C.F.; Estrin, Y.; Scheerbaum, N.; Davies, C.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Next-neighbor misorientation distributions (NNMD) in severely deformed polycrystalline materials are commonly measured by orientation imaging. A procedure is proposed which enables the separation of NNMD of ultrafine-grained materials into two parts: the distribution of misorientations between newly emerged grains within the original ('parent') grain interior ('internal daughter grains') and the distribution of misorientations between grains adjacent to an original grain boundary on its opposite sides ('grain boundary daughter grains'). The procedure is based on electron backscatter diffraction orientation map analyses carried out on different planes of deformed samples considering the evolution of the grain size and shape during severe plastic deformation. It was applied to copper processed by up to three passes of equal-channel angular pressing. A characteristic feature of the measured NNMD is the occurrence of a double peak, which is clearly due to the differences between the NNMD of the two distinct populations of new grains defined above. The peak at low angles represents mainly the continual grain subdivision process in the interior of a parent grain (and is associated with internal daughter grains), while the peak at large angles is due to the high angle misorientations of the grain boundary daughter grains.

  11. Grain Refinement and High-Performance of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Cu-Mg Alloy for Electrical Contact Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibin Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (EACP was applied to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG Cu-0.2wt%Mg alloy contact wire with high mechanical/electric performance, aim to overcome the catenary barrier of high-speed trains by maximizing the tension and improving the power delivery. Microstructure evolution and overall properties of the Cu-Mg alloy after different severe-plastic-deformation (SPD routes were investigated by microscopic observation, tensile and electric tests. The results show that the Cu-Mg alloy after multi-pass ECAP at 473 K obtains ultrafine grains, higher strength and desired conductivity. More passes of ECAP leads to finer grains and higher strength, but increasing ECAP temperature significantly lower the strength increment of the UFG alloy. Grain refinement via continuous SPD processing can endow the Cu-Mg alloy superior strength and good conductivity characteristics, which are advantageous to high-speed electrification railway systems.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Ultrafine Chromium Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feng; Jiang Xianliang; Yu Yueguang; Zeng Keli; Ren Xianjing; Li Zhenduo

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were prepared by plasma spraying with ultrafine feedstock. Processing parameters of plasma spraying were optimized. Optical microscope (OM) was used to observe the microstructure of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and particle size of ultrafine powder feedstock as well as to examine the microstructure of the chromium oxide coating. In addition, hardness and bonding strength of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were measured. The results showed that the optimized plasma spraying parameters were suitable for ultrafine chromium oxide coating and the properties and microstructure of the optimized ultrafine chromium oxide coating were superior compared to conventional chromium oxide wear resistant coatings

  13. Separation of ultrafine particles from class F fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrafine particles were recovered from Çatalağzı (CFA and Sugözü (SFA thermal power plant fly ashes using a specific hydraulic classification technology. Since fly ashes have a high tendency to be flocculated in water, settling experiments were first designed to determine the more effective dispersant and the optimum dosage. Two different types of the superplasticizers (SP polymers based on sulphonate (NSF, Disal and carboxylate (Glenium 7500 were used as the dispersing agents in these settling experiments. Hydraulic classification experiments were then conducted to separate ultrafine fractions from the fly ash samples on the basis of the settling experiments. According to the settling experiments, better results were achieved with the use of Disal for both CFA and SFA. The classification experiments showed that the overflow products with average particle sizes of 5.2 μm for CFA and 4.4 μm for SFA were separated from the respective as-received samples with acceptable yields and high enough recoveries of -5 μm (ultrafine particles. Overall results pointed out that the hydraulic classification technology used provided promising results in the ultrafine particle separations from the fly ash samples.

  14. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A

  15. Cytocompatible and water stable ultrafine protein fibers for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiuran

    This dissertation proposal focuses on the development of cytocompatible and water stable protein ultrafine fibers for tissue engineering. The protein-based ultrafine fibers have the potential to be used for biomedicine, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, similarity to natural extracellular matrix (ECM) in physical structure and chemical composition, and superior adsorption properties due to their high surface to volume ratio. However, the current technologies to produce the protein-based ultrafine fibers for biomedical applications still have several problems. For instance, the current electrospinning and phase separation technologies generate scaffolds composed of densely compacted ultrafine fibers, and cells can spread just on the surface of the fiber bulk, and hardly penetrate into the inner sections of scaffolds. Thus, these scaffolds can merely emulate the ECM as a two dimensional basement membrane, but are difficult to mimic the three dimensional ECM stroma. Moreover, the protein-based ultrafine fibers do not possess sufficient water stability and strength for biomedical applications, and need modifications such as crosslinking. However, current crosslinking methods are either high in toxicity or low in crosslinking efficiency. To solve the problems mentioned above, zein, collagen, and gelatin were selected as the raw materials to represent plant proteins, animal proteins, and denatured proteins in this dissertation. A benign solvent system was developed specifically for the fabrication of collagen ultrafine fibers. In addition, the gelatin scaffolds with a loose fibrous structure, high cell-accessibility and cell viability were produced by a novel ultralow concentration phase separation method aiming to simulate the structure of three dimensional (3D) ECM stroma. Non-toxic crosslinking methods using citric acid as the crosslinker were also developed for electrospun or phase separated scaffolds from these three proteins, and proved to be

  16. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurev, Ivan, E-mail: yiywork@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times.

  17. Electrospinning of oriented and nonoriented ultrafine fibers of biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, David

    2005-07-01

    Chitosan has long been known as a biocompatible and biodegradable material suitable for tissue engineering applications. Unfortunately, conventional chitosan solutions cannot be used for electrospinning due to their high conductivity, viscosity and surface tension. We have developed a method to produce clear chitosan solutions with conductivities, surface tension and viscosities that facilitate their processing into micron and submicron fibers via electrospinning. Acetic acid, carbon dioxide and organic solvents are key ingredients in preparing the chitosan solutions. Oriented and non oriented chitosan fibers were produced with the ultimate goal of designing a suitable tissue engineering scaffold. Circularly oriented, continuous, and aligned nanofibers were produced via this technique in the form of a thin membrane or fibrous "mat". Chitosan fiber diameters ranged from 5 micrometers down to 100 nanometers. The structure and mechanical properties of oriented and randomly aligned chitosan fiber deposits could potentially be exploited for cartilage tissue engineering. Ultrafine fibers of starch acetate (SA) also were prepared by the electrospinning process. In this study, solvent mixtures based on DMF, DMSO, pyrindine, acetic acid, acetone, THF, DMC, chloroform were used. A two-solvent formulation was used to study the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity to the fiber diameter. Also, water and ethanol were used to decrease the boiling point of the solvent, and to make bundled fibers. Several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, conductmetry, viscometry, and tensiometry were used in this study. The results showed that the combined effects of viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity are of great importance in controlling the diameter of the fibers. We were able to produce SA fibers that was less than 40 nm in diameter. The dependence of fiber diameter on flow-rate, electric field and solvents also was investigated. A rotating disk and a

  18. Synthesis of ultrafine alumina powders using egg white as complexing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, R.E.P.; Guilherme, K. A.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of alumina powders through chemical methods has been attracting much attention of researchers in the past few years, due to the ability to produce powders in nanometric scale with high degree of purity. In this work, there were synthesized alumina powders through a chemical route, using egg white as a complexing medium and aluminium nitrate as the source of Al 3+ cations. Egg white contains ovalbumin, a protein which acts effectively on the isolation of aluminium cations during the mixing process, enabling the formation of ultrafine alumina powders in a relatively economic and environmentally friendly way. The powders obtained by calcinations of the precursor resin were characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the egg white, present at the reaction medium, allowed obtaining transition alumina powders, with high degree of purity. (author)

  19. Controllable fabrication of ultrafine oblique organic nanowire arrays and their application in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Li; Bai, Suo; Su, Chen; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine organic nanowire arrays (ONWAs) with a controlled direction were successfully fabricated by a novel one-step Faraday cage assisted plasma etching method. The mechanism of formation of nanowire arrays is proposed; the obliquity and aspect ratio can be accurately controlled from approximately 0° to 90° via adjusting the angle of the sample and the etching time, respectively. In addition, the ONWAs were further utilized to improve the output of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared with the output of TENG composed of vertical ONWAs, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and inductive charges were improved by 73%, 150% and 98%, respectively. This research provides a convenient and practical method to fabricate ONWAs with various obliquities on different materials, which can be used for energy harvesting.

  20. Preparation and pattern recognition of metallic Ni ultrafine powders by electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.J.; Zhang, H.T.; Wu, X.W.; Wang, Z.L.; Jia, Q.L.; Jia, X.L.

    2006-01-01

    Using hydrazine hydrate as reductant, metallic Ni ultrafine powders were prepared from NiSO 4 aqueous solution by electroless plating method. The factors including concentration of NiSO 4 , bathing temperature, ratio of hydrazine hydrate to NiSO 4 , the pH of the solution, etc., on influence of the yield and average particle size of metallic Ni ultrafine powders were studied in detail. X-ray powders diffraction patterns show that the nickel powders are cubic crystallite. The average crystalline size of the ultrafine nickel powders is about 30 nm. The dielectric and magnetic loss of ultrafine Ni powders-paraffin wax composites were measured by the rectangle waveguide method in the range 8.2-12.4 GHz. The factors for Ni ultrafine powders preparation are optimized by computer pattern recognition program based on principal component analysis, the optimum factors regions with higher yield of metallic Ni ultrafine powders are indicated by this way

  1. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration.

  2. Semi-quantitative characterisation of ambient ultrafine aerosols resulting from emissions of coal fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkley, J.T.; Bridgman, H.A.; Buhre, B.J.P.; Gupta, R.P.; Nelson, P.F.; Wall, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Emissions from coal fired power stations are known to be a significant anthropogenic source of fine atmospheric particles, both through direct primary emissions and secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate from emissions of gaseous precursors. However, there is relatively little information available in the literature regarding the contribution emissions make to the ambient aerosol, particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this study, the contribution of emissions to particles smaller than 0.3 μm in the ambient aerosol was examined at a sampling site 7 km from two large Australian coal fired power stations equipped with fabric filters. A novel approach was employed using conditional sampling based on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) as an indicator species, and a relatively new sampler, the TSI Nanometer Aerosol Sampler. Samples were collected on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids and examined using a combination of TEM imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for qualitative chemical analysis. The ultrafine aerosol in low SO 2 conditions was dominated by diesel soot from vehicle emissions, while significant quantities of particles, which were unstable under the electron beam, were observed in the high SO 2 samples. The behaviour of these particles was consistent with literature accounts of sulfate and nitrate species, believed to have been derived from precursor emissions from the power stations. A significant carbon peak was noted in the residues from the evaporated particles, suggesting that some secondary organic aerosol formation may also have been catalysed by these acid seed particles. No primary particulate material was observed in the minus 0.3 μm fraction. The results of this study indicate the contribution of species more commonly associated with gas to particle conversion may be more significant than expected, even close to source

  3. An EBSD Investigation of Ultrafine-Grain Titanium for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Effect of interstitial solutes on the strength and ductility of tita - nium, Prog. Mater. Sci. 26 (1981) 123–403. [14] S. Yu Mironov, G.A. Salishchev...M.M. Myshlyaev, R. Pippan, Evolution of mis- orientation distribution during warm ‘abc’ forging of commercial-purity tita - nium, Mater. Sci. Eng. A

  4. Network of Porosity Formed in Ultrafine-Grained Copper Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Jens; Baither, Dietmar; Schmitz, Guido; Divinski, Sergiy V.

    2009-04-01

    Radiotracer experiments on diffusion of Ni63 and Rb86 in severely deformed commercially pure copper (8 passes of equal channel angular pressing) reveal unambiguously the existence of ultrafast transport paths. A fraction of these paths remains in the material even after complete recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam techniques are applied. Deep grooves are found which are related to original high-energy interfaces. In-depth sectioning near corresponding triple junctions reveals clearly multiple microvoids or microcracks caused by the severe deformation. Long-range tracer penetration over tens of micrometers proves that these submicrometer-large defects are connected by highly diffusive paths and that they appear with significant frequency.

  5. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti 2 AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ Ti 2 AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150 ∘ C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti 3 Al and Ti 2 AlC phases. Fine Ti 2 AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  6. Elastic and Plastic Behavior of an Ultrafine-Grained Mg Reinforced with BN Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanová, Zuzanka; Dash, Khushbu; Máthis, Kristián; Lukáč, Pavel; Kasakewitsch, Alla

    2018-04-01

    Pure microcrystalline magnesium (µMg) was reinforced with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles and was fabricated by powder metallurgy process followed by hot extrusion. For comparison pure magnesium powder was consolidated by hot extrusion too. Both materials exhibited a significant fiber texture. Mg-hBN nanocomposites (nc) and pure Mg specimens were deformed between room temperature and 300 °C under tension and compression mode. The yield strength and ultimate tensile and compression strength as well as characteristic stresses were evaluated and reported. The tensile and compressive strengths of Mg-hBN nc are quiet superior in values compared to monolithic counterpart as well as Mg alloys. The compressive yield strength of µMg was recorded as 90 MPa, whereas the Mg-hBN nancomposite shows 125 MPa at 200 °C. The tensile yield strength of µMg was computed as 67 MPa which is quite lower as compared to Mg-hBN nanocomposite's value which was recorded as 157 MPa at 200 °C. Under tensile stress the true stress-strain curves are flat in nature, whereas the stress-strain curves observed in compression at temperatures up to 100 °C exhibited small local maxima at the onset of deformation followed by a significant work hardening.

  7. Tailoring the gradient ultrafine-grained structure in low-carbon steel during drawing with shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Raab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drawing and drawing with shear were conducted on the rods of low-carbon steel. Deformation by simple drawing forms basically a homogenous structure and leads to a uniform change in microhardness along the billet volume. A comparative analysis of the models of these processes showed that shear drawing of steel at room temperature reduces energy characteristics in half, normal forces on the die – by 1,8, and enhances the strain intensity from 0,5 to 1,6. During drawing with shear, strain-induced cementite dissolution occurs and a gradient structure is formed, which increases the microhardness of the surface layer up to values close to 7 000 MPa.

  8. Processing ultrafine-grained Aluminum alloy using Multi-ECAP-Conform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhretdinova, Elvira; Raab, Georgy; Valiev, Ruslan; Ryzhikov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strained state (SSS), contact and force parameters of a new SPD technique – Multi-ECAP-Conform – have been studied. The new technique ensures a high level of accumulated strain □=4...5 per one processing cycle. Physical and computer modeling by finite element method in Deform-3D software was applied to evaluate the parameters. It is shown that the results of physical and computer modeling correlate with each other. Equipment has been upgraded, and experimental samples of Al-Mg-Si system alloy have been processed

  9. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti2AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150◦C. The composite mainly consisted ... Metal–matrix composites; mechanical properties; microstructures; sintering. 1. Introduction γ-TiAl-based intermetallic alloys have been extensively.

  10. Enhanced Antifungal Bioactivity of Coptis Rhizome Prepared by Ultrafining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive constituents in the methanol extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology. The indicator compound was identified by spectroscopic method and its purity was determined by HPLC. Moreover, the crude extracts and indicator compound were examined for their ability to inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 on potato dextrose agar plates. The indicator compound is a potential candidate as a new plant derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off in vegetable seedlings. In addition, the extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology displayed higher contents of indicator compound; they not only improve their bioactivity but also reduce the amount of the pharmaceuticals required and, thereby, decrease the environmental degradation associated with the harvesting of the raw products.

  11. Unraveling the atomic structure of ultrafine iron clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hongtao

    2012-12-18

    Unraveling the atomic structures of ultrafine iron clusters is critical to understanding their size-dependent catalytic effects and electronic properties. Here, we describe the stable close-packed structure of ultrafine Fe clusters for the first time, thanks to the superior properties of graphene, including the monolayer thickness, chemical inertness, mechanical strength, electrical and thermal conductivity. These clusters prefer to take regular planar shapes with morphology changes by local atomic shuffling, as suggested by the early hypothesis of solid-solid transformation. Our observations differ from observations from earlier experimental study and theoretical model, such as icosahedron, decahedron or cuboctahedron. No interaction was observed between Fe atoms or clusters and pristine graphene. However, preferential carving, as observed by other research groups, can be realized only when Fe clusters are embedded in graphene. The techniques introduced here will be of use in investigations of other clusters or even single atoms or molecules.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles by ultrafine pulverization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-Wei; Sun, Peng; Gai, Guo-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wang, Yu-Rong

    2011-04-01

    Baizhi, as a medicinal plant, has been demonstrated to be useful for the treatment of aches and pains in China. The physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles is greatly influenced by ultrafine pulverization. To study the physicochemical characterization of Baizhi, the raw plant material of Baizhi was ground to 6 μm particles by a high speed centrifugal sheering (HSCS) pulverizer. The micron particles were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Imperatorin is one of the active ingredients of Baizhi, and its extraction yield is determined to evaluate the chemical characterization of Baizhi powder. Imperatorin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that after ultrafine pulverization, the plant cell walls are broken into pieces and the extraction yield of imperatorin is increased by 11.93% compared with the normal particles.

  13. Fundamentals of fast reduction of ultrafine iron ore at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhao; Peimin Guo

    2008-01-01

    Fundamentals on the fast reduction of ultrafine iron ore at low temperature, including characterization of ultrafine ore, de- oxidation thermodynamics of stored-energy ultrafine ore, kinetics of iron ore deoxidation, and deoxidation mechanism, etc., and a new ironmaking process are presented in this article. Ultrafine ore concentrate with a high amount of stored energy can be produced by mechanical milling, and can be dcoxidated fast below 700℃ by either the coal-based or gas-based process. This novel process has some advantages over others: high productivity, low energy consumption, and environmental friendliness.

  14. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  15. Imaging of DNA Ultrafine Bridges in Budding Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quevedo Rodriguez, Oliver; Lisby, Michael

    2018-01-01

    DNA ultrafine bridges (UFBs) are a type of chromatin-free DNA bridges that connect sister chromatids in anaphase and pose a threat to genome stability. However, little is known about the origin of these structures, and how they are sensed and resolved by the cell. In this chapter, we review tools...... and methods for studying UFBs by fluorescence microscopy including chemical and genetic approaches to induce UFBs in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  16. Ultrafine manganese dioxide nanowire network for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Ting; Ma, Jan; Yan, Chaoyi; Li, Chunzhong

    2011-01-28

    Ultrafine MnO(2) nanowires with sub-10 nm diameters have been synthesized by a simple process of hydrothermal treatment with subsequent calcinations to form networks that exhibit an enhanced specific capacitance (279 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), high rate capability (54.5% retention at 20 A g(-1)) and good cycling stability (1.7% loss after 1000 cycles).

  17. Imaging of DNA Ultrafine Bridges in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Oliver; Lisby, Michael

    2018-01-01

    DNA ultrafine bridges (UFBs) are a type of chromatin-free DNA bridges that connect sister chromatids in anaphase and pose a threat to genome stability. However, little is known about the origin of these structures, and how they are sensed and resolved by the cell. In this chapter, we review tools and methods for studying UFBs by fluorescence microscopy including chemical and genetic approaches to induce UFBs in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  18. Petrological-geochemical characteristics of coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Songliao basin and their geological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gan; Zhang Bangtong

    2005-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin are mainly composed of sandstone, mudstone and siltstone. The petrological-chemical analysis of clastic sedimentary rocks from Quantou Formation, Cretaceous indicates that their lithology mainly consists of arkose, shale and minor rock debris sandstone and greywacke by chemical classification of bulk elements. REE distribution pattern displays the apparent enrichment of LREE and negative anomaly of Eu and is similar to that of NASC and PAAS. The ratio of trace-element in sedimentary rocks to that of upper crust shows gentle character. All the above features indicate that these sedimentary rocks were slowly deposited under weakly active tectonic setting. They are sediments typical for passive continental margin and active continental margin. It is suggested that material source of clastic sediments of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin was originated from Hercynian granite of Zhangguangchai Mountain, and the granite was originated from upper crust. (authors)

  19. Microstructure of HIPed and SPSed 9Cr-ODS steel and its effect on helium bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chenyang; Lu, Zheng; Xie, Rui; Liu, Chunming; Wang, Lumin

    2016-01-01

    Two 9Cr-ODS steels with the same nominal composition were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP, named COS-1) and spark plasma sintering (SPS, named COS-2). Helium ions were implanted into COS-1, COS-2 and non-ODS Eurofer 97 steels up at 673 K. Microstructures before and after helium ion implantations were carefully characterized. The results show a bimodal grain size distribution in COS-2 and a more uniform grain size distribution in COS-1. Nanoscale clusters of GP-zone type Y–Ti–O and Y_2Ti_2O_7 pyrochlore as well as large spinel Mn(Ti)Cr_2O_4 particles are all observed in the two ODS steels. The Y–Ti-enriched nano-oxides in COS-1 exhibit higher number density and smaller size than in COS-2. The Y–Ti-enriched nano-oxides in fine grains of COS-2 show higher number density and smaller size than that in coarse grains of COS-2. Nano-oxides effectively trap helium atoms and lead to the formation of high density and ultra-fine helium bubbles. - Highlights: • The microstructure changes of two ODS steels before and after helium ion implantation have been elucidated. • The mechanism of the microstructures of ODS steels under varied thermal mechanical processing paths have been explored. • The dependence of the size, density and distribution of helium bubbles on the specific microstructure features are explored.

  20. Sources of ultrafine particles in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Laura N.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2015-06-01

    Source contributions to ultrafine particle number concentrations for a summertime period in the Eastern U.S. are investigated using the chemical transport model PMCAMx-UF. New source-resolved number emissions inventories are developed for biomass burning, dust, gasoline automobiles, industrial sources, non-road and on-road diesel. According to the inventory for this summertime period in the Eastern U.S., gasoline automobiles are responsible for 40% of the ultrafine particle number emissions, followed by industrial sources (33%), non-road diesel (16%), on-road diesel (10%), and 1% from biomass burning and dust. With these emissions as input, the chemical transport model PMCAMx-UF reproduces observed ultrafine particle number concentrations (N3-100) in Pittsburgh with an error of 12%. For this summertime period in the Eastern U.S., nucleation is predicted to be the source of more than 90% of the total particle number concentrations. The source contributions to primary particle number concentrations are on average similar to those of their source emissions contributions: gasoline is predicted to contribute 36% of the total particle number concentrations, followed by industrial sources (31%), non-road diesel (18%), on-road diesel (10%), biomass burning (1%), and long-range transport (4%). For this summertime period in Pittsburgh, number source apportionment predictions for particles larger than 3 nm in diameter (traffic 65%, other combustion sources 35%) are consistent with measurement-based source apportionment (traffic 60%, combustion sources 40%).

  1. Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

    2012-10-01

    Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one.

  2. Study of the sintering behavior of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-CO mixtures obtained by high energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, M. D.; Bonache, V.; Amigo, V.; Busquets, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the sintering behaviour of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-12Co mixtures obtained by high energy milling, as well commercial nano powders, have been studied, in order to evaluate the effect of the particle size and the powder processing, in the densification, microstructural development and mechanical properties of the final product. The consolidation of the mixtures has been made by uniaxial pressing and sintering in vacuum, and by hot isostatic pressing. The sintered materials have been evaluated by measures of density, hardness and indentation fracture toughness, and micro structurally characterized by optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results show the improvements in resistant behaviour of the materials obtained from nanocrystalline powders, in spite of the grain growth experienced during the sintering. The best results were obtained for the milling nanocrystalline material, which presents values of hardness higher than 180 HV. (Author) 46 refs

  3. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  4. Volatility and mixing states of ultrafine particles from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruf Hossain, A.M.M.; Park, Seungho; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Kihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Size distribution, volatility, and mixing states of ultrafine particles emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning under different burning conditions were investigated. ► Smoldering combustion emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for flaming combustion. ► While the flaming combustion and open burning results imply there is internal mixing of OC and BC, smoldering combustion in rice straw produced ultrafine particles devoid of BC. ► Mixing state of ultrafine particles from biomass burning can alter the single scattering albedo, and might even change the sign of radiative forcing. - Abstract: Fine and ultrafine carbonaceous aerosols produced from burning biomasses hold enormous importance in terms of assessing radiation balance and public health hazards. As such, volatility and mixing states of size-selected ultrafine particles (UFP) emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning were investigated by using volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) technique in this study. Rice straw combustion produced unimodal size distributions of emitted aerosols, while bimodal size distributions from combustions of oak (hardwood) and pine (softwood) were obtained. A nearness of flue gas temperatures and a lower CO ratio of flaming combustion (FC) to smoldering combustion (SC) were characteristic differences found between softwood and hardwood. SC emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for FC. Rice straw open burning UFPs exhibited a volatilization behavior similar to that between FC and SC. In addition, internal mixing states were observed for size-selected UFPs in all biomasses for all combustion conditions, while external mixing states were only observed for rice straw combustion. Results for FC and open burning suggested there was an internal mixing of volatile organic carbon (OC) and non-volatile core (e

  5. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... by the melting of minerals. The ultrafine particles were generated through nucleation and coagulation of vaporized inorganic species, while for the particles in between supermicron and ultrafine particles, condensation of vaporized species or aggregation of nucleates on the existing spherical submicron particles...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  6. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  7. Biocompatible and Biodegradable Ultrafine Nanoparticles of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate-co-Methacrylic Acid Prepared via Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization: Kinetics and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henned Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine nanoparticles, less than 10 nm in mean diameter, of the FDA approved copolymer methyl methacrylate- (MMA- co-methacrylic acid (MAA, 2/1 (mol/mol, were prepared. The method used for the preparation of these particles stabilized in a latex containing around 11% solids includes the dosing of the monomers mixture on a micellar solution preserving monomer starved conditions. It is thought that the operation at these conditions combined with the hydrophilicity of MMA and MAA units favors the formation of ultrafine particles; the propagation reaction carried out within so small compartments renders copolymer chains rich in syndiotactic units very likely as consequence of the restricted movements of the end propagation of the chains. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their extremely small size these nanoparticles could be used as vehicles for improved drug delivery in the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases.

  8. Domain structure and texture in fine grained symplectite from garnet breakdown in peridotite xenoliths (Zinst, Bavaria, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, G.; Špaček, P.; Abart, R.

    2012-04-01

    Lherzolite xenoliths entrained in Oligocene basanite at the locality of Zinst (Bavaria, western Bohemian Massif) contain rare fine-grained symplectites forming about 5 millimeter sized patches comprising several microstructurally and chemically distinct concentric zones. The symplectites reflect a complex reaction history of lherzolite during decompression and interaction with melt. Here we focus on ultra-fine grained symplectite with an integrated bulk composition expressed in terms of garnet end-member component percentages as Prp(69-71)Alm(11-13)Grs(2.5-5)And(7.5-10)Uvr(4). According to the composition and the microstructural occurrence in lherzolite the ultra-fine grained symplectite is interpreted as a product of isochemical garnet breakdown, although the precursor phase is not preserved. Under cross polarized light patches with similar extinction show a domain microstructure in symplectite. BSE images reveal an intimate intergrowth of orthopyroxene, spinel and plagioclase. All phases have a shape preferred orientation within distinct domains, whereas discontinuous SPO changes occur at microstructural domain boundaries. Three types of symplectite were microstructurally discerned: The most pristine type A occurs in a 10-30 micrometers wide zone along the symplectite margin. Spinel forms several tens of nanometers wide rods or lamellae within Opx, whereas Pl and Opx represent the symplectite matrix. All phases show a strong SPO with the maximum elongation perpendicular to the symplectite boundary. At edges of this interface, the SPO of the symplectite phases changes accordingly. Discontinuities in SPO may coincide with changes in crystallographic orientation. EBSD data showed that symplectite phases have strict crystallographic orientation relations with Opx(100)//Spl(111) and Opx(010)//Spl(110). Whereas the initial lattice orientation is controlled by adjacent phases at the symplectite boundary, the crystallographic orientation within symplectite domains

  9. Interactive effects of high temperature and drought stress during stem elongation, anthesis and early grain filling on the yield formation and photosynthesis of winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčová, Marcela; Klem, Karel; Rapantová, Barbora; Novotná, Kateřina; Urban, Otmar; Hlavinka, Petr; Smutná, P.; Horáková, V.; Škarpa, P.; Pohanková, Eva; Wimmerová, Markéta; Orság, Matěj; Jurečka, František; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 221, MAY (2018), s. 182-195 ISSN 0378-4290 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001609 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : carbon-isotope discrimination * triticum-aestivum-l. * heat-stress * climate-change * reproductive growth * leaf senescence * gas-exchange * water -stress * durum-wheat * responses * Drought stress * Heat stress * Photosynthesis * Triticum aestivum * Yield formation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2016

  10. The effect of grain size on dynamic tensile extrusion behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Leeju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE tests were conducted on coarse grained and ultrafine grained (UFG OFHC Cu, Interstitial free (IF Steel, and pure Ta. Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP of 16passes with Bc for Cu, IF Steel and 4 passes for Ta was employed to fabricated UFG materials. DTE tests were carried out by launching the sphere samples (Dia. 7.62 mm to the conical extrusion die at a speed of ∼500 m/sec. The fragmentation behavior of the soft-recovered fragments were examined and compared with each other. The DTE fragmentation behavior of CG and UFG was numerically simulated by the LS-DYNA FEM code.

  11. Estimate of main local sources to ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying and apportioning the contribution of a range of sources to ultrafine particles (UFPs, D oil refineries, and seaport) sources to the total ambient particle number concentration (PNC) in a busy, inner-city area in Brisbane, Australia using Bayesian statistical modelling and other exploratory tools. The Bayesian model was trained on the PNC data on days where NP formations were known to have not occurred, hourly traffic counts, solar radiation data, and smooth daily trend. The model was applied to apportion and quantify the contribution of NP formations and local traffic and non-traffic sources to UFPs. The data analysis incorporated long-term measured time-series of total PNC (D ≥ 6 nm), particle number size distributions (PSD, D = 8 to 400 nm), PM2.5, PM10, NOx, CO, meteorological parameters and traffic counts at a stationary monitoring site. The developed Bayesian model showed reliable predictive performances in quantifying the contribution of NP formation events to UFPs (up to 4 × 104 particles cm- 3), with a significant day to day variability. The model identified potential NP formation and no-formations days based on PNC data and quantified the sources contribution to UFPs. Exploratory statistical analyses show that total mean PNC during the middle of the day was up to 32% higher than during peak morning and evening traffic periods, which were associated with NP formation events. The majority of UFPs measured during the peak traffic and NP formation periods were between 30-100 nm and smaller than 30 nm, respectively. To date, this is the first application of Bayesian model to apportion different sources contribution to UFPs, and therefore the importance of this study is not only in its modelling outcomes but in demonstrating the applicability and advantages of this statistical approach to air pollution studies.

  12. Depositional environment of the Fort Member of the Jurasic Jaisalmer Formation (western Rajasthan, India), as revealed from lithofacies and grain-size analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Quasim, M.; Ghaznavi, A.; Khan, Z.; Ahmad, A.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Lithofacies and granulometric analysis were carried out to decipher the depositional environment of the Fort Member of the Jurassic Jaisalmer Formation. Based on field data nine lithofacies have been identified including trough cross-bedded sandstones, planar cross-bedded sandstones, matrix supported conglomerates, thinly bedded siltstone and sandstones, herringbone cross-bedded sandstones, wave rippled sandstones, laminated sandstones, hummocky cross-bedded sandstones, limestones and shales. Granulometric analysis of the sandstones samples has been carried out for their statistical and textural parameters. Bivariant plots of textural parameters such as graphic skewness versus graphic standard deviation and kewness versus standard deviation confirm the high energy (beach) origin of sandstones. These results suggest a wide spectrum of marine environments ranging from inner shelf to upper shoreface for the Fort Member sandstones.

  13. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  14. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is a set of theoretical, methodological and practical fundamentals of organizational and economic functioning are integrated agricultural formations in the grain market of Ukraine. The methodological basis of research is the complex analysis of economic processes in the grain market in Ukraine and the world. During research we used such methods as method of systematization and comparison, statistic, economic, balance, constructive, target-oriented, and the methods of induction and deduction, analogy and comparison. Main aim of this article is the analysis of the situation on the grain market in Ukraine, defining the role of integrated agricultural formations in this market, improving the organizational-economic mechanism of its functioning, identifies ways of improving the competitiveness of Ukraine among world exporters of grain. Using results of the studies we examined trends grain market in Ukraine; influence of businesses in grain production; analysis of constraints to improve production efficiency of grain; defined domestic (internal needs of grain in Ukraine; assessed the status and expediency transformation infrastructure of the grain market of Ukraine; defined priority directions of development of the grain market in Ukraine. As a result of the preparation of articles, it is obtained the following conclusions: Ukraine is the world's largest producers and exporters of grain, the production of integrated agricultural units to a third of the total grain; technical condition of farm does not meet the needs of production; the domestic market is unable to provide the existing demand for grain production, contributing to export growth; Ukraine has a number of problems due to increased grain production, namely the shortage of storage capacity for the storage of grain, limited performance transshipment of grain in port elevators and imperfection and depreciation of transport systems; solving the existing problems is

  16. Computational Investigation of Effects of Grain Size on Ballistic Performance of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ge; Dou, Yangqing; Guo, Xiang; Liu, Yucheng

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulations were conducted to compare ballistic performance and penetration mechanism of copper (Cu) with four representative grain sizes. Ballistic limit velocities for coarse-grained (CG) copper (grain size ≈ 90 µm), regular copper (grain size ≈ 30 µm), fine-grained (FG) copper (grain size ≈ 890 nm), and ultrafine-grained (UG) copper (grain size ≈ 200 nm) were determined for the first time through the simulations. It was found that the copper with reduced grain size would offer higher strength and better ductility, and therefore renders improved ballistic performance than the CG and regular copper. High speed impact and penetration behavior of the FG and UG copper was also compared with the CG coppers strengthened by nanotwinned (NT) regions. The comparison results showed the impact and penetration resistance of UG copper is comparable to the CG copper strengthened by NT regions with the minimum twin spacing. Therefore, besides the NT-strengthened copper, the single phase copper with nanoscale grain size could also be a strong candidate material for better ballistic protection. A computational modeling and simulation framework was proposed for this study, in which Johnson-Cook (JC) constitutive model is used to predict the plastic deformation of Cu; the JC damage model is to capture the penetration and fragmentation behavior of Cu; Bao-Wierzbicki (B-W) failure criterion defines the material's failure mechanisms; and temperature increase during this adiabatic penetration process is given by the Taylor-Quinney method.

  17. Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Motoaki; Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of monodisperse ultrafine particles of 4 - 100 nm in diameter has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The particles were charged by unipolar and bipolar ions generated by α-ray irradiation and the charge distribution of particles was directly observed in the electric field after the growth of them by condensation of di-butyl phthalate vapor. In both cases of unipolar and bipolar charging, the experimental results have been found in good agreement with the solution of basic equations where Fuchs' formula is used as the combination probability of an ion with a particle. (author)

  18. Ultrafine luminescent structures through nanoparticle self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakaran, K; Goetzinger, S; Shafi, K V P M; Mazzei, A; Schietinger, S; Benson, O

    2006-01-01

    We report the fabrication of ultrafine structures consisting of regular arrays of nanoemitters through the self-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles on a silicon wafer. Nanoparticles of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 3+ ions were synthesized by a sonochemical technique. These particles, suspended in ethanol, are introduced onto a pre-patterned silicon wafer, covered with a thin oxide layer. On annealing the sample in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, the nanoparticles self-assemble along the pattern. We demonstrate this 'chemical lithography' by assembling the nanoparticles along a variety of patterns. We believe that such self-organized nanopatterning of functional structures is important for the realization of nanodevices

  19. Surface structure and adsorption properties of ultrafine porous carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaofeng; Wang Ce; Zhang Dejiang

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafine porous carbon fibers (UPCFs) were successfully synthesized by chemical activation of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers. In the current approach, potassium hydroxide was adopted as activation reagent. UPCFs were systematically evaluated by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption. The mass ratio of potassium hydroxide to preoxidized fibers, activation temperature and activation time are crucial for producing high quality UPCFs. The relationships between porous structure and process parameters are explored. UPCFs were applied as adsorbent for nitrogen monoxide to be compared with commercial porous carbon fibers.

  20. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  1. The Radiation Synthesis of Ultra-Fine Powdered Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (UFCSBR) and Property of Nylon 6/ UFCSBR Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.

    2006-01-01

    A serial of novel ultra-fine powdered carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (UFCSBR) were prepared by using radiation crosslinking and spray drying method. Thereafter, these powdered rubber particles were used as toughener of nylon 6.The radiation synthesis of ultra-fine powdered rubbers were studied, moreover, the mechanical and thermal property of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends were investigated. Finally, the toughening mechanism of nylon 6 modified with ultra-fine rubber particles was discussed. The UFCSBR could be dispersed well in nylon 6 as individual particles with a diameter of 150 nm by using melt blending. The Nylon 6/UFCSBR (80/20) blend possesses higher toughness and higher thermal stability than Nylon 6/POE-g-MAH (which is most often used elastomer in toughening nylon now). The deformation mechanism of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends includes shear deformation of nylon 6 and the formation of elongated rubber particles in matrix. In addition, the UFCSBR has good interfacial compatibility with nylon 6. Therefore, the nylon 6/UFCSBR blends with good mechanical performance could be prepared in this work

  2. Ultrafine titanium dioxide particles in the absence of photoactivation can induce oxidative damage to human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurr, J.-R.; Wang, Alexander S.S.; Chen, C.-H.; Jan, K.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles have been shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity when exposed to UVA radiation, but are regarded as a biocompatible material in the absence of photoactivation. In contrast to this concept, the present results indicate that anatase-sized (10 and 20 nm) TiO 2 particles in the absence of photoactivation induced oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and micronuclei formation, and increased hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. However, the treatment with anatase-sized (200 and >200 nm) particles did not induce oxidative stress in the absence of light irradiation; it seems that the smaller the particle, the easier it is for the particle to induce oxidative damage. The photocatalytic activity of the anatase form of TiO 2 was reported to be higher than that of the rutile form. In contrast to this notion, the present results indicate that rutile-sized 200 nm particles induced hydrogen peroxide and oxidative DNA damage in the absence of light but the anatase-sized 200 nm particles did not. In total darkness, a slightly higher level of oxidative DNA damage was also detected with treatment using an anatase-rutile mixture than with treatment using either the anatase or rutile forms alone. These results suggest that intratracheal instillation of ultrafine TiO 2 particles may cause an inflammatory response

  3. Effects of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles on oxidative stress generation and dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Choi, Young-Sook; Kim, Heon

    2014-05-01

    A major constituent of urban air pollution is diesel exhaust, a complex mixture of gases, chemicals, and particles. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of a fatal stroke, cause cerebrovascular damage, and induce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that may trigger neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the particle component of exhaust from diesel engines, can induce oxidative stress and effect dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells. After 24 h exposure to DEPs of 200 nm or smaller, cell viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO(2)) generation, and levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)), were evaluated. Results indicated cell viability was not significantly changed by DEP exposure. However, ROS showed dramatic dose-dependent changes after DEP exposure (2.4 fold increase compared to control at 200 μg/mL). NO(2) levels were also dose-dependently increased after DEP exposure. Although not in a dose-dependent manner, upon DEP exposure, intracellular DA levels were increased while DOPAC and HVA levels decreased when compared to control. Results suggest that ultrafine DEPs lead to dopamine accumulation in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells, possibly contributing to ROS formation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable instr......, particularly during bicycling in traffic. The results indicate that biologic effects of UFPs occur at modest exposure, such as that occurring in traffic, which supports the relationship of UFPs and the adverse health effects of air pollution.......Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable...... instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood...

  5. Directly electrospun ultrafine nanofibres with Cu grid spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenwang; Zheng Gaofeng; Wang Xiang; Wang Lingyun; Wang Han; Sun Daoheng; Zhang Yulong; Li Lei

    2011-01-01

    A hydrophobic Cu grid was used as an electrospinning spinneret to fabricate ultrafine organic nanofibres. The Cu grid used in this study was that which holds samples in TEM. Due to the hydrophobic surface and larger contact angle of the electrospinning solution on the Cu grid surface, the solution flow was divided into several finer ones by the holes in the Cu grid instead of accumulating. Each finer flow was stretched into individual jets and established a multi-jet mode by the electrical field force. The finer jets played an important role in decreasing the diameter of the nanofibre. The charge repulsion force among charged jets enhanced the whipping instability motion of the liquid jets, which improved the uniformity of the nanofibre and decreased the diameter of the nanofibre. An ultrafine uniform nanofibre of diameter less than 80 nm could be fabricated directly with the novel Cu grid spinneret without any additive. This study provided a unique way to promote the application of one-dimensional organic nanostructures in micro/nanosystems.

  6. Defect structure of ultrafine MgB2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Repp, Sergej; Erdem, Emre; Thomann, Ralf; Acar, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    Defect structure of MgB 2 bulk and ultrafine particles, synthesized by solid state reaction route, have been investigated mainly by the aid of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Two different amorphous Boron (B) precursors were used for the synthesis of MgB 2 , namely, boron 95 (purity 95%–97%, <1.5 μm) and nanoboron (purity >98.5%, <250 nm), which revealed bulk and nanosized MgB 2 , respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrate uniform and ultrafine morphology for nanosized MgB 2 in comparison with bulk MgB 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction data show that the concentration of the by-product MgO is significantly reduced when nanoboron is employed as precursor. It is observed that a significant average particle size reduction for MgB 2 can be achieved only by using B particles of micron or nano size. The origin and the role of defect centers were also investigated and the results proved that at nanoscale MgB 2 material contains Mg vacancies. Such vacancies influence the connectivity and the conductivity properties which are crucial for the superconductivity applications

  7. Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Junkermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP in the atmosphere may have significant impacts on the regional water and radiation budgets through secondary effects on cloud microphysics. Yet, as these particles are invisible for current remote sensing techniques, knowledge about their three-dimensional distribution, source strengths and budgets is limited. Building on a 40-yr-old Australia-wide airborne survey which provides a reference case study of aerosol sources and budgets, this study presents results from a new airborne survey over Eastern Australia, northern New South Wales and Queensland. Observations identified apparent changes in the number and distribution of major anthropogenic aerosol sources since the early 1970s, which might relate to the simultaneously observed changes in rainfall patterns over eastern Queensland. Coal-fired power stations in the inland areas between Brisbane and Rockhampton were clearly identified as the major sources for ultrafine particulate matter. Sugar mills, smelters and shipping along the coast close to the Ports of Townsville and Rockhampton were comparable minor sources. Airborne Lagrangian plume studies were applied to investigate source strength and ageing properties within power station plumes. Significant changes observed, compared to the measurements in the 1970s, included a significant increase in the number concentration of UFP related to coal-fired power station emissions in the sparsely populated Queensland hinterland coincident with the area with the most pronounced reduction in rainfall.

  8. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  9. A madurella mycetomatis grain model in galleria mellonella larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Kloezen (Wendy); M. van Helvert-van Poppel (Marilyn); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility

  10. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

  11. [A technological study on the extraction of ultra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaohai; Huang, Mingqing; Zeng, Huifang; Guo, Wei; Xi, Ping

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the extraction of ultra-fine powder Panax notoginsen. The extraction rate of ginseng saponin Rg1, Re, Rb1, notoginseng saponin R1 and filtrated time were determined by alcoholic and aqueous extraction of Panax notoginsen in tablet, coarse powder, ultra-fine powder and recostitution granules of ultra-fine powder. The filtered time of ultra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen extraction and that of the tablet of Panax notoginsen extraction were similar, while the extraction rates of various saponins of it were high. The method of aqueous extrction in ltra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen is easy in filtrationer, higher in extraction rate of Panax notoginsen and lower in production cost.

  12. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  13. Filtration efficiency of an electrostatic fibrous filter: Studying filtration dependency on ultrafine particle exposure and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnson, Matthew S.; Yazdi, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between ultrafine particle concentrations and removal efficiencies for an electrostatic fibrous filter in a laboratory environment. Electrostatic fibrous filters capture particles efficiently, with a low pressure drop. Therefor...

  14. Expert elicitation on ultrafine particles: likelihood of health effects and causal pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.B.; de Hartog, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288354850; Boogaard, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406522; Slottje, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/299345351; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; Lebret, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071318917; Cassee, F.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143038990; Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398; Ayres, J.G.; Borm, P.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Donaldson, K.; Forastiere, F.; Holgate, S.T.; Kreyling, W.; Nemery, B.; Pekkanen, J.; Stone, V.; Wichmann, H.E.; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM) has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from

  15. Fatigue and creep–fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Carroll, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep–fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 °C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of −1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep–fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep–fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  16. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.C., E-mail: Mark.Carroll@INL.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States); Carroll, L.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States)

    2012-10-30

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep-fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 Degree-Sign C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep-fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  17. Preparation of Ni-C Ultrafine Composite from Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Rabah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work depicts the preparation of Ni-C ultrafine composite from used engine oil. The used oil was emulsified with detergent loaded with Ni (OH2. The loaded emulsion was sprayed on electric plasma generated between two C electrodes to a DC main 28 V and 70-80 A. The purged Ni-doped carbon fume was trapped on a polymer film moistened with synthetic adhesive to fix the trapped smoke. Characterization of the deposit was made using SEM. XRD examined the crystal morphology. Carbon density in the cloud was calculated. The average size and thickness of the deposited composite is 120-160 nm. Aliphatic hydrocarbons readily decompose to gaseous products. Solid carbon smoke originates from aromatic compounds. Plasma heat blasts the oil in short time to decompose in one step.

  18. Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zhang, Yuwei; Giangrande, Scott E.; Li, Zhanqing; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feng, Zhe; Gao, Wenhua; Gomes, Helber B.; Mei, Fan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2018-01-25

    Aerosol-cloud interaction remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles (UAP; size <50nm) are considered too small to serve as cloud condensation nuclei conventionally. However, this study provides observational evidence to accompany insights from numerical simulations to support that deep convective clouds (DCCs) over Amazon have strong capability of nucleating UAP from an urban source and forming greater numbers of droplets, because fast drop coalescence in these DCCs reduces drop surface area available for condensation, leading to high vapor supersaturation. The additional droplets subsequently decrease supersaturation and release more condensational latent heating, a dominant contributor to convection intensification, whereas enhanced latent heat from ice-related processes plays a secondary role. Therefore, the addition of anthropogenic UAP may play a much greater role in modulating clouds than previously believed over the Amazon region and possibly in other relatively pristine regions such as maritime and forest locations.

  19. Deposition of fine and ultrafine particles on indoor surface materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Reinhold, Claus

    2008-01-01

    -scale test chamber. Experiments took place in a 32 m3 chamber with walls and ceiling made of glass. Prior to each experiment the chamber was flushed with outdoor air to reach an initial particle concentration typical of indoor air in buildings with natural ventilation. The decay of particle concentrations...... The aim of this study was the experimental determination of particle deposition for both different particle size fractions and different indoor surface materials. The selected surface materials were glass, gypsum board, carpet, and curtain. These materials were tested vertically in a full...... was monitored. Seven particle size fractions were studied. These comprised ultrafine and fine particles. Deposition was higher on carpet and curtain than on glass and gypsum board. Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 µm had the lowest deposition. This fraction also has the highest penetration and its indoor...

  20. An ultra-fine group slowing down benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Maldonado, G. I.; Williams, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a new solution to the neutron slowing down equation in terms of multi-energy panels. Our motivation is to establish a computational benchmark featuring an ultra-fine group calculation, where the number of groups could be on the order of 100,000. While the CENTRM code of the SCALE code package has been shown to adequately treat this many groups, there is always a need for additional verification. The multi panel solution principle is simply to consider the slowing down region as sub regions of panels, with each panel a manageable number of groups, say 100. In this way, we reduce the enormity of dealing with the entire spectrum all at once by considering many smaller problems. We demonstrate the solution in the unresolved U3o8 resonance region. (authors)

  1. Characterization of ultrafine and fine particles from CHP Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    Samples of particles collected at CHP plants in the project 'Survey of emissions from CHP Plants' have been analysed in this project to give information on the morphology and chemical composition of individual particle size classes. The objective of this project was to characterize ultrafine and fine particles emitted to the atmosphere from Danish CHP plants. Nine CHP plants were selected in the Emission Survey Project as being representative for the different types of CHP plants operating in Denmark: 1) Three Waste-to Energy (WTE) plants. 2) Three biomass fired (BM) plants (two straw fired, one wood/saw dust fired). 3) Two gas fired (GF) plants (one natural gas, one landfill gas fired). 4) One gasoil (GO) fired plant. At the WTE and BM plants, various types of emission control systems implemented. The results from these plants represent the composition and size distribution of combustion particles that are emitted from the plants emission control systems. The measured emissions of particles from the waste-to-energy plants WTE1-3 are generally very low. The number and mass concentrations of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}) were particularly low in the flue gas from WTE2 and WTE3, where bag filters are used for the reduction of particle emissions. The EDX analysis of particles from the WTE plants indicates that the PM{sub 0.1} that penetrates the ECS at WTE can contain high fractions of metals such as Fe, Mn and Cu. The SEM analysis of particles from WTE1-3 showed that the particles were generally porous and irregular in shape. The concentrations of particles in the flue gas from the biomass plants were generally higher than found for the WTE plants. The time series results showed that periodical, high concentration peaks of PM emissions occur from BM1 and BM2. The chemical composition of the particles emitted from the three biomass plants is generally dominated by C, O and S, and to some extend also Fe and Si. A high amount of Cu was found in selected

  2. Influence of high-pressure torsion on formation/destruction of nano-sized spinodal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamidi, Ali; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji

    2018-04-01

    The microstructures and hardness of Al - 30 mol.% Zn are investigated after processing by high-pressure torsion (HPT) for different numbers of revolutions, N = 1, 3, 10 or 25, as well as after post-HPT annealing at different temperatures, T = 373 K, 473 K, 573 K and 673 K. It was found that a work softening occurs by decreasing the grain size to the submicrometer level and increasing the fraction of high-angle boundaries. As a result of HPT processing, a complete decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of Zn in Al occurs and the spinodal structure is destroyed. This suggests that softening of the Al-Zn alloys after HPT is due to the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution and destruction of spinodal decomposition. After post-HPT annealing, ultrafine-grained Al-Zn alloys show an unusual mechanical properties and its hardness increased to 187 HV. Microstructural analysis showed that the high hardness after post-HPT annealing is due to the formation of spinodal structures.

  3. Evolution of grain boundary character distributions in alloy 825 tubes during high temperature annealing: Is grain boundary engineering achieved through recrystallization or grain growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xia, Shuang; Wang, Baoshun; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) of nickel-based alloy 825 tubes was carried out with different cold drawing deformations by using a draw-bench on a factory production line and subsequent annealing at various temperatures. The microstructure evolution of alloy 825 during thermal-mechanical processing (TMP) was characterized by means of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the TMP effects on the grain boundary network and the evolution of grain boundary character distributions during high temperature annealing. The results showed that the proportion of ∑ 3 n coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries of alloy 825 tubes could be increased to > 75% by the TMP of 5% cold drawing and subsequent annealing at 1050 °C for 10 min. The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples and the fully recrystallized samples suggested that the proportion of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries depended on the annealing time. The frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries increases rapidly with increasing annealing time associating with the formation of large-size highly-twinned grains-cluster microstructure during recrystallization. However, upon further increasing annealing time, the frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries decreased markedly during grain growth. So it is concluded that grain boundary engineering is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. - Highlights: •The grain boundary engineering (GBE) is applicable to 825 tubes. •GBE is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. •The low ∑ CSL grain boundaries in 825 tubes can be increased to > 75%.

  4. An Investigation on Self-Compacting Concrete Using Ultrafine Natural Steatite Powder as Replacement to Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was made on flow properties and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete (SCC with ultrafine natural steatite powder (UFNSP as replacement to cement. The tests were conducted on specimens with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of replacement of UFNSP to the weight of cement and compared to the control specimens. The flow properties of all specimens were tested and checked for their limit with the existing guidelines. The compressive strength test was done on all specimens for strength of 7 days, 14 days, 28 days, and 56 days. The hardened samples were tested for their microstructural behavior and the elements Mg, Ca, and Si were mapped. Through mapping, the formations of M-S-H along with C-S-H are observed. The results show that the addition of UFNSP influences the flow property, by reducing the flow, and increases the compressive strength till 20% replacement. Further the addition of UFNSP increases the denseness of microstructure of the specimens thus resulting in the strength increment.

  5. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

  6. Extruded Al-Al2O3 composites formed in situ during consolidation of ultrafine Al powders: Effect of the powder surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, Martin; Simancik, Frantisek; Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter; Poletti, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 25 gas atomised Al 99.5% powders with particle size 2 O 3 dispersoids. → Compacts showed good thermal stability due to grain pinning of Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. - Abstract: Twenty-five samples of commercially available, gas-atomised Al (99.5%) powders with particle sizes 2 O 3 composites formed in situ during extrusion. The effect of particle size, surface area, oxygen content and atomisation atmosphere of the powder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded compacts were studied by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis, hot gas extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. Thermal stability of the compacts and the individual strengthening mechanisms operating in the compacts were discussed. It was found that the properties of the compacts stemmed from the extraordinary grain boundary strengthening effect of the ultrafine-grained compacts due to their microstructures. The efficiency of the grain boundary strengthening was significantly enhanced by the presence of nano-metric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids introduced in situ. The strength of the compacts was closely related to the surface area of the powder particles. In addition, the entrapped gasses and chemically bonded humidity had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

  7. Statistical Theory of Normal Grain Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, A.; Luczka, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three physically relevant problems concerning the normal grain growth process. These are: Infinite vs finite size of the system under study (a step towards more realistic modeling); conditions of fine-grained structure formation, with possible applications to thin films and biomembranes, and interesting relations to superplasticity of materials; approach to log-normality, an ubiquitous natural phenomenon, frequently reported in literature. It turns out that all three important points mentioned are possible to be included in a Mulheran-Harding type behavior of evolving grains-containing systems that we have studied previously. (author)

  8. Application of an Ultrafine Shearing Method for the Extraction of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an important step during the extraction of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. An ultrafine shearing method is introduced and combined with soaking and ultrasonication to disrupt the cell walls of S. platensis efficiently and economically. Five kinds of cell disruption method, including soaking, ultrasonication, freezing-thawing, soaking-ultrafine shearing and soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication were applied to break the cell walls of S. platensis. The effectiveness of cell breaking was evaluated based on the yield of the C-phycocyanin. The results show that the maximum C-phycocyanin yield was 9.02%, achieved by the soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method, followed by soaking (8.43%, soaking-ultrafine shearing (8.89%, freezing and thawing (8.34%, and soaking-ultrasonication (8.62%. The soaking-ultrafine shearing-ultrasonication method is a novel technique for breaking the cell walls of S. platensis for the extraction of C-phycocyanin.

  9. Novel Ultrafine Fibrous Poly(tetrafluoroethylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Fabricated by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE hollow fiber membranes were successfully fabricated by electrospinning, with ultrafine fibrous PTFE membranes as separation layers, while a porous glassfiber braided tube served as the supporting matrix. During this process, PTFE/poly(vinylalcohol (PVA ultrafine fibrous membranes were electrospun while covering the porous glassfiber braided tube; then, the nascent PTFE/PVA hollow fiber membrane was obtained. In the following sintering process, the spinning carrier PVA decomposed; meanwhile, the ultrafine fibrous PTFE membrane shrank inward so as to further integrate with the supporting matrix. Therefore, the ultrafine fibrous PTFE membranes had excellent interface bonding strength with the supporting matrix. Moreover, the obtained ultrafine fibrous PTFE hollow fiber membrane exhibited superior performances in terms of strong hydrophobicity (CA > 140°, high porosity (>70%, and sharp pore size distribution. The comprehensive properties indicated that the ultrafine fibrous PTFE hollow fiber membranes could have potentially useful applications in membrane contactors (MC, especially membrane distillation (MD in harsh water environments.

  10. Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Wilson, M R; MacNee, W; Stone, V; Donaldson, K

    2001-09-15

    Studies into the effects of ultrafine particles in the lung have shown adverse effects considered to be due in part to the particle size. Air pollution particles (PM(10)) are associated with exacerbations of respiratory disease and deaths from cardiovascular causes in epidemiological studies and the ultrafine fraction of PM(10) has been hypothesized to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate proinflammatory responses to various sizes of polystyrene particles as a simple model of particles of varying size including ultrafine. In the animal model, we demonstrated that there was a significantly greater neutrophil influx into the rat lung after instillation of 64-nm polystyrene particles compared with 202- and 535-nm particles and this was mirrored in other parameters of lung inflammation, such as increased protein and lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage. When surface area instilled was plotted against inflammation, these two variables were directly proportional and the line passed through zero. This suggests that surface area drives inflammation in the short term and that ultrafine particles cause a greater inflammatory response because of the greater surface area they possess. In vitro, we measured the changes in intracellular calcium concentration in mono mac 6 cells in view of the potential role of calcium as a signaling molecule. Calcium changes after particle exposure may be important in leading to proinflammatory gene expression such as chemokines. We demonstrated that only ultrafine polystyrene particles induced a significant increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration. Experiments using dichlorofluorescin diacetate demonstrated greater oxidant activity of the ultrafine particles, which may explain their activity in these assays. There were significant increases in IL-8 gene expression in A549 epithelial cells after treatment with the ultrafine particles but not particles of other sizes. These findings suggest

  11. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  12. Sintering mantle mineral aggregates with submicron grains: examples of olivine and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Y.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Physical property of the major mantle minerals play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. Recently, it has been found that nano- to sub-micron scale frictional processes might control faulting processes and earthquake instability, and ultrafine-grained mineral aggregates thus have attracted the growing interest. Here we investigated a method for preparing polycrystalline clinoyproxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of sub-micron scale from natural crystals, two main constituents of the upper mantle. Nano-sized powders of both minerals are sintered under argon flow at temperatures ranging from 1130-1350 °C for 0.5-20 h. After sintering at 1180 °C and 1300 °C, we successfully fabricated polycrystalline clinopyroxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of physical properties of Earth's mantle.

  13. Grain surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboussin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Planetary formation occurs in the protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. Although dust represents only 1% of the total disk mass, it plays a fundamental role in disk chemical evolution since it acts as a catalyst for the formation of molecules. Understanding this chemistry is therefore essential to determine the initial conditions from which planets form. During my thesis, I studied grain-surface chemistry and its impact on the chemical evolution of molecular cloud, initial condition for disk formation, and protoplanetary disk. Thanks to numerical simulations, using the gas-grain code Nautilus, I showed the importance of diffusion reactions and gas-grain interactions for the abundances of gas-phase species. Model results combined with observations also showed the effects of the physical structure (in temperature, density, AV) on the molecular distribution in disks. (author)

  14. Fabrication and characterization of dual-functional ultrafine composite fibers with phase-change energy storage and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Peng; Zhao, Tianxiang; Xia, Lei; Shu, Dengkun; Ma, Menjiao; Cheng, Bowen

    2017-01-09

    Ultrafine composite fibers consisting of a thermoplastic polyurethane solid-solid phase-change material and organic lanthanide luminescent materials were prepared through a parallel electrospinning technique as an innovative type of ultrafine, dual-functional fibers containing phase-change and luminescent properties. The morphology and structure, thermal energy storage, and luminescent properties of parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers possessed the desired morphologies with smaller average fiber diameters than those of traditional mixed electrospun ultrafine fibers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers were composed of two parts. Polymeric phase-change materials, which can be directly produced and spun, were used to provide temperature stability, while a mixture of polymethyl methacrylate and an organic lanthanide complex acted as the luminescent unit. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and luminescence measurements indicated that the unique structure of the parallel electrospun ultrafine fibers provides the products with good thermal energy storage and luminescence properties. The fluorescence intensity and the phase-change enthalpy values of the ultrafine fibers prepared by parallel electrospinning were respectively 1.6 and 2.1 times those of ultrafine fibers prepared by mixed electrospinning.

  15. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Zishanshan; Memon, Shazim Ali; Zhang, Qiwu; Wang, Yaocheng; Liu, Bing; Xu, Weiting; Xing, Feng

    2015-09-17

    In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength) with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO₂. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  16. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO2. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  17. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, C.; Tejedor, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodríguez-baracaldo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia (Colombia); Benito, J.A., E-mail: Josep.a.benito@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity.

  18. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  19. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  20. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  1. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  2. Surface chemistry on interstellar oxide grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, P.; Williams, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed calculations are made to test the predictions of Duley, Millar and Williams (1978) concerning the chemical reactivity of interstellar oxide grains. A method is established for calculating interaction energies between atoms and the perfect crystal with or without surface vacancy sites. The possibility of reactions between incident atoms and absorbed atoms is investigated. It is concluded that H 2 formation can occur on the perfect crystal surfaces, and that for other diatomic molecules the important formation sites are the Fsub(s)- and V 2- sub(s)-centres. The outline by Duley, Millar and Williams (1979) of interstellar oxide grain growth and destruction is justified by these calculations. (author)

  3. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Song, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 μm, 1 μm and 3 μm were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m 2 respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m 2 . Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 μm size at 0.33 GW/m 2 and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 μm size at 0.55 GW/m 2 . The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 μm size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m 2 . The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 μm size has the best performance. (authors)

  4. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C. [Lab. of Special Ceramic and P/M, University of Science and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G. [FZJ-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association Euratom-FZJ, Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1913, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Song, S.X. [Research Center on Fusion Materials (RCFM), University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 {mu}m, 1 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m{sup 2} respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2}. Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 {mu}m size at 0.33 GW/m{sup 2} and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 {mu}m size at 0.55 GW/m{sup 2}. The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 {mu}m size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m{sup 2}. The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 {mu}m size has

  5. Structural control of ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays via electrodeposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodarz, Siggi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Takashi; Ishio, Shunji [Department of Materials Science, Akita University, Akita City 010-8502 (Japan); Homma, Takayuki, E-mail: t.homma@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by combining electrodeposition and electron beam lithography (EBL) for the use of bit-patterned media (BPM). To achieve precise control of deposition uniformity and coercivity of the CoPt nanodot arrays, their crystal structure and magnetic properties were controlled by controlling the diffusion state of metal ions from the initial deposition stage with the application of bath agitation. Following bath agitation, the composition gradient of the CoPt alloy with thickness was mitigated to have a near-ideal alloy composition of Co:Pt =80:20, which induces epitaxial-like growth from Ru substrate, thus resulting in the improvement of the crystal orientation of the hcp (002) structure from its initial deposition stages. Furthermore, the cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of the nanodots deposited with bath agitation showed CoPt growth along its c-axis oriented in the perpendicular direction, having uniform lattice fringes on the hcp (002) plane from the Ru underlayer interface, which is a significant factor to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic characterization of the CoPt nanodot arrays showed increase in the perpendicular coercivity and squareness of the hysteresis loops from 2.0 kOe and 0.64 (without agitation) to 4.0 kOe and 0.87 with bath agitation. Based on the detailed characterization of nanodot arrays, the precise crystal structure control of the nanodot arrays with ultra-high recording density by electrochemical process was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • Ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by electrodeposition. • Crystallinity of hcp (002) was improved with uniform composition formation. • Uniform formation of hcp lattices leads to an increase in the coercivity.

  6. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  7. Extremely 54Cr- and 50Ti-rich Presolar Oxide Grains in a Primitive Meteorite: Formation in Rare Types of Supernovae and Implications for the Astrophysical Context of Solar System Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.; O’D. Alexander, Conel M.; Liu, Nan; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    We report the identification of 19 presolar oxide grains from the Orgueil CI meteorite with substantial enrichments in 54Cr, with 54Cr/52Cr ratios ranging from 1.2 to 56 times the solar value. The most enriched grains also exhibit enrichments at mass-50, most likely due in part to 50Ti, but close-to-normal or depleted 53Cr/52Cr ratios. There is a strong inverse relationship between 54Cr enrichment and grain size; the most extreme grains are all attractive, as these likely occur much more frequently than high-density SN Ia, and their evolutionary timescales (∼20 Myr) are comparable to those of molecular clouds. Self-pollution of the Sun’s parent cloud from an ECSN may explain the heterogeneous distribution of n-rich isotopic anomalies in planetary materials, including a recently reported dichotomy in Mo isotopes in the solar system. The stellar origins of three grains with solar 54Cr/52Cr, but anomalies in 50Cr or 53Cr, as well as of a grain enriched in 57Fe, are unclear.

  8. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  9. Suprathermal grains: on intergalactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Charged dust grains of radii a approximately equal to 3 x 10 -6 to approximately 3 x 10 -5 cm may be driven out of the galaxy due to radiation pressure of starlight. Once clear of the main gas-dust layer, dust grains may then escape into intergalactic space. Such grains are virtually indestructible-being evaporated only during formation. The dust grains, once injected into the intergalactic medium, may acquire suprathermal energy, thus 'suprathermal grains' in collision with magnetized cloud by the Fermi process. In order to attain relativistic energy, suprathermal grains have to move in and out ('scattering') of the magnetic field of the medium. It is now well established that high energy cosmic rays are of the order 10 20 eV or more. It has been speculated that these high energy (> = 10 18 eV) cosmic ray particles are charged dust grains, of intergalactic origin. This is possible only if there exists a magnetic field in the intergalactic medium. (Auth.)

  10. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  11. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.

  12. Fabrication of ultra-fine nanostructures using edge transfer printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqi; Li, Fengwang; Cao, Tingbing

    2012-03-21

    The exploration of new methods and techniques for application in diverse fields, such as photonics, microfluidics, biotechnology and flexible electronics is of increasing scientific and technical interest for multiple uses over distance of 10-100 nm. This article discusses edge transfer printing--a series of unconventional methods derived from soft lithography for nanofabrication. It possesses the advantages of easy fabrication, low-cost and great serviceability. In this paper, we show how to produce exposed edges and use various materials for edge transfer printing, while nanoskiving, nanotransfer edge printing and tunable cracking for nanogaps are introduced. Besides this, different functional materials, such as metals, inorganic semiconductors and polymers, as well as localised heating and charge patterning, are described here as unconventional "inks" for printing. Edge transfer printing, which can effectively produce sub-100 nm scale ultra-fine structures, has broad applications, including metallic nanowires as nanoelectrodes, semiconductor nanowires for chemical sensors, heterostructures of organic semiconductors, plasmonic devices and so forth. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. Workplace Measurements of Ultrafine Particles-A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Koivisto, Antti J; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kauppinen, Timo

    2017-08-01

    Workers are exposed to ultrafine particles (UFP) in a number of occupations. In order to summarize the current knowledge regarding occupational exposure to UFP (excluding engineered nanoparticles), we gathered information on UFP concentrations from published research articles. The aim of our study was to create a basis for future epidemiological studies that treat UFP as an exposure factor. The literature search found 72 publications regarding UFP measurements in work environments. These articles covered 314 measurement results and tabled concentrations. Mean concentrations were compared to typical urban UFP concentration level, which was considered non-occupational background concentration. Mean concentrations higher than the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in 240 workplace measurements. The results showed that workers' exposure to UFP may be significantly higher than their non-occupational exposure to background concentration alone. Mean concentrations of over 100 times the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in welding and metal industry. However, according to the results of the review, measurements of the UFP in work environments are, to date, too limited and reported too heterogeneous to allow us to draw general conclusions about workers' exposure. Harmonization of measurement strategies is essential if we are to generate more reliable and comparable data in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Granularity and Laxative Effect of Ultrafine Powder of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, DanDan; Qu, Chao; Zhang, ZhenBiao; Xie, JianHui; Xu, LieQiang; Yang, HongMei; Li, CaiLan; Lin, GuoSheng; Wang, HongFeng; Su, ZiRen

    2017-02-01

    Constipation is a common disorder that is a significant source of morbidity among people around the world ranging from 2% to 28%. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional herbal medicine and health food used for tonicity of the stomach and promotion of body fluid production in China. This study aimed to prepare the ultrafine powder of Dendrobium officinale (UDO) and investigate its laxative effect and potential mechanism in mice with diphenoxylate-induced constipation. Results indicated that the mean diameter (d 50 ) of UDO obtained by ball milling was 6.56 μm. UDO (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, p.o.) could significantly enhance the gastrointestinal transit ratio and promote fecal output. Moreover, UDO treatment resulted in significant increases in the serum levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), gastrin (Gas), motilin (MTL), and substance P (SP), and obviously decreased serum contents of somatostatin (SS). Taken together, UDO, which can be easily obtained through milling to a satisfactory particle size, exhibited obvious laxative effect in diphenoxylate-induced constipated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with elevated levels of AChE, Gas, MTL, SP, and reduced production of SS. UDO has the potential for further development into an alternative effective diet therapy for constipation.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of ultrafine Ce2S3 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, T.; McCormick, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth sulphides have been receiving an increasing attraction for various applications including infrared window materials and magneto-optical devices. In particular, Ce 2 S 3 has been under intensive study for use as a red pigment to replace toxic cadmium sulfoselenide. The conventional method for synthesising Ce 2 S 3 is the sulphidization of the element or sesquioxide with hydrogen sulphide gas. However, the method usually requires a high-temperature process (>1000 deg C), and hence coarse particles larger than the optimal size of ∼ 2 S 3 powder by mechanochemical processing using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, BET surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical milling of the mixture of a cerium salt and an alkali/alkali-earth sulphide powders led to a solid state displacement reaction in a steady-state manner, forming Ce 2 S 3 nanoparticles in a salt by-product matrix. After a simple washing process to remove the salt by-product, ultrafine Ce 2 S 3 particles with sizes of 20 - 200 nm having an orthorhombic structure were obtained. Using a diluent and mechanically alloyed CaS nanoparticles in the starting powder, particles of only a cubic γ-Ce 2 S 3 phase with sizes of 10 - 80 nm were formed

  17. POTENTIAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ULTRAFINE PARTICLE TOXIC EFFECTS IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA JOVIĆ-STOŠIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies suggested the association of the particulate matter ambient air pollution and the increased morbidity and mortality, mainly from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The size of particles has great influence on their toxicity, because it determines the site in the respiratory tract where they deposit. The most well established theory explaining the mechanisms behind the increased toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFP, < 0.1 µm is that it has to do with the increased surface area and/or the combination with the increased number of particles. Biological effects of UFP are also determined by their shape and chemical composition, so it is not possible to estimate their toxicity in a general way. General hypothesis suggested that exposure to inhaled particles induces pulmonary alveolar inflammation as a basic pathophysiological event, triggering release of various proinflammatory cytokines. Chronic inflammation is a very important underlying mechanism in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. UFP can freely move through the circulation, but their effects on the secondary organs are not known yet, so more studies on recognizing toxicological endpoints of UFP are needed. Determination of UFP toxicity and the estimation of their internal and biologically active dose are necessary for the evidence based conclusions connecting air pollution by UFP and human diseases.

  18. Study of some properties of point defects in grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Georges

    1973-01-01

    With the aim of deducing simple informations on the grain boundary core structure, we investigated self diffusion under hydrostatic pressure, impurity diffusion (In and Au), electromigration (Sb) along certain types of grain boundaries in Ag bicrystals, and the Moessbauer effect of 57 Co located in the grain boundaries of polycrystalline Be. Our results lead to the following conclusions: the formation of a vacancy like defects is necessary to grain boundary diffusion; solute atoms may release most of their elastic energy of dissolution as they segregate at the boundary; in an electrical field, the drift of Sb ions parallel to the boundary takes place toward the anode as in the bulk. The force on the grain boundary ions is larger than in the bulk; Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed the formation of Co-rich aggregates, which may proves important in the study of early stages of grain boundary precipitation. (author) [fr

  19. Investigation of microorganisms involved in biosynthesis of the kefir grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lo, Yung-Ming; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Liu, Je-Ruei; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the significance of each microorganism in grain formation by evaluating their microbial aggregation and cell surface properties during co-aggregation of LAB and yeasts together with an investigation of biofilm formation. Non-grain forming strains from viili were also evaluated as a comparison. Results indicated that the kefir grain strains, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces turicensis possess strong auto-aggregation ability and that Lactobacillus kefiri shows significant biofilm formation properties. Significant co-aggregation was noted when S. turicensis and kefir LAB strains (Lb. kefiranofaciens and Lb. kefiri) were co-cultured. Most of the tested LAB strains are hydrophilic and had a negative charge on their cell surface. Only the kefir LAB strains, Lb. kefiranofaciens HL1 and Lb. kefiri HL2, possessed very high hydrophobicity and had a positive cell surface charge at pH 4.2. In contrast, the LAB and yeasts in viili did not show any significant self-aggregation or biofilm formation. Based on the above results, we propose that grain formation begins with the self-aggregation of Lb. kefiranofaciens and S. turicensis to form small granules. At this point, the biofilm producer, Lb. kefiri, then begins to attach to the surface of granules and co-aggregates with other organisms and components in the milk to form the grains. On sub-culturing, more organisms attach to the grains resulting in grain growth. When investigated by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that short-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiri occupy the surface, while long-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiranofaciens have aggregated towards the center of the kefir grains. These findings agree with the above hypothesis on the formation of grains. Taken together, this study demonstrates the importance of cell surface properties together with fermentation conditions to the formation of grains in kefir. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Microstructure of HIPed and SPSed 9Cr-ODS steel and its effect on helium bubble formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chenyang [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Material Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Lu, Zheng, E-mail: luz@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Material Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning (China); Xie, Rui; Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Material Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning (China); Wang, Lumin, E-mail: lmwang@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Two 9Cr-ODS steels with the same nominal composition were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP, named COS-1) and spark plasma sintering (SPS, named COS-2). Helium ions were implanted into COS-1, COS-2 and non-ODS Eurofer 97 steels up at 673 K. Microstructures before and after helium ion implantations were carefully characterized. The results show a bimodal grain size distribution in COS-2 and a more uniform grain size distribution in COS-1. Nanoscale clusters of GP-zone type Y–Ti–O and Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore as well as large spinel Mn(Ti)Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles are all observed in the two ODS steels. The Y–Ti-enriched nano-oxides in COS-1 exhibit higher number density and smaller size than in COS-2. The Y–Ti-enriched nano-oxides in fine grains of COS-2 show higher number density and smaller size than that in coarse grains of COS-2. Nano-oxides effectively trap helium atoms and lead to the formation of high density and ultra-fine helium bubbles. - Highlights: • The microstructure changes of two ODS steels before and after helium ion implantation have been elucidated. • The mechanism of the microstructures of ODS steels under varied thermal mechanical processing paths have been explored. • The dependence of the size, density and distribution of helium bubbles on the specific microstructure features are explored.

  1. Tracing magnetic fields with aligned grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g., transport of heat), and cosmic rays. One of the easiest ways to determine the magnetic field direction is via polarization of radiation resulting from extinction or/and emission by aligned dust grains. Reliability of interpretation of the polarization maps in terms of magnetic fields depends on how well we understand the grain-alignment theory. Explaining what makes grains aligned has been one of the big issues of the modern astronomy. Numerous exciting physical effects have been discovered in the course of research undertaken in this field. As both the theory and observations matured, it became clear that the grain-alignment phenomenon is inherent not only in diffuse interstellar medium or molecular clouds but also is a generic property of the dust in circumstellar regions, interplanetary space and cometary comae. Currently the grain-alignment theory is a predictive one, and its results nicely match observations. Among its predictions is a subtle phenomenon of radiative torques. This phenomenon, after having stayed in oblivion for many years after its discovery, is currently viewed as the most powerful means of alignment. In this article, I shall review the basic physical processes involved in grain alignment, and the currently known mechanisms of alignment. I shall also discuss possible niches for different alignment mechanisms. I shall dwell on the importance of the concept of grain helicity for understanding of many properties of grain alignment, and shall demonstrate that rather arbitrarily shaped grains exhibit helicity when they interact with gaseous and radiative flows

  2. Extruded Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites formed in situ during consolidation of ultrafine Al powders: Effect of the powder surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Martin, E-mail: martin.balog@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Simancik, Frantisek [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter [NMD - New Materials Development GmbH, St. Pantaleon (Austria); Poletti, Cecilia [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24/I, A8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} 25 gas atomised Al 99.5% powders with particle size <10 {mu}m were hot extruded. {yields} The strength of compacts was closely related to powder surface area. {yields} Grain boundary strengthening was enhanced by the presence of in situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids. {yields} Compacts showed good thermal stability due to grain pinning of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids. - Abstract: Twenty-five samples of commercially available, gas-atomised Al (99.5%) powders with particle sizes <10 {mu}m were hot extruded into Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites formed in situ during extrusion. The effect of particle size, surface area, oxygen content and atomisation atmosphere of the powder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded compacts were studied by Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis, hot gas extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. Thermal stability of the compacts and the individual strengthening mechanisms operating in the compacts were discussed. It was found that the properties of the compacts stemmed from the extraordinary grain boundary strengthening effect of the ultrafine-grained compacts due to their microstructures. The efficiency of the grain boundary strengthening was significantly enhanced by the presence of nano-metric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids introduced in situ. The strength of the compacts was closely related to the surface area of the powder particles. In addition, the entrapped gasses and chemically bonded humidity had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

  3. Ultrafine particle emissions from modern Gasoline and Diesel vehicles: An electron microscopic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis

    2018-08-01

    Ultrafine (electron microscopy (TEM) is applied to obtain a concrete picture on the nature, morphology and chemical composition of non-volatile ultrafine particles in the exhaust of state-of-the-art, Euro 6b, Gasoline and Diesel vehicles. The particles were collected directly on TEM grids, at the tailpipe, downstream of the after-treatment system, during the entire duration of typical driving cycles on the chassis dynamometer. Based on TEM imaging coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, numerous ultrafine particles could be identified, imaged and analyzed chemically. Particles vehicles and driving cycles. The present TEM study gives information also on the imaging and chemical composition of the solid fraction of the unregulated sub-23 nm size category particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal variation and volatility of ultra-fine particles in coastal Antarctic troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Size distribution and volatility of ultrafine aerosol particles were measured at Syowa Station during the 46-47 Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions. During the summer, most of the ultrafine particles were volatile particles, which were composed of H_2SO_4, CH_3SO_3H and sulfates bi-sulfates. The abundance of non-volatile particles was ~ 20% during the summer, increasing to>90% in winter-spring. Non-volatile particles in winter were dominantly sea-salt particles. Some ultrafine sea-salt particles might be released from sea-ice. When air mass was transported from the free troposphere over the Antarctic continent, the abundance of non-volatile particles dropped to<30% even in winter.

  5. Preservation of amorphous ultrafine material: A proposed proxy for slip during recent earthquakes on active faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Asayama, Satoru; Kaneki, Shunya; Ito, Akihiro

    2016-11-09

    The criteria for designating an "Active Fault" not only are important for understanding regional tectonics, but also are a paramount issue for assessing the earthquake risk of faults that are near important structures such as nuclear power plants. Here we propose a proxy, based on the preservation of amorphous ultrafine particles, to assess fault activity within the last millennium. X-ray diffraction data and electron microscope observations of samples from an active fault demonstrated the preservation of large amounts of amorphous ultrafine particles in two slip zones that last ruptured in 1596 and 1999, respectively. A chemical kinetic evaluation of the dissolution process indicated that such particles could survive for centuries, which is consistent with the observations. Thus, preservation of amorphous ultrafine particles in a fault may be valuable for assessing the fault's latest activity, aiding efforts to evaluate faults that may damage critical facilities in tectonically active zones.

  6. Preparation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg-Rich Mg-Ni Ultrafine Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Mg-rich Mg-Ni ultrafine powders were prepared through an arc plasma method. The phase components, microstructure, and hydrogen storage properties of the powders were carefully investigated. It is found that Mg2Ni and MgNi2 could be obtained directly from the vapor state reactions between Mg and Ni, depending on the local vapor content in the reaction chamber. A nanostructured MgH2 + Mg2NiH4 hydrogen storage composite could be generated after hydrogenation of the Mg-Ni ultrafine powders. After dehydrogenation, MgH2 and Mg2NiH4 decomposed into nanograined Mg and Mg2Ni, respectively. Thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC analyses showed that Mg2NiH4 phase may play a catalytic role in the dehydriding process of the hydrogenated Mg ultrafine particles.

  7. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  8. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Shrilatha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs. Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230 as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(IIO surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx. The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine

  9. Effect of Ultrafine Pulverization of Senecio Scandens on Growth, Immune System and Faecal Microorganisms in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yue1, CQ Lu1, HY Lin1, XN Wang, JQ Zheng1, JJ Chen1* and R Gooneratne2*

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in using naturally occurring compounds subjected to new technologies for enhancing pig nutrition to replace antibiotic usage in swine production. The effects of ultrafine pulverization on the size distribution, morphology of Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham., and the growth performance, serum immunity parameters and faecal microorganisms of piglets fed this powder were investigated. The size distribution and morphology of S. scandens were characterized by using a laser diffraction analyser and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Ninety Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets (average body weight of 10.43kg were randomly assigned to six treatments with three pens of five pigs per treatment. Group 1 (Control piglets were fed the basal diet only. Groups 2 to 5 were fed with the basal diet supplemented with ultrafine powder (median diameter [d0.5] of 8.89μm of S. scandens at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% of the basal diet, respectively, for 30 days. For group 6, 1.2% of ordinary S. scandens powder (d0.5=88.59μm was added to the basal diet. Both S. scandens ordinary and ultrafine powder increased piglet body weight and reduced the feed to gain ratio, but the performance of piglets fed the ultrafine powder was better. In groups 4 to 6, the number of Escherechia coli in faeces and the diarrhoeal incidence were significantly lower (P<0.05 and the serum IgA, IgG, IgM contents significantly higher (P<0.05. Feeding S. scandens ultrafine powder in the diet improved piglet performance and the diet supplemented with 0.9% of the ultrafine powder was the most effective.

  10. Grain refinement and mechanical properties of CP-Ti processed by warm accumulative roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, Justin L.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Bunget, Cristina; Kurfess, Thomas; Hammond, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB), a severe plastic deformation technique, was used in this study to process commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) at 450 °C. Sheet samples were processed by seven consecutive ARB cycles, with an overall equivalent strain of 5.6. Mechanical characterization and microstructural examination were carried out on the processed material to track their changes and relationships with regard to one another. Electron microscopy, TEM in particular, revealed significant grain refinement in the material, with submicron microstructure achieved even after one cycle of warm processing. Further processing was shown to progressively fragment the highly elongated grains, ultimately producing a predominantly-equiaxed ultrafine grain structure with an average grain size of ∼100 nm. Tensile strength and microhardness of the material increased with the number of ARB cycles; the strength–grain size relationship followed the Hall–Petch equation. The overall grain refinement and strengthening levels observed here are close to those reported in the literature for ARB processing of CP-Ti at ambient temperatures. This demonstrates the ability of warm ARB can be as effective as cold ARB, while offering several advantages for industrial utilization.

  11. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  12. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  13. Dust Coagulation in Infalling Protostellar Envelopes I. Compact Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, H.; Lin, D.; Suttner, G.

    1999-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the optical, thermodynamic and gas dynamical behavior of collapsing molecular cores. Because of relative velocities of the individual dust grains, coagulation and shattering can modify the grain size distribution and -- due to corresponding changes in the medium's opacity significantly -- influence the evolution during early phases of star formation.

  14. Tritium in the food chain. Comparison of predicted and observed behaviour. A: Re-emission from soil and vegetation. B: Formation of organically bound tritium in grain of spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.; Strack, S.; Barry, P.

    1996-09-01

    This is the second Technical Report of the Special Radionuclides Tritium Working Group. It deals specifically with two major sources of model uncertainty concerning tritium re-emission from soils and vegetation, and the formation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant tissues under light and dark conditions which were identified during work undertaken for the first tritium Technical Report. Information obtained from two experiments was formulated into two specific Approach A type scenarios to investigate these aspects of tritium behaviour so that model predictions could be compared with actual observations and data. Data for HTO re-emission measured at two different field sampling sites in Canada were used as the basis for the model test exercise Scenario V2.1. One site was a wetland receiving groundwater discharge containing HTO from a nearby waste management area. The other site was a meadow which had been exposed to a gaseous discharge containing HTO vapour from a nearby CANDU nuclear power generating station. HTO re-emission was measured on several occasions while the prevailing wind carried the plume away from the site. For both sites, relevant site specific information was obtained including HTO concentrations in soil and vegetation and meteorological data for each of about 20 determinations each lasting for 30 to 45 minutes. Modelers were requested to predict net fluxes of water and HTO vapours at the two sites and specified times. Their predictions were compared with the actual water fluxes at the sites, which had been measured by both eddy-correlation and Bowen Ratio, and the HTO flux which had been obtained by measured concentration gradients and estimates of eddy diffusivities. Predicted water vapour fluxes agreed with those observed within 20% where the observed fluxes exceeded about 0.04 g m -2 s -1 . Lower fluxes were associated with meteorological conditions such as strong stability and light winds when assumptions underlying the equation are

  15. Tritium in the food chain. Comparison of predicted and observed behaviour. A: Re-emission from soil and vegetation. B: Formation of organically bound tritium in grain of spring wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P. [AECL, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Strack, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Barry, P. [PJS Barry, (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This is the second Technical Report of the Special Radionuclides Tritium Working Group. It deals specifically with two major sources of model uncertainty concerning tritium re-emission from soils and vegetation, and the formation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant tissues under light and dark conditions which were identified during work undertaken for the first tritium Technical Report. Information obtained from two experiments was formulated into two specific Approach A type scenarios to investigate these aspects of tritium behaviour so that model predictions could be compared with actual observations and data. Data for HTO re-emission measured at two different field sampling sites in Canada were used as the basis for the model test exercise Scenario V2.1. One site was a wetland receiving groundwater discharge containing HTO from a nearby waste management area. The other site was a meadow which had been exposed to a gaseous discharge containing HTO vapour from a nearby CANDU nuclear power generating station. HTO re-emission was measured on several occasions while the prevailing wind carried the plume away from the site. For both sites, relevant site specific information was obtained including HTO concentrations in soil and vegetation and meteorological data for each of about 20 determinations each lasting for 30 to 45 minutes. Modelers were requested to predict net fluxes of water and HTO vapours at the two sites and specified times. Their predictions were compared with the actual water fluxes at the sites, which had been measured by both eddy-correlation and Bowen Ratio, and the HTO flux which had been obtained by measured concentration gradients and estimates of eddy diffusivities. Predicted water vapour fluxes agreed with those observed within 20% where the observed fluxes exceeded about 0.04 g m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Lower fluxes were associated with meteorological conditions such as strong stability and light winds when assumptions underlying the

  16. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  17. Mathematical simulation of point defect interaction with grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Published works, where the interaction of point defects and grain boundaries was studied by mathematical simulation methods, have been analysed. Energetics of the vacancy formation both in nuclei of large-angle special grain boundaries and in lattice regions adjoining them has been considered. The data obtained permit to explain specific features of grain-boundary diffusion processes. Results of mathematical simulation of the interaction of impurity atoms and boundaries have been considered. Specific features of the helium atom interaction with large-angle grain boundaries are analysed as well

  18. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  19. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  20. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Electron Microscope, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin.sun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  1. Prototype development and testing of ultrafine grain NZP ceramics. Final report, July 28, 1995--April 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.J.

    1997-08-04

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a new low-expanding ceramic (Ca{sub 0.6},Mg{sub 0.4})Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}, hereafter referred to as CMZP, could be used as an exhaust manifold liner in off-road diesel engines and provide improved engine efficiency (by permitting higher engine operating temperature). This study has successfully demonstrated this improvement and further engine testing (and possible manufacturing) is presently underway at Caterpillar Inc. Laboratories. Basically this program involved two subcontracts: one to Virginia Tech to develop sintering procedures for CMZP, and one to Caterpillar, Inc. to develop slip casting procedures for CMZP. Nearly 100kg of CMZP were prepared by MATVA, Inc. and Virginia Tech for use by Caterpillar. Virginia Tech developed detailed sintering procedures for CMZP and Caterpillar developed slip casting procedures and manufactured several exhaust manifold elbows. These elbows have been cast into prototype cylinder heads and have been shown to be acceptable replacements for metal manifolds. (Caterpillar advises that a new component may require up to 6 years of testing and qualification before acceptance as standard diesel engine part).

  2. Quantification of local and global elastic anisotropy in ultrafine grained gradient microstructures, produced by linear flow splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niehuesbernd, Jörn; Müller, Clemens; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the macroscopic elastic behavior results from the local elastic properties within the gradient. In the present investigation profiles produced by the linear flow splitting process were examined with respect to local and global elastic anisotropy, which develops during the complex forming process...

  3. Grain dynamics and inter-grain coupling in dusty plasma Coulomb crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.U.; Mohideen, U.; Smith, M.A.; Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    We review our results on the lattice structure and the lattice dynamics of dusty plasma Coulomb crystals formed in rectangular conductive grooves. The basic structure appears to be made of mutually repulsive columns of grains confined by the walls of the groove. The columns are oriented along the direction of the electrode sheath electric field. Inter-grain coupling as a function of plasma temperature and density were investigated by measurement of these parameters. A simple phenomenological model wherein the inter-grain spacing along the column results from an attractive electric field induced dipole-dipole force balanced by a repulsive monopole Coulomb force is consistent with observed features of the Coulomb crystal. In addition, here we present some preliminary measurements of the vibration and rotation dynamics of the individual grains in the Coulomb crystal. The thermal energy of the dust grain thus calculated is much less than the inter-grain Coulomb potential energy as required for the formation of stable structures. Also the observed rotational frequency is consistent with the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the dust grains and the neutral gas. (orig.)

  4. A mechanism for the production of ultrafine particles from concrete fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Nassib; Rohan Jayaratne, E; Johnson, Graham R; Alroe, Joel; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga; Cravigan, Luke; Faghihi, Ehsan Majd; Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-03-01

    While the crushing of concrete gives rise to large quantities of coarse dust, it is not widely recognized that this process also emits significant quantities of ultrafine particles. These particles impact not just the environments within construction activities but those in entire urban areas. The origin of these ultrafine particles is uncertain, as existing theories do not support their production by mechanical processes. We propose a hypothesis for this observation based on the volatilisation of materials at the concrete fracture interface. The results from this study confirm that mechanical methods can produce ultrafine particles (UFP) from concrete, and that the particles are volatile. The ultrafine mode was only observed during concrete fracture, producing particle size distributions with average count median diameters of 27, 39 and 49 nm for the three tested concrete samples. Further volatility measurements found that the particles were highly volatile, showing between 60 and 95% reduction in the volume fraction remaining by 125 °C. An analysis of the volatile fraction remaining found that different volatile material is responsible for the production of particles between the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of Ultra-fine Calcium Carbonate by a Solvent-free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate under solvent-free conditions with a supersonic airflow and at a low heating temperature leads to the synthesis of ultra-fine calcium carbonate. The reaction not only involves mild conditions, a simple operation, and high yields but also gives a high conversion rate.

  6. Combustion of PTFE: The effects of gravity on ultrafine particle generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Thomas; Todd, Paul; Oberdorster, Gunter

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain an understanding of the effect of gravity on the toxicity of ultrafine particle and gas phase materials produced when fluorocarbon polymers are thermally degraded or burned. The motivation for the project is to provide a basic technical foundation on which policies for spacecraft health and safety with regard to fire and polymers can be formulated.

  7. Ultrafine and Fine Particles and Hospital Admissions in Central Europe Results from the UFIREG Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanzinger, S.; Schneider, A.; Breitner, S.; Stafoggia, M.; Erzen, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Pastorková, Anna; Bastian, S.; Cyrys, J.; Zscheppang, A.; Kolodnitská, T.; Peters, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 10 (2016), s. 1233-1241 ISSN 1073-449X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : ultrafine particles * particulate matter * hospital admissions * respiratory Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 13.204, year: 2016

  8. Soot, organics and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is concerned with determining the effects of oxy-combustion of coal on the composition of the ultrafine fly ash. To this end, a 10 W externally heated entrained flow furnace was modified to allow the combustion of pulverized coal in flames under practically relevant s...

  9. Size evolution of ultrafine particles: Differential signatures of normal and episodic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Manish; Khan, Arshad; Anand, S.; Sapra, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fireworks on the aerosol number characteristics of atmosphere was studied for an urban mega city. Measurements were made at 50 m height to assess the local changes around the festival days. Apart from the increase in total number concentration and characteristic accumulation mode, short-term increase of ultrafine particle concentration was noted. Total number concentration varies an order of magnitude during the measurement period in which peak occurs at a frequency of approximately one per day. On integral scale, it seems not possible to distinguish an episodic (e.g. firework bursting induced aerosol emission) and a normal (ambient atmospheric changes) event. However these events could be differentiated on the basis of size evolution analysis around number concentration peaks. The results are discussed relative to past studies and inferences are drawn towards aerosol signatures of firework bursting. The short-term burst in ultrafine particle concentration can pose an inhalation hazard. - Highlights: • Effect of firework emissions on atmospheric aerosol characteristics was studied. • Significant increase in ultrafine particle concentration was observed during firework bursting. • Size distribution evolution analysis of number concentration peaks has been performed. • Differential signatures of normal and episodic event were noted. - Notable increase in ultrafine particle concentration during firework bursting was seen. Normal and episodic event could be differentiated on the basis of size evolution analysis.

  10. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  11. Time-Dependent Dust Formation in Novae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The dust formation processes in novae are investigated with close attention to recent infrared observations. Using mainly the classical nucleation theory, we have calculated the time scales of dust formation and growth in the environments of novae. Those time scales roughly resemble the typical observations. We have classified the dust-forming novae into three classes according to their explosion properties and the thermodynamic properties of dust grains. Oxygen grains from much later than carbon grains because of their thermodynamic properties. The effect of grain formation to the efficiency of stellar winds to drive the material outward is tested with newly obtained Planck mean values of dust grains.

  12. Pure iron grains are rare in the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Tanaka, Kyoko K; Nozawa, Takaya; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Inatomi, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    The abundant forms in which the major elements in the universe exist have been determined from numerous astronomical observations and meteoritic analyses. Iron (Fe) is an exception, in that only depletion of gaseous Fe has been detected in the interstellar medium, suggesting that Fe is condensed into a solid, possibly the astronomically invisible metal. To determine the primary form of Fe, we replicated the formation of Fe grains in gaseous ejecta of evolved stars by means of microgravity experiments. We found that the sticking probability for the formation of Fe grains is extremely small; only a few atoms will stick per hundred thousand collisions so that homogeneous nucleation of metallic Fe grains is highly ineffective, even in the Fe-rich ejecta of type Ia supernovae. This implies that most Fe is locked up as grains of Fe compounds or as impurities accreted onto other grains in the interstellar medium.

  13. Release of ultrafine particles from three simulated building processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike; Som, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Building activities are recognised to produce coarse particulate matter but less is known about the release of airborne ultrafine particles (UFPs; those below 100 nm in diameter). For the first time, this study has investigated the release of particles in the 5–560 nm range from three simulated building activities: the crushing of concrete cubes, the demolition of old concrete slabs, and the recycling of concrete debris. A fast response differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS50) was used to measure particle number concentrations (PNC) and size distributions (PNDs) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz in a confined laboratory room providing controlled environment and near–steady background PNCs. The sampling point was intentionally kept close to the test samples so that the release of new UFPs during these simulated processes can be quantified. Tri–modal particle size distributions were recorded for all cases, demonstrating different peak diameters in fresh nuclei ( 4 cm −3 . These background modal peaks shifted towards the larger sizes during the work periods (i.e. actual experiments) and the total PNCs increased between 2 and 17 times over the background PNCs for different activities. After adjusting for background concentrations, the net release of PNCs during cube crushing, slab demolition, and ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ recycling events were measured as ∼0.77, 19.1, 22.7 and 1.76 (×10 4 ) cm −3 , respectively. The PNDs were converted into particle mass concentrations (PMCs). While majority of new PNC release was below 100 nm (i.e. UFPs), the bulk of new PMC emissions were constituted by the particles over 100 nm; ∼95, 79, 73 and 90% of total PNCs, and ∼71, 92, 93 and 91% of total PMCs, for cube crushing, slab demolition, dry recycling and wet recycling, respectively. The results of this study firmly elucidate the release of UFPs and raise a need for further detailed studies and designing health and safety related exposure guidelines for

  14. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  15. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  16. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  17. A comprehensive investigation of the strengthening effects of dislocations, texture and low and high angle grain boundaries in ultrafine grained AA6063 aluminum alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, S.; Eivani, A. R.; Samaee, M.; Jafarian, H. R.; Zhou, J.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6063 aluminum alloy was investigated. For this purpose, samples of AA6063 aluminum alloy were deformed up to 10 passes using ECAP and the evolution of microstructure, texture and dislocation

  18. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-11-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  19. A triple-scale crystal plasticity modeling and simulation on size effect due to fine-graining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Eisuke; Aoyagi, Yoshiteru; Tadano, Yuichi; Shizawa, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a triple-scale crystal plasticity model bridging three hierarchical material structures, i.e., dislocation structure, grain aggregate and practical macroscopic structure is developed. Geometrically necessary (GN) dislocation density and GN incompatibility are employed so as to describe isolated dislocations and dislocation pairs in a grain, respectively. Then the homogenization method is introduced into the GN dislocation-crystal plasticity model for derivation of the governing equation of macroscopic structure with the mathematical and physical consistencies. Using the present model, a triple-scale FE simulation bridging the above three hierarchical structures is carried out for f.c.c. polycrystals with different mean grain size. It is shown that the present model can qualitatively reproduce size effects of macroscopic specimen with ultrafine-grain, i.e., the increase of initial yield stress, the decrease of hardening ratio after reaching tensile strength and the reduction of tensile ductility with decrease of its grain size. Moreover, the relationship between macroscopic yielding of specimen and microscopic grain yielding is discussed and the mechanism of the poor tensile ductility due to fine-graining is clarified. (author)

  20. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  1. Direct printing of patterned three-dimensional ultrafine fibrous scaffolds by stable jet electrospinning for cellular ingrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Huihua; Zhou, Qihui; Li, Biyun; Bao, Min; Lou, Xiangxin; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning has been widely used to produce ultrafine fibers in microscale and nanoscale; however, traditional electrospinning processes are currently beset by troublesome limitations in fabrication of 3D periodic porous structures because of the chaotic nature of the electrospinning jet. Here we report a novel strategy to print 3D poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) ultrafine fibrous scaffolds with the fiber diameter of approximately 2 μm by combining a stable jet electrospinning method and an X-Y stage technique. Our approach allows linearly deposited electrospun ultrafine fibers to assemble into 3D structures with tunable pore sizes and desired patterns. Process conditions (e.g., plotting speed, feeding rate, and collecting distance) were investigated in order to achieve stable jet printing of ultrafine PLLA fibers. The proposed 3D scaffold was successfully used for cell penetration and growth, demonstrating great potential for tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  2. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  3. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  4. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  5. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine particles in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles were investigated both horizontally and vertically in the large urban agglomerate of Barcelona, Spain. Within the SAPUSS project (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, a large number of instruments was deployed simultaneously at different monitoring sites (road, two urban background, regional background, urban tower 150 m a.s.l., urban background tower site 80 m a.s.l. during a 4 week period in September–October 2010. Particle number concentrations (N>5 nm are highly correlated with black carbon (BC at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under cleaner atmospheric conditions (low condensation sink, CS such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10–500 as well as particle number concentrations (N>5 nm allow us to identify three types of nucleation and growth events: (1 a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding urban background area; (2 a regional type event impacting only the regional background area but not the urban agglomerate; (3 an urban type event which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the optimal combination between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated

  6. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Suresh Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  7. Ultrafine carbon particles promote rotenone-induced dopamine neuronal loss through activating microglial NADPH oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yinxi; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Huifeng; Wang, Yixin; Wei, Ling; Liu, Yutong; Liao, Jieying; Gao, Hui-Ming; Zhou, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) and pesticide rotenone wer