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Sample records for ultrafiltrated maillard reaction

  1. Maillard Reaction: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia d'Almeida Francisquini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction is an important subject of study in food science and technology and different areas of knowledge are involved such as chemistry, food engineering, nutrition and food technology. The objective of this paper is to present the basic concepts of the Maillard reaction, such as the reaction stages, the main compounds producced and some technological consequences for dairy products.

  2. Ultrafiltration and thermal processing effects on Maillard reaction products and biological properties of date palm sap syrups (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Krichen, Fatma; Mansour, Riadh Ben; Mokni, Abir; Sila, Assad; Bougatef, Ali; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2018-08-01

    The effect of ultrafiltration process and temperature concentration on MRPs content and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of date palm sap syrups were investigated. MRPs were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power and DPPH free radical and H 2 O 2 scavenging activities. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. In vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. Date sap syrups displayed strong antioxidant activities which are correlated 5HMF and 2F contents. In addition, concentration at 100 °C, unlike ultrafiltration process, enhanced significantly the antioxidant activities sap syrups and total phenolic contents. The antimicrobial activities showed marked activity against S. enterica, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes with an inhibition zone of 21, 34, 27 and 34 mm respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that sap syrups can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines at high concentration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment and Maillard reaction on structure and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrated smooth-hound viscera proteins-sucrose conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhedi, Ola; Mora, Leticia; Jemil, Ines; Jridi, Mourad; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef; Nasri, Rim

    2017-09-01

    The effect of ultrasound (US) pre-treatment on the evolution of Maillard reaction (MR), induced between low molecular weight (LMW) peptides and sucrose, was studied. LMW peptides (reaction, a marked decrease in pH values, coupled to the increase in colour of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs), were recorded. In addition, after sonication, the glycation degree was significantly enhanced in Esperase-derived peptides/sucrose conjugates (p<0.05). Moreover, results showed that thermal heating, particularly after US treatment, reduced the bitter taste and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of the resulting conjugates. Hence, it could be concluded that US leads to efficient mixing of sugar-protein solution and efficient heat/mass transfer, contributing to increase the MR rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  5. Prebiotic significance of the Maillard reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Bajagic, Milica; Zhu, William; Cody, George D.

    2005-09-01

    The Maillard reaction was studied from a prebiotic point of view. We have shown that the Maillard reaction between ribose and common amino acids occurs readily in the solid state at 65°C. The C-13 NMR spectra of the solid insoluble Maillard products of ribose and serine, or alanine or isoleucine were compared to the spectrum of the insoluble organic carbon on Murchison.

  6. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketoses

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between

  7. Effect of heating on Maillard reactions in milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Heated milk is subject to the Maillard reaction; lactose and lysine residues in milk proteins (mainly casein) are the reactants. An overview is given of the early, advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction as it occurs in milk. The early Maillard reaction is confined to the formation of the

  8. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  9. Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the Maillard reaction for food quality and focuses on flavour compound formation. The most important classes of Maillard flavour compounds are indicated and it is shown where they are formed in the Maillard reaction. Some emphasis is given on the kinetics of

  10. Control of Maillard Reactions in Foods: Strategies and Chemical Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Ray, Colin A

    2017-06-14

    Maillard reactions lead to changes in food color, organoleptic properties, protein functionality, and protein digestibility. Numerous different strategies for controlling Maillard reactions in foods have been attempted during the past decades. In this paper, recent advances in strategies for controlling the Maillard reaction and subsequent downstream reaction products in food systems are critically reviewed. The underlying mechanisms at play are presented, strengths and weaknesses of each strategy are discussed, and reasonable reaction mechanisms are proposed to reinforce the evaluations. The review includes strategies involving addition of functional ingredients, such as plant polyphenols and vitamins, as well as enzymes. The resulting trapping or modification of Maillard targets, reactive intermediates, and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are presented with their potential unwanted side effects. Finally, recent advances in processing for control of Maillard reactions are discussed.

  11. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  12. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The literature concerning the kinetics of the Maillard reaction was critically discussed according to the initial, intermediate and advanced stages, as this is the way the Maillard reaction is traditionally analysed. For each stage, a division is made between simple kinetics and complex kinetics.

  13. The ribose and glycine Maillard reaction in the interstellar medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    mechanics are briefly addressed in this work. Keywords. Density functional computational study; ribose; glycine; Maillard reaction; gaseous phase .... following the total mass balance of the reaction. Thus, ..... Jalbout A F Origin Life Evol. Biosph ...

  14. Baking, ageing, diabetes: a short history of the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. The discovery that non-enzymatic conversions also occur in organisms led to intensive investigation of the pathophysiological significance of the Maillard reaction in diabetes and ageing processes. Dietary Maillard products are discussed as "glycotoxins" and thus as a nutritional risk, but also increasingly with regard to positive effects in the human body. In this Review we give an overview of the most important discoveries in Maillard research since it was first described and show that the complex reaction, even after over one hundred years, has lost none of its interdisciplinary actuality. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Maillard reaction products from chitosan-xylan ionic liquid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuqiong; Ling, Yunzhi; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Yang; Zeng, Xianjie; Sun, Runcang

    2013-10-15

    A facile method is reported to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from chitosan and xylan in co-solvent ionic liquid. UV absorbance and fluorescence changes were regarded as indicators of the occurrence of Maillard reaction. FT-IR, NMR, XRD and TG were used to investigate the structure of chitosan-xylan conjugate. The results revealed that when chitosan reacted with xylan in ionic liquid, the hydrogen bonds in chitosan were destroyed, the facts resulted in the formation of chitosan-xylan MRPs. Moreover, when the mass ratio of chitosan to xylan was 1:1, the Maillard reaction proceeded easily. In addition, relatively high antioxidant property was also noted for the chitosan-xylan conjugate with mass ratio 1:1. So the obtained chitosan-xylan MRP is a promising antioxidant agent for food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Melanoidins extinction coefficient in the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Melanoidins (brown, nitrogenous polymers and co-polymers) are the final products of the Maillard reaction. The glucose/glycine melanoidins extinction coefficient was determined using C-14-labelled glucose at three different reaction conditions. The absorbance was measured at different wavelengths

  17. Unravelling the Maillard reaction network by multiresponse kinetic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is an important reaction in food industry. It is responsible for the formation of colour and aroma, as well as toxic compounds as the recent discovered acrylamide. The knowledge of kinetic parameters, such as rate constants and activation energy, is necessary to predict its

  18. Pathways of the Maillard reaction under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Christian; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-08-01

    Initially investigated as a color formation process in thermally treated foods, nowadays, the relevance of the Maillard reaction in vivo is generally accepted. Many chronic and age-related diseases such as diabetes, uremia, atherosclerosis, cataractogenesis and Alzheimer's disease are associated with Maillard derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and α-dicarbonyl compounds as their most important precursors in terms of reactivity and abundance. However, the situation in vivo is very challenging, because Maillard chemistry is paralleled by enzymatic reactions which can lead to both, increases and decreases in certain AGEs. In addition, mechanistic findings established under the harsh conditions of food processing might not be valid under physiological conditions. The present review critically discusses the relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds as central intermediates of AGE formation in vivo with a special focus on fragmentation pathways leading to formation of amide-AGEs.

  19. Maillard reaction induces changes in saccharides and amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate changes in saccharides and amino acids induced by Maillard reaction (MR) during stir-baking of areca nuts (AN). Methods: The pH of aqueous extracts of AN and charred AN (CAN) were measured by a pH meter, and their absorbances at 420 nm were read in an ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) ...

  20. Investigation of Maillard reaction involvement in the steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the possible mechanism of Maillard reaction (MR) involvement in the steam processing of Panax notoginseng (PN) root. Methods: PN root was soaked in water for 24 h and then steamed at 100 °C using an autoclave for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, respectively. Several indicators associated with MR during ...

  1. Maillard reaction of lactose and fluoxetine hydrochloride, a secondary amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D D; Baertschi, S W; Johnson, R A; Maple, S R; Miller, M S; Hallenbeck, D K; Gregg, S M

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of commercially available generic formulations of fluoxetine HCl revealed the presence of lactose as the most common excipient. We show that such formulations are inherently less stable than formulations with starch as the diluent due to the Maillard reaction between the drug, a secondary amine hydrochloride, and lactose. The Amadori rearrangement product was isolated and characterized; the characterization was aided by reduction with sodium borohydride and subsequent characterization of this reduced adduct. The lactose-fluoxetine HCl reaction was examined in aqueous ethanol and in the solid state, in which factors such as water content, lubricant concentration, and temperature were found to influence the degradation. N-Formylfluoxetine was identified as a major product of this Maillard reaction and it is proposed that N-formyl compounds be used as markers for this drug-excipient interaction since they are easy to prepare synthetically. Many characteristic volatile products of the Maillard reaction have been identified by GC/MS, including furaldehyde, maltol, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 H-pyran-4-one. Close similarity between the degradation products of simple mixtures and formulated generic products was found; however, at least one product decomposed at a rate nearly 10 times that predicted from the simple models. Maillard products have also been identified in unstressed capsules. The main conclusion is that drugs which are secondary amines (not just primary amines as sometimes reported) undergo the Maillard reaction with lactose under pharmaceutically relevant conditions. This finding should be considered during the selection of excipients and stability protocols for drugs which are secondary amines or their salts, just as it currently is for primary amines.

  2. On the Maillard reaction of meteoritic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Bajagic, Milica; Liesch, Patrick J.; Philip, Ajish; Cody, George D.

    2006-08-01

    We have performed the Maillard reaction of a series of meteoritic amino acids with sugar ribose under simulated prebiotic conditions, in the solid state at 65°C and at the room temperature. Many meteoritic amino acids are highly reactive with ribose, even at the room temperature. We have isolated high molecular weight products that are insoluble in water, and have studied their structure by the IR (infrared) and solid-state C-13 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopic methods. The functional groups and their distribution were similar among these products, and were comparable to the previously isolated insoluble organic materials from the Maillard reaction of the common amino acids with ribose. In addition, there were some similarities with the insoluble organic material that is found on Murchison. Our results suggest that the Maillard products may contribute to the composition of the part of the insoluble organic material that is found on Murchison. We have also studied the reaction of sodium silicate solution with the Maillard mixtures, to elucidate the process by which the organic compounds are preserved under prebiotic conditions.

  3. Study on fluorescence of Maillard reaction compounds in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Morales, Francisco J

    2006-09-01

    During the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction (MR) in food processing and cooking, Amadori rearrangement products undergo dehydration and fission and fluorescent substances are formed. Free and total (free + linked to the protein backbone) fluorescence (FIC) due to Maillard compounds in 60 commercial breakfast cereals was evaluated. Pronase was used for efficient release of linked fluorescent Maillard compounds from the protein backbone. Results were correlated with some heat-induced markers of the extent of the MR or sugar caramelisation during cereal processing, such as hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, glucosilisomaltol and furosine. The effect of sample composition (dietary-fibre added, protein, etc.) on levels of FIC, expressed as fluorescence intensity (FI) per milligram of sample, is discussed. FIC is significantly correlated to the protein content of the sample and fluorescent Maillard compounds are mainly linked to the protein backbone. The ratio of total-FIC to free-FIC was 10.4-fold for corn-based, wheat-based and multicereal-based breakfast cereals but significantly higher in rice-based samples. Addition of dietary fibre or honey increased the FIC values. Data support the usefulness of FIC measurement as an unspecific heat-induced marker in breakfast cereals.

  4. Explore the reaction mechanism of the Maillard reaction: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ge-Rui; Zhao, Li-Jiang; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Hu-Jun; Lei, Qun-Fang; Fang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism of Maillard reaction has been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution. The Maillard reaction is a cascade of consecutive and parallel reaction. In the present model system study, glucose and glycine were taken as the initial reactants. On the basis of previous experimental results, the mechanisms of Maillard reaction have been proposed, and the possibility for the formation of different compounds have been evaluated through calculating the relative energy changes for different steps of reaction under different pH conditions. Our calculations reveal that the TS3 in Amadori rearrangement reaction is the rate-determining step of Maillard reaction with the activation barriers of about 66.7 and 68.8 kcal mol(-1) in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution, respectively. The calculation results are in good agreement with previous studies and could provide insights into the reaction mechanism of Maillard reaction, since experimental evaluation of the role of intermediates in the Maillard reaction is quite complicated.

  5. Preparation of natural isovaleraldehyde by the Maillard reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu Tian; Jie Zhang; Bao Guo Sun; Ming Quan Huang; Jian Rong Li; Xiao Xiang Han

    2007-01-01

    Isovaleraldehyde possesses malty, fruity, cocoa-like odor and is widely used in fruit, chocolate, coffee flavors. The preparation of natural isovaleraldehyde by the Maillard model reaction was studied in this paper. The effects of the ratio of D-glucose/L-leucine,reaction temperature and pH value on the yield of isovaleraldehyde were explored. The optimum conditions were as follows:n(D-glucose):n(L-leucine) = 4, temperature 150 ℃, reaction time 3 h, pH 5. The highest yield of isovaleraldehyde obtained was about 32%.

  6. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristos Ioannou

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb and Myoglobin (Mb at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  7. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Aristos; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs) formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb) and Myoglobin (Mb) at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  8. Improvement of ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate by Maillard reaction with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu; Meng, Jun; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is widely used to improve the functional properties or biological activities of food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Maillard reaction on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in a casein hydrolysate-xylose system. Two-step hydrolysis was used to prepare casein ACE inhibitory peptides. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by heating hydrolyzed casein with xylose at pH 8.0, 110 °C for up to 16 h. The results showed that the content of free amino group decreased (P Maillard reaction (P reaction in the MRPs. The study shows that the Maillard reaction under appropriate conditions can improve the ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate effectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP) that are unavailable for utilisation by the body.

  10. The effect of steam pelleting of a dry dog food on the Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Wierenga, P.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet foods, the Maillard reaction (MR) can occur, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids like lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study examined the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90 °C) and die

  11. Bioactive Properties of Maillard Reaction Products Generated From Food Protein-derived Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, K; Zhou, L; Ohata, M

    Food protein-derived peptides are promising food ingredients for developing functional foods, since various bioactive peptides are released from food proteins. The Maillard reaction, which plays an important role in most processed foods, generates various chemical components during processing. Although changes of amino acids or proteins and reduced sugars by the Maillard reaction have been studied extensively, such changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction are still not resolved enough. Since food protein-derived peptides are widely utilized in many processed foods, it deserves concern and research on the changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction in foods during processing or storage. This chapter initially overviewed food protein-derived bioactive peptides. Then, Maillard reaction products generated from peptides are discussed. We focused particularly on their bioactivities. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The dual effects of Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Lee, H A; Lee, J Y; Joung, J Y; Lee, K B; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the enhanced effects on the biological characteristics and antioxidant activity of milk proteins by the combination of the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maillard reaction products were obtained from milk protein preparations, such as whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate with lactose, by heating at 55°C for 7 d in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The Maillard reaction products, along with untreated milk proteins as controls, were hydrolyzed for 0 to 3h with commercial proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, and Flavorzyme (Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark). The antioxidant activity of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products was determined by reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and the ability to reduce ferric ions. Further characteristics were evaluated by the o-phthaldialdehyde method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The degree of hydrolysis gradually increased in a time-dependent manner, with the Alcalase-treated Maillard reaction products being the most highly hydrolyzed. Radical scavenging activities and reducing ability of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products increased with increasing hydrolysis time. The combined products of enzymatic hydrolysis and Maillard reaction showed significantly greater antioxidant activity than did hydrolysates or Maillard reaction products alone. The hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products generated by Alcalase showed significantly higher antioxidant activity when compared with the other protease products and the antioxidant activity was higher for the whey protein concentrate groups than for the sodium caseinate groups. These findings indicate that Maillard reaction products, coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis, could act as potential antioxidants in the pharmaceutical, food, and dairy industries. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association

  13. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maillard-Reaction-Functionalized Egg Ovalbumin Stabilizes Oil Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yuan, Dan; Wang, Qi; Li, Wanrong; Cai, Jie; Li, Shuyi; Lamikanra, Olusola; Qin, Xinguang

    2018-04-25

    Egg white proteins are an excellent source of nutrition, with high biological and technological values. However, their limited functional properties prevent their widespread industrial applications. In this study, the ovalbumin functionality was improved via glycation by Maillard reaction with d-lactose. The free amino groups and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile were determined, confirming that glycation occurred between ovalbumin and lactose. The emulsification of the conjugate was 2.69-fold higher than that of ovalbumin at pH 7.0 after glycation. The thermal stability also improved remarkably. The glycated protein products were used to form an oil-water nanoemulsion for polymethoxyflavone-rich aged orange peel oil. The resulting nanoemulsion showed good pH, thermal, and storage stabilities.

  15. Food Protein-polysaccharide Conjugates Obtained via the Maillard Reaction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis; de Oliveira, Eduardo Basílio; Zuñiga, Abraham Damian Giraldo; Rojas, Edwin E Garcia

    2016-05-18

    The products formed by glycosylation of food proteins with carbohydrates via the Maillard reaction, also known as conjugates, are agents capable of changing and improving techno-functional characteristics of proteins. The Maillard reaction uses the covalent bond between a group of a reducing carbohydrates and an amino group of a protein. This reaction does not require additional chemicals as it occurs naturally under controlled conditions of temperature, time, pH, and moisture. Moreover, there is growing interest in modifying proteins for industrial food applications. This review analyses the current state of art of the Maillard reaction on food protein functionalities. It also discusses the influence of the Maillard reaction on the conditions and formulation of reagents that improve desirable techno-functional characteristics of food protein.

  16. Birnessite catalysis of the Maillard Reaction: Its significance in natural humification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokic, A.; Frenkel, A. I.; Vairavamurthy, M. A.; Huang, P. M.

    Although mineral colloids are known to play a significant role in transforming organic matter in soils and sediments, there still are many gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms of organic-mineral interactions. In this study, we investigated the role of a major oxide-mineral birnessite (a form of Mn(IV) oxide) in catalyzing the condensation reaction between sugars and amino acids, the Maillard reaction, for forming humic substances. The Maillard reaction is perceived to be a major pathway in natural humification. Using a suite of spectroscopic methods (including ESR, XANES, EXAFS and 13C NMR), our results show that Mn(IV) oxide markedly accelerates the Maillard reaction between glucose and glycine at ranges of temperatures and pH typical of natural environments. These results demonstrate the importance of manganese oxide catalysis in the Maillard reaction, and its significance in the natural abiotic formation of humic substances.

  17. A study of the tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction: Variables, characterization, cytotoxicity and preliminary application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yaxin; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Liu, Yu

    2018-01-15

    The tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction was proposed as an emerging tool for tyramine reduction in a model system and two commercial soy sauce samples. The model system was composed of tyramine and glucose in buffer solutions with or without NaCl. The results showed that tyramine was reduced in the model system, and the reduction rate was affected by temperature, heating time, initial pH value, NaCl concentration, initial glucose concentration and initial tyramine concentration. Changes in fluorescence intensity and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra showed three stages of the Maillard reaction between tyramine and glucose. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were significantly less toxic than that of tyramine (pMaillard reaction is a promising method for tyramine reduction in foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of Maillard reaction products from phloridzin-amino acid model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Linna; Li, Feng; Yu, Qijian; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from phloridzin (Pz)-amino acid model systems. Their structures were also characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). MRPs were prepared from the Pz-methionine (Met), Pz-lysine (Lys), Pz-isoleucine (Ile), Pz-histidine (His) or Pz-glutamic acid (Glu) model system. The Pz-Lys MRPs, rich in antioxidant potency, were subjected to ultrafiltration to yield four MRPs fractions with different molecular weights (Mw). The fraction with Mw 30-50 kDa had significantly (P Maillard reaction. The results obtained in this study may provide some basis for the purported health-promoting effects of MRPs and their potential application as antioxidant agents in food industry. Also, it is important for our understanding of the variation of bioactive substances in food during thermal processing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: Inhibition by Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Simões, Cristiana; Maciel, Elisabete; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-07-15

    Under roasting conditions, polysaccharides depolymerize and also are able to polymerize, forming new polymers through non-enzymatic transglycosylation reactions (TGRs). TGRs can also occur between carbohydrates and aglycones, such as the phenolic compounds present in daily consumed foods like coffee. In this study, glycosidically-linked phenolic compounds were quantified in coffee melanoidins, the polymeric nitrogenous brown-colored compounds formed during roasting, defined as end-products of Maillard reaction. One third of the phenolics present were in glycosidically-linked form. In addition, the roasting of solid-state mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition allowed the conclusion that proteins play a regulatory role in TGRs extension and, consequently, modulate melanoidins composition. Overall, the results obtained showed that TGRs are a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in melanoidins and are inhibited by amino groups through Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maillard reaction in mild-based foods: nutritional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Vivanti, V; Nicoletti, I; Corradini, C; Cogliandro, E

    1998-02-01

    Chemical reactions occurring during industrial treatments or storage foods can lead to the formation of epsilon-deoxyketosyl compounds, the Amadori products. Food protein value can be adversely affected by these reactions, and in particular lysine, an essential amino acid having on its side chain a free amino group, can be converted to nonbioavailable N-substituted lysine or blocked lysine. by acid hydrolysis of epsilon-deoxyketosyl compounds, furosine is formed. In this paper furosine prepared from milk-based commercial products has been evaluated by use of a recently developed HPLC method using a microbore column and phosphate buffer as the mobile phase at controlled temperature. Furosine levels have been used, together with protein, total amino acids, and lysine content, as an estimate of protein quality of a few different products such as cooked-cream dessert, yogurt mousse, white chocolate, milk chocolate, milk chocolate with a soft nougat and caramel center, milk chocolate with a whipped white center, chocolate spread, part-skim milk tablets, milk-based dietetic meals, and baby foods. The protein content of the analyzed products ranged from 34.3 gxkg(-1) (milk nougat) to 188.4 g x kg(-1) (milk tablets). The Maillard reaction caused a loss in available lysine that varied from 2.5% (cooked cream) to 36.2% (condensed milk). The contribution to the lysine average daily requirement is heavily affected by this reaction and varied from 13% (milk tablets and soft nougat) to 61% (dietetic meal). Variable results were also obtained for the other essential amino acids.

  1. Optimization of Maillard Reaction between Glucosamine and Other Precursors by Measuring Browning with a Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Benrick; Kim, Ye-Joo; Kim, Dae-Wook; Oh, Sang-Chul; Hong, Dong-Lee; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2017-09-01

    The individual Maillard reactions of glucose, glucosamine, cyclohexylamine, and benzylamine were studied at a fixed temperature of 120°C under different durations by monitoring the absorbance of the final products at 425 nm. Glucosamine was the most individually reactive compound, whereas the reactions of glucose, cyclohexylamine, and benzylamine were not significantly different from each other. Maillard reactions of reaction mixtures consisting of glucosamine-cyclohexylamine, glucosamine-benzylamine, glucose-cyclohexylamine, and glucose-benzylamine were also studied using different concentration ratios under different durations at a fixed temperature of 120°C and pH 9. Maillard reactions in the pairs involving glucosamine were observed to be more intense than those of the pairs involving glucose. Finally, with respect to the concentration ratios, it was observed that in most instances, optimal activity was realized, when the reaction mixtures were in the ratio of 1:1.

  2. Contribution of crosslinking products in the flavour enhancer processing: the new concept of Maillard peptide in sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karangwa, Eric; Murekatete, Nicole; Habimana, Jean de Dieu; Masamba, Kingsley; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Muhoza, Bertrand; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the flavour-enhancing properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) for different systems consisted of different peptides (sunflower, SFP; corn, CP and soyabean SP) with, xylose and cysteine were investigated. Maillard systems from peptides of sunflower, corn and soyabean with xylose and cysteine were designated as PXC, MCP and MSP, respectively. The Maillard systems were prepared at pH of 7.4 using temperature of 120C for 2 h. Results showed that all systems were significantly different in all sensory attributes. The highest scores for mouthfulness and continuity were observed for MCP with the lowest peptides distribution between 1000 and 5000 Da, known as Maillard peptide. This revealed that the MCP with the lowest Maillard peptide content had the strongest "Kokumi" effect compared to the other MRPsand demonstrated that "kokumi effect" of MRPs was contributed by not only the "Maillard peptide" defined by the molecular weight (1000-5000 Da). Results on sensory evaluation after fractionation of PXC followed by enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences between PXC, P-PXC and their hydrolysates. This observation therefore confirmed that the presence of other contributors attributed to the "Kokumi" effect rather than the Maillard peptide. It can be deduced that the unhydrolyzed crosslinking products might have contributed to the "Kokumi" effect of MRPs. The structures of four probable crosslinking compounds were proposed and the findings have provided new insights in the sensory characteristics of xylose, cysteine and sunflower peptide MRPs.

  3. Food Processing: The Influence of the Maillard Reaction on Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Food Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; van Neerven, Joost

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers’ choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs). This report provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on the influence of the Maillard reaction on the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food proteins. PMID:28777346

  4. Food Processing: The Influence of the Maillard Reaction on Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Food Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; van Neerven, Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-08-04

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers' choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs). This report provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on the influence of the Maillard reaction on the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food proteins.

  5. Microwave-assisted Maillard reactions for the preparation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Sonja; Medana, Claudio; Barge, Alessandro; Giancotti, Valeria; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2010-05-21

    The application of microwaves as an efficient form of volumetric heating to promote organic reactions was recognized in the mid-1980 s. It has a much longer history in the food research and industry where microwave irradiation was studied in depth to optimize food browning and the development of desirable flavours from Maillard reactions. The microwave-promoted Maillard reaction is a challenging synthetic method to generate molecular diversity in a straightforward way. In this paper we present a new rapid and efficient one-pot procedure for the preparation of pentosidine and other AGEs under microwave irradiation.

  6. The Maillard Reaction Reduced the Sensitization of Tropomyosin and Arginine Kinase from Scylla paramamosain, Simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin-Yu; Yang, Huang; Rao, Shi-Tao; Liu, Guang-Yu; Hu, Meng-Jun; Zeng, Bin-Chang; Cao, Min-Jie; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2018-03-21

    The Maillard reaction was established to reduce the sensitization of tropomyosin (TM) and arginine kinase (AK) from Scylla paramamosain, and the mechanism of the attenuated sensitization was investigated. In the present study, the Maillard reaction conditions were optimized for heating at 100 °C for 60 min (pH 8.5) with arabinose. A low level of allergenicity in mice was shown by the levels of allergen-specific antibodies, and more Th1 and less Th2 cells cytokines produced and associated transcription factors with the Maillard reacted allergen (mAllergen). The tolerance potency in mice was demonstrated by the increased ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines. Moreover, mass spectrometry analysis showed that some key amino acids of IgE-binding epitopes (K 112 , R 125 , R 133 of TM; K 33 , K 118 , R 202 of AK) were modified by the Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction with arabinose reduced the sensitization of TM and AK, which may be due to the masked epitopes.

  7. Identification of Maillard reaction induced chemical modifications on Ara h 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic glycation reaction between proteins and reducing sugars that can modify nut allergens during thermal processing. These modifications can alter the structural and immunological properties of these allergens, and may result in increased IgE binding. Here, we ...

  8. Optimization of Maillard Reaction in Model System of Glucosamine and Cysteine Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchi, Shanika Jeewantha Thewarapperuma; Kim, Ye-Joo; Kim, Dae-Wook; Oh, Sang-Chul; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2017-03-01

    Sulfur-containing amino acids play important roles in good flavor generation in Maillard reaction of non-enzymatic browning, so aqueous model systems of glucosamine and cysteine were studied to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, initial pH, reaction time, and concentration ratio of glucosamine and cysteine. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the independent reaction parameters of cysteine and glucosamine in Maillard reaction. Box-Behnken factorial design was used with 30 runs of 16 factorial levels, 8 axial levels and 6 central levels. The degree of Maillard reaction was determined by reading absorption at 425 nm in a spectrophotometer and Hunter's L, a, and b values. ΔE was consequently set as the fifth response factor. In the statistical analyses, determination coefficients (R 2 ) for their absorbance, Hunter's L, a, b values, and ΔE were 0.94, 0.79, 0.73, 0.96, and 0.79, respectively, showing that the absorbance and Hunter's b value were good dependent variables for this model system. The optimum processing parameters were determined to yield glucosamine-cysteine Maillard reaction product with higher absorbance and higher colour change. The optimum estimated absorbance was achieved at the condition of initial pH 8.0, 111°C reaction temperature, 2.47 h reaction time, and 1.30 concentration ratio. The optimum condition for colour change measured by Hunter's b value was 2.41 h reaction time, 114°C reaction temperature, initial pH 8.3, and 1.26 concentration ratio. These results can provide the basic information for Maillard reaction of aqueous model system between glucosamine and cysteine.

  9. The Electronic Flux in Chemical Reactions. Insights on the Mechanism of the Maillard Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Patricio; Gutiérrez-Oliva, Soledad; Herrera, Bárbara; Silva, Eduardo; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2007-11-01

    The electronic transfer that occurs during a chemical process is analysed in term of a new concept, the electronic flux, that allows characterizing the regions along the reaction coordinate where electron transfer is actually taking place. The electron flux is quantified through the variation of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate and is used, together with the reaction force, to shed light on reaction mechanism of the Schiff base formation in the Maillard reaction. By partitioning the reaction coordinate in regions in which different process might be taking place, electronic reordering associated to polarization and transfer has been identified and found to be localized at specific transition state regions where most bond forming and breaking occur.

  10. Investigation of Possible Maillard Reaction Between Acyclovir and Dextrose upon Dilution Prior to Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahi Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, Faranak; Hatami, Leila; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2016-12-01

    In this study the stability of parenteral acyclovir (ACV) when diluted in dextrose (DEX) as large volume intravenous fluid preparation (LVIF) was evaluated and the possible Maillard reaction adducts were monitored in the recommended infusion time. Different physicochemical methods were used to evaluate the Maillard reaction of dextrose with ACV to track the reaction in real infusion condition. Other large volume intravenous fluids were checked regarding the diluted drug stability profile. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass data proved the reaction of glucose with dextrose. A Maillard-specific high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to track the reaction in real infusion condition in vitro. The nucleophilic reaction occurred in diluted parenteral preparations of acyclovir in 5% dextrose solutions. The best diluent solution was also selected as sodium chloride and introduced based on drug stability and also its adsorption onto different infusion sets (PVC or non PVC) to provide an acceptable administration protocol in clinical practices. Although, the Maillard reaction was proved and successfully tracked in diluted solutions, and the level of drug loss when diluted in dextrose was reported to be between 0.27 up to 1.03% of the initial content. There was no drug adsorption to common infusion sets. The best diluent for parenteral acyclovir is sodium chloride large volume intravenous fluid.

  11. Effects of the Maillard Reaction on the Immunoreactivity of Amandin in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Guneet S; Liu, Changqi; Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2017-10-01

    Amandin is the major storage protein and allergen in almond seeds. Foods, containing almonds, subjected to thermal processing typically experience Maillard browning reaction. The resulting destruction of amino groups, protein glycation, and/or denaturation may alter amandin immunoreactivity. Amandin immunoreactivity of variously processed almond containing foods was therefore the focus of the current investigation. Commercial and laboratory prepared foods, including those likely to have been subjected to Maillard browning, were objectively assessed by determining Hunter L * , a * , b * values. The L * values for the tested samples were in the range of 31.75 to 85.28 consistent with Maillard browning. Three murine monoclonal antibodies, 4C10, 4F10, and 2A3, were used to determine the immunoreactivity of the targeted samples using immunoassays (ELISA, Western blot, dot blot). The tested foods did not exhibit cross-reactivity indicating that the immunoassays were amandin specific. For sandwich ELISAs, ratio (R) of sample immunoreactivity to reference immunoreactivity was calculated. The ranges of R values were 0.67 to 15.19 (4C10), 1.00 to 11.83 (4F10), and 0.77 to 23.30 (2A3). The results of dot blot and Western blot were consistent with those of ELISAs. Results of these investigations demonstrate that amandin is a stable marker protein for almond detection regardless of the degree of amandin denaturation and/or destruction as a consequence of Maillard reaction encountered under the tested processing conditions. Foods containing almond are often subjected to processing prior to consumption. Amandin, the major allergen in almond, may experience Maillard reaction. Understanding the change in amandin immunoreactivity as a result of Maillard reaction is important for amandin detection and production of hypoallergenic food products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. The Maillard reaction and its control during food processing. The potential of emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, H; Janositz, A; Knorr, D

    2010-06-01

    The Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids is a common reaction in foods which undergo thermal processing. Desired consequences like the formation of flavor and brown color of some cooked foods but also the destruction of essential amino acids and the production of anti-nutritive compounds require the consideration of the Maillard reaction and relevant mechanisms for its control. This paper aims to exemplify the recent advances in food processing with regard to the controllability of heat-induced changes in the food quality. Firstly, improved thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating, which allows direct heating of the product and overcoming the heat transfer limitations of conventional thermal processing are presented in terms of their applicability to reduce the thermal exposure during food preservation. Secondly, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields and their ability to extend the shelf life of food products without the application of heat, thus also preserving the quality attributes of the food, will be discussed. Finally, an innovative method for the removal of Maillard reaction substrates in food raw materials by the application of pulsed electric field cell disintegration and extraction as well as enzymatic conversion is presented in order to demonstrate the potential of the combination of processes to control the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in food processing. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigations on the Maillard reaction of dextrins during aging of Pilsner type beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakete, Stefan; Klaus, Alexander; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-10-08

    Although Maillard reaction plays a pivotal role during preparation of food, only few investigations concerning the role of carbohydrate degradation in beer aging have been carried out. The formation of Maillard specific precursor structures and their follow-up products during degradation of low molecular carbohydrate dextrins in the presence of proline and lysine was studied in model incubations and in beer. Twenty-one α-dicarbonyl compounds were identified and quantitated as reactive intermediates. The oxidative formation of 3-deoxypentosone as the precursor of furfural from oligosaccharides was verified. N-Carboxymethylproline and N-formylproline were established as novel proline derived Maillard advanced glycation end products. Formation of N-carboxymethylproline and furfural responded considerably to the presence of oxygen and was positively correlated to aging of Pilsner type beer. The present study delivers an in-depth view on the mechanisms behind the formation of beer relevant aging parameters.

  14. Regulatory Notes on Impact of Excipients on Drug Products and the Maillard Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Dipak K; Sarker, Haripada; Schwartz, Paul

    2018-02-01

    In general, it is an important criterion that excipients remain inert throughout the shelf life of the formulated pharmaceutical product. However, depending on the functionality in chemical structure of active drug and excipients, they may undergo interaction. The well-known Maillard reaction occurs between a primary amine with lactose at high temperature to produce brown pigments. The reactivity of Maillard reaction may vary depending on the concentration as well as other conditions. Commercially, there are products where the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a primary amine and contains less than 75% lactose along with inactive excipients. This product does not show Maillard reaction during its shelf life of around 2 years at ambient conditions. However, when the same type of product contains more than 95 % lactose as an excipient, then there is a possibility of interactions though it is not visible in the initial year. Therefore, this regulatory note discusses involvement of different factors of a known drug-excipient interactions with case studies and provides an overview on how the concentration of lactose in the pharmaceutical product is important in addition to temperature and moisture in Maillard reaction.

  15. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R. A.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Bayliss, M. T.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  16. Effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols on Maillard reaction in bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the fatty acid composition of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) and the Maillard reaction induced during bread baking, a comparison with various fatty acids was conducted. Saturated fatty acids had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the amount of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated from the Maillard reaction in bread baking compared to unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of AGEs produced by each fatty acid (mg kg -1 ) was as follows: C18:0, 18.7; C12:0, 35.2; C16:0, 21.4; C18:0, 38.2; C18:1, 68.7; C18:2, 80.1; C20:4, 80.8; C22:4, 89.8. Saturated fatty acids were possibly involved in the Maillard reaction and, as a result, acted to inhibit it. In the case of unsaturated fatty acids, amounts of AGEs during the Maillard reaction in baking tended to increase as the degree of unsaturation increased. In other words, there was a positive correlation between the degree of unsaturation and the amount of AGEs. It was also confirmed that the air pore distribution in baked bread was closely related to AGEs. These results led us to conclude that the fatty acid composition of the added lipids also influences properties that determine the tastiness of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A Laboratory Experiment, Based on the Maillard Reaction, Conducted as a Project in Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Olena; Elliott, Antony; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory experiment, based on the Maillard reaction, served as a project in Introductory Statistics for undergraduates in Food Science and Technology. By using the principles of randomization and replication and reflecting on the sources of variation in the experimental data, students reinforced the statistical concepts and techniques…

  18. A kinetic model for the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive kinetic model for the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction is proposed based on an approach called multiresponse kinetic modelling. Special attention was paid to reactants, intermediates and end products: -fructose, N-(1-deoxy--fructos-1-yl)-glycine (DFG), 1-deoxy-2,3-hexodiulose and

  19. A review of Maillard reaction in food and implications to kenetic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the research designed to lead to an increased understanding of the chemistry of the Maillard reaction, based on recent developments, and its influence on food properties like colour, flavour and nutritional value. A critical analysis is given on how quality attributes

  20. Effects of Maillard reaction on allergenicity of buckwheat allergen Fag t 3 during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Huang; Li, Chen; Li, Yu-Ying; Wang, Zhuan-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Fag t 3 is a major allergenic protein in tartary buckwheat. The Maillard reaction commonly occurs in food processing, but few studies have been conducted on the influence of thermal processing on the allergenic potential of buckwheat allergen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of autologous plant polysaccharides on the immunoreactivity of buckwheat Fag t 3 (11S globulin) following the Maillard reaction. Fag t 3 and crude polysaccharides were prepared from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) flour. After heating, the polysaccharides were covalently linked to Fag t 3 via a Maillard reaction, and the IgE/IgG-binding properties of Fag t 3 decreased dramatically, with significant changes also being observed in the electrophoretic mobility, secondary structure and solubility of the glycated Fag t 3. The great influence of glycation on IgE/IgG binding to Fag t 3 was correlated with a significant change in the structure and epitopes of the allergenic protein. These data indicated that conjugation of polysaccharides to Fag t 3 markedly reduced the allergen's immunoreactivity. Glycation that occurs via the Maillard reaction during the processing of buckwheat food may be an efficient method to reduce Fag t 3 allergenicity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  2. Effects of odor generated from the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction on human mood and brainwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Arihara, Keizo

    2016-06-15

    Effects of the odor generated from the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction on human mood and brainwaves were investigated in the present study. Equimolar solutions of glucose and glycine were adjusted to pH 7 and pH 9 and heated at 90 °C for 30 min. The odor generated from the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction significantly decreased negative moods. Its effects on brainwaves differed according to pH; alpha brainwave distribution was increased after inhalation of the odor generated at pH 7, whereas it was decreased by the odor generated at pH 9. The effects on mood and brainwaves were also measured after inhalation of model solutions, which comprised of potent odorants determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and the results were similar to those obtained with the Maillard reaction samples. Therefore, odors constructed by potent odorants could influence human mood and brainwaves. Among all potent odorants, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) were identified as the strongest, and high pH values resulted in higher yields of these odorants. Furthermore, DMHF was identified as the putative agent responsible for the decrease in alpha brainwave distribution after smelling the pH-9 Maillard reaction sample since higher concentrations of DMHF resulted in a similar effect.

  3. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutagenicity of heated sugar-casein systems: effect of the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, C M; Alink, G M; van Boekel, M A; Jongen, W M

    2000-06-01

    The formation of mutagens after the heating of sugar-casein model systems at 120 degrees C was examined by the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. Several sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, tagatose, lactose, and lactulose) were compared in their mutagenicities. Mutagenicity could be fully ascribed to Maillard reaction products and strongly varied with the kind of sugar. The differences in mutagenicity among the sugar-casein systems were caused by a difference in reaction rate and a difference in reaction mechanism. Sugars with a comparable reaction mechanism (glucose and galactose) showed a higher mutagenic activity corresponding with a higher Maillard reactivity. Disaccharides showed no mutagenic activity (lactose) or a lower mutagenic activity (lactulose) than their corresponding monosaccharides. Ketose sugars (fructose and tagatose) showed a remarkably higher mutagenicity compared with their aldose isomers (glucose and galactose), which was due to a difference in reaction mechanism.

  5. Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2018-01-23

    Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.

  6. New functionalities of Maillard reaction products as emulsifiers and encapsulating agents, and the processing parameters: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Non-enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry, ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever-debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to the Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavour, taste and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction products as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifiers as well as superior encapsulating matrices for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform the Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that need to be taken into consideration when conducting the Maillard reaction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs. Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  8. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  9. A novel thiamine-derived pigment, pyrizepine, formed by the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshi, Asuka; Noda, Kyoko; Murata, Masatsune

    2018-04-26

    To find a Maillard pigment derived from thiamine, a solution containing glucose and thiamine was heated and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection. As a result, a unique peak showing an absorption maximum at 380 nm was detected. This peak was then isolated from a reaction solution containing glucose, lysine and thiamine, and was identified as 1-(2-methyl-6,9-dihydro-5H-pyrimido[4,5-e][1,4]diazepin-7-yl)ethan-1-one using instrumental analyses. This compound, named pyrizepine, was a novel yellow pigment having a fused ring consisting of pyrimidine and diazepine. Pyrizepine was a major low-molecular-weight pigment in the reaction solution. The structure suggests that pyrizepine is formed by condensation reaction between a degradation product of thiamine and a tetrosone derivative formed from glucose by the Maillard reaction.

  10. Discovery of Amadori-Type Conjugates in a Peptide Maillard Reaction and Their Corresponding Influence on the Formation of Pyrazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tingting; Liu, Jianbin; Song, Huanlu; Liu, Ye

    2018-05-10

    Knowledge of the role of peptides in the Maillard reaction is rather limited. In this study, peptide Maillard reaction model systems were established. Volatile and nonvolatile MRPs (Maillard reaction products) were investigated by GC-O-MS and LC-MS. Carbohydrate module labeling (CAMOLA) experiments were performed to elucidate the carbon skeleton of these compounds. Results showed that the peptide reaction system generated more pyrazines than the free amino acid group. Several new Amadori-type conjugates were identified as novel Maillard reaction products that could greatly influence the formation of pyrazines. Our work suggested anew mechanism involving these Amadori-type conjugates and subsequent investigation revealed that the conjugates could be important intermediate products in the reaction between dicarbonyl and dipeptide. Our findings demonstrate anew pyrazine generation mechanism in the dipeptide Maillard reaction. We found that a dipeptide Maillard reaction system generated more pyrazines than a reaction system composed of free amino acids. New cross-linked peptide-sugar compounds were identified and found to impact the formation of pyrazines. The results of this study may help in the preparation of thermal reaction flavors using enzymatically hydrolyzed vegetable/animal proteins, which contain a considerable amount of peptides, as one of the major reactants. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Fluorescent Carbon Dots Derived from Maillard Reaction Products: Their Properties, Biodistribution, Cytotoxicity, and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Na, Xiaokang; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-02-14

    Food-borne nanoparticles have received great attention because of their unique physicochemical properties and potential health risk. In this study, carbon dots (CDs) formed during one of the most important chemical reactions in the food processing field, the Maillard reaction from the model system including glucose and lysine, were investigated. The CDs purified from Maillard reaction products emitted a strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a fluorescent quantum yield of 16.30%. In addition, they were roughly spherical, with sizes of around 4.3 nm, and mainly composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Their surface groups such as hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups were found to possibly enable CDs to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assessment of CDs showed that they could readily enter HepG2 cells while causing negligible cell death at low concentration. However, high CDs concentrations were highly cytotoxic and led to cell death via interference of the glycolytic pathway.

  12. Can Dietary Polyphenols Prevent the Formation of Toxic Compounds from Maillard Reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Turco, Serena; Basta, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are functional compounds in edible vegetable and food such as tea, coffee and red wine and increasing evidence demonstrates a positive link between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and disease prevention. In this review we have focused on the current knowledge of the potential anti-glycation effects of polyphenols, particularly in regard to their influence on Maillard reaction, a non-enzymatic reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that contributes to the production of toxic compounds, mainly reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and other toxicants. The Maillard reaction occurs in the human body during hyperglycemic condition, but it is well known as browning reaction in thermally processed foods and it is responsible for flavor and toxicant formation. Dietary polyphenols can have anti-glycation effects and actively participate in Maillard reaction, mitigating the AGE formation and the heat-induced production of toxic compounds. In a time in which the role of a healthy diet in the prevention of chronic diseases is welcome and the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin, an improved mechanistic knowledge of how polyphenols can function to reduce harmful and unhealthy substances is mandatory.

  13. Fluorescence from the maillard reaction and its potential applications in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiacevich, Silvia B; Santagapita, Patricio R; Buera, M Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The chemistry of the Maillard reaction involves a complex set of steps, and its interpretation represents a challenge in basic and applied aspects of Food Science. Fluorescent compounds have been recognized as important early markers of the reaction in food products since 1942. However, the recent advances in the characterization of fluorophores' development were observed in biological and biomedical areas. The in vivo non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins produces biological effects, promoting health deterioration. The characteristic fluorescence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) is similar to that of Maillard food products and represents an indicator of the level of AGE-modified proteins, but the structure of the fluorescent groups is, typically, unknown. Application of fluorescence measurement is considered a potential tool for addressing key problems of food deterioration as an early marker or index of the damage of biomolecules. Fluorophores may be precursors of the brown pigments and/or end products. A general scheme of the Maillard reaction is proposed in this article, incorporating the pool concept. A correct interpretation of the effect of environmental and compositional conditions and their influences on the reaction kinetics may help to define the meaning of fluorescence development for each particular system.

  14. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

  15. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The influence of emulsion structure on the Maillard reaction of ghee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Angela E; Fairbanks, Antony J; Golding, Matt; Andrewes, Paul; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2015-04-15

    Food systems, such as cream and butter, have an emulsion or emulsion-like structure. When these food emulsions are heated to high temperatures to make products such as ghee, the Maillard reaction forms a range of volatile flavour compounds. The objective of this paper was to unravel the specific influence of emulsion structure on the Maillard reaction pathways that occur during the cooking of ghee using model systems. Switching the dispersed phase from oil to water provided a means of altering the ratios of volatile compounds produced in the cooked samples. The oil-in-water emulsion generated a volatile compound profile similar to that of the fat containing two phase model matrix, whereas the water-in-oil emulsion produced a different ratio of these compounds. The ability to generate different volatile compound profiles through the use of inverted emulsion structures could point to a new avenue for control of the Maillard reaction in high temperature food systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilić, Slađana; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Akıllıoğlu, Gül; Serpen, Arda; Delić, Nenad; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-01-15

    The Maillard reaction indicators furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), acrylamide and color were determined to evaluate heat effects induced during extrusion, infrared and microwave heating of soybean. In addition, the present paper aimed to study changes in the phenolic compounds, as well as in the overall antioxidant properties of different soybean products in relation to heating at 45-140 °C during the processes. Soybean proteins were highly sensible to Maillard reaction and furosine was rapidly formed under slight heating conditions during extrusion and infrared heating. Microwave heating at lower temperatures for a longer time yielded lower acrylamide levels in the final soybean products, as a result of its partial degradation. However, during infrared heating, acrylamide formation greatly increased with decreasing moisture content. After a short time of extrusion and infrared heating at 140 °C and microwave heating at 135 °C for 5 min, concentrations of HMF increased to 11.34, 26.21 and 34.97 µg g(-1), respectively. The heating conditions caused formation of acrylamide, HMF and furosine in high concentration. The results indicate that the complex structure of soybeans provides protection of phenolic compounds from thermal degradation, and that Maillard reaction products improved the antioxidant properties of heat-treated soybean. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Gıdalarda Maillard Reaksiyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Burdurlu, Hande Selen; Karadeniz, Feryal

    2014-01-01

    Nonenzymatic browning reactions which cause color changes in foods are mainly caramelization, degradation of ascorbic acid and Maillard reaction. Maillard reaction is considered the most important browning reaction because it undertakes the main role in the quality of processed foods. Maillard reaction takes place between reducing sugars and amino groups and the intensity of browning changes according to conditions of food media.Maillard reaction cause also formation of antioxidative and anti...

  19. Maillard Reaction in Natural Rubber Latex: Characterization and Physical Properties of Solid Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction in Natural Rubber (NR latex was investigated by treating fresh NR latex with glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2 in amounts of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol/kg of latex. Protein cross-linking in fresh NR latex and solid NR was confirmed by using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that degree of protein cross-linking in NR increased with increasing C5H8O2 concentration. Physical properties of untreated and treated NR substances in terms of gel content, initial Wallace plasticity (P0, plasticity retention index (PRI, Mooney viscosity, and tensile strength were carefully explored. Results clearly showed that the Maillard cross-linking of proteins had remarkable effect on bulk NR properties, that is, solvent resistance, hardness, resistance to oxidation, rheological behavior, and resistance to stretching out.

  20. Two novel pyrrolooxazole pigments formed by the Maillard reaction between glucose and threonine or serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kyoko; Murata, Masatsune

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolothiazolate formed by the Maillard reaction between l-cysteine and d-glucose has a pyrrolothiazole skeleton as a chromophore. We searched for a Maillard pigment having a pyrrolooxazole skeleton formed from l-threonine or l-serine instead of l-cysteine in the presence of d-glucose. As a result, two novel yellow pigments, named pyrrolooxazolates A and B, were isolated from model solutions of the Maillard reaction containing l-threonine and d-glucose, and l-serine and d-glucose, respectively, and identified as (2R,3S,7aS)-2,3,7,7a-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-2,5,7a-trimethyl-7-oxo-pyrrolo[2,1-b]oxazole-3-calboxylic acid and (3S,7aS)-2,3,7,7a-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-5,7a-dimethyl-7-oxo-pyrrolo[2,1-b]oxazole-3-calboxylic acid by instrumental analyses. These compounds were pyrrolooxazole derivatives carrying a carboxy group, and showed the absorption maxima at 300-360 nm under acidic and neutral conditions and at 320-390 nm under alkaline conditions.

  1. Possibility of the Nonenzymatic Browning (Maillard) Reaction in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Shipar, M. Abul Haider

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of the nonenzymatic browning reaction in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium has been investigated by using Density Functional Theory computations. Mechanisms for the reactions between formaldehyde ( Fald) + glycine ( Gly), Fald + NH 3 and Fald + methylamine ( MeAm) have been proposed, and the possibility of the formation of different compounds in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated through calculating the Gibb's free energy changes for different steps of the reaction, by following the total mass balance. The Fald + Gly reaction under basic conditions is found as the most favorable for producing 1-methyl-amino methene or 1-methyl-amino methelene ( MAM). The reaction under acidic conditions is found to be the least favorable for producing MAM. The Fald + NH 3 reaction is found to be plausible for the production of MeAm, which can participate by reaction with Fald, resulting in the formation of MAM.

  2. Investigation of the Maillard Reaction between Polysaccharides and Proteins from Longan Pulp and the Improvement in Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miao-Miao; Yi, Yang; Wang, Hong-Xun; Huang, Fei

    2017-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Maillard reaction between polysaccharides and proteins from longan pulp and the effects of reaction on their in vitro activities. The polysaccharide-protein mixtures of fresh longan pulp (LPPMs) were co-prepared by an alkali extraction-acid precipitation method. They were then dry-heated under controlled conditions for monitoring the characterization of the Maillard reaction by the measurement of the free amino group content, ultraviolet-visible spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and molecular weight distribution. All the physicochemical analyses indicated the development of the Maillard reaction between polysaccharides and proteins. The in vitro activity evaluation indicated that the Maillard reaction could effectively enhance the antioxidant, antitumor and immunostimulating activities of LPPMs. The enhancement of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power displayed both a positive correlation with the reaction time ( p Maillard-type intermacromolecular interaction is suggested to be an effective and controllable method for improving the functional activities of polysaccharides and proteins from longan pulp.

  3. Maillard-reaction-induced modification and aggregation of proteins and hardening of texture in protein bar model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Guo, Mufan; Liu, Dasong; Liu, Xiaoming; Labuza, Teodore P

    2013-03-01

    The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the progress of the Maillard reaction in model systems of high-protein nutritional bars containing reducing sugars, and to illustrate the influences of the Maillard reaction on the modification and aggregation of proteins and the hardening of bar matrices during storage. The progress of the Maillard reaction, glycation, and aggregation of proteins, and textural changes in bar matrices were investigated during storage at 25, 35, and 45 °C. The initial development of the Maillard reaction caused little changes in hardness; however, further storage resulted in dramatic modification of protein with formation of high-molecular-weight polymers, resulting in the hardening in texture. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula minimized the changes in texture. The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. Maillard reaction is one of the mechanisms contributing to the hardening of bar matrix, particularly for the late stage of storage. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula will minimize the changes in texture. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Maillard reaction versus other nonenzymatic modifications in neurodegenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Ilieva, Ekaterina; Ayala, Victoria; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Cacabelos, Daniel; Dalfo, Esther; Ferrer, Isidre; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    Nonenzymatic protein modifications are generated from direct oxidation of amino acid side chains and from reaction of the nucleophilic side chains of specific amino acids with reactive carbonyl species. These reactions give rise to specific markers that have been analyzed in different neurodegenerative diseases sharing protein aggregation, such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Collectively, available data demonstrate that oxidative stress homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and energy metabolism are key factors in determining the disease-specific pattern of protein molecular damage. In addition, these findings suggest the lack of a "gold marker of oxidative stress," and, consequently, they strengthen the need for a molecular dissection of the nonenzymatic reactions underlying neurodegenerative processes.

  5. Demonstration of physical phenomenas and scavenging activity from d-psicose and methionine maillard reaction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Tiyas Suminar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction has been well understood as a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids to generate the Maillard reaction products (MRPs. This study is aimed to demonstrate the browning intensity, color development, spectra measurements, scavenging activity, and the correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity of the MRPs generated from D-Psicose and Methionine (Psi-Met at 50℃. The browning intensity of MRPs was investigated based on the absorbance using spectrophotometer at 420 nm, the color development was observed using digital colorimeter to gained L*a*b* value then calculated as browning index, the spectra development was analyzed using spectrophotometer at 190 - 750 nm, and the scavenging activity was determined with ABTS method using spectrophotometer at 734 nm. The browning intensity, color development, and scavenging activity were improved along with the increase in heating process. Based on spectra analysis, MRPs from Psi-Met was initially detected at 21 h and Psi at 24 h of heating treatment, which indicating that Psi-Met have faster and better reaction than Psi during heating process. Positive non-linear and significant correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity were assigned. This finding may provide beneficial information of D-psicose and MRPs to the next scientific research and to the food industries which applies MRPs in their products.

  6. Unique Pattern of Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Rückriemen, Jana; Sandner, Daniel; Henle, Thomas

    2017-05-03

    As a unique feature, honey from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) contains substantial amounts of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is a reactive intermediate in the Maillard reaction, very little is known about reactions of MGO with honey proteins. We hypothesized that the abundance of MGO should result in a particular pattern of protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in manuka honey. A protein-rich high-molecular-weight fraction was isolated from 12 manuka and 8 non-manuka honeys and hydrolyzed enzymatically. By HPLC-MS/MS, 8 MRPs, namely, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-maltulosyllysine, carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), were quantitated. Compared to non-manuka honeys, the manuka honeys were characterized by high concentrations of CEL and MG-H1, whereas the formation of N-ε-fructosyllysine was suppressed, indicating concurrence reactions of glucose and MGO at the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine. Up to 31% of the lysine and 8% of the arginine residues, respectively, in the manuka honey protein can be modified to CEL and MG-H1, respectively. CEL and MG-H1 concentrations correlated strongly with the MGO concentration of the honeys. Manuka honey possesses a special pattern of protein-bound MRPs, which might be used to prove the reliability of labeled MGO levels in honeys and possibly enable the detection of fraudulent MGO or DHA addition to honey.

  7. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  8. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  9. The browning value changes and spectral analysis on the Maillard reaction product from glucose and methionine model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Widayat

    2018-01-01

    D-glucose has been understood to provide the various effect on the reactivity in Maillard reaction resulting in the changes in physical performance of food product. Therefore this research was done to analyse physical appearance of Maillard reaction product made of D-glucose and methionine as a model system. The changes in browning value and spectral analysis model system were determined. The glucose-methionine model system was produced through the heating treatment at 50°C and RH 70% for 24 hours. The data were collected for every three hour using spectrophotometer. As result, browning value was elevated with the increase of heating time and remarkably high if compare to the D-glucose only. Furthermore, the spectral analysis showed that methionine turned the pattern of peak appearance. As conclusion, methionine raised the browning value and changed the pattern of spectral analysis in Maillard reaction model system.

  10. Antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction products derived from different peptide fractions of soybean meal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; He, Shudong; Tang, Mingming; Zhang, Zuoyong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Sun, Hanju

    2018-03-15

    Four peptide fractions PF1 (>5;kDa), PF2 (3-5;kDa), PF3 (1-3;kDa), PF4 (Maillard reaction products (MRPF1, MRPF2, MRPF3 and MRPF4) were evaluated, respectively. Peptides with low molecular weight showed higher contribution to the changes of pH, colour and browning intensity during Maillard reaction. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of PF4 was significantly improved after Maillard reaction. Aroma volatiles and PLSR analysis suggested MRPF3 had the best sensory characteristics with higher contents of umami amino acids and lower of bitter amino acids, therefore it could be deduced that the umami and meaty characteristics were correlated with the peptides of 1-3;kDa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of maillard reaction variables and their effect on heterocyclic amine formation in chemical model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cara; Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), highly mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic by-products, form during Maillard browning reactions, specifically in muscle-rich foods. Chemical model systems allow examination of in vitro formation of HCAs while eliminating complex matrices of meat. Limited research has evaluated the effects of Maillard reaction parameters on HCA formation. Therefore, 4 essential Maillard variables (precursors molar concentrations, water amount, sugar type, and sugar amounts) were evaluated to optimize a model system for the study of 4 HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Model systems were dissolved in diethylene glycol, heated at 175 °C for 40 min, and separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. To define the model system, precursor amounts (threonine and creatinine) were adjusted in molar increments (0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.6/0.6, and 0.8/0.8 mmol) and water amounts by percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). Sugars (lactose, glucose, galactose, and fructose) were evaluated in several molar amounts proportional to threonine and creatinine (quarter, half, equi, and double). The precursor levels and amounts of sugar were significantly different (P < 0.05) in regards to total HCA formation, with 0.6/0.6/1.2 mmol producing higher levels. Water concentration and sugar type also had a significant effect (P < 0.05), with 5% water and lactose producing higher total HCA amounts. A model system containing threonine (0.6 mmol), creatinine (0.6 mmol), and glucose (1.2 mmol), with 15% water was determined to be the optimal model system with glucose and 15% water being a better representation of meat systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Evolution of the Maillard Reaction in Glutamine or Arginine-Dextrinomaltose Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pastoriza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA, 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF, furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm. The systems were prepared by mixing glutamine or arginine with dextrinomaltose (similar ingredients to those used in special enteral formula, and heated at 100 °C, 120 °C and 140 °C for 0 to 30 min. The recorded changes in the concentration of furanic compounds was only useful for longer heating times of high temperatures, while absorbance and fluorescence measurements were useful in all the assayed conditions. In addition, easiness and sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence make them useful techniques that could be implemented as indicators for monitoring the manufacture of special enteral formulas. Glucosylisomaltol is a useful indicator to monitor the manufacture of glutamine-enriched enteral formulas.

  13. Evolution of the Maillard Reaction in Glutamine or Arginine-Dextrinomaltose Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Silvia; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2016-12-07

    Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o -phtaldialdehyde (OPA), 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm. The systems were prepared by mixing glutamine or arginine with dextrinomaltose (similar ingredients to those used in special enteral formula), and heated at 100 °C, 120 °C and 140 °C for 0 to 30 min. The recorded changes in the concentration of furanic compounds was only useful for longer heating times of high temperatures, while absorbance and fluorescence measurements were useful in all the assayed conditions. In addition, easiness and sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence make them useful techniques that could be implemented as indicators for monitoring the manufacture of special enteral formulas. Glucosylisomaltol is a useful indicator to monitor the manufacture of glutamine-enriched enteral formulas.

  14. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    BREAD COLORING CHEESE SPREAD CHEMICAL REACTIONS FLAVOR OXIDATION DAIRY PRODUCTS...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  15. The functional properties of chitosan-glucose-asparagine Maillard reaction products and mitigation of acrylamide formation by chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chou, Yu-Hao; Hsiao, Hsin-I

    2018-03-15

    This research aims to clarify the interactions that occur in a food model system consisting of glucose, asparagine and chitosans. Low molecular weight chitosan exerted a potent inhibitory effect (46.8%) on acrylamide and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) (>52.6%), respectively. Compared to a previous study conducted using the fructose system, the novel findings of this research demonstrate that the formation of acrylamide and Maillard reaction products was lower with glucose than with fructose when they were used as reducing sugars in food model systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  17. Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; He, Ting; Yi, Ting; Yang, Ji-Ping; He, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Rutin exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and a number of plant-derived sources. Dietary sources containing rutin are considered beneficial because of their potential protective roles in multiple diseases related to oxidative stresses. In the present study, the change and antioxidation activity of rutin in Maillard reaction with lysine through a heating process were investigated. There is release of glucose and rhamnose that interact with lysine to give Maillard reaction products (MRPs), while rutin is converted to less-polar quercetin and a small quantity of isoquercitrin. Because of their high cell-membrane permeability, the rutin-lysine MRPs increase the free radical-scavenging activity in HepG2 cells, showing cellular antioxidant activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress higher than that of rutin. Furthermore, the MRPs significantly increased the Cu/Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and Cu/Zn SOD gene expression of HepG2 cells, consequently enhancing antioxidation activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional properties of nisin–carbohydrate conjugates formed by radiation induced Maillard reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muppalla, Shobita R.; Sonavale, Rahul; Chawla, Surinder P.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Nisin–carbohydrate conjugates were prepared by irradiating nisin either with glucose or dextran. Increase in browning and formation of intermediate products was observed with a concomitant decrease in free amino and reducing sugar groups indicating occurrence of the Maillard reaction catalyzed by irradiation. Nisin–carbohydrate conjugates showed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence) as well as Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus). Results of antioxidant assays, including that of DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, showed that the nisin–dextran conjugates possessed better antioxidant potential than nisin–glucose conjugate. These results suggested that it was possible to enhance the functional properties of nisin by preparing radiation induced conjugates suitable for application in food industry. - Highlights: ► Nisin–carbohydrate conjugates were prepared using radiation induced Maillard reaction. ► Conjugation of nisin with dextran/glucose resulted in improvement of antibacterial spectrum. ► Conjugates of nisin with dextran/glucose had significant radical scavenging activity.

  19. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results: During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  20. Microencapsulation of stearidonic acid soybean oil in Maillard reaction-modified complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeduba, Ebenezer A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-05-15

    The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h. Relationships between the extent of browning, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and the total oxidation (TOTOX) of encapsulated SDASO were fitted to quadratic models. The [GE-GA-MD] blends exhibited higher browning rates and TEAC values than corresponding [GE-GA] blends. Depending on the type of biopolymer blend and dry-heating time, TOTOX values of SDASO in MRP-derived microcapsules were 29-87% lower than that of the non-crosslinked control after 30 days of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction to enhance volatile flavor in Chinese marinated chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiuli; Wang, Chunqing; Zhang, Chunhui; Li, Xia; Wang, Jinzhi; Li, Hai; Tang, Chunhong

    2017-02-01

    A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction was investigated by adding d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine to the marinated brine of quantitative marinating, which was expected to enhance the volatile flavor of Chinese marinated chicken. Response surface methodology was used to optimize parameters, in which response was sensory evaluation scores of marinated chicken. A Box-Behnken center design was applied to the optimized added contents. The optimized contents were d-xylose (1-5‰), l-cysteine (1-5‰) and thiamine (1-3‰). Analysis of variance indicated that a second-order polynomial equation could predict the experimental data well (R 2  = 0.94), and sensory evaluation scores were significantly affected by the added amount of d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine. The optimal conditions that maximized the sensory evaluation score of Chinese marinated chicken were found to be 4.96‰ d-xylose, 2.28‰ l-cysteine and 2.66‰ thiamine (w/w). Given these optimal conditions, a number of meat-like flavor compounds such as 2-pentyl-furan, benzothiazole and 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol were identified by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Our results suggested that a combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction might be a promising method to enhance the volatile flavor, especially meat-like flavor, of Chinese marinated chicken. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Multiresponse kinetic modelling of Maillard reaction and caramelisation in a heated glucose/wheat flour system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-11-15

    The study describes the kinetics of the formation and degradation of α-dicarbonyl compounds in glucose/wheat flour system heated under low moisture conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, individual free amino acids, lysine and arginine residues, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and diacetyl concentrations were determined to form a multiresponse kinetic model for isomerisation and degradation reactions of glucose. Degradation of Amadori product mainly produced 1-deoxyglucosone. Formation of 3-deoxyglucosone proceeded directly from glucose and also Amadori product degradation. Glyoxal formation was predominant from glucosone while methylglyoxal and diacetyl originated from 1-deoxyglucosone. Formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural from fructose was found to be a key step. Multi-response kinetic modelling of Maillard reaction and caramelisation simultaneously indicated quantitatively predominant parallel and consecutive pathways and rate limiting steps by estimating the reaction rate constants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation induced Maillard reactions (the kinetic of colour formation during heating)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegota, A.; Bachman, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results are presented of the investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation from 60 Co on the acceleration of the Maillard reactions in a model system containing an aqueous solution of fructose (F) at 0.03 mol/dm 3 and alanine (Ala) at 0.01 mol/dm 3 . Solutions of F/Ala irradiated with 5 to 30 kGy at a dose rate 1.4 Gy/s were then heated for a few hours at different temperatures: 400, 600, 800, and 1000 deg C. The colour intensity of the solutions was measured via their absorbance at 450 nm. The reaction constant estimates increased with increasing radiation dose and temperature. The activation energy of colour development determined over the range of 600 deg C to 1000 deg C decreased with dose from 70.6 kJ/mol for 5 kGy to 60.7 kJ/mol for 30 kGy. The results confirmed the formation of carbonyl products from fructose radiolysis and their participation in the acceleration of the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The aldehyde products formed from the amino acids as a result of the Strecker degradation are responsible for the formation of odour typical of the Maillard reaction during heating. The changes in the F and Ala concentrations during irradiation of the solutions were proportional to the radiation dose. The radiation yield of fructose and alanine decomposition was G = 2.6 and 0.22, respectively. In the irradiated solutions of F/Ala, serine has been found, which has not been mentioned so far as a product of alanine radiolysis. The study demonstrates the influence of radiation and acceleration of the Maillard reaction during subsequent heating at 400 deg C up to 1000 deg C of systems containing reducing sugars and amino acids. It should be taken under consideration in the studies on introducing radiation technology of food products preservation connected with further thermal treatment

  4. Evaluation of the extent of initial Maillard reaction during cooking some vegetables by direct measurement of the Amadori compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahao; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Lianfu

    2018-01-01

    During vegetable cooking, one of the most notable and common chemical reactions is the Maillard reaction, which occurs as a result of thermal treatment and dehydration. Amadori compound determination provides a very sensitive indicator for early detection of quality changes caused by the Maillard reaction, as well as to retrospectively assess the heat treatment or storage conditions to which the product has been subjected. In this paper, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of eight Amadori compounds, and the initial steps of the Maillard reaction during cooking (steaming, frying and baking) bell pepper, red pepper, yellow onion, purple onion, tomato and carrot were also assessed by quantitative determination of these Amadori compounds. These culinary treatments reduced moisture and increased the total content of Amadori compounds, which was not dependent on the type of vegetable or cooking method. Moreover, the effect of steaming on Amadori compound content and water loss was less than that by baking and frying vegetables. Further studies showed that the combination of high temperature and short time may lead to lower formation of Amadori compounds when baking vegetables. Culinary methods differently affected the extent of initial Maillard reaction when vegetables were made into home-cooked products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  6. Effects of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) preparations on the Maillard reaction products in milk and meat-protein model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackauskienea, I.; Pukalskas, A.; Rimantas Venskutonis, P.; Fiore, A.M.; Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Ne-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was

  7. Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haining; Zhang, Xiaoming; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated. The MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A 420 ) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A 420 . The A 420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe 2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies. The types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard

  8. Functional properties of nisin-carbohydrate conjugates formed by radiation induced Maillard reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppalla, Shobita R.; Sonavale, Rahul; Chawla, Surinder P.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-12-01

    Nisin-carbohydrate conjugates were prepared by irradiating nisin either with glucose or dextran. Increase in browning and formation of intermediate products was observed with a concomitant decrease in free amino and reducing sugar groups indicating occurrence of the Maillard reaction catalyzed by irradiation. Nisin-carbohydrate conjugates showed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence) as well as Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus). Results of antioxidant assays, including that of DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, showed that the nisin-dextran conjugates possessed better antioxidant potential than nisin-glucose conjugate. These results suggested that it was possible to enhance the functional properties of nisin by preparing radiation induced conjugates suitable for application in food industry.

  9. Investigation of the use of Maillard reaction inhibitors for the production of patatin-carbohydrate conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2014-12-17

    Selected Maillard reaction inhibitors, including aminoguanidine, cysteine, pyridoxamine, and sodium bisulfite, were evaluated for their effect on the production of carbohydrate conjugated proteins with less cross-linking/browning. Patatin (PTT), a major potato protein, was glycated with galactose, xylose, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, galactan, and xylan under controlled conditions. The effectiveness of the inhibitors to control the glycation reaction was assessed by monitoring the glycation extent, the protein cross-linking, and the formation of dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium bisulfite was the most effective inhibitor for PTT-galactose and PTT-xylan reaction systems (reaction control ratios of 210.0 and 12.8). On the other hand, aminoguanidine and cysteine led to the highest reaction control ratios for the PTT-xylose/xylooligosaccharide (160.0 and 143.0) and PTT-galactooligosaccharides/galactan (663.0 and 71.0) reaction systems, respectively. The use of cysteine and aminoguanidine as inhibitors led to 1.7-99.4% decreases in the particle size distribution of the PTT conjugates and to 0.4-9.3% increases in their relative digestibility, per 5% blocked lysine.

  10. Reduction of Allergenicity of Litchi chinensis Flowers Pollen Protein Conjugated with Polysaccharide by Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranajit Kumar Shaha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy to pollen from gymnosperms is well documented in the west. The objective was to define the allergologic protein from Litchi chinensis (Litchi pollen and conjugate the protein with polysaccharides by Maillard reaction to reduce the allergic effect of that protein. Methods: Total soluble proteins were extracted from the pollen of Litchi flower pollen and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation at 80% saturation. Pollen antigen from Litchi chinensis (Litchi was prepared by gel cutting method and characterized by biochemical and designated by LFPP. The homogeneity of this protein was demonstrated by a single band on SDS-PAGE. The protein then conjugated with galactomannan through Maillard Reaction. The resulting purified pollen protein and conjugated protein were administered to the Swiss albino mice as amount of 5.8mg/kg body weight. Results: The total protein was then separated on a 12% SDS-Polyacrylamide gel which revealed 5 bands between molecular weight range of 29kDa and 69kDa. Each band was recovered from the gel by electroelution and sent for skin tests. 28kDa proteins was the only allergenic protein while others were not shown reactivity in patients. Intraperitoneal injection of the purified protein (LFPP caused a significant rise in the levels of neutrophils (38-81% and eosinophils (3-14% compared to control (P < 0.001 whereas conjugated protein caused only a 2% increase of both neutrophils and eosinophils level. On the other hand treatment with LFPP-galactomannan conjugate causes no such change in physical appearance with eosinophils and neutrophils level. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the protein extracted and purified from Litchi flowers pollen has been recognized as a new allergen from Bangladesh for the first time and the allergic effects can be reduced by conjugation with polysaccharides.

  11. Preparation, characterization and toxicology properties of α- and β-chitosan Maillard reaction products nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Zhang, Yiwen; Bao, Erjaing; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, β-chitosan (CS) Maillard reaction (MR) NPs was prepared to improve the water solubility of CS NPs. The α- and β-CS MR was firstly induced by high intensity ultrasound-assisted (UA) water-bath heating at 80°C for 8h. The α- and β-CS Maillard reaction products (MRPs NPs were then prepared by ionic gelation method between the positively charged primary amino groups of CS and the negatively charged groups of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The α- and β-CS MRPs NPs had particle size of 42.49 and 61.74nm, and Zeta-potential of 27.43 and 35.13mV, respectively. The prepared α- and β-CS MRPs NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)-differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to verify whether α- and β-CS MRPs has been incorporated into the CS NPs. The α- and β-CS MRPs NPs exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in antioxidant activity compared with α- and β-CS MRPs at the same concentration based on reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ORAC values. The cytotoxicity test of α- and β-CS MRPs NPs showed good cell viability (70.86-99.16%) of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) at the concentration range from 0.12 to 1mg/mL, and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-α- and β-CS MRPs NPs maintained the morphological characteristics of living cells. These results showed that α- and β-CS MRPs NPs can be used as water-soluble antioxidant substances for applications in food and other fields. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. One-step simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-FTIR microspectroscopy to quickly detect continuous pathways in the solid-state glucose/asparagine Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Hsieh, Tzu-Feng; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The stepwise reaction pathway of the solid-state Maillard reaction between glucose (Glc) and asparagine (Asn) was investigated using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)-FTIR microspectroscopy. The color change and FTIR spectra of Glc-Asn physical mixtures (molar ratio = 1:1) preheated to different temperatures followed by cooling were also examined. The successive reaction products such as Schiff base intermediate, Amadori product, and decarboxylated Amadori product in the solid-state Glc-Asn Maillard reaction were first simultaneously evidenced by this unique DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy. The color changed from white to yellow-brown to dark brown, and appearance of new IR peaks confirmed the formation of Maillard reaction products. The present study clearly indicates that this unique DSC-FTIR technique not only accelerates but also detects precursors and products of the Maillard reaction in real time.

  13. Synthesis, optimization and structural characterization of a chitosan-glucose derivative obtained by the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Beatriz; Montenegro, María I; Ruiz-Matute, Ana I; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Corzo, Nieves; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan (Chit) was submitted to the Maillard reaction (MR) by co-heating a solution with glucose (Glc). Different reaction conditions as temperature (40, 60 and 80 °C), Glc concentration (0.5%, 1%, and 2%, w/v), and reaction time (72, 52 and 24h) were evaluated. Assessment of the reaction extent was monitored by measuring changes in UV absorbance, browning and fluorescence. Under the best conditions, 2% (w/v) of Chit, 2% (w/v) of Glc at 60°C and 32 h of reaction time, a chitosan-glucose (Chit-Glc) derivative was purified and submitted to structural characterization to confirm its formation. Analysis of its molecular weight (MW) and the degree of substitution (DS) was carried out by HPLC-Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and a colloid titration method, respectively. FT-IR and (1)H NMR were also used to analyze the functional groups and evaluate the introduction of Glc into the Chit molecule. According to our objectives, the results obtained in this work allowed to better understand the key parameters influencing the MR with Chit as well as to confirm the successful introduction of Glc into the Chit molecule obtaining a Chit-Glc derivative with a DS of 64.76 ± 4.40% and a MW of 210.37 kDa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Maillard reaction products and their fermented products reduce cardiovascular risk in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Park, M R; Lee, K W; Kim, S H; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) and MRP fermented by lactic acid bacteria on antioxidants and their enhancement of cardiovascular health in ICR mouse and rat models. In previous in vitro studies, the selected lactic acid bacteria were shown to significantly affect the activity of MRP. The expression of genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) related to antioxidant activity was upregulated by Maillard-reacted sodium caseinate (cMRP), and cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) synergistically increased the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase when compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. Bleeding time, the assay for determination of antithrombotic activity, was significantly prolonged by Maillard-reacted whey protein concentration (wMRP) and wMRP fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri H10 (F-wMRP), similar to the bleeding time of the aspirin group (positive control). In addition, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mice overcame severe body paralysis or death in both the wMRP and the F-wMRP groups. In the serum-level experiment, cMRP and F-cMRP significantly reduced the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglycerides but had only a slight effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase also declined in the cMRP and F-cMRP intake groups compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. In particular, F-cMRP showed the highest reducing effects on triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Moreover, the expression of cholesterol-related genes in the F-cMRP group demonstrated greater effects than for the cMRP group in the level of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density lipoprotein receptors compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. The protective role of cMRP and F-cMRP in the high

  15. Implications of the Maillard reaction on bovine alpha-lactalbumin and its proteolysis during in vitro infant digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubran, Yousef; Moscovici, Alice; Portmann, Reto; Lesmes, Uri

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated the functionality and digestibility of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of alpha-lactalbumin (α-la), a major whey protein and component of infant formulas. The impact of different carbohydrates (glucose, galactose or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and heating duration was studied. SDS-PAGE, UV and color measurements monitored reaction extent, which varied between carbohydrates whereby galactose reacted more readily than glucose. Surface hydrophobicity and antioxidant capacity were found to be significantly (p Maillard conjugation, with GOS-based MRPs elevating antioxidant capacity ∼50-fold compared to α-la. In addition, the digestive proteolysis of MRPs was evaluated using an infant in vitro gastro-duodenal model. SDS-PAGE analyses of digesta revealed Maillard conjugation generally increased α-la's susceptibility to proteolysis. Interestingly, GOS-based MRPs presented an optimization challenge, since heating for 12 h delayed proteolysis, while extended heating resulted in the highest susceptibility to proteolysis. Proteomic analyses further demonstrated the differences in enzymatic cleavage patterns and helped identify bioactive peptides rendered bioaccessible during the digestion of α-la or its MRPs. Bioinformatic mining of the proteomic data using PeptideRanker also gave rise to two potentially novel bioactive peptides, FQINNKIW and GINYWLAHKALCS. Finally, antioxidant capacity of luminal contents, measured by DPPH, revealed Maillard conjugation increased the antioxidant capacity of both gastric and duodenal digesta. Overall, this work draws a link between the Maillard reaction, digestive proteolysis and the bioaccessibility of bioactive peptides and antioxidant species in the infant alimentary canal. This could help rationally process infant formulas towards improved nutritional and extra-nutritional benefits.

  16. Kinetics of the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction pathways: influences of pH and reactant initial concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, S.I.F.S.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    A previously proposed kinetic model for the glucose/glycine Maillard reaction pathways has been validated by changing the initial pH (4.8, 5.5, 6.0, 6.8 and 7.5) of the reaction and reactant initial concentrations (1:2 and 2:1 molar ratios were compared to the 1:1 ratio). The model consists of 10

  17. Antioxidant activity of the melanoidin fractions formed from DGlucose and D-Fructose with L-Asparagine in the Maillard reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Echavarría

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins formed at the last stage of the Maillard reaction have been shown to possess certain functional properties, such as antioxidant activity. In order to gain more insight into these functional properties, soluble model systems melanoidins from L‑Asparagine with D‑glucose or D‑fructose fractionating by ultrafiltration were analyzed. The fractionating/concentration sequence of the melanoidin fraction (1-300 kDa enabled five fractions to be produced.Additionally, the absorption of melanoidins was measured at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405 and browning at 420 nm. The fractionation effect of melanoidin systems on the color intensity, UV-absorbance scan wavelengths (nm, CIE, L*, a*, b* parameters and antioxidant activity were measured. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was evaluated through the free radical scavenging activity, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH and 2,20-azinobis (3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, diammonium salt (ABTS. The results showed that the absorption of the melanoidins formed from Glucose/L-Asn was higher than for those derived from Fructose/L-Asn. On the other hand, their antioxidant power was lower than that for melanoidins formed from Fructose/L-Asn systems.

  18. Antioxidant activity of the melanoidin fractions formed from D-Glucose and D-Fructose with L-Asparagine in the Maillard reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Echavarría

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins formed at the last stage of the Maillard reaction have been shown to possess certain functional properties, such as antioxidant activity. In order to gain more insight into these functional properties, soluble model systems melanoidins from L - Asparagine with D - glucose or D - fructose fractionating by ultrafiltration were analyzed. The fractionating/concentration sequence of the melanoidin fraction (1 - 300 kDa enabled five fractions to be produced. Additionally, the absorption of melanoidins was measured at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405 and browning at 420 nm. The fractionati on effect of melanoidin systems on the color intensity, UV - absorbance scan wavelengths (nm, CIE, L*, a*, b* parameters and antioxidant activity were measured. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was evaluated through the free radical scavenging activit y, including 1,1 - diphenyl - 2 - picryl - hydrazil (DPPH and 2,20 - azinobis (3 - ethylbenothiazoline - 6 - sulfonic acid, diammonium salt (ABTS. The results showed that the absorption of the melanoidins formed from Glucose/L - Asn was higher than for those derived from Fructose/L - Asn. On the other hand, their antioxidant power was lower than that for melanoidins formed from Fructose/L - Asn systems.

  19. A Perspective on the Maillard Reaction and the Analysis of Protein Glycation by Mass Spectrometry: Probing the Pathogenesis of Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qibin; Ames, Jennifer M.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John W.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2009-01-01

    The Maillard reaction, starting from the glycation of protein and progressing to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), is implicated in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, renal, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this perspective review, we provide an overview on the relevance of the Maillard reaction in the pathogenesis of chronic disease and discuss traditional approaches and recent developments in the ...

  20. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations.

  1. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2018-02-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Forty years of furosine - forty years of using Maillard reaction products as indicators of the nutritional quality of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbersdobler, Helmut F; Somoza, Veronika

    2007-04-01

    The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) most widely used as markers of the nutritional quality of foods are furosine, N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural, pyrraline, pentosidine and pronyl-lysine. One of the MRPs identified first was furosine, which was quantified in foods 40 years ago as a chemical indicator of the Amadori compound N(epsilon)-fructoselysine. Since then, furosine has gained broad attention by food chemists and biomedical researchers, as its formation upon heat treatment is well characterised. Moreover, it represents the Amadori products from early Maillard reactions in which amino acids react with reducing carbohydrates, resulting in a loss of their availability. This is of importance for the essential amino acid lysine, which is also the limiting amino acid in many proteins. In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of a protein, the concomitant analysis of free - and nutritionally available - lysine and the amount of lysine reacted to form the respective MRP is essential, even for mildly processed foods. The other chemical markers of heat treatment such as CML, pyrraline, pentosidine or pronyl-lysine seem to be useful markers of the advanced stages of Maillard reactions. Compared to the conditions in which furosine is formed, these compounds are generated under more severe conditions of heat treatment. However, the concentrations analysed are significantly lower than those of furosine. Therefore, the nutritional evaluation of a food protein should include not only furosine, but also other chemical markers of heat treatment such as, for example, CML, pyrraline and pentosidine.

  3. High-intensity ultrasound production of Maillard reaction flavor compounds in a cysteine-xylose model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Olivia X H; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    Application of high intensity ultrasound has shown potential in the production of Maillard reaction odor-active flavor compounds in model systems. The impact of initial pH, sonication duration, and ultrasound intensity on the production of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) by ultrasound processing in a cysteine-xylose model system were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a modified mathematical model. Generation of selected MRPs, 2-methylthiophene and tetramethyl pyrazine, was optimal at an initial pH of 6.00, accompanied with 78.1 min of processing at an ultrasound intensity of 19.8 W cm(-2). However, identification of volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that ultrasound-assisted Maillard reactions generated fewer sulfur-containing volatile flavor compounds as compared to conventional heat treatment of the model system. Likely reasons for this difference in flavor profile include the expulsion of H2S due to ultrasonic degassing and inefficient transmission of ultrasonic energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristic antioxidant activity and comprehensive flavor compound profile of scallop (Chlamys farreri) mantle hydrolysates-ribose Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia-Run; Yan, Jia-Nan; Sun, Shi-Guang; Tang, Yue; Shang, Wen-Hui; Li, Ao-Ting; Guo, Xiao-Kun; Du, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hai-Tao; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Xiong, Youling L

    2018-09-30

    The objective of the present study was to improve the utilization of scallop (Chlamys farreri) byproducts by using Maillard reaction. Scallop mantle hydrolysates (SMHs) were prepared using neutrase then reacted with ribose. Thirty-four peptides were identified from SMHs by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the abundance of Asp and Lys suggested the strong Maillard reactivity. The formation of Schiff's base as well as modification of amide I, II and III bands in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thirty volatile compounds were produced by the reaction of SMHs with ribose. Moreover, MRPs with enhanced radical scavenging and anti-linoleic acid peroxidation activities over SMHs promoted the survival and reduced the DNA damage of HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that SMHs-ribose MRPs can be potentially used as food antioxidant for suppressing of lipid oxidation or protecting of cell from oxidative damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maillard reaction products from highly heated food prevent mast cell number increase and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amir, Issam; Dubayle, David; Héron, Anne; Delayre-Orthez, Carine; Anton, Pauline M

    2017-12-01

    Links between food and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often suggested, but the role of food processing has not been extensively studied. Heat treatment is known to cause the loss of nutrients and the appearance of neoformed compounds such as Maillard reaction products. Their involvement in gut inflammation is equivocal, as some may have proinflammatory effects, whereas other seem to be protective. As IBDs are associated with the recruitment of immune cells, including mast cells, we raised the hypothesis that dietary Maillard reaction products generated through heat treatment of food may limit the colitic response and its associated recruitment of mast cells. An experimental model of colitis was used in mice submitted to mildly and highly heated rodent food. Adult male mice were divided in 3 groups and received nonheated, mildly heated, or highly heated chow during 21 days. In the last week of the study, each group was split into 2 subgroups, submitted or not (controls) to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Weight variations, macroscopic lesions, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and mucosal mast cell number were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Only highly heated chow significantly prevented DSS-induced weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, and mast cell number increase in the colonic mucosa of DSS-colitic mice. We suggest that Maillard reaction products from highly heated food may limit the occurrence of inflammatory phases in IBD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of Histidine and Lysine to the Generation of Volatile Compounds in Jinhua Ham Exposed to Ripening Conditions Via Maillard Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zhao, Jing-Li; Tian, Wei; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Miao-Yun; Zhao, Gai-Ming

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the role of Maillard reactions in the generation of flavor compounds in Jinhua ham, the reactions of glucose and ethanal with histidine and lysine, respectively, were studied by simulating the ripening conditions of Jinhua ham. The volatile products produced were analyzed using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results showed that 8 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and histidine and 10 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and lysine. Reactions of ethanal with lysine and with histidine both generated 31 volatile compounds that contributed to the flavor of Jinhua ham. This indicates that histidine and lysine related to Maillard reactions possibly play important roles in the generation of the unique flavor compounds in Jinhua ham. This research demonstrates that free amino acids participate in the generation of volatile compounds from Jinhua ham via the Maillard reaction and provides a basic mechanism to explain flavor formation in Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham is a well-known traditional Chinese dry-cured meat product. However, the formation of the compounds comprising its special flavor is not well understood. Our results indicate that Maillard reactions occur in Jinhua ham under ripening conditions. This work illustrates the contribution of Maillard reactions to the flavor of Jinhua ham. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  8. Maillard reaction products in bread: A novel semi-quantitative method for evaluating melanoidins in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Jacolot, Philippe; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the methods currently in use and to develop a new protocol for the evaluation of melanoidins in bread. Markers of the early and advanced stages of the Maillard reaction were also followed in the crumb and the crust of bread throughout baking, and in a crust model system. The crumb of the bread contained N(ε)-fructoselysine and N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine but at levels 7 and 5 times lower than the crust, respectively. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural was detected only in the crust and its model system. The available methods for the semi-quantification of melanoidins were found to be unsuitable for their analysis in bread. Our new method based on size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence measures soluble fluorescent melanoidins in bread. These melanoidin macromolecules (1.7-5.6 kDa) were detected intact in both crust and model system. They appear to contribute to the dietary fibre in bread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute oral safety study of sodium caseinate glycosylated via maillard reaction with galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, Maria A; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria R; Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-03-01

    In order to potentially use sodium caseinate (SC) glycated with galactose (Gal) in the food industry as a new functional ingredient with proved technological and biological properties, an evaluation of oral acute toxicity has been carried out. An acute safety study with SC-Gal glycoconjugates in the Wistar rat with a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight was conducted. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates were well tolerated; no adverse effects or mortality was observed during the 2-week observation period. No abnormal signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or alterations in food and water consumption occurred. After this period, no changes in hematological and serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or gross pathology or histopathology were detected. It was concluded that SC-Gal glycoconjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction were well tolerated in rats at an acute oral dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates have a low order of acute toxicity, and the oral 50 % lethal dose for male and female rats is in excess of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight.

  10. 2-Furoylmethyl amino acids as indicators of Maillard reaction during the elaboration of black garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Ríos, Karina L; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Gaytán-Martínez, Marcela; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2018-02-01

    This study reports the formation of 2-furomethyl-amino acids (2-FM-AA) as indicators of Maillard reaction (MR) in black garlic elaboration, followed by the determination of furosine by ion-pair RP-HPLC-UV. The method was assessed for accuracy, repeatability and detection and quantitation limits indicating its adequacy. Traditional procedure of black garlic obtainment and the inclusion of convective drying (CDP) and ohmic heating (OHP) were assayed. For comparison purposes, three commercial black garlic samples were used. Together with furosine (2-FM-lysine), 2-furoylmethyl-γ-aminobutyric acid and 2-FM-arginine were detected. Levels of furosine were higher in CDP (46.6-110.1mg/100g protein) than in OHP (13.7-42.0mg/100g protein) samples, probably due to the most severe processing conditions used in the former. These results highlight the suitability of 2-FM-AA as chemical indicators to monitor the process of black garlic elaboration in order to obtain high quality products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Maillard reaction products by a coupled HPLC-Fraction collector technique and FTIR characterization of Cu(II)-complexation with the isolated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Aristos; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of reaction products of asparagine with reducing sugars at alkaline pH and high temperature has been probed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector. The UV-vis and FTIR spectra of the isolated Maillard reaction products showed structure-sensitive changes as depicted by deamination events and formation of asparagine-saccharide conjugates. The initial reaction species of the Asn-Gluc reaction were also characterized by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. Evidence for Cu (II) metal ion complexation with the Maillard reaction products is supported by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy.

  12. Effect of Maillard reaction products on the physical and antimicrobial properties of edible films based on ε-polylysine and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Liu, Fuguo; Liang, Chunxuan; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-11-01

    Edible films based on Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of ε-polylysine and chitosan, without the use of any plasticiser, were prepared by solution casting. The effect of Maillard reaction parameters (reaction time and the ratio of polylysine/chitosan) of ε-polylysine and chitosan on the structure, moisture content, water solubility, total colour difference and mechanical properties of edible films formed by MRPs were systematically evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that edible films prepared by the MRPs of ε-polylysine and chitosan through the Maillard reaction exhibited a more compact and dense structure than those from the mixture of biopolymers without the presence of MRPs. The tensile strength and % elongation values of films from the mixture were decreased significantly with the rise of ε-polylysine (P Maillard reaction, whereas water solubility was decreased and total colour difference was increased significantly (P Maillard reaction time. In addition, antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against E. coli and S. aureus. could be achieved by incorporating ε-polylysine into chitosan. These films can ensure food quality and safety, especially for coating highly perishable foods, such as meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. On the time behaviour of the concentration of pyrazinium radical cations in the early stage of the Maillard reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Reinhard; Klein, Jeannette; Peschke, Simone; Zehl, Andrea; Cämmerer, Bettina; Kroh, Lothar W.

    2007-08-01

    During the early stage of the Maillard reaction pyrazinium radical cations were detected by ESR within the reaction system D-glucose/glycine. The spectra were characterized by completely resolved hyperfine structure. The partial pressure of oxygen and the radical concentrations were measured directly in the reaction mixture by ESR using solutions of the spin probe TEMPOL and of DPPH, respectively. There are quantitative and qualitative relations of the actual concentration of the radical ions to the partial pressure of oxygen, the temperature-time regime and the mechanical mixing of the reaction system. These macroscopic parameters significantly affect both the induction period and the velocity of the time-dependent formation of free radicals. From in situ variations of p(O 2) and p(Ar) including the connected mixing effects caused by the passing the gases through the reaction mixture, steric and chemical effects of the stabilization of the radical ions were established. The determination of suitable and relevant conditions for stabilization and subsequent radical reactions contributes to the elucidation of the macroscopically known antioxidant activity of Maillard products.

  14. Identifying genes involved in the interaction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with Maillard reaction products (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaha, Raniah Abdulmohsen

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycelemcomitcrns is a gram-negative bacterium that is a facultative anaerobe which can grow in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The bacteria cause localized aggressive periodontitis that can result in the loss of teeth and endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves. A rich medium is an essential requirement for its growth. There arc some difficulties associated with growing the bacteria as they easily switch from the rough to smooth phenotype under no specific conditions. The bacteria start to lose viability after about 19 hours of growth in broth or about three days on plates. Colonies in the dense part of the streak on plates die earlier. It was shown that acid secreted by the colonies is responsible for the loss of viability as the bacteria are extremely sensitive to low pH. Autoclaving the growth medium for A. actinomycetemcomitans causes the bacteria to grow slowly because of the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). A method has been developed to make the A. actinomycetemcomitans growth medium using the microwave instead of the autoclave. This method produces much less of the inhibitory product since the heating time is only six minutes, compared to more than an hour when using the autoclave. Two approaches were sought in this research. The first approach was the identification of genes responsible for the interaction between the MRP and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The gene responsible for this interaction was found to be a Lys M protein which is found in many genes responsible for the cell wall integrity. The second approach was to develop a new drug made of glucose and lysine with a minimum inhibitory concentration as 75mM.

  15. Influence of bread crust-derived Maillard reaction products on phosphorus balance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alonso-Olalla, Rebeca; Navarro, María Pilar

    2012-10-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) improve food palatability and are linked to some positive biological actions. However, diverse negative consequences, some related to protein damage and mineral availability, have been established. We investigated the effects of MRP, from a bread crust diet, on phosphorus bioavailability and tissue distribution in rats to determine whether these effects are related to the molecular weight of browning products. During a study period of 88 days, rats were fed either a control diet or one of the following: with bread crust as a source of MRP, or one with its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fraction (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a phosphorus balance was performed, after which the animals were sacrificed and some organs removed to analyse phosphorus content. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate phosphorus retention. Phosphorus balance in the last week was unchanged. However, considering the whole experimental period, a trend towards improved bioavailability, significant in the HMW group, was observed. Higher phosphorus concentrations were measured in the small intestine and bone. The consumption of MRP derived from bread did not alter phosphorus retention, due to increased bioavailability, especially concerning HMW compounds. The overall phosphorus body content remained unchanged and there were no changes in the bone, its principal metabolic destination. However, MRP consumption markedly raised phosphorus levels at the digestive level, especially when consumed as isolate fractions. The slower rate of stomach emptying is assumed to be related to this effect.

  16. Roles of different initial Maillard intermediates and pathways in meat flavor formation for cysteine-xylose-glycine model reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Mengyao; Fan, Mengdie; Xiao, Qunfei; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Feng

    2017-10-01

    To explore initial Maillard reaction pathways and mechanisms for maximal formation of meaty flavors in heated cysteine-xylose-glycine systems, model reactions with synthesized initial Maillard intermediates, Gly-Amadori, TTCA (2-threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids) and Cys-Amadori, were investigated. Relative relativities were characterized by spectrophotometrically monitoring the development of colorless degradation intermediates and browning reaction products. Aroma compounds formed were determined by solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS and GC-olfactometry. Gly-Amadori showed the fastest reaction followed by Cys-Amadori then TTCA. Free glycine accelerated reaction of TTCA, whereas cysteine inhibited that of Gly-Amadori due to association forming relatively stable thiazolidines. Cys-Amadori/Gly had the highest reactivity in development of both meaty flavors and brown products. TTCA/Gly favored yielding meaty flavors, whereas Gly-Amadori/Cys favored generation of brown products. Conclusively, initial formation of TTCA and pathway involving TTCA with glycine were more applicable to efficiently produce processed-meat flavorings in a cysteine-xylose-glycine system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal decomposition of specifically phosphorylated D-glucoses and their role in the control of the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylayan, Varoujan A; Machiels, David; Istasse, Louis

    2003-05-21

    One of the main shortcomings of the information available on the Maillard reaction is the lack of knowledge to control the different pathways, especially when it is desired to direct the reaction away from the formation of carcinogenic and other toxic substances to more aroma and color generation. The use of specifically phosphorylated sugars may impart some elements of control over the aroma profile generated by the Maillard reaction. Thermal decomposition of 1- and 6-phosphorylated glucoses was studied in the presence and absence of ammonia and selected amino acids through pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using nonpolar PLOT and medium polar DB-1 columns. The analysis of the data has indicated that glucose-1-phosphate relative to glucose undergoes more extensive phosphate-catalyzed ring opening followed by formation of sugar-derived reactive intermediates as was indicated by a 9-fold increase in the amount of trimethylpyrazine and a 5-fold increase in the amount of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, when pyrolyzed in the presence of glycine. In addition, glucose-1-phosphate alone generated a 6-fold excess of acetol as compared to glucose. On the other hand, glucose-6-phosphate enhanced retro-aldol reactions initiated from a C-6 hydroxyl group and increased the subsequent formation of furfural and 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione. Furthermore, it also stabilized 1- and 3-deoxyglucosone intermediates and enhanced the formation of six carbon atom-containing Maillard products derived directly from them through elimination reactions such as 1,6-dimethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (acetylformoin), 2-acetylpyrrole, 5-methylfurfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), due to the enhanced leaving group ability of the phosphate moiety at the C-6 carbon. However, Maillard products generated through the nucleophilic action of the C-6 hydroxyl group such as 2-acetylfuran and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one were retarded, due

  18. Optimised formation of blue Maillard reaction products of xylose and glycine model systems and associated antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Xi; Jing, Hao

    2014-05-01

    A blue colour can be formed in the xylose (Xyl) and glycine (Gly) Maillard reaction (MR) model system. However, there are fewer studies on the reaction conditions for the blue Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The objective of this study is to investigate characteristic colour formation and antioxidant activities in four different MR model systems and to determine the optimum reaction conditions for the blue colour formation in a Xyl-Gly MR model system, using the random centroid optimisation program. The blue colour with an absorbance peak at 630 nm appeared before browning in the Xyl-Gly MR model system, while no blue colour formation but only browning was observed in the xylose-alanine, xylose-aspartic acid and glucose-glycine MR model systems. The Xyl-Gly MR model system also showed higher antioxidant activity than the other three model systems. The optimum conditions for blue colour formation were as follows: xylose and glycine ratio 1:0.16 (M:M), 0.20 mol L⁻¹ NaHCO₃, 406.1 mL L⁻¹ ethanol, initial pH 8.63, 33.7°C for 22.06 h, which gave a much brighter blue colour and a higher peak at 630 nm. A characteristic blue colour could be formed in the Xyl-Gly MR model system and the optimum conditions for the blue colour formation were proposed and confirmed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Kinetics of Maillard reactions in model infant formula during UHT treatment using a static batch ohmic heater

    OpenAIRE

    Roux , Stéphanie; Courel , Mathilde; Ait-Ameur , Lamia; Birlouez-Aragon , Inès; Pain , Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a UHT treatment on a model infant formula was examined by assessing the advancement of Maillard reactions during a thermal treatment by ohmic heating. The heating and holding steps of the heat treatment were carried out in a static batch ohmic heater equipped with a nitrogen counter-pressure system, allowing reaching five temperature levels from 100 to 140 °C. A heat treatment was characterized by monitoring a holding time at a given temperature. Samples were taken during heatin...

  20. Fluorescence and colour as markers for the Maillard reaction in milk-cereal based infants foods during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Lourdes; Alegría, Amparo; Farre, Rosaura; Clemente Marín, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    [EN] Free and total fluorescence compounds and color formation were measured in three different milk-cereal based infant foods stored at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C for 9 months to evaluate the advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction. Milk-cereal infant foods containing honey (13) or fruits (C) had fluorescent values higher than sample (A) without them. This difference could be ascribed to the higher monosaccharide (fructose and/or glucose) content of (B) and (C), which could increase ...

  1. Optimization of Maillard reaction with ribose for enhancing anti-allergy effect of fish protein hydrolysates using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Kim, Se-Wook; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2015-06-01

    Halibut is served on sushi and as sliced raw fish fillets. We investigated the optimal conditions of the Maillard reaction (MR) with ribose using response surface methodology to reduce the allergenicity of its protein. A 3-factored and 5-leveled central composite design was used, where the independent variables were substrate (ribose) concentration (X1, %), reaction time (X2, min), and pH (X3), while the dependent variables were browning index (Y1, absorbance at 420nm), DPPH scavenging (Y2, EC50 mg/mL), FRAP (Y3, mM FeSO4/mg extract) and β-hexosaminidase release (Y4, %). The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: X1, 28.36%; X2, 38.09min; X3, 8.26. Maillard reaction products of fish protein hydrolysate (MFPH) reduced the amount of nitric oxide synthesis compared to the untreated FPH, and had a significant anti-allergy effect on β-hexosaminidase and histamine release, compared with that of the FPH control. We concluded that MFPH, which had better antioxidant and anti-allergy activities than untreated FPH, can be used as an improved dietary source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Density functional computational studies on the glucose and glycine Maillard reaction: Formation of the Amadori rearrangement products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Roy, Amlan K.; Shipar, Abul Haider; Ahmed, M. Samsuddin

    Theoretical energy changes of various intermediates leading to the formation of the Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs) under different mechanistic assumptions have been calculated, by using open chain glucose (O-Glu)/closed chain glucose (A-Glu and B-Glu) and glycine (Gly) as a model for the Maillard reaction. Density functional theory (DFT) computations have been applied on the proposed mechanisms under different pH conditions. Thus, the possibility of the formation of different compounds and electronic energy changes for different steps in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated. B-Glu has been found to be more efficient than A-Glu, and A-Glu has been found more efficient than O-Glu in the reaction. The reaction under basic condition is the most favorable for the formation of ARPs. Other reaction pathways have been computed and discussed in this work.0

  3. A Perspective on the Maillard Reaction and the Analysis of Protein Glycation by Mass Spectrometry: Probing the Pathogenesis of Chronic Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Ames, Jennifer M.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-12-18

    The Maillard reaction, starting from the glycation of protein and progressing to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), is implicated in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, renal, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this perspective review, we provide on overview on the relevance of the Maillard reaction in the pathogenesis of chronic disease and discuss traditional approaches and recent developments in the analysis of glycated proteins by mass spectrometry. We propose that proteomics approaches, particularly bottom-up proteomics, will play a significant role in analyses of clinical samples leading to the identification of new markers of disease development and progression.

  4. A perspective on the Maillard reaction and the analysis of protein glycation by mass spectrometry: probing the pathogenesis of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qibin; Ames, Jennifer M; Smith, Richard D; Baynes, John W; Metz, Thomas O

    2009-02-01

    The Maillard reaction, starting from the glycation of protein and progressing to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), is implicated in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, renal, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this perspective review, we provide an overview on the relevance of the Maillard reaction in the pathogenesis of chronic disease and discuss traditional approaches and recent developments in the analysis of glycated proteins by mass spectrometry. We propose that proteomics approaches, particularly bottom-up proteomics, will play a significant role in analyses of clinical samples leading to the identification of new markers of disease development and progression.

  5. Colour and surface fluorescence development and their relationship with Maillard reaction markers as influenced by structural changes during cornflakes production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Abel; Buera, María Del Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study colour and surface fluorescence development in relation to the chemical markers for the Maillard reaction at the cooking, flaking and toasting stages of cornflake production process. Colour was measured by a calibrated computer vision system. Surface fluorescence was measured on compressed samples. Aqueous extracted Maillard reaction markers (hydroxymethylfurfural, carboxymethyl-lysine, absorbance at 420nm and total fluorescence) were measured on protease hydrolyzed samples. Sample microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. During cooking the colour coordinates L(∗) and b(∗) decreased and a(∗) increased. After flaking, the samples appeared lighter, while the pigment concentration, fluorescence and hydroxymethylfurfural did not change. Toasting generated bubbles in the matrix and L(∗) apparently increased, although brown pigment concentration increased. Pigment concentration did not correlate with surface colour due to the destruction or generation of interfaces. Surface and microstructure effects can be avoided by milling and compressing the samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Maillard browning reaction on protein utilization and plasma amino acid response by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, S M; Lee, T C; Wolke, R E; Meade, T L

    1985-12-01

    The effect of the Maillard browning reaction in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on growth and amino acid availability was investigated. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were applied for the detection of the losses of amino acids in a model protein browning system. Arginine and lysine exhibited the greatest losses in the mixture of fish protein isolate and glucose stored for 40 d at 37 degrees C. The apparent digestibility and absorption of individual amino acids, particularly lysine, was lower in trout fed browned protein than in those fed the control protein. Plasma lysine levels were significantly depressed, while the plasma levels of glucose and most other amino acids were elevated in relation to the loss in nutritive value of dietary protein after browning. The early Maillard reaction derivative of lysine, epsilon-deoxy-fructosyl-lysine, was recovered from browned protein (by using the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis procedure) and from the plasma of trout fed browned protein. Analysis of plasma free amino acids provided an indication of lysine bioavailability and identified lysine as the first-limiting amino acid in the diets containing browned protein.

  7. Effects of Maillard reaction products in a glucose-glycine alcoholic solution on antioxidative and antimutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Chang, Wen-Chang; Zeng, Yi-Ming; Lin, Ru-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2018-04-12

    Marinating meat with alcohol, such as wine and beer, is a common culinary practice in cultures worldwide. This study we use a model marination solution comprising 0.2 M glucose-0.2 M glycine buffered to pH 4.3 containing either 0% or 50% ethanol and mimicked the cooking process by heating for 12 h. Antioxidative and antimutagenic characteristics of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated. Reducing power, antioxidant activity (Fe 2+ chelating ability) and free radical neutralization ability generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Ames testing was performed. Results indicate that MRPs from aqueous and alcoholic solution exhibit four antioxidative assays in a dose-dependent manner from 0.16 to 10.00 mg mL -1 . However, MRPs from the alcoholic model was superior. In Ames testing, MRPs from both models are neither toxic nor mutagenic at the test concentrations of 0.63-10.00 mg plate -1 . However, MRPs from the alcoholic model exhibited a higher inhibitory effect on the direct-acting mutagen 4-NQNO compared to the aqueous model. This result is consistent with the observation that MRPs with higher antioxidative capacity exhibit superior antimutagenic activity, suggesting that there are more different products in the alcoholic model. Our results add to the current knowledge about the antioxidative and antimutagenic properties of Maillard reaction products arising when food is cooked in the presence of ethanol. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The quantification of free Amadori compounds and amino acids allows to model the bound Maillard reaction products formation in soybean products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wiltafsky, Markus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The quantification of protein bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) is still a challenge in food chemistry. Protein hydrolysis is the bottleneck step: it is time consuming and the protein degradation is not always complete. In this study, the quantitation of free amino acids and Amadori products

  10. Effect of olive mill wastewater phenol compounds on reactive carbonyl species and Maillard reaction end-products in ultrahigh-temperature-treated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fiore, A.; Colantuono, A.; Kokkinidou, S.; Peterson, D.G.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at

  11. Evolution of protein bound Maillard reaction end-products and free Amadori compounds in low lactose milk in presence of fructosamine oxidase i

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Buonanno, Martina; Fiore, Alberto; Monti, Simona Maria; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Thermal treatments and storage influence milk quality, particularly in low lactose milk as the higher concentration of reducing sugars can lead to the increased formation of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The control of the Amadori products (APs) formation is the key step to mitigate the

  12. Free and Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Beer: Method Development and a Survey of Different Beer Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-09-28

    The Maillard reaction is important for beer color and flavor, but little is known about the occurrence of individual glycated amino acids in beer. Therefore, seven Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, fructosyllysine, maltulosyllysine, pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, MG-H1, and argpyrimidine, were synthesized and quantitated in different types of beer (Pilsner, dark, bock, wheat, and nonalcoholic beers) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Free MRPs were analyzed directly. A high molecular weight fraction was isolated by dialysis and hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to analysis. Maltulosyllysine was quantitated for the first time in food. The most important free MRPs in beer are fructosyllysine (6.8-27.0 mg/L) and maltulosyllysine (3.7-21.8 mg/L). Beer contains comparatively high amounts of late-stage free MRPs such as pyrraline (0.2-1.6 mg/L) and MG-H1 (0.3-2.5 mg/L). Minor amounts of formyline (4-230 μg/L), maltosine (6-56 μg/L), and argpyrimidine (0.1-4.1 μg/L) were quantitated. Maltulosyllysine was the most significant protein-bound MRP, but both maltulosyllysine and fructosyllysine represent only 15-60% of the total protein-bound lysine-derived Amadori products. Differences in the patterns of protein-bound and free individual MRPs and the ratios between them were identified, which indicate differences in their chemical, biochemical, and microbiological stabilities during the brewing process.

  13. Physicochemical properties of soy protein isolate/carboxymethyl cellulose blend films crosslinked by Maillard reactions: Color, transparency and heat-sealing ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Junfeng; Yuan Xiaoyan; Huang Zhen; Wang Xinyu; Lu Xuzhen; Zhang Lidan; Wang Shengbao

    2012-01-01

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) films have many potential applications in the biomaterial field as surgical dressings for burns, films for reduction of wound inflammation, and facial masks. The appearance and the sealing ability are important physicochemical properties that greatly influence consumer acceptance of such protein-based films. The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical structure and the physical properties associated with color, transparency and heat-sealing ability for SPI/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) blend films prepared by solution casting, with weight proportions 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirmed that Maillard reactions occurred between SPI and CMC. The Hunter color value (L, a, b) and transparency of films were affected by varying the proportions of SPI and CMC. With increasing degree of crosslinking of SPI and CMC, the yellow color of the films was diluted and transparency was improved. Peel strength and tensile strength measurements showed that the Maillard reactions had the main effect of enhancing the heat-sealing ability above the melting temperature. These results indicated that the structure and properties of SPI-based films could be modified and improved by blending with CMC. - Highlights: ► Maillard reactions occurred in SPI/CMC films. ► The color and transparency of SPI/CMC films were affected by Maillard reactions. ► Maillard reactions enhanced the heat-sealing ability of SPI/CMC films.

  14. The effects of reactants ratios, reaction temperatures and times on Maillard reaction products of the L-ascorbic acid/L-glutamic acid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transformation law of the Maillard reaction products with three different reactants ratios - equimolar reactants, excess L-glutamic acid and excess L-ascorbic acid reaction respectively, five different temperatures, and different time conditions for the L-ascorbic acid / L-glutamic acid system were investigated. Results showed that, the increase of the reaction time and temperature led to the increase of the browning products, uncoloured intermediate products, as well as aroma compounds. Compared with the equimolar reaction system, the excess L-ascorbic acid reaction system produced more browning products and uncoloured intermediate products, while the aroma compounds production remained the same. In the excess L-glutamic acid system, the uncoloured intermediate products increased slightly, the browning products remained the same, while the aroma compounds increased.

  15. Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Food Functional Properties of the Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates-Glucose Conjugates Formed via Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of HAHp played an important role in the process of MR between HAHp and glucose. HAHp-glucose Maillard reaction products (HAHp-G MRPs demonstrated enhanced antioxidative activities of reducing power and scavenging DPPH radicals compared to control groups. HAHp-G MRPs produced from the condition of pH 9.6 displayed the strongest reducing power. The excellent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals was found for HAHp(5.6-G MRPs which was produced at pH 5.6. Additionally, HAHp(5.6-G MRPs showed variable antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea, with the MIC values ranging from 8.3 to 16.7 μg/mL. Result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM on E. coli suggested that HAHp(5.6-G MRPs exhibited antibacterial activity by destroying the cell integrity through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, HAHp(5.6-G MRPs had excellent foaming ability and stability at alkaline conditions of pH 8.0, and showed emulsion properties at acidic pH 4.0. These results suggested that specific HAHp-G MRPs should be promising functional ingredients used in foods.

  16. Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Food Functional Properties of the Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates-Glucose Conjugates Formed via Maillard Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ru; Yang, Peiyu; Wei, Rongbian; Ruan, Guanqiang

    2016-06-20

    The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp)-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR) were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of HAHp played an important role in the process of MR between HAHp and glucose. HAHp-glucose Maillard reaction products (HAHp-G MRPs) demonstrated enhanced antioxidative activities of reducing power and scavenging DPPH radicals compared to control groups. HAHp-G MRPs produced from the condition of pH 9.6 displayed the strongest reducing power. The excellent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals was found for HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs which was produced at pH 5.6. Additionally, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs showed variable antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea, with the MIC values ranging from 8.3 to 16.7 μg/mL. Result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on E. coli suggested that HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs exhibited antibacterial activity by destroying the cell integrity through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs had excellent foaming ability and stability at alkaline conditions of pH 8.0, and showed emulsion properties at acidic pH 4.0. These results suggested that specific HAHp-G MRPs should be promising functional ingredients used in foods.

  17. Chemical characteristics and enhanced hepatoprotective activities of Maillard reaction products derived from milk protein-sugar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Nam Su; Young Lee, Ji; Lee, Hyun Ah; Joung, Jae Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Kwang Won

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) from milk protein reacted with sugars. The MRP were obtained from milk protein, whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate, using 2 types of sugars, lactose and glucose, by heating the mixture at 55°C for 7d in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Changes in the chemical modification of the milk protein were monitored by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls and PAGE protein profiles. The results showed that the amount of protein-bound carbonyls increased after Maillard reaction (MR). In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a formation of high-molecular weight complexes through MR. The modification sites induced by MR of milk protein were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic-digested gel spots of MRP. As a result, modification and their localization in AA sequence of MRP was identified. Also, the MRP showed higher antioxidant activities than the intact milk protein, and they reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and inhibited the depletion of the reduced glutathione concentrations in the HepG2 cells. In particular, glucose-sodium caseinate MRP showed the highest biological activities among all MRP. Therefore, these results suggest that the MRP from milk protein reacting with sugars possess effective antioxidant activity and have a protective ability against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of “so-called” Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  19. Characterisation of manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacteria capable for degradation of sucrose glutamic acid-Maillard reaction products at different nutritional and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Chandra, Ram

    2018-02-02

    Maillard reactions products (MRPs) are a major colorant of distillery effluent. It is major source of environmental pollution due to its complex structure and recalcitrant nature. This study has revealed that sucrose glutamic acid-Maillard reaction products (SGA-MRPs) showed many absorption peaks between 200 and 450 nm. The absorption maximum peak was noted at 250 nm in spectrophotometric detection. This indicated the formation of variable molecular weight Maillard products during the SGA-MRPs formation at high temperature. The identified aerobic bacterial consortium consisting Klebsiella pneumoniae (KU726953), Salmonella enterica (KU726954), Enterobacter aerogenes (KU726955), Enterobacter cloaceae (KU726957) showed optimum production of MnP and laccase at 120 and 144 h of growth, respectively. The potential bacterial consortium showed decolourisation of Maillard product up to 70% in presence of glucose (1%), peptone (0.1%) at optimum pH (8.1), temperature (37 °C) and shaking speed (180 rpm) within 192 h of incubation. The reduction of colour of Maillard product correlated with shifting of absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectrophotometry analysis. Further, the changing of functional group in FT-IR data showed appearance of new peaks and GC-MS analysis of degraded sample revealed the depolymerisation of complex MRPs. The toxicity evaluation using seed of Phaseolus mungo L. showed reduction of toxicity of MRPs after bacterial treatment. Hence, this study concluded that developed bacterial consortium have capability for decolourisation of MRPs due to high content of MnP and laccase.

  20. Formation of Reactive Intermediates, Color, and Antioxidant Activity in the Maillard Reaction of Maltose in Comparison to d-Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Clemens; Schestkowa, Helena; Haase, Paul T; Kroh, Lothar W

    2017-10-11

    In this study, the Maillard reaction of maltose and d-glucose in the presence of l-alanine was investigated in aqueous solution at 130 °C and pH 5. The reactivity of both carbohydrates was compared in regards of their degradation, browning, and antioxidant activity. In order to identify relevant differences in the reaction pathways, the concentrations of selected intermediates such as 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, furans, furanones, and pyranones were determined. It was found, that the degradation of maltose predominantly yields 1,2-dicarbonyls that still carry a glucosyl moiety and thus subsequent reactions to HMF, furfural, and 2-acetylfuran are favored due to the elimination of d-glucose, which is an excellent leaving group in aqueous solution. Consequently, higher amounts of these heterocycles are formed from maltose. 3-deoxyglucosone and 3-deoxygalactosone represent the only relevant C 6 -1,2-dicarbonyls in maltose incubations and are produced in nearly equimolar amounts during the first 60 min of heating as byproducts of the HMF formation.

  1. The Maillard reaction of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate: chemical changes and inhibiting effects of reactive oxygen species in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Fengchao; Wei, Binbin; Chen, Shengjun; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying

    2015-06-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered.

  2. A potential fluorescent probe: Maillard reaction product from glutathione and ascorbic acid for rapid and label-free dual detection of Hg(2+) and biothiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiang Xue; Song, Xiao Fang; Shi, Yan; Gao, Zhong Feng; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-07-15

    Maillard reactions and their fluorescent products have drawn much attention in the fields of food and life science, however, the application of fluorescent products separated from the reaction as an indicator for detection of certain substances in sensor field has not been mentioned. In this article, we report on an easy-to-synthesize and water-soluble fluorescent probe separated from the typical Maillard reaction products of glutathione and ascorbic acid, with excellent stability and high quantum yield (18.2%). The further application of the probe has been explored for dual detection of Hg(2+) and biothiols including cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione, which is based on Hg(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching of the Maillard reaction fluorescent products (MRFPs) and the fluorescence recovery as the introduction of biothiols. This sensing system exhibits a good selectivity and sensitivity, and the linear ranges for Hg(2+), cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione are 0.05-12, 0.5-10, 0.3-20, and 0.3-20μM, respectively. The detection limits for Hg(2+), cysteine, homocysteine, and glutathione are 22, 47, 96, and 30nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. Furthermore, the practical applications of this sensor for Hg(2+) and biothiols determination in water samples and human plasma sample have been demonstrated with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of protein bound Maillard reaction end-products and free Amadori compounds in low lactose milk in presence of fructosamine oxidase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Buonanno, Martina; Fiore, Alberto; Monti, Simona Maria; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Thermal treatments and storage influence milk quality, particularly in low lactose milk as the higher concentration of reducing sugars can lead to the increased formation of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The control of the Amadori products (APs) formation is the key step to mitigate the Maillard reaction (MR) in milk. The use of fructosamine oxidases, (Faox) provided promising results. In this paper, the effects of Faox I were evaluated by monitoring the concentration of free and bound MRPs in low lactose milk during shelf life. Results showed that the enzyme reduced the formation of protein-bound MRPs down to 79% after six days at 37°C. Faox I lowered the glycation of almost all the free amino acids resulting effective on basic and polar amino acids. Data here reported corroborate previous findings on the potentiality of Faox enzymes in controlling the early stage of the MR in foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of heat treatment and dough formulation on the formation of Maillard reaction products in fine bakery products - benefits and weak points

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesarová, Z.; Kukurová, K.; Bednáriková, A.; Morales, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Possibly harmful compounds (acrylamide, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural - HMF), markers of the Maillard reaction extent (furosine, fluorescence, browning, colour), as well as beneficial radical-scavenging capacity were determined in fried fine bakery products, rosquillas, at different heat treatment and dough formulation. In different simplified recipes, saccharose was substituted by glucose and fructose, and a raising agent was added while different temperature and time regimes were applied. Du...

  6. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca- Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. Methods At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed ei...

  7. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  9. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Improved physicochemical properties and hepatic protection of Maillard reaction products derived from fish protein hydrolysates and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sanghoon; Pyo, Min Cheol; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-04-15

    High amounts of waste products generated from fish-processing need to be disposed of despite their potential nutritional value. A variety of methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, have been developed for these byproducts. In the current study, we investigated the physicochemical, biological and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) conjugated with ribose through the Maillard reaction. These glycated conjugates of FPH (GFPH) had more viscous rheological properties than FPH and exhibited higher heat, emulsification and foaming stability. They also protected liver HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that GFPH induced upregulation of phase II enzyme expression, such as that of HO-1 and γ-GCL, via nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of GFPH for use as a functional food ingredient with improved rheological and antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dairy products and the Maillard reaction: A promising future for extensive food characterization by integrated proteomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Simona; Renzone, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea

    2017-03-15

    Heating of milk and dairy products is done using various technological processes with the aim of preserving microbiological safety and extending shelf-life. These treatments result in chemical modifications in milk proteins, mainly generated as a result of the Maillard reaction. Recently, different bottom-up proteomic methods have been applied to characterize the nature of these structural changes and the modified amino acids in model protein systems and/or isolated components from thermally-treated milk samples. On the other hand, different gel-based and shotgun proteomic methods have been utilized to assign glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation protein targets in diverse heated milks. These data are essential to rationalize eventual, different nutritional, antimicrobial, cell stimulative and antigenic properties of milk products, because humans ingest large quantities of corresponding thermally modified proteins on a daily basis and these molecules also occur in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This review provides an updated picture of the procedures developed for the proteomic characterization of variably-heated milk products, highlighting their limits as result of concomitant factors, such as the multiplicity and the different concentration of the compounds to be detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electro-activation of sweet defatted whey: Impact on the induced Maillard reaction products and bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareb, Ourdia; Gomaa, Ahmed; Champagne, Claude P; Jean, Julie; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Electro-activation was used to add value to sweet defatted whey. This study aimed to investigate and to characterize the bioactive compounds formed under different electro-activation conditions by molecular and proteomic approaches. The effects of electric current intensity (400, 500 or 600mA) and whey concentration (7, 14 or 21% (w/v)) as a function of the electro-activation time (0, 15, 30 or 45min) were evaluated. The targeted dependent variables were the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), protein hydrolysates and glycated compounds. It was shown that the MRPs derived from electro-activated whey at a concentration of 14% had the highest potential of biological activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated the formation of hydrolysates and glycated compounds with different molecular weight distributions. FTIR indicated the predominance of intermediate MRPs, such as the Schiff base compounds. LC-MS/MS and proteomics analysis showed the production of multi-functional bioactive peptides due to the hydrolysis of whey proteins. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maillard reactions and increased enzyme inactivation during oligosaccharide synthesis by a hyperthermophilic glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.E.; Hellemond, van E.W.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The thermostable Pyrococcus furiosus beta-glycosidase was used for oligosaccharide production from lactose in a kinetically controlled reaction. Our experiments showed that higher temperatures are beneficial for the absolute as well as relative oligosaccharide yield. However, at reaction

  14. Using an enzymatic galactose assay to detect lactose glycation extents of two proteins caseinate and soybean protein isolate via the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Peng; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2017-06-01

    Glycation of food proteins via the Maillard reaction has been widely studied in the recent years; however, the amount of saccharide connected to proteins is usually not determined. An enzymatic galactose assay was proposed firstly in this study to detect lactose glycation extents of caseinate and soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the Maillard reaction at two temperatures and different times. The separated glycated proteins were hydrolysed to release galactose necessary for the enzymatic assay and glycation calculation. Caseinate and SPI both obtained the highest lactose glycation extents at 100 °C or 121 °C by a reaction time of 180 or 20 min. Short- and long-time reaction resulted in lower glycation extents. During the reaction, three chemical indices (absorbences at 294/490 nm and fluorescence intensities) of reaction mixtures increased continually, but another index reactable NH 2 of glycated proteins showed the opposite trend. In general, changing profiles of the four indices were inconsistent with those profiles of lactose glycation extents of glycated proteins, implying practical limitation of the four indices in studies. This proposed enzymatic assay could directly detect lactose glycation of the two proteins, and thus was more useful than the four chemical indices to monitor glycation of the two proteins. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  16. Prior lactose glycation of caseinate via the Maillard reaction affects in vitro activities of the pepsin-trypsin digest toward intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X P; Zhao, X H

    2017-07-01

    The well-known Maillard reaction in milk occurs between lactose and milk proteins during thermal treatment, and its effects on milk nutrition and safety have been well studied. A lactose-glycated caseinate was prepared via this reaction and digested using 2 digestive proteases, pepsin and trypsin. The glycated caseinate digest was assessed for its in vitro activities on rat intestinal epithelial cells in terms of growth proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and differentiation induction using caseinate digest as reference, to verify potential effects of the Maillard reaction on these activities of caseinate digest to the cells. Two digests had proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects, and reached the highest effects at 0.02 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 24 h. In comparison with caseinate digest, glycated caseinate digest always showed weaker proliferative (5.3-14.2%) and anti-apoptotic (5.9-39.0%) effects, and was more toxic to the cells at 0.5 g/L of digest concentration with treatment time of 48 h. However, glycated caseinate digest at 2 incubation times of 4 to 7 d showed differentiation induction higher than caseinate digest, as it could confer the cells with increased activities in lactase (16.3-26.6%), sucrase (22.4-31.2%), and alkaline phosphatase (17.4-24.8%). Transmission electron microscopy observation results also confirmed higher differentiation induction of glycated caseinate digest. Amino acid loss and lactose glycation partially contributed to these decreased and enhanced activities of glycated caseinate digest, respectively. The Maillard reaction of caseinate and lactose is thus shown in this study to have effects on the activities of caseinate digest to intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Effects of Maillard Reaction Products of Whey Protein Concentrate against Oxidative Stress through an Nrf2-Dependent Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Min Cheol; Yang, Sung-Yong; Chun, Su-Hyun; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC), which contains α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, is utilized widely in the food industry. The Maillard reaction is a complex reaction that produces Maillard reaction products (MRPs), which are associated with the formation of antioxidant compounds. In this study, the hepatoprotection activity of MRPs of WPC against oxidative stress through the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant pathway in HepG2 cells was examined. Glucose-whey protein concentrate conjugate (Glc-WPC) was obtained from Maillard reaction between WPC and glucose. The fluorescence intensity of Glc-WPC increased after 7 d compared to native WPC, and resulted in loss of 48% of the free amino groups of WPC. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of Glc-WPC showed the presence of a high-molecular-weight portion. Treatment of HepG2 cells with Glc-WPC increased cell viability in the presence of oxidative stress, inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), and increased the glutathione level. Nrf2 translocation and Nrf2, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H)-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NOQ1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-L-cysteine ligase (GCL)M and GCLC mRNA levels were increased by Glc-WPC. Also, Glc-WPC increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The results of this study demonstrate that Glc-WPC activates the Nrf2-dependent pathway through the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK in HepG2 cells, and induces production of antioxidant enzymes and phase II enzymes.

  18. Modelling the Maillard reaction during the cooking of a model cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Emmanuel; Meyer, Xuân-Mi; Machado-Maturana, Elizabeth; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-10-01

    During processing and storage of industrial processed cheese, odorous compounds are formed. Some of them are potentially unwanted for the flavour of the product. To reduce the appearance of these compounds, a methodological approach was employed. It consists of: (i) the identification of the key compounds or precursors responsible for the off-flavour observed, (ii) the monitoring of these markers during the heat treatments applied to the cheese medium, (iii) the establishment of an observable reaction scheme adapted from a literature survey to the compounds identified in the heated cheese medium (iv) the multi-responses stoichiokinetic modelling of these reaction markers. Systematic two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the semi-quantitation of trace compounds. Precursors were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental data obtained were fitted to the model with 14 elementary linked reactions forming a multi-response observable reaction scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bimolecular interaction of argpyrimidine (a Maillard reaction product) in in vitro non-enzymatic protein glycation model and its potential role as an antiglycating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Dhara, Kaliprasanna; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2017-09-01

    Non- enzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, is one of the most important and investigated reactions in biochemistry. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) like protein-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are often referred to cause pathophysiological complications in human systems. On contrary, several MRPs are exogenously used as antioxidant, antimicrobial and flavouring agents. In the preset study, we have shown that argpyrimidine, a well-established AGE, interacts with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose individually in standard BSA-glucose model system and successfully inhibits glycation of the protein. Bimolecular interaction of argpyrimidine with glucose or BSA has been studied independently. Chromatographic purification, different spectroscopic studies and molecular modeling have been used to evaluate the nature and pattern of interactions. Binding of argpyrimidine with BSA prevents incorporation of glucose inside the native protein. Argpyrimidine can also directly entrap glucose. Both these interactions may be associated with the antiglycation potential of argpyrimidine, indicating a beneficial function of an AGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aldimine Formation Reaction, the First Step of the Maillard Early-phase Reaction, Might be Enhanced in Variant Hemoglobin, Hb Himeji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Shimizu, Sayoko; Hatazaki, Masahiro; Umayahara, Yutaka; Nishihara, Eijun

    2015-01-01

    Hb Himeji (β140Ala→Asp) is known as a variant hemoglobin in which glycation is enhanced and HbA1c measured by immunoassay shows a high value. The phenomenon of enhanced glycation in Hb Himeji is based on the fact that the glycation product of variant hemoglobin (HbX1c) shows a higher value than HbA1c. In this study, we investigated whether aldimine formation reaction, the first step of the Maillard early-phase reaction, is enhanced in Hb Himeji in vitro. Three non-diabetic subjects with Hb Himeji and four non-diabetic subjects without variant hemoglobin were enrolled. In order to examine aldimine formation reaction, whole blood cells were incubated with 500 mg/dl of glucose at 37°C for 1 hour and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both HbA1c and HbX1c were not increased in this condition. After incubation with glucose, labile HbA1c (LA1c) fraction increased in the controls (1.1±0.3%). In subjects with Hb Himeji increases in the labile HbX1c (LX1c) fraction as well as the LA1c fraction were observed, and the degree of increase in the LX1c fraction was significantly higher than that of the LA1c fraction (1.8±0.1% vs. 0.5±0.2%, Preaction might be enhanced in Hb Himeji in vitro. The 140th amino acid in β chain of hemoglobin is suggested to be involved in aldimine formation reaction. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  1. Chemiluminescence development after initiation of Maillard reaction in aqueous solutions of glycine and glucose: nonlinearity of the process and cooperative properties of the reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Naletov, Vladimir I.

    1998-06-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of free or peptide bound amino acids (Maillard reaction, MR) plays an important role in aging, diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. MR taking place at high temperatures is accompanied by chemiluminescence (CL). Here kinetics of CL development in MR proceeding in model systems at room temperature has been analyzed for the first time. Brief heating of glycine and D-glucose solutions to t greater than 93 degrees Celsius results in their browning and appearance of fluorescencent properties. Developed In solutions rapidly cooled down to 20 degrees Celsius a wave of CL. It reached maximum intensity around 40 min after the reaction mixture heating and cooling it down. CL intensity elevation was accompanied by certain decoloration of the solution. Appearance of light absorbing substances and development of CL depended critically upon the temperature of preincubation (greater than or equal to 93 degrees Celsius), initial pH (greater than or equal to 11,2), sample volume (greater than or equal to 0.5 ml) and reagents concentrations. Dependence of total counts accumulation on a system volume over the critical volume was non-monotonous. After reaching maximum values CL began to decline, though only small part of glucose and glycin had been consumed. Brief heating of such solutions to the critical temperature resulted in emergence of a new CL wave. This procedure could be repeated in one and the same reaction system for several times. Whole CL kinetic curve best fitted to lognormal distribution. Macrokinetic properties of the process are characteristic of chain reactions with delayed branching. Results imply also, that self-organization occurs in this system, and that the course of the process strongly depends upon boundary conditions and periodic interference in its course.

  2. Formation of furan and methylfuran by maillard-type reactions in model systems and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher, Anita; Kerler, Josef; Davidek, Tomas; Schmalzried, Frank; Blank, Imre

    2008-05-28

    The formation of furan and 2-methylfuran was studied in model systems based on sugars and selected amino acids. Both compounds were preferably formed under roasting conditions in closed systems yielding up to 330 micromol of furan and 260 micromol of 2-methylfuran per mol of precursor. The amounts obtained under pressure cooking conditions were much lower, usually below 20 micromol/mol, except for 2-furaldehyde, which yielded 70-100 micromol/mol of furan. Labeling studies indicated two major formation pathways for both furans: (i) from the intact sugar skeleton and (ii) by recombination of reactive C(2) and/or C(3) fragments. Under roasting conditions in the absence of amino acids, furan was mainly formed from the intact sugar skeleton. Formic and acetic acid were identified as byproducts of sugar degradation, indicating the split off of C(1) and/or C(2) units from hexoses. The presence of alanine, threonine, or serine promoted furan formation by the recombination of C(2) fragments, such as acetaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, which may originate from both sugars and amino acids. In aqueous solution, about half of furan was generated by the recombination of sugar fragments. 2-Methylfuran was preferably formed in the presence of amino acids by aldol-type reactions of C(2) and C(3) fragments with lactaldehyde as a key intermediate, the Strecker aldehyde of threonine. The total furan levels in cooked vegetables were increased by spiking with hexoses. However, in pumpkin puree, only about 20% of furan was formed from sugars, preferably from the intact carbon skeleton.

  3. The quantification of free Amadori compounds and amino acids allows to model the bound Maillard reaction products formation in soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wiltafsky, Markus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2018-05-01

    The quantification of protein bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) is still a challenge in food chemistry. Protein hydrolysis is the bottleneck step: it is time consuming and the protein degradation is not always complete. In this study, the quantitation of free amino acids and Amadori products (APs) was compared to the percentage of blocked lysine by using chemometric tools. Eighty thermally treated soybean samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of free amino acids, free APs and the protein-bound markers of the Maillard reaction (furosine, Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine, Nε-(carboxyethyl)-l-lysine, total lysine). Results demonstrated that Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Correlated Component Regression (CCR) correctly estimated the percent of blocked lysine in a validation and prediction set. These findings indicate that the measure of free markers reflects the extent of protein damage in soybean samples and it suggests the possibility to obtain rapid information on the quality of the industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A stimuli-responsive fluorescence platform for simultaneous determination of D-isoascorbic acid and Tartaric acid based on Maillard reaction product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanmei; Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Xinling; Yang, Jidong

    2018-05-01

    An activatable fluorescence monitoring platform based on a novel Maillard reaction product from D-glucose and L-arginine was prepared through a facile one-pot approach and applied for simultaneous detection of D-isoascorbic acid and tartaric acid. In this work, the new Maillard reaction product GLA was first obtained, and its fluorescence intensity can be effectively quenched by KMnO4, resulting from a new complex (GLA-KMnO4) formation between GLA and KMnO4. Upon addition of D-isoascorbic acid or tartaric acid, an enhanced fluorescence was observed under the optimumed experimental conditions, indicating a stimuli-responsive fluorescence turn on platform for D-isoascorbic acid or tartaric acid can be developed. The corresponding experimental results showed that this turn on fluorescence sensing platform has a high sensitivity for D-isoascorbic acid or tartaric acid, because the detection limits were 5.9 μM and 21.5 μM, respectively. Additionally, this proposed sensing platform was applied to simultaneously detection of D-isoascorbic acid and tartaric acid in real tap water samples with satisfactory results.

  5. A stimuli-responsive fluorescence platform for simultaneous determination of d-isoascorbic acid and Tartaric acid based on Maillard reaction product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanmei; Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Xinling; Yang, Jidong

    2018-05-05

    An activatable fluorescence monitoring platform based on a novel Maillard reaction product from d-glucose and L-arginine was prepared through a facile one-pot approach and applied for simultaneous detection of d-isoascorbic acid and tartaric acid. In this work, the new Maillard reaction product GLA was first obtained, and its fluorescence intensity can be effectively quenched by KMnO 4 , resulting from a new complex (GLA-KMnO 4 ) formation between GLA and KMnO 4 . Upon addition of d-isoascorbic acid or tartaric acid, an enhanced fluorescence was observed under the optimumed experimental conditions, indicating a stimuli-responsive fluorescence turn on platform for d-isoascorbic acid or tartaric acid can be developed. The corresponding experimental results showed that this turn on fluorescence sensing platform has a high sensitivity for d-isoascorbic acid or tartaric acid, because the detection limits were 5.9μM and 21.5μM, respectively. Additionally, this proposed sensing platform was applied to simultaneously detection of d-isoascorbic acid and tartaric acid in real tap water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of sugar-amino acid Maillard reaction products on intestinal inflammation model in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Gu; Chun, Su-Hyun; Kim, Da Hyun; Kim, Jin Hye; Shin, Hye Soo; Cho, Yong Soo; Kim, Yong Ki; Choi, Hee-Don; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-09-08

    The Maillard reaction is a nonenzymatic reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar that usually occurs upon heating. This reaction occurs routinely in cooking, generates numerous products, which are collectively referred to as Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contributing to aroma and color features. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) transformed from MRPs are participated in many types of inflammation reaction. In this study, various sugar-amino acid MRPs were prepared from three different amino acids (lysine, arginine, and glycine) and sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) for 1 h with heating at 121 °C. Treatment of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages with the MRPs decreased nitric oxide (NO) expression compared to control without MRPs treatment. MRPs derived from lysine and galactose (Lys-Gal MRPs) significantly inhibited NO expression. The retentate fraction of Lys-Gal MRPs with cut-off of molecular weight of 3-10 kDa (LGCM) suppressed NO expression more effectively than did Lys-Gal MRPs. The anti-inflammatory effect of LGCM was evaluated using a co-culture system consisting of Caco-2 (apical side) and RAW264.7 or THP-1 (basolateral side) cells to investigate the gut inflammation reaction by stimulated macrophage cells. In this system, LGCM prevented a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance, and decreased both tumor necrosis factor-α production in macrophages and interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. In co-culture and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model study, we also observed the anti-inflammatory activity of LGCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modifications in bacterial groups and short chain fatty acid production in the gut of healthy adult rats after long-term consumption of dietary Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Pastoriza de la Cueva, Silvia; Peinado, M Jesús; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Navarro, M Pilar; Rubio, Luis A

    2017-10-01

    Bread crust (BC) is one of the major sources of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the Western diet. This work was designed to analyze the impact of diets containing important levels of MRPs from BC on intestinal bacterial growth and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in adult rats. Additionally, the pools of compounds excreted in feces attending to their molecular weights were analyzed. Rats were fed for 88days a control diet or diets containing BC or its soluble high molecular weight (HMW), soluble low molecular weight (LMW) or insoluble fractions, respectively. Intestinal (cecum) microbiota composition was determined by qPCR analysis. Consumption of the BC diet lowered (PMaillard reaction products are in vivo fermented by the gut microbiota, thereby changing both the pattern of SCFAs production and the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of Maillard reaction products isolated from sugar-amino acid model system and their antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Echavarria, A.; Pagan, J.; Ibarz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluaron las propiedades funcionales de melanoidinas solubles de sistemas modelo a partir de una combinación simple de monosacaridos (fructosa oglucosa) y aminoácidos. Los aminoácidos seleccionados se encuentran en el zumo de manzana siendo altamente reactivos en la reacción de Maillard, y fueron: asparagina (Asn), ácido aspártico (Asp) y ácido glutámico (Glu). Se aplicó la metodología de superficies de respuesta (RSM) para determinar las condiciones óptimas para maximizar el rendimiento ...

  9. Antioxidative capacity and binding affinity of the complex of green tea catechin and beta-lactoglobulin glycated by the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusko, Marija; Al-Hanish, Ayah; Mihailovic, Jelena; Minic, Simeon; Trifunovic, Sara; Prodic, Ivana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2017-10-01

    Major green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), binds non-covalently to numerous dietary proteins, including beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. The effects of glycation of proteins via Maillard reaction on the binding capacity for polyphenols and the antiradical properties of the formed complexes have not been studied previously. Binding constant of BLG glycated by milk sugar lactose to EGCG was measured by the method of fluorophore quenching. Binding of EGCG was confirmed by CD and FTIR. The antioxidative properties of the complexes were examined by measuring ABTS radical scavenging capacity, superoxide anion scavenging capacity and total reducing power assay. Glycation of BLG does not significantly influence the binding constant of EGCG for the protein. Conformational changes were observed for both native and glycated BLG upon complexation with EGCG. Masking effect of polyphenol complexation on the antioxidative potential of the protein was of the similar degree for both glycated BLG and native BLG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterisation of Maillard reaction products derived from LEKFD--a pentapeptide found in β-lactoglobulin sequence, glycated with glucose--by tandem mass spectrometry, molecular orbital calculations and gel filtration chromatography coupled with continuous photodiode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Homma, Takeshi; Nomi, Yuri; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2014-02-15

    Maillard reaction peptides (MRPs) contribute to taste, aroma, colour, texture and biological activity. However, peptide degradation or the cross-linking of MRPs in the Maillard reaction has not been investigated clearly. A peptide of LEKFD, a part of β-lactoglobulin, was heated at 110 °C for 24h with glucose and the reaction products were analysed by HPLC with ODS, ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with gel-filtration column and DAD detector. In the HPLC fractions, an imminium ion of LEK*FD, a pyrylium ion or a hydroxymethyl furylium ion of LEK*FD, and KFD and EK were detected by ESI-MS. Therefore, those products may be produced by the Maillard reaction. The molecular orbital of glycated LEKFD at the lysine epsilon-amino residue with Schiff base form was calculated by MOPAC. HPLC with gel-filtration column showed cross-linking and degradation of peptides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) as a Tool in the Maillard Reaction Optimisation and Characterisation of New 6-methoxy-tetrahydro-β-carboline Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, T.B.; Mordi, M.N.; Mansor, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Four new 6-methoxy-tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives (1-6- methoxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole,2-6-methoxy-1- (4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole, 3-6-methoxy-1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole and 4-2-methoxy-4-(6-methoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl) phenol) were prepared via the Maillard reaction using 5-methoxytryptamine and various aldehydes in water. The synthesis reaction conditions were optimised in catalyst loading, temperature and time using LC-MS for optimum yields. Surface response methodology and contour plot was selected as an approach for optimisation. The optimum yield could be achieved below 50 degree Celsius within 5 h at 7 mole % catalyst loading at yields > 70 %. The β-carboline compounds produced were characterised using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electrospray tandem mass (ESI-MS/MS). The mass fragmentation patterns of this group of heterocyclic tetrahydro-β-carboline compounds are described herein. (author)

  12. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  13. The impact of raw materials and baking conditions on Maillard reaction products, thiamine, folate, phytic acid and minerals in white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Robert, Nathalie; Branlard, Gérard; Thebault, Jacques; Librere, Sarah; Jacquot, Sylvain; Mardon, Julie; Piquet-Pissaloux, Agnès; Chapron, Sophie; Chatillon, Antoine; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a white bread with improved nutrient contents and reduced levels of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products such as N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Assays were carried out through a full factorial experimental design allowing the simultaneous analysis of four factors at two levels: (1) wheat flour extraction rates (ash content: 0.60%-0.72%), (2) leavening agents (bakers' yeast - bakers' yeast and sourdough), (3) prebaking and (4) baking conditions (different sets of time and temperature). The baking conditions affected HMF and CML as well as certain mineral contents. A reduced baking temperature along with a prolonged heat treatment was found to be favourable for reducing both the CML (up to 20%) and HMF concentrations (up to 96%). The presence of sourdough decreased the formation of CML (up to 28%), and increased the apparent amounts of calcium (up to 8%) and manganese (up to 17.5%) probably through acidification of the dough. The extraction rate of flours as well as interactions between multiple factors also affected certain mineral content. However, compounds like folate, thiamine, copper, zinc, iron and phytic acid were not affected by any of the factors studied.

  14. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  15. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of Maillard reaction products and yeast strain on the synthesis of key higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Rachael E; Black, Gary W; Koutsidis, Georgios; Usher, St John

    2017-10-01

    The effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), formed during the production of dark malts, on the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. Higher alcohol levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in dark malt fermentations, while the synthesis of esters was inhibited, due to possible suppression of enzyme activity and/or gene expression linked to ester synthesis. Yeast strain also affected flavour synthesis with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A01 producing considerably lower levels of higher alcohols and esters than S288c and L04. S288c produced approximately double the higher alcohol levels and around twenty times more esters compared to L04. Further investigations into malt type-yeast strain interactions in relation to flavour development are required to gain better understanding of flavour synthesis that could assist in the development of new products and reduce R&D costs for the industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical properties and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species quenching activities of dry sugar-amino acid maillard reaction mixtures exposed to baking temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Liang, Ningjian; Kitts, David D

    2015-10-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from 10 different, dry sugar-amino acid reaction model systems were examined for changes in color index (E), sugar loss, and formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds; the changes were correlated with relative activities to quench both reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species. Reducing sugars, xylose, ribose, fructose, glucose, and non-reducing sucrose were reacted with glycine (Xyl-Gly, Rib-Gly, Fru-Gly, Glc-Gly, and Suc-Gly), or lysine (Xyl-Lys, Rib-Lys, Fru-Lys, Glc-Lys, and Suc-Lys), respectively, at temperatures of 150°C and 180°C for time periods ranging from 5 to 60min. ROS quenching capacity was negatively correlated with color index (E) (r=-0.604, P<0.001), and positively correlated with sugar loss (r=0.567, P<0.001). MRPs also exhibited activity to quench RNS as assessed by nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in differentiated Caco-2 cells that were induced with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and phorbol ester (PMA) cocktail. We also showed a correlation between RNS and color index, sugar loss, and ROS quenching activities for MR mixtures that were heated for a short time (e.g. 10min) at 150°C. MRP quenching of ROS was largely influenced by sugar type, whereas, RNS quenching was dependent more so on the interaction between reactants and reaction conditions used to generate MRPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed. MRP+ groups had higher weight gain, significantly so in the MRP+/Cola- vs MRP-/Cola-. Both prenatal and postnatal intervention increased carboxymethyllysine levels and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity, both significantly higher in MRP+/Cola + than in MRP-/Cola-. Total antioxidant capacity was lower in MRP+ groups, with significant decrease in MRP+/Cola + vs MRP-/Cola+. Rats drinking Coca-Cola had higher insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, advanced oxidation of protein products, triacylglycerols, and oxidative stress markers measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to rats drinking water, with no visible effect of MRPs-rich diet. Metabolic status of rats was affected both by prenatal and postnatal dietary intervention. Our results suggest that combined effect of prenatal MRPs load and postnatal Coca-Cola drinking may play a role in development of metabolic disorders in later life.

  19. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone isolated from ribose-histidine Maillard reaction products on aldose reductase and tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to better understand the functional properties of ribose and 20 amino acid Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The ABTS + radical scavenging ability of the ribose-20 amino acid MRPs was evaluated. Among the MRPs, ribose-histidine MRPs (RH-MRPs) showed the highest inhibitory activities on the ABTS + radical scavenging ability, aldose reductase (AR), and tyrosinase compared to other MRPs. Functional compounds with antioxidant and AR inhibitory activities have been recognized as an important strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, and the search for tyrosinase inhibitors is important for the treatment of hyperpigmentation, development of skin-whitening agents, and use as preservatives in the food industry. On this basis, we sought to isolate and identify compounds with inhibitory activities against AR and tyrosinase. RH-MRPs were heated at 120 °C for 2 h and fractionated using four solvents: methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. The highest inhibitions were found in the MC fraction. The two compounds from this fraction were purified by silica gel column and preparative thin layer chromatography, and identified as 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone and furan-3-carboxylic acid. AR inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition, and ABTS + scavenging (IC 50 ) of 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone were 4.47, 721.91 and 9.81 μg mL -1 , respectively. In this study, inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone isolated from RH-MRP were demonstrated on AR, tyrosinase, and its antioxidant activity for the first time. RH-MRP and its constituents can be developed as beneficial functional food sources and cosmetic materials and should be investigated further as potential functional food sources.

  20. Unravelling the kinetics of the formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction of fructose and asparagine by multiresponse modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide in a fructose–asparagine reaction system at initial pH 5.5 is proposed, based on an approach called multiresponse kinetic modelling. The formation of acetic acid and formic acid from the degradation of fructose and its isomer glucose was included in

  1. Maillard Proteomics: Opening New Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Soboleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein glycation is a ubiquitous non-enzymatic post-translational modification, formed by reaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with carbonyl compounds, presumably reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls. Resulting advanced glycation end products (AGEs represent a highly heterogeneous group of compounds, deleterious in mammals due to their pro-inflammatory effect, and impact in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease and ageing. The body of information on the mechanisms and pathways of AGE formation, acquired during the last decades, clearly indicates a certain site-specificity of glycation. It makes characterization of individual glycation sites a critical pre-requisite for understanding in vivo mechanisms of AGE formation and developing adequate nutritional and therapeutic approaches to reduce it in humans. In this context, proteomics is the methodology of choice to address site-specific molecular changes related to protein glycation. Therefore, here we summarize the methods of Maillard proteomics, specifically focusing on the techniques providing comprehensive structural and quantitative characterization of glycated proteome. Further, we address the novel break-through areas, recently established in the field of Maillard research, i.e., in vitro models based on synthetic peptides, site-based diagnostics of metabolism-related diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, proteomics of anti-glycative defense, and dynamics of plant glycated proteome during ageing and response to environmental stress.

  2. Sodium sulfite pH-buffering effect for improved xylose-phenylalanine conversion to N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine during an aqueous Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Heping; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Karangwa, Eric; Jia, Chengsheng; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2018-04-25

    The yield of the Maillard reaction intermediate (MRI), prepared in aqueous medium, is usually unsatisfactory. However, the addition of sodium sulfite could improve the conversion of xylose-phenylalanine (Xyl-Phe) to the MRI (N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine) in aqueous medium. Sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ) showed a significant pH-buffering effect during the Maillard reaction, which accounted for its facilitation of the N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine yield. The results revealed that the pH could be maintained at a relatively high level (above 7.0) for an optimized pH-buffering effect when Na 2 SO 3 (4.0%) was added before the reaction of Xyl-Phe. Thus, the conversion of Xyl-Phe to N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine increased from 47.23% to 74.86%. Furthermore, the addition moment of Na 2 SO 3 and corresponding solution pH were crucial factors in regulating the pH-buffering effect of Na 2 SO 3 on N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine yield. Based on the pH-buffering effect of Na 2 SO 3 and maintaining the optimal pH 7.4 relatively stable, the conversion of Xyl-Phe to N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine was successfully improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ formation of the amino sugars 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose under Maillard reaction conditions in the absence of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-04-15

    Replacing amino acids with their binary metal complexes during the Maillard reaction can initiate various processes, including the oxidative degradation of their glucose conjugates, generating 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and its derivatives. These reactive amino sugars are not easily accessible under Maillard reaction conditions and are only formed in the presence of ammonia. To explore the generality of this observation and to study in particular the ability of fructose to generate glucosamine, the amino acid-metal complexes were heated in aqueous solutions with three aldohexoses and two ketohexoses at 110°C for 2 h and the dry residues were analysed by ESI/qTOF/MS/MS. All the sugars generated relatively intense ions at [M+H](+) 180 (C6H14NO5); those ions originating from ketohexoses exhibited MS/MS fragmentations identical to glucosamine and those originating form aldohexoses showed ions identical to fructosamine. Furthermore, the amino sugars were found to form fructosazine, react with other sugars and undergo dehydration reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  5. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on structural and physico-chemical properties of conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjiang; Han, Feifei; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Rui; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean protein isolates (MBPIs) and glucose, and on structural and physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. The degree of glycosylation of MBPI-glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI-GUH) was higher than that of MBPI-glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI-GH). Solubility, emulsification activity, emulsification stability and surface hydrophobicity of MBPI-GUH were higher than that of MBPI-GH. Grafted MBPIs had a lower content of α-helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β-sheet and β-turn structure than MBPIs. No significant structural changes were observed in β-turn and random coil structure of MBPI-GUH, while α-helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β-sheet. MBPI-GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI-GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPIs with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI-GUH. Ultrasound-assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPIs and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPIs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) as Alternative to a Conventional Activated Sludge System Followed by Ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) for the Treatment of Fischer-Tropsch Reaction Water from Gas-to-Liquids Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurinonyte, Judita; Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Brink, van den Paula; Temmink, Hardy

    2017-01-01

    The potential of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system to treat Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction water from gas-to-liquids (GTL) industries was investigated and compared with the current treatment system: a conventional activated sludge system followed by an ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) unit. The MBR and

  7. The importance of the Maillard-metal complexes and their silicates in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesch, Patrick J.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2007-09-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs when sugars and amino acids are mixed together in the solid state or in the aqueous solution. Since both amino acids and sugar-like compounds are found on meteorites, we hypothesized that they would also undergo the Maillard reaction. Our recent work supports this idea. We have shown previously that the water-insoluble Maillard products have substantial similarities with the insoluble organic materials from the meteorites. The Maillard organic materials are also part of the desert varnish on Earth, which is a dark, shiny, hard rock coating that contains iron and manganese and is glazed in silicate. Rocks that are similar in appearance to the desert varnish have been observed on the Martian surface. They may also contain the organic materials. We have undertaken study of the interactions between the Maillard products, iron and other metals, and silicates, to elucidate the role of the Maillard products in the chemistry of desert varnish and meteorites. Specifically, we have synthesized a series of the Maillard-metal complexes, and have tested their reactivity towards silicates. We have studied the properties of these Maillard-metal-silicate products by the IR spectroscopy. The astrobiological potential of the Maillard-metal complexes is assessed.

  8. Intervention of Dominique Maillard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2003-01-01

    The adoption by the French Parliament of the European law from January 3, 2003, transcribes in the French legislative corpus the first European directive, the second directive being just adopted by the Parliament. This is an important date for France as this law includes three essential elements: the freedom of access to the French gas market to all operators, the implementation of a suitable regulation authority and a clear definition of the missions of public utility. These three points are detailed by D. Maillard, general director of the energy and raw materials department of the French ministry of industry, during his talk given at the 2003 natural gas congress of Paris. (J.S.)

  9. Formation of the reduced form of furaneol® (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one) during the Maillard reaction through catalysis of amino acid metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Wang, Xi; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-11-01

    Under pyrolytic conditions the acidity/basicity of Maillard reaction mixtures can be controlled through the use of hydrochloride or sodium salts of amino acids to generate a diversity of products. When the degradation of glucose was studied under pyrolytic conditions using excess sodium glycinate the reaction was found to generate a major unknown peak having a molecular ion at m/z 130. Subsequent in-depth isotope labelling studies indicated that acetol was an important precursor of this compound under pyrolytic and aqueous heating conditions. The dimerisation and cyclisation of acetol into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one was found to be catalysed by amino acid metal salts. Also, ESI/qTOF/MS studies indicated that the unknown peak has expected molecular formula of C6H10O3. Finally, a peak having the same retention time and mass spectrum was also generated pyrolytically when furaneol® was reduced with NaBH4 confirming the initial hypothesis regarding the unknown peak to be the reduced form of furaneol®. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of stable isotope ratio analysis explaining the bioformation of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone in plants by a biological Maillard reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, W.

    1998-01-01

    [1-13C]-D-Fructose and [U-13C6]-D-fructose were applied to detached ripening strawberry fruits, and the incorporation into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone 1, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone 2, 2,5-dimethyl-4-acetoxy-3(2H)-furanone 3, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone beta-D-glucopyranoside 4, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone 6'-O-malonyl beta-D-glucopyranoside 5 was determined by HRGC-MS and HPLC-ESI MS-MS. The data clearly showed the direct conversion of D-fructose to the furanones without cleavage of the carbohydrate prior to the formation of 1-5, as expected for a biological Maillard reaction. Both, the furanone and the D-glucose moiety of 4 and 5 contained the labels. However, the label was primarily incorporated into the furanone moiety, indicating that D-fructose is a more efficient precursor of the furanones than D-glucose

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Maillard Reaction Products of Salbutamol and Terbutaline with Lactose and Development and Validation of an LC Method for the Determination of Salbutamol and Terbutaline in the Presence of These Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa A. El-Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary amines, both salbutamol (SLB and terbutaline (TRB react by Maillard reaction (MR with lactose, which is added as an inactive ingredient in tablets. The Amadori rearrangement products were synthesized, isolated, and characterized by mass spectrometry. In addition, a simple, selective, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC method was developed and validated for the determination of SLB and TRB in tablets, each in the presence of its MR impurity. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Symmetry® Waters C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm using a mobile phase consisting of 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid to acetonitrile (90:10, v/v at a flow rate of 0.7 mL minute −1 . Quantitation was achieved using UV detection at 230 nm. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable for the determination of SLB and TRB in the concentration range of 0.2-60 and 0.5-80 μg mL −1 , respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SLB and TRB in bulk and in their tablets.

  12. Maillard-reactie door model beheersbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roost, van M.

    2006-01-01

    Gewenste en ongewenste bruinkleuring van levensmiddelen door een Maillard-reactie is vaak lastig te beheersen. Wageningse onderzoekers ontwikkelden een simulatiemodel, waarmee producentenmeer inzicht krijgen in de Maillard-reactie, en zo ook de kleur van het eindproduct beter kunnen beheersen

  13. Genotoxic Maillard byproducts in current phytopharmaceutical preparations of Echinodorus grandiflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISANGELA C. LIMA-DELLAMORA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinodorus grandiflorus obtained from dried leaves by three different techniques were evaluated by bacterial lysogenic induction assay (Inductest in relation to their genotoxic properties. Before being added to test cultures, extracts were sterilized either by steam sterilization or ultraviolet light. Only the extracts prepared by infusion and steam sterilized have shown genotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of the flavonoids isovitexin, isoorientin, swertisin and swertiajaponin, isolated from a genotoxic fraction. They were assayed separately and tested negative in the Inductest protocol. The development of browning color and sweet smell in extracts submitted to heat, prompted further chemical analysis in search for Maillard's reaction precursors. Several aminoacids and reducing sugars were cast in the extract. The presence of characteristic Maillard's melanoidins products was determined by spectrophotometry in the visible region and the inhibition of this reaction was observed when its characteristic inhibitor, sodium bisulfite, was added prior to heating. Remarkably, this is the first paper reporting on the appearance of such compounds in a phytomedicine preparation under a current phytopharmaceutical procedure. The genotoxic activity of such heat-prepared infusions imply in some risk of developing degenerative diseases for patients in long-term, uncontrolled use of such phytomedicines.

  14. Effect of Maillard induced glycation on protein hydrolysis by lysine/arginine and non-lysine/arginine specific proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Wierenga, P.A.; Schols, H.A.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic protein hydrolysis is sensitive to modifications of protein structure, e.g. Maillard reaction. In early stages of the reaction glycation takes place, modifying the protein primary structure. In later stages protein aggregation occurs. The specific effect of glycation on protein

  15. Whey pretreatments before ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Tupasela

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by-product of cheesemaking. Whey dry matter contains mainly lactose, but also valuable whey proteins. The aim of this study was to develop improvements to whey protein membrane isolation processes. In our trials CaCl2 -added, pH-adjusted and heat-treated wheys were found to have MF (microfiltration permeate fluxes about 30% higher than in untreated MF whey. The total solids and protein content of the MF permeates decreased compared to the original wheys. UF (ultrafiltration trials were conducted using MF whey to compare it with centrifugally separated whey. The MF whey consistently maintained an UF flux about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than that of the separated whey. Differently treated MF whey UF permeate fluxes also showed a difference. With CaCl2 addition, pH adjustment and heat treatment, the UF permeate fluxes were about 20 to 40% higher than when only MF was used. The total solids content decreased in each trial. The protein content of the UF concentrate also decreased compared to the MF permeate. The (β-lg (β-lactoglobulin and α-la (α-lactalbumin content was almost the same in UF concentrates as in MF permeates.

  16. Inhibitory effect of a tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal on amyloid-β generation and inflammatory reactions via inhibition of NF-κB and STAT3 activation in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Im Seup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloidogenesis is linked to neuroinflammation. The tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal, possesses anti-inflammatory properties in cultured macrophages, and in an arthritis animal model. Because astrocytes and microglia are responsible for amyloidogenesis and inflammatory reactions in the brain, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. Methods Cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml for 24 h, in the presence (1, 2, 5 μM or absence of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal, and harvested. We performed molecular biological analyses to determine the levels of inflammatory and amyloid-related proteins and molecules, cytokines, Aβ, and secretases activity. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB DNA binding activity was determined using gel mobility shift assays. Results We found that 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal (1, 2, 5 μM suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in LPS (1 μg/ml-stimulated astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. Further, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal inhibited the transcriptional and DNA binding activity of NF-κB--a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis via inhibition of IκB degradation as well as nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Consistent with the inhibitory effect on inflammatory reactions, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal inhibited LPS-elevated Aβ42 levels through attenuation of β- and γ-secretase activities. Moreover, studies using signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 siRNA and a pharmacological inhibitor showed that 2

  17. Electro-ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Erik Børresen; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the problems with fouling and concentration polarization during crossflow ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions an electric field is applied across the membrane. The filtration performance during electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) has been tested with several enzymes. Results show...

  18. Pronase hydrolysis as a pretreatment for quantifying Maillard intermediates during toasting of cornflakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Cueto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the products generated by the Maillard reaction are desired and very important for defining consumer acceptance of breakfast cereals. However, in recent years there has been an increased concern about compounds that are potentially harmful such as furfurals. The aim of this work was to analyze the effectiveness of protein hydrolysis with pronase as a pretreament for the evaluation of furfurals generated by the Maillard reaction during toasting of cornflakes and the parallel development of brown and fluorescent compounds. Furfurals were more accurately quantified with the pronase hydrolysis pretreatment because the protein matrix binds furfurals and fluorescent compounds. For control of the early reaction steps in the toasting process, the most sensitive parameter was fluorescence.

  19. Amino Acids Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism on 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo [4,5-b]Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in the Maillard Reaction Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghu, Ziyi; Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2017-12-01

    This study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of amino acids (AAs) on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and to evaluate the inhibition mechanism of PhIP in Maillard model systems. Different AAs were individually added into model systems heat-treated at 180 °C/1 h. The PhIP, phenylacetaldehyde (PheAce), and pyrazines derivatives were determined using HPLC and GC-MS. AAs significantly reduced (P Pro > Leu > Met > Val > Ile > Thr > Phe > Asp, at the highest molar ratio. The PheAce content was gradually reduced with increasing AAs levels, suggesting that AAs may inhibit PhIP formation through scavenging the available PheAce. A correlation between PhIP inhibition and PheAce-scavenging activity of AAs was observed when PheAce and AAs were heated. The variety and quantity of pyrazines formed are highly depending on the type of AAs. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Microstructured hollow fibers for ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culfaz, Pmar Zeynep; Culfaz, P.Z.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a corrugated outer microstructure were prepared from a PES/PVP blend. The effect of spinning parameters such as air gap, take-up speed, polymer dope viscosity and coagulation value on the microstructure and membrane characteristics was investigated. Fibers

  1. Tracking the behavior of Maillard browning in lysine/arginine-sugar model systems under high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Jin-Yan; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Chen, Hong-Bing

    2017-12-01

    High-pressure processing is gaining popularity in the food industry. However, its effect on the Maillard reaction during high-pressure-assisted pasteurization and sterilization is not well documented. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the Maillard reaction during these processes using amino acid (lysine or arginine)-sugar (glucose or fructose) solution models. High pressure retarded the intermediate and final stages of the Maillard reaction in the lysine-sugar model. For the lysine-glucose model, the degradation rate of Amadori compounds was decelerated, while acceleration was observed in the arginine-sugar model. Increased temperature not only accelerated the Maillard reaction over time but also formed fluorescent compounds with different emission wavelengths. Lysine reacted with the sugars more readily than arginine under the same conditions. In addition, it was easier for lysine to react with glucose, whereas arginine reacted more readily with fructose under high pressure. High pressure exerts different effects on lysine-sugar and arginine-sugar models. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Ultrafiltration evaluation with depleted uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Schake, A.R.; Morgan, A.N.; Purdy, G.M.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1998-03-01

    Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are using electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline solutions to decontaminate oralloy parts that have surface plutonium contamination. Ultrafiltration of the electrolyte stream removes precipitate so that the electrolyte stream to the decontamination fixture is precipitate free. This report describes small-scale laboratory ultrafiltration experiments that the authors performed to determine conditions necessary for full-scale operation of an ultrafiltration module. Performance was similar to what they observed in the ferric hydroxide system. At 12 psi transmembrane pressure, a shear rate of 12,000 sec -1 was sufficient to sustain membrane permeability. Ultrafiltration of uranium(VI) oxide appears to occur as easily as ultrafiltration of ferric hydroxide. Considering the success reported in this study, the authors plan to add ultrafiltration to the next decontamination system for oralloy parts

  3. Food-Grade Synthesis of Maillard-Type Taste Enhancers Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-01-28

    The increasing demand for healthier food products, with reduced levels of table salt, sugar, and mono sodium glutamate, reinforce the need for novel taste enhancers prepared by means of food-grade kitchen-type chemistry. Although several taste modulating compounds have been discovered in processed foods, their Maillard-type ex food production is usually not exploited by industrial process reactions as the yields of target compounds typically do not exceed 1-2%. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are reported for the first time to significantly increase the yields of the taste enhancers 1-deoxy-ᴅ-fructosyl-N-β-alanyl-ʟ-histidine (49% yield), N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) aminopropionic acid (54% yield) and N²-(1-carboxyethyl) guanosine 5'-monophosphate (22% yield) at low temperature (80-100 °C) within a maximum reaction time of 2 h. Therefore, NADES open new avenues to a "next-generation culinary chemistry" overcoming the yield limitations of traditional Maillard chemistry approaches and enable a food-grade Maillard-type generation of flavor modulators.

  4. Food-Grade Synthesis of Maillard-Type Taste Enhancers Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Kranz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for healthier food products, with reduced levels of table salt, sugar, and mono sodium glutamate, reinforce the need for novel taste enhancers prepared by means of food-grade kitchen-type chemistry. Although several taste modulating compounds have been discovered in processed foods, their Maillard-type ex food production is usually not exploited by industrial process reactions as the yields of target compounds typically do not exceed 1–2%. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES are reported for the first time to significantly increase the yields of the taste enhancers 1-deoxy-ᴅ-fructosyl-N-β-alanyl-ʟ-histidine (49% yield, N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene aminopropionic acid (54% yield and N2-(1-carboxyethyl guanosine 5′-monophosphate (22% yield at low temperature (80–100 °C within a maximum reaction time of 2 h. Therefore, NADES open new avenues to a “next-generation culinary chemistry” overcoming the yield limitations of traditional Maillard chemistry approaches and enable a food-grade Maillard-type generation of flavor modulators.

  5. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  6. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect.

  7. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration for Spacecraft Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrafiltration is examined for use as the first stage of a primary treatment process for spacecraft wastewater. It is hypothesized that ultrafiltration can effectively serve as pretreatment for a reverse osmosis system, removing the majority of organic material in a spacecraft wastewater. However, it is believed that the interaction between the membrane material and the surfactant found in the wastewater will have a significant impact on the fouling of the ultrafiltration membrane. In this study, five different ultrafiltration membrane materials are examined for the filtration of wastewater typical of that expected to be produced onboard the International Space Station. Membranes are used in an unstirred batch cell. Flux, organic carbon rejection, and recovery from fouling are measured. The results of this evaluation will be used to select the most promising membranes for further study.

  8. SURVEY REGARDING THE ULTRAFILTRATION OF PROTEINES THROUGH MEMBRANE BASED PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA HODOSAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on examples that emphasize the complexity of the proteins ultrafiltration process, pointing out the first 10-15 minutes of ultrafiltration. The knowledgement of the factors that influence the separation through ultrafiltration of proteins will allow to choose the right type of membrane, the frequent use of the same membrane and the operation in mechanical and chemical conditions adequate to the ultrafiltration system, when it is separated a protein with certain molecular weight.

  9. Maillard reaction induces changes in saccharides and amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fructose-lysine Model System and Pulsed Electric Field. Sterilization on Banana Juice Quality. Mod Food Sci Tec. 2015; 31: 220-226. 18. Deng Y. Comparison of Volatile Generation in. Serine/Threonine/Glutamine-Ribose/Glucose/Fructose. Model Systems. Food Industry 2010; (3): 58-61. 19. Zhou ZL, Xu ZQ, Zhou S, Wang ...

  10. Investigation of Maillard reaction involvement in the steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  11. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  12. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackleton, D.R.; Hulmes, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a [4,5-3H]-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware

  13. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration membranes identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), and (a)(4) of this section may be safely used in...

  14. Development of ultrafiltration and inorganic adsorbents: January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultrafiltration media with and without the assistance of bone char filters were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing radionuclides from contaminated solutions. Precipitants, resin, adsorbents, and inorganic adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in decontaminating solutions. A study of the effects of radiation on ultrafiltration media was initiated. An ultrafiltration media pilot plant was ordered and is being installed

  15. Protein bioseparation using ultrafiltration: theory, applications and new developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Raja

    2003-01-01

    ... membrane-based separation process. This book discusses how ultrafiltration could be used for protein bioseparation. There are several good books on protein bioseparation and indeed several others on ultrafiltration. However, there are relatively fewer books dealing specifically with protein bioseparation using ultrafiltration, in spite of this being an a...

  16. Emulsifying properties of maillard conjugates produced from sodium caseinate and locust bean gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Perrechil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifying properties of sodium caseinate -locust bean gum Maillard conjugates produced at different temperatures (54 - 96 ºC, protein/polysaccharide ratios (0.3 - 1.0 and reaction times (1 - 24 hours were evaluated. Conjugate formation was confirmed by formation of color and high molecular weight fractions and the decrease of the αs- and β-casein bands. The emulsions stabilized by Maillard conjugates showed good stability. The mean droplet diameter (d32 tended to decrease with the increase of incubation time and temperature, except at extreme conditions (24 hours and 90 ºC or 96 ºC when the partial degradation of the conjugates was probably favored, resulting in phase separation of emulsions. The emulsion viscosity decreased with the increase in the protein/polysaccharide ratio and with the degradation of the conjugates. The conditions used in the experimental design made the optimization of the conjugate production viable, which showed greater emulsifier properties than the pure protein under acid conditions.

  17. Effect of Maillard Conjugates on the Physical Stability of Zein Nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid Antisolvent Coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Joye, Iris J; Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-30

    Protein nanoparticles are often not very stable in a complex food matrix because they are primarily stabilized by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we envisaged the stabilization of zein nanoparticles through Maillard conjugation reactions with polysaccharides of different molecular mass. Zein nanoparticles (0.5% w/v) containing resveratrol (0.025% w/v grape skin extract) were produced by liquid antisolvent precipitation and coated with Maillard conjugates (MC) of sodium caseinate and different molecular mass carbohydrates during particle production. Zein nanoparticles coated with conjugated polysaccharides of 2.8, 37, and 150 kDa had diameters of 198 ± 5, 176 ± 6, and 180 ± 3 nm, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (∼83%) was not affected by conjugation, but the conjugates significantly improved particle stability against changes in pH (2.0-9.0), CaCl2 addition (up to 100 mM), and heat treatment (30-90 °C, 30 min). Zein nanoparticles coated by MC may therefore be suitable delivery systems for hydrophobic bioactive molecules in a wide range of commercial products.

  18. Low fouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane via click chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2014-10-13

    Hydrophilic surfaces are known to be less prone to fouling. Ultrafiltration membranes are frequently prepared from rather hydrophobic polymers like polysulfone (PSU). Strategies to keep the good pore forming characteristics of PSU, but with improved hydrophilicity are proposed here. PSU functionalized with 1,2,3-triazole ring substituents containing OH groups was successfully synthesized through click chemistry reaction. The structures of the polymers were confirmed using NMR spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High thermal stability (>280°C) was observed by thermal gravimetric analysis. Elemental analysis showed the presence of nitrogen containing triazole group with different degrees of functionalization (23%, 49%, 56%, and 94%). The glass transition temperature shifted with the introduction of triazole pendant groups from 190°C (unmodified) to 171°C. Ultrafiltration membranes were prepared via phase inversion by immersion in different coagulation baths (NMP/water mixtures with volume ratios from 0/100 to 40/60). The morphologies of these membranes were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The optimized PSU bearing triazole functions membranes exhibited water permeability up to 187 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, which is 23 times higher than those prepared under the same conditions but with unmodified polysulfone (PSU; 8 L m-2 h-1 bar-1). Results of bovine serum albumin protein rejection test indicated that susceptibility to fouling decreased with the modification, due to the increased hydrophilicity, while keeping high protein rejection ratio (>99%).

  19. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration Performance for Phospholipid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, N.; Wardhani, D. H.; Maulana, Z. S.; Roberto, D.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane for degumming of crude palm oil has been applied as an alternative method since the membrane process required less procedure than the conventional degumming. This research focused on the examination of ultrafiltration performance for phospholipid separation from model crude palm oil degumming. Specifically, profile flux and rejection, as well as blocking mechanism, were investigated. Feed consisting of Refined Crude Palm Oil - Isopropanol - Lecithin mixtures were represented as crude palm oil degumming. Lecithin was denoted a phospholipid component, and the concentrations of lecithin in feed were varied to 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The concentration of phospholipid was determined as phosphor content. At the concentration of lecithin in feed representing phospholipid concentration of 8,45 mg/kg, 8,45 mg/kg, 24,87 mg/kg and 57,58 mg/kg, respectively. Flux profiles confirmed that there was a flux decline during filtration. In addition, the lecithin concentrations do not significantly effect on further flux decline. Rejection characteristic and phospholipid concentration in the permeate showed that the phospholipid rejections by ultrafiltration were in the range of 23-79,5% representing permeate’s phospholipid concentration of 1,73 - 44,25 mg/kg. Evaluation of fouling mechanism by Hermia’s blocking model confirmed that the standard blocking is the dominant mechanism in the ultrafiltration of lecithin mixture.

  20. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  1. Reexamining ultrafiltration and solute transport in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C. E.; Person, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Geologic ultrafiltration—slowing of solutes with respect to flowing groundwater—poses a conundrum: it is consistently observed experimentally in clay-rich lithologies, but has been difficult to identify in subsurface data. Resolving this could be important for clarifying clay and shale transport properties at large scales as well as interpreting solute and isotope patterns for applications ranging from nuclear waste repository siting to understanding fluid transport in tectonically active environments. Simulations of one-dimensional NaCl transport across ultrafiltering clay membrane strata constrained by emerging data on geologic membrane properties showed different ultrafiltration effects than have often been envisioned. In relatively high-permeability advection-dominated regimes, salinity increases occurred mostly within membrane units while their effluent salinity initially fell and then rose to match solute delivery. In relatively low-permeability diffusion-dominated regimes, salinity peaked at the membrane upstream boundary and effluent salinity remained low. In both scenarios, however, only modest salinity changes (up to ˜3 g L-1) occurred because of self-limiting tendencies; membrane efficiency declines as salinity rises, and although sediment compaction increases efficiency, it is also decreases permeability and allows diffusive transport to dominate. It appears difficult for ultrafiltration to generate brines as speculated, but widespread and less extreme ultrafiltration effects in the subsurface could be unrecognized. Conditions needed for ultrafiltration are present in settings that include topographically-driven flow systems, confined aquifer systems subjected to injection or withdrawal, compacting basins, and accretionary complexes.

  2. Characterization of clean and fouled ultrafiltration membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Robbertsen, T.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Olieman, C.; Both, P.; Schmidt, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much research into the fundamentals of membrane formation and separation has been performed in order to improve the efficiency of the manufacture of ultrafiltration membranes. Determination of the membrane characteristics is a key problem in these investigations. In this paper, we report on a study

  3. Sequential micro and ultrafiltration of distillery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and recycling, wastewater treatment, drinking water production and environmental protection are the key challenges for the future of our planet. Membrane separation technologies for the removal of all suspended solids and a fraction of dissolved solids from wastewaters, are becoming more and more promising. Also, these processes are playing a major role in wastewater purification systems because of their high potential for recovery of water from many industrial wastewaters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of micro and ultrafiltration for distillery wastewater purification in order to produce water suitable for reuse in the bioethanol industry. The results of the analyses of the permeate obtained after micro and ultrafiltration showed that the content of pollutants in distillery wastewater was significantly reduced. The removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, dry matter and total nitrogen was 90%, 99.2% and 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage.

  4. Ultrafiltration to reuse laundering wash water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giagnorio, Mattia; Søtoft, Lene Fjerbæk; Tiraferri, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Laundering industry consumes and discharges large amounts of water and surfactants, and the demand of surface active agents used for washing is increasing worldwide. Some of these substances are considered contaminants of emerging concern, as they persist in the environment. This work aimed...... at evaluating the feasibility of ultrafiltration as a method to treat the wash wastewater and possibly reuse the surfactant-rich permeate stream in laundry facilities. In particular, evaluation of surfactant recovery was performed through analysis of the permeate flux and properties obtained through polymeric...... and ceramic membranes. Wash water samples were collected at an industrial laundering facility for hospital linen and filtered through different ultrafiltration membranes with varying molecular weight cut-off. The critical micelle concentration of the detergent was quantified, and capillarity measurements were...

  5. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen; Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi; Li, Xinsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  6. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi [Suzhou Faith & Hope Membrane Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou, 215000 (China); Li, Xinsong, E-mail: lixs@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  7. The in-process removal of sterol glycosides by ultrafiltration in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Y. Tremblay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Minor components found in biodiesel can affect its stability and cold flow properties. Without extensive post treatments, trace compounds such as sterol glycosides (SG can remain at unacceptable levels in finished biodiesel fuels. This study proposes to remove SG from reacted Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME mixtures using ultrafiltration. Degummed soybean oil was transesterified using methanol and a catalyst (sodium methoxide. The mixtures were immediately ultrafiltered after the reaction and the FAMEs from the retentate and permeate were analyzed for SG. The highest separation for SG (86 % was obtained when the reaction conditions were 0.7 wt.% catalyst and 4:1 MeOH:Oil ratio. The lowest separation (0% was observed at 0.3 wt.% catalyst and 4:1 MeOH:Oil ratio. The higher separations were explained by the deprotonation of the hydroxyl groups on SG. This decreased the solubility of SG in the reacted FAME phase. The separation was lowest, when unreacted oil along with monoacylglycerides (MG and diacylglycerides (DG solubilized SG in the reacted mixture. The separation was also low when high methanol to oil ratios were used in the transesterification. The lowest concentration of SG measured in FAMEs treated by ultrafiltration was 3.4 ppm. The results indicate that ultrafiltration is an effective method to remove SG from soybean FAMEs.

  8. Ultrafiltrative deinking of flexographic ONP : the role of surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley H. Upton; Gopal A. Krishnagopalan; Said Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed flexographic pigments from the deinking water loop. This work examines the effects of surface-active materials on ultrafiltration efficiency. A logarithmic relationship between permeate flax and pigment concentration was demonstrated at ink concentrations above 0.4%, permeation rates becoming...

  9. Improved antifouling performance of ultrafiltration membrane via preparing novel zwitterionic polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Yu, Jiayu; Guo, Hanxiang; Shen, Yibo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Han; Liu, Rong; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of the outstanding fouling resistance of zwitterionic polymers, an antifouling ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated through phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation method, directly using the novel zwitterionic polyimide (Z-PI), which was synthesized via a two-step procedure including polycondensation and quaternary amination reaction, as membrane material. The chemical structure and composition of the obtained polymer were confirmed by using FTIR, 1H NMR and XPS analysis, and its thermal stability was thoroughly characterized by TGA measurement, respectively. The introduction of zwitterionic groups into polyimide could effectively increase membrane pore size, porosity and wettability, and convert the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. As a result, Z-PI membrane displayed significantly improved water permeability compared with that of the reference polyimide (R-PI) membrane without having an obvious compromise in protein rejection. According to the static adsorption and dynamic cycle ultrafiltration experiments of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, Z-PI membrane exhibited better fouling resistant ability, especially irreversible fouling resistant ability, suggesting superior antifouling property and long-term performance stability. Moreover, Z-PI membrane had a water flux recovery ratio of 93.7% after three cycle of BSA solution filtration, whereas only about 68.5% was obtained for the control R-PI membrane. These findings demonstrated the advantages of Z-PI membrane material and aimed to provide a facile and scalable method for the large-scale preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membranes for potential applications.

  10. Exploration of zwitterionic cellulose acetate antifouling ultrafiltration membrane for bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Haitao; Huo, Pengfei; Gu, Jiyou

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on the preparation of a new kind of membrane material, zwitterionic cellulose acetate (ZCA), via a three-step procedure consist of oxidization, Schiff base and quaternary amination reaction, and the fabrication of antifouling ZCA ultrafiltration membrane by the non-solvent-induced phase separation method (NIPS). The morphologies, surface chemical structures and compositions of the obtained CA and ZCA membranes were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal stability, porosity and average pore size of two investigated membranes were also studied. As a result, the ZCA membrane displayed significantly improved hydrophilicity and water permeability compared with those of the reference CA membrane, despite a slight decrease in the protein rejection ratio. According to the cycle ultrafiltration performance of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and protein adsorption experiment, ZCA membrane exhibited better flux recovery property and fouling resistant ability, especially irreversible fouling resistant ability, suggesting superior antifouling performance. This new approach gives polymer-based membrane a long time life and excellent ultrafiltration performance, and seems promising for potential applications in the protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of Maillard-type off-flavor development in ultrahigh-temperature-processed bovine milk by phenolic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinidou, Smaro; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-08-13

    The application of phenolic compounds to suppress Maillard chemistry and off-flavor development in ultrahigh-termperature (UHT)-processed milk during processing and storage was investigated. Five phenolic compounds were examined for structure-reactivity relationships (catechin, genistein, daidzein, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene). The levels of key transient Maillard reaction (MR) intermediates (reactive carbonyl species) and select off-flavor markers (methional, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) were quantified by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/ToF, respectively. The addition of phenolic compounds prior to UHT processing significantly reduced the concentration of MR intermediates and related off-flavor compounds compared to a control sample (p markers and reactive carbonyl species. Sensory studies were in agreement with the analytical data. The cooked flavor intensity was rated lower for the recombination model samples of the catechin-treated UHT milk compared to the control UHT milk. Additionally, consumer acceptability studies showed catechin-treated UHT milk to have significantly higher liking scores when compared the control sample (Fisher's LSD = 0.728).

  12. Ultrafiltration by gyroid nanoporous polymer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Clausen, Lydia D.

    2011-01-01

    the effect of membrane fouling on the flux decline and rejection profiles. Significant fouling occurred in the case of hydrophobic membranes in contact with water solutions, while in the presence of high concentration of ethanol in the filtration solution and in the case of hydrophilized membranes...... the fouling was reduced. The observed rejection of PEG was compared with theoretic predictions, as described by the Bungay–Brenner model. The model satisfactorily described the rejection profile of PEG up to 12kg/mol through hydrophobic membranes in the presence of excess ethanol. A significantly reduced......Gyroid nanoporous cross-linked 1,2-polybutadiene membranes with uniform pores were developed for ultrafiltration applications. The gyroid porosity has the advantage of isotropic percolation with no need for structure pre-alignment. The effects of solvent and surface photo...

  13. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of an amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cut-off value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface......-modified PVDF membrane). The adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption theory. Thus, the static adsorption consists of monolayer coverage. The static adsorption is expressed both as a permeability drop and an adsorption resistance. From the adsorption isotherms the maximum static permeability drops...... and the maximum static adsorption resistances are determined. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophobic PES membrane is 75 % and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.014 m2hbar/L. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophilic surface-modified PVDF membrane (ETNA10PP) is 23...

  14. On the use of ultrafiltration membranes in oily water separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, A.Y.; Nottegar, M. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the use of ultrafiltration membranes for oil water purification from ships bilges. Bilge water is a complex and highly variable mixture of several components such as seawater, lubricating oil, greases, marine diesel fuel, hydraulic oil, detergents, metal oxides, corrosion inhibitors, asbestos and other wastes. This laboratory study examined the performance of ultrafiltration membranes when separating oily waste water of similar composition to that of bilge water. Ultrafiltration membranes are nanoporous materials produced from ceramic, polymeric or metallic substrates. The ability of the membrane to retain macromolecules, colloids, sub-micron particles and oil emulsions depends on the size of the nanopores. The best results in this study occurred when upper and lower bounds on the membrane pore size were found to exist. It was determined that ultrafiltration is a viable separation process for the treatment of bilge water for compliance with overboard discharge regulations. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Low fouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane via click chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui; Tayouo Djinsu, Russell; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    %, and 94%). The glass transition temperature shifted with the introduction of triazole pendant groups from 190°C (unmodified) to 171°C. Ultrafiltration membranes were prepared via phase inversion by immersion in different coagulation baths (NMP

  16. Influence of Maillard products from bread crust on magnesium bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) present in food has been related to deterioration of protein digestibility and changes in mineral bioavailability. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on magnesium balance and tissue distribution, seeking causative factors among its different components. During the final stage of the trial, magnesium digestibility improved by around 15% in rats fed diets containing bread crust or its derivatives compared with the control diet. Despite certain enhancements in magnesium bioavailability in this stage, for the experimental period as a whole, this parameter remained unchanged. However, specific changes in the content and/or concentration in some organs were observed, particularly in the femur, where magnesium levels were higher due to the smaller size of the bones. Consumption of MRPs from bread crust or its different components did not modify the magnesium balance. Nevertheless, the bread crust fractions led to some changes in magnesium tissue distribution which did not match the effects induced by complete bread crust intake, suggesting the importance of designing studies with real-food systems, in order to reinforce the validity of the findings obtained. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Tea Polyphenols as Inhibitors of Furan Formed in the Maillard Model System and Canned Coffee Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, K H; Zhang, L; Qiao, X G; Xu, Z X

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the effects of sugars and amino acids on furan formation via the Maillard reaction in low-moisture model systems were investigated. Glucose and alanine are important furan precursors, and the effects of the heating temperature, heating time, and molar ratio of glucose to alanine on furan formation were studied in glucose/alanine model system by response surface methodology. The heating temperature greatly affected furan formation. The maximum furan concentration was obtained with a glucose-to-alanine molar ratio of 0.83:1.00, by heating at 151 °C for 41 min. Tea polyphenols effectively inhibited furan formation in the glucose/alanine model and a canned coffee model. A high inhibition rate of 42.4% ± 1.5% was obtained in the canned coffee model during sterilization procedure with addition of 84 mg (the mass fraction is 12.1%) of tea polyphenols (99%). However, the content of aromatic components in the canned coffee model was significantly reduced at the same time. This study provides evidence for a good furan inhibitor that can be used in food processing. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Concentration of lemon pectin extract by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Stechina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Current annual lemon production in Argentina is about 900 thousand t. 75% is used industrially to obtain pasteurized juice concentrate. Since 40 - 45 % of citrus fruit content is peel and seeds, the annual lemon residue yield is 360 thousand t. Lemon peel contains about 30% (B.S. of peptic substances with an important commercial value due to its gelling and thickening properties for food, chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic products. Membrane processes have many applications in food manufacture. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ultrafiltration operating variables on instant permeate flow (Fp and on the energy requirement for pectin extract concentration from lemon peel. A DDS lab module was used, lab 20-772 model with synthetic material membranes, 9 kDa, shear force, the intrinsic membrane resistance (Rm being 3*1013 m -1 . Results show that Fp decrease caused by polarization induced resistance occurrence and the influence of operating variables on Fp offer relevant data to estimate the energy requirement in relation to feeding flow at constant temperature, which may be compared to pectin concentration increase in the retained flow in relation to initial extract concentration.

  19. Maillard neoglycans as inhibitors for in vitro adhesion of F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to piglet intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Sainz, Héctor Manuel; Mata Haro, Verónica; Sarabia Sainz, José Andre-I; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont

    2017-01-01

    Adhesion of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli to host intestinal cells is mediated by lectin-like fimbriae that bind to specific glycan moieties on the surfaces of enterocytes. To prevent in vitro binding of E. coli F4 fimbriae (F4 ETEC + ) to piglet enterocytes, neoglycans were synthesized by the Maillard reaction conjugating lactose (Lac), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or chitin oligosaccharides (Ochit) to porcine serum albumin (PSA). Neoglycans were characterized by SDS-PAGE, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and recognition by plant lectins, as well as by F4 ETEC variants. Electrophoretic patterns suggested the binding to PSA of 63, 13 and 2 molecules of Lac, GOS and Ochit, respectively. All neoglycans displayed quenching of tryptophan fluorescence consistent with the degree of glycation estimated by SDS-PAGE. Plant lectins recognized the neoglycans according to their specificity, whereas antigenic variants of F4 ETEC (ab, ac and ad) recognized PSA-Ochit and PSA-Lac with higher affinity than that for GOS. Neoglycans partially hindered the in vitro binding of F4 + ETEC to piglet enterocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective blocking was observed with PSA-Lac that partially inhibited the adhesion of bacteria to enterocytes in a dose dependent manner, as quantified by flow cytometry. Increased production of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was observed in response to F4 + ETEC infection of enterocytes and production was reduced in the presence of PSA-Ochit and PSA-GOS. These results suggest that neoglycans synthesized by the Maillard reaction could be useful in the prophylaxis of diarrhea in piglets.

  20. A simplified ultrafiltration method for determination of serum free cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the suitability of the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane for measuring free cortisol in serum. The method combines two independent assays: total cortisol and the ultrafiltrate fraction of added [ 3 H]cortisol. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.25-0.30 ml of ultrafiltrate collected from 0.6 to 1 ml of serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]cortisol at 37 0 C for 20 min. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practical (no more than 0.6 ml of serum is necessary) and repeatable (CV: 3.8% within-assay and 12.2% in different assays). Error introduced in free cortisol measurement due to dilution effects in dialysis is systematically defined, and the effect of tracer purity on the ultrafiltration method is examined. Dialyzed sera from normal men and women, from patients with Cushing's disease and adrenal insufficiency, and from pregnant women gave ultrafiltration results that accurately duplicated those obtained by previous dialysis. (Auth.)

  1. An antioxidant peptide produced by autolysis reactions from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An antioxidant peptide produced by autolysis reactions from wheat germ. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... activity was purified using ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column and consecutive chromatographic methods.

  2. Développement d’un simulateur de cuisson pour l’étude du couplage entre les transferts d’énergie et de matière et les cinétiques de réactions de Maillard ayant lieu au cours de la cuisson de produits céréaliers de type génoise

    OpenAIRE

    Fehaili , Souad

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is a preliminary study on the development and validation of a methodology to predict the progress of Maillard reactions during the baking of sponge cake. The aim of this work is to develop experimental tools to track markers and reaction process variables synchronously. Initially, we proposed a reaction scheme based on experimental knowledge of the volatile compounds generated during sponge cake baking and literature data. Then, a pilot oven was designed and instrumented. Two non-i...

  3. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  4. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.; Lounici, Hakim; Abdi, Nadia; Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Pauss, André ; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER

  5. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Kana [Faculty of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate {sup 14}C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on {sup 14}C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values, and {sup 14}C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin Trade-Mark-Sign 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older {sup 14}C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that {sup 14}C ages of unfiltered

  6. CROSS-FLOW ULTRAFILTRATION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENTS. MEMBRANE FOULING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cross-flow ultrafiltration to regenerate secondary effluents is limited by membrane fouling. This work analyzes the influence of the main operational parameters (transmembrane pressure and cross-flow velocity about the selectivity and fouling observed in an ultrafiltration tubular ceramic membrane. The experimental results have shown a significant retention of the microcolloidal and soluble organic matter (52 – 54% in the membrane. The fouling analysis has defined the critical operational conditions where the fouling resistance is minimized. Such conditions can be described in terms of a dimensionless number known as shear stress number and its relationship with other dimensionless parameter, the fouling number.

  7. Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes derived from polyvinyltetrazole-co-polyacrylonitrile for Cu(II) ions removal

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mahendra

    2016-05-04

    Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes were manufactured from synthesized polyvinyltetrazole−co−polyacrylonitrile (PVT−co−PAN) by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS). PVT−co−PAN with various degree of functionalization (DF) was synthesized via a [3+2] cycloaddition reaction at 60°C using a commercial PAN. PVT−co−PAN with varied DF was then explored to prepare adsorptive membranes. The membranes were characterized by surface zeta potential and static water contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. It was shown that PVT segments contributed to alter the pore size, charge and hydrophilic behavior of the membranes. The membranes became more negatively charged and hydrophilic after addition of PVT segments. The PVT segments in the membranes served as the major binding sites for adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) ions by the membranes in static condition and in a continuous ultrafiltration of 10 ppm solution was attained at pH = 5. The adsorption data suggest that the Freundlich isotherm model describes well Cu(II) ions adsorption on the membranes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity obtained from the Freundlich isotherm model was 44.3 mg g−1; this value is higher than other membrane adsorption data reported in the literature. Overall, the membranes fabricated from PVT−co−PAN are attractive for efficient removal of heavy metal ions under the optimized conditions.

  8. Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes derived from polyvinyltetrazole-co-polyacrylonitrile for Cu(II) ions removal

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mahendra; Shevate, Rahul; Hilke, Roland; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes were manufactured from synthesized polyvinyltetrazole−co−polyacrylonitrile (PVT−co−PAN) by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS). PVT−co−PAN with various degree of functionalization (DF) was synthesized via a [3+2] cycloaddition reaction at 60°C using a commercial PAN. PVT−co−PAN with varied DF was then explored to prepare adsorptive membranes. The membranes were characterized by surface zeta potential and static water contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. It was shown that PVT segments contributed to alter the pore size, charge and hydrophilic behavior of the membranes. The membranes became more negatively charged and hydrophilic after addition of PVT segments. The PVT segments in the membranes served as the major binding sites for adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) ions by the membranes in static condition and in a continuous ultrafiltration of 10 ppm solution was attained at pH = 5. The adsorption data suggest that the Freundlich isotherm model describes well Cu(II) ions adsorption on the membranes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity obtained from the Freundlich isotherm model was 44.3 mg g−1; this value is higher than other membrane adsorption data reported in the literature. Overall, the membranes fabricated from PVT−co−PAN are attractive for efficient removal of heavy metal ions under the optimized conditions.

  9. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added [ 3 H]testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved

  10. Effect of Time in Chemical Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Naim, R.; Duek, A.; Gitis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes is often considered successful when the flux through a cleaned membrane is much higher than through a pristine one. Here, a novel definition of cleaning intensity is proposed as the product of the concentration of the cleaning agent and the cleaning

  11. Dynamic modeling of ultrafiltration membranes for whey separation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saltik, M.B.; Ozkan, L.; Jacobs, M.; van der Padt, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a control relevant rigorous dynamic model for an ultrafiltration membrane unit in a whey separation process. The model consists of a set of differential algebraic equations and is developed for online model based applications such as model based control and process

  12. Ultrafiltration concept for separating oil from water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.; Schrab H.

    1973-01-01

    Discharge of oily wastes from shipboard operations of deballasting, bilge pumping, and slop tank cleaning constitutes a serious water pollution problem. Membrane ultrafiltration was studied in this project as a means of generating a highly purified water from a variety of oily wastes.

  13. Water hammer reduces fouling during natural water ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, F; Menne, D; Pothof, I; Blankert, B; Roesink, H D W; Futselaar, H; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M

    2012-03-15

    Today's ultrafiltration processes use permeate flow reversal to remove fouling deposits on the feed side of ultrafiltration membranes. We report an as effective method: the opening and rapid closing of a valve on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration module. The sudden valve closure generates pressure fluctuations due to fluid inertia and is commonly known as "water hammer". Surface water was filtrated in hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a small (5%) crossflow. Filtration experiments above sustainable flux levels (>125 l (m2h)(-1)) show that a periodic closure of a valve on the permeate side improves filtration performance as a consequence of reduced fouling. It was shown that this effect depends on flux and actuation frequency of the valve. The time period that the valve was closed proved to have no effect on filtration performance. The pressure fluctuations generated by the sudden stop in fluid motion due to the valve closure are responsible for the effect of fouling reduction. High frequency recording of the dynamic pressure evolution shows water hammer related pressure fluctuations to occur in the order of 0.1 bar. The pressure fluctuations were higher at higher fluxes (higher velocities) which is in agreement with the theory. They were also more effective at higher fluxes with respect to fouling mitigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Peritoneal Ultrafiltration in Heart Failure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Elif Şenel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS is a general term that can reflect different clinical conditions in which cardiac and renal dysfunctions coexist. The main pathogenetic mechanisms playing a role in heart failure (HF and CRS are neurohumoral adaptation, right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Persistence of these factors cause focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the renal parenchyma. Diuretics, beta blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, and vasodilators are the main medical treatments besides conventional approach, such as salt and water restriction and quitting smoking, in HF treatment. Diuretic resistance is the main problem emerging during diuretic treatments. Two renal replacement treatments have become prominent for removal of excess fluids via ultrafiltration in HF patients with diuretic resistance extracorporeal ultrafiltration with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD. Herein, the role of these two ultrafiltration modalities, especially peritoneal ultrafiltration (PUF in the treatment of HF is discussed. The main studies and advantages of PUF in HF treatment were discussed. Moreover, effects of PD on glomerular filtration rate, hospitalization and mortality were investigated. In conclusion, PD is an alternative cheap, practical and convenient therapy in reducing cardiac volume burden in HF patients who do not respond well to standard treatments and/or require frequent hospitalization.

  15. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  16. Safety of a new, ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula in children with cow milk allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate infant formula, Profylac, could be administered safely to children with cow milk protein allergy/intolerance. Profylac has a stated molecular weight of ... which is controlled by a combination of ELISA-techniques and immunochemical methods. The study comprised 66 children with cow milk protein allergy/intolerance diagnosed by controlled elimination/challenge procedures. The children were aged 1 month-14.5 years, median 1 11/12 years and 15 were below 1...... year. Thirty-five of these children had proven IgE-mediated reactions (cow milk protein allergy). Sixty-one of the children had at least two different symptoms and 31 had concomitant allergies to other foods and/or inhalants. All 66 children underwent and tolerated open, controlled challenges...

  17. The determination of ultrafiltrable calcium and magnesium in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, B G; Pallin, E; Sohtell, M

    1982-01-01

    Ultrafiltrate of human serum was investigated in order to evaluate the serum content of calcium and magnesium. The acid and base concentrations and pH of the serum was altered through titration with HCl- or NaOH-solutions. The Pco2 was varied in the titrated serum using different carbon dioxide tensions. This was performed when serum was filtered in a recycling system. It is shown that the analysis of calcium and magnesium have to be done under anaerobic conditions or at standardized pH and Pco2 situations, as the concentrations vary with both pH and Pco2. The concentration ratio between ultrafiltrate and serum for calcium and magnesium was found to be 0.56 and 0.74 respectively at pH=7.41 and Pco2=40 mmHg.

  18. [Proteins modified in the nonenzymatically glycosylation reaction (AGE-proteins)--new markers for diabetes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Januszewski, A; Kwiatkowska, D

    1994-01-01

    Paper present a recent review on the formation and clinical significance of advanced glycosylation end products, produced in nonenzymatically glycosylation, called Maillard reaction. The special attention was paid to AGEs role in diabetic and aging processes. Instant of occurring of AGEs in circulation or increase of AGE receptor concentration are many years faster than clinical pathology of vessels, nervous or kidneys connect with diabetes or aging. May be in the future it will be possible to decrease the consequence of Maillard reaction by using pharmacology drugs.

  19. Recovery of carbohydrates from nixtamalization wastewaters (nejayote) by ultrafiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Muñoz, R.; Cerón-Montes, G.I.; Barragán-Huerta, B.E.; Yáñez-Fernández, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nejayote extract is a polluting by-product from Nixtamalization of maize; therefore in this study was evaluated a membrane operation for the treatment and recovery of industrial usable compounds. Nejayote extract was processed by ultrafiltration (UF) membrane on laboratory scale. In experimental tests performed according to the total recycle mode, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux has been studied. The permeate flux no showed a considerable increase for TMP values hi...

  20. Selective separation of Eu3+ using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.V.

    1994-03-01

    A process to selectively remove 241 Am from liquid radioactive waste was investigated as an actinide separation method applicable to Hanford and other waste sites. The experimental procedures involved removal of Eu, a nonradioactive surrogate for Am, from aqueous solutions at pH 5 using organic polymers in conjunction with ultrafiltration. Commercially available polyacrylic acid (60,000 MW) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) synthesized E3 copolymer (∼10,000 MW) were tested. Test solutions containing 10 μg/mL of Eu were dosed vath each polymer at various concentrations in order to bind Eu (i.e., by complexation and/or cation exchange) for subsequent rejection by an ultrafiltration coupon. Test solutions were filtered with and without polymer to determine if enhanced Eu separation could be achieved from polymer treatment. Both polymers significantly increased Eu removal. Optimum concentrations were 20 μg/mL of polyacrylic acid and 100 μg/mL of E3 for 100% Eu rejection by the Amicon PM10 membrane at 55 psi. In addition to enhancement of removal, the polymers selectively bound Eu over Na, suggesting that selective separation of Eu was possible. This suggests that polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration is a potential process for separation of 241 Am from Hanford tank waste, further investigation of binding agents and membranes effective under very alkaline and high ionic strength is warranted. This process also has potential applications for selective separation of toxic metals from industrial process streams

  1. Oily bilge water treatment with a tubular ultrafiltration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.R.; Jackson, D.F.; Schatzberg, P.

    1976-11-01

    The Navy has been developing various oil pollution abatement systems. One potential process for the separation of oil in bilge water is ultrafiltration, a pressure-driven membrane process which can separate, concentrate, and fractionate macromolecular solutes and suspended species from water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was tested with bilge oil obtained from a patrol craft. Tests were also conducted with tap water, river water, a turbine lubricating oil, and a fuel oil, alone and in combination with a nonionic detergent. The addition of the detergent was observed to result in a steeper flux decline than when any of the fluids were evaluated alone. Both membrane types produced a permeate with an oil content generally less than 15 mg/l. Although the noncellulosic membranes exhibited higher flux rates than the cellulosic membranes, only the former could be restored by a cleaning operation to its initial water flux after experiencing a decline in flux. A cumulative irreversible flux decline was exhibited by the cellulosic membrane. Cleaning operations, some of which were time-consuming, consisted of flushing the membrane with ultrafiltrate, distilled water, tap water, or the manufacturer's enzyme-detergent formulation. Only the last of these, when employed at elevated temperature (125/sup 0/F), restored the initial water flux of the noncellulosic membrane.

  2. Removal of uranium and thorium from aqueous solution by ultrafiltration (UF) and PAMAM dendrimer assisted ultrafiltration (DAUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaiyaraja, P.; Ashish Kumar Singha Deb; Ponraju, D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) from aqueous solution have been carried out by ultrafiltration (UF) and dendrimer assisted ultrafiltration (DAUF) using regenerated cellulose acetate membrane and PAMAM [poly(amido)amine] dendrimer chelating agent. In UF, the U(VI) and Th(IV) are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption/mass deposition on the membrane at pH > 4. In DAUF, the water soluble PAMAM dendrimer chelating agent effectively concentrates these metal ions in retentate thereby preventing the mass deposition on membrane. At acidic pH (≤3), the binding of metal ions with PAMAM dendrimer is very weak and hence PAMAM can be regenerated and reused. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3462-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (author)

  3. Furane, Furanone und Pyranone – ihr Beitrag zur Farbe und den antioxidativen Eigenschaften in der Maillard-Reaktion der Maltose

    OpenAIRE

    Kanzler, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Die Maillard-Reaktion ist dafür bekannt, bei der thermischen Behandlung von Lebensmitteln neben deren organoleptischen Eigenschaften, wie Geschmack, Geruch, Textur und Farbe, auch die oxidative Stabilität zu beeinflussen. Letzteres ist auf die Bildung von komplexierenden und reduzierenden Verbindungen zurückzuführen, die antioxidativ und prooxidativ wirken können. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die antioxidativen Kapazitäten von dreizehn Maillard-Reaktionsintermediaten mit Furan-...

  4. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  6. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes

  7. Operating considerations of ultrafiltration in enzyme enhanced carbon capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Gladis, Arne; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    capture capacity of 1 MTonn CO2/year, and is here operated for one year continuously. This publication compares soluble enzymes dissolved in a capture solvent with and without the use of ultrafiltration membranes. The membranes used here have an enzyme retention of 90%, 99% and 99.9%. Enzyme retention......Today, enzyme enhanced carbon capture and storage (CCS) is gaining interest, since it can enable the use of energy efficient solvents, and thus potentially reduce the carbon footprint of CCS. However, a limitation of this technology is the high temperatures encountered in the stripper column, which...

  8. Maillard reaction products enriched food extract reduce the expression of myofibroblast phenotype markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhs, Stefanie; Nass, Norbert; Somoza, Veronika; Friess, Ulrich; Schinzel, Reinhard; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Simm, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated with a wide range of degenerative diseases. The present investigation aimed at analysing the influence of AGE containing nutritional extracts on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) as the major cell type responsible for cardiac fibrosis. Mice CFs were treated with bread crust extract (BCE) which contained significant amounts of a variety of AGE modifications. BCE treatment with up to 30 mg/mL did not impair cell viability. Furthermore, BCE induced a moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of redox sensitive pathways like the p42/44(MAPK), p38(MAPK) and NF-kappaB but did not alter Akt kinase phosphorylation. Expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin and tropomyosin-1, which represent markers for myofibroblast differentiation, was reduced after bread crust treatment. These data suggest a putative antifibrotic effect of melanoidin-rich food.

  9. Mutagenicity of heated sugar-casein systems : effect of the Maillard :reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.; Alink, G.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of mutagens after the heating of sugar-casein model systems at 120 C was examined by the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. Several sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, tagatose, lactose, and lactulose) were compared in their mutagenicities. Mutagenicity could be

  10. Ultra-filtration measurement using CT imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junfeng; Lu Wenqiang

    2009-01-01

    As a functional unit in the hemodialysis process, dialyzer captured quite a few medical research interests since 1980s. In the design of dialyzer or in the ongoing hemodialysis process, to estimate the ultra-filtration amount of a dialyzer, the sideway loss of the running blood flow through hollow fibers or filtration channels should be measured. This further leads to the measurement of the blood flow inside the dialyzer. For this measurement, a non-invasive method is highly desired because of the high-dense bundled hollow fibers or packed channels inside the dialyzer. As non-invasive measurement tools, CT (Computed Tomography) technologies were widely used for tissue, bone, and cancerous clinical analyses etc .... Thus, in this paper, a CT system is adopted to predict the blood flow inside a hollow fiber dialyzer. In view of symmetric property of the hollow fiber dialyzer, the largest cutting plane that parallels to the cylindrical dialyzer was analyzed by the CT system dynamically. And then, a noninvasive image analysis method used to predict the ultra-filtration amount is proposed.

  11. Kinetic modeling of acrylamide formation in aqueous reaction systems and potato crisps : Text & Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide can be formed in foods that have undergone a high temperature treatment (>120 °C) such as French fries, crisps, coffee and bread, due to the Maillard reaction. The evidence of acrylamide in foods posing a risk for different types of cancer has been strengthened. Mitigation of

  12. ULTRAFILTRATION AS PRETREATMENT OF REVERSE OSMOSIS: LOW FOULING ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE PREPARED FROM POLYETHERSULFONE–AMPHIPHILIC BLOCK COPOLYMER BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Susanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the preparation of polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration (UF membranes via wet phase inversion method using either poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide-b- poly(ethylene oxide (Pluronic®, Plu or polyethylene glycol (PEG as hydrophilic modifier. Their effects on membrane structure as well as the resulting membrane performance and their stability in membrane polymer matrix were systematically investigated. The investigated membrane characteristics include surface hydrophilicity (by contact angle, surface chemistry (by FTIR spectroscopy and water flux measurement. Visualization of membrane surface and cross section morphology was also done by scanning electron microscopy. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of adsorptive fouling and ultrafiltration using solution of bovine serum albumin as the model system. The stability of additive was examined by incubating the membrane in water (40oC for up to 10 days. The results show that modification effects on membrane characteristic and low fouling behavior were clearly observed. Further, amphiphilic Pluronic generally showed better performance than PEG.   

  13. A study of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration. Final report, March 1984--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamehorn, J.F.; Christian, S.D.

    1994-02-01

    Over the past nine years of funding by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the authors have developed a whole family of methods under the umbrella of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration techniques. These methods can be used for removal of either dissolved organics or multivalent ions from water or both simultaneously. They have gone from very fundamental studies of the ultrafiltration process to a field test using actual polluted groundwater. The orientation of this research has been the ultimate development of a workable, economical process. To do this, the authors have tried to understand the underlying fundamental phenomena involved in the separation and in potential solutions to technological bottlenecks and developed new scientific knowledge in the process. However, the thrust of the investigations have been focused on bringing the technology to a successful adoption by industry. This report summarizes the following: micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration; polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration; ion-expulsion ultrafiltration; ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration; polyelectrolyte/surfactant-enhanced ultrafiltration, supporting research, and relation to energy. 61 refs.

  14. Cellulase retention and sugar removal by membrane ultrafiltration during lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Davis, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    Technologies suitable for the separation and reuse of cellulase enzymes during the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover are investigated to examine the economic and technical viability of processes that promote cellulase reuse while removing inhibitory reaction products such as glucose and cellobiose. The simplest and most suitable separation is a filter with relatively large pores on the order of 20-25 mm that retains residual corn stover solids while passing reaction products such as glucose and cellobiose to form a sugar stream for a variety of end uses. Such a simple separation is effective because cellulase remains bound to the residual solids. Ultrafiltration using 50-kDa polyethersulfone membranes to recover cellulase enzymes in solution was shown not to enhance further the saccharification rate or overall conversion. Instead, it appears that the necessary cellulase enzymes, including beta-glucosidase, are tightly bound to the substrate; when fresh corn stover is contacted with highly washed residual solids, without the addition of fresh enzymes, glucose is generated at a high rate. When filtration was applied multiple times, the concentration of inhibitory reaction products such as glucose and cellobiose was reduced from 70 to 10 g/L. However, an enhanced saccharification performance was not observed, most likely because the concentration of the inhibitory products remained too high. Further reduction in the product concentration was not investigated, because it would make the reaction unnecessarily complex and result in a product stream that is much too dilute to be useful. Finally, an economic analysis shows that reuse of cellulase can reduce glucose production costs, especially when the enzyme price is high. The most economic performance is shown to occur when the cellulase enzyme is reused and a small amount of fresh enzyme is added after each separation step to replace lost or deactivated enzyme.

  15. Effect of membrane hydrophilization on ultrafiltration performance for biomolecules separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, H.; Roihatin, A.; Aryanti, N.; Anggoro, D.D.; Ulbricht, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of different hydrophilization methods to prepare low fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The methods include post-modification with hydrophilic polymer and blending of hydrophilic agent during either conventional or reactive phase separation (PS). The post-modification was done by photograft copolymerization of water-soluble monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), onto a commercial polyethersulfone (PES) UF membrane. Hydrophilization via blend polymer membrane with hydrophilic additive was performed using non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). In reactive PS method, the cast membrane was UV-irradiated before coagulation. The resulting membrane characteristic, the performance and hydrophilization stability were systematically compared. The investigated membrane characteristics include surface hydrophilicity (by contact angle /CA/), surface chemistry (by FTIR spectroscopy), and surface morphology (by scanning electron microscopy). The membrane performance was examined by investigation of adsorptive fouling and ultrafiltration using solution of protein or polysaccharide or humic acid. The results suggest that all methods could increase the hydrophilicity of the membrane yielding less fouling. Post-modification decreased CA from 44.8 ± 4.2 o to 37.8 ± 4.2 o to 42.5 ± 4.3 o depending on the degree of grafting (DG). The hydrophilization via polymer blend decreased CA from from 65 deg. to 54 deg. for PEG concentration of 5%. Nevertheless, decreasing hydraulic permeability was observed after post-modification as well as during polymer blend modification. Stability examination showed that there was leaching out of modifier agent from the membrane matrix prepared via conventional PS after 10 days soaking in both water and NaOH. Reactive PS could increase the stability of the modifier agent in membrane matrix. Highlights: ► We compared different methods to prepare low fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes.

  16. Effect of membrane hydrophilization on ultrafiltration performance for biomolecules separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanto, H., E-mail: heru.susanto@undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto-Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia); Roihatin, A.; Aryanti, N.; Anggoro, D.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto-Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia); Ulbricht, M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Germany, Universitaetstr. 5, Essen (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    This paper compares the performance of different hydrophilization methods to prepare low fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The methods include post-modification with hydrophilic polymer and blending of hydrophilic agent during either conventional or reactive phase separation (PS). The post-modification was done by photograft copolymerization of water-soluble monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), onto a commercial polyethersulfone (PES) UF membrane. Hydrophilization via blend polymer membrane with hydrophilic additive was performed using non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). In reactive PS method, the cast membrane was UV-irradiated before coagulation. The resulting membrane characteristic, the performance and hydrophilization stability were systematically compared. The investigated membrane characteristics include surface hydrophilicity (by contact angle /CA/), surface chemistry (by FTIR spectroscopy), and surface morphology (by scanning electron microscopy). The membrane performance was examined by investigation of adsorptive fouling and ultrafiltration using solution of protein or polysaccharide or humic acid. The results suggest that all methods could increase the hydrophilicity of the membrane yielding less fouling. Post-modification decreased CA from 44.8 {+-} 4.2{sup o} to 37.8 {+-} 4.2{sup o} to 42.5 {+-} 4.3{sup o} depending on the degree of grafting (DG). The hydrophilization via polymer blend decreased CA from from 65 deg. to 54 deg. for PEG concentration of 5%. Nevertheless, decreasing hydraulic permeability was observed after post-modification as well as during polymer blend modification. Stability examination showed that there was leaching out of modifier agent from the membrane matrix prepared via conventional PS after 10 days soaking in both water and NaOH. Reactive PS could increase the stability of the modifier agent in membrane matrix. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared different methods to prepare low

  17. Printing-assisted surface modifications of patterned ultrafiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardrip, Nathaniel C.; Dsouza, Melissa; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and restricting microbial surface attachment will enhance wastewater treatment with membranes. We report a maskless lithographic patterning technique for the generation of patterned polymer coatings on ultrafiltration membranes. Polyethylene glycol, zwitterionic, or negatively charged hydrophilic polymer compositions in parallel- or perpendicular-striped patterns with respect to feed flow were evaluated using wastewater. Membrane fouling was dependent on the orientation and chemical composition of the coatings. Modifications reduced alpha diversity in the attached microbial community (Shannon indices decreased from 2.63 to 1.89) which nevertheless increased with filtration time. Sphingomonas species, which condition membrane surfaces and facilitate cellular adhesion, were depleted in all modified membranes. Microbial community structure was significantly different between control, different patterns, and different chemistries. Lastly, this study broadens the tools for surface modification of membranes with polymer coatings and for understanding and optimization of antifouling surfaces.

  18. An analysis of ultrafiltration applications for the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, S. [Zenon Environmental Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation examined ultrafiltration technologies in oil sands applications. The Athabasca region has limited water supplies, and regulatory standards regarding waterborne pathogens and disinfectant by-products are increasing. Membrane technologies are now rapidly replacing conventional water filtration technologies as they provide a more reliable means of filtration and use minimal amounts of chemicals. Membrane technologies are capable of removing 99.9 per cent of all Giardia, Cryptosporidium and viral agents from water samples, as well as various metals. ZeeWeed membrane filtration systems use a backpulse system to filter water in combination with a permeation system. Enhanced coagulation systems are used to remove colour, taste, and odours, as well as manganese and iron. The systems have been tested with Athabasca River samples, and are currently being used at several oil sands processing plants. It was concluded that ZeeWeed membrane systems are able to treat difficult waters with high pathogen and metals contents. tabs., figs.

  19. Modeling of Hollow-Fiber Membrane System During Ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Bialy, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the performance of hollow fiber membrane module during ultrafiltration of aqueous solutions. The model is represented by a set of differential equations for permeate and residue pressure drop and volumetric flow rates in the axial direction, beside the principle equations of both solvent and solute fluxes through the membrane, while osmotic pressure was neglected in model equations. The shell and tube module type was considered where feed pass in the shell and permeate in the bore side. Tortousily factor of membrane pores in addition to concentration polarization modulus were taken into account in calculations. The model was solved numerically with the help of suitable program in both co current and countercurrent flow pattern and comparison of results were carried out

  20. Evaluation of the Availability and Antioxidant Capacity of Maillard Compounds Present in Bread Crust: Studies in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pastoriza de la Cueva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread crust is one of the major contributors to the intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP. MRP improve the organoleptic properties of foods and can provide biological actions such as antioxidant properties. The transport and availability of Amadori compounds (measured as furosine and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF—early and intermediary MRP—from enzymatically digested bread crust (BC and from its soluble low-molecular weight (LMW and high-molecular weight (HMW fractions were investigated in the Caco-2 cell line. The absorption of the early and final MRP pool was tested by measuring the absorbance recovery (280 and 420 nm. The ability of soluble BC or its fractions to lessen the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was examined. Amadori compounds (furosine were transported across Caco-2 cell monolayers from the soluble BC in percentages ranging between 40% and 56%; the lower amount of the compound supplied, the higher transport rate. However, HMF transport rate (35% was unaffected by the initial amount of the compound. Amadori compounds and HMF contained in the LMW fraction were more efficiently transported than those present in the HMW fraction, suggesting improved absorption when supplied as free forms or linked to LMW compounds. Absorbance recovery at 280 nm was higher from the LMW fraction, whereas higher recovery was detected for the HMW fraction at 420 nm. The digested BC—but not its isolated fractions—was able to significantly reduce ROS production at basal conditions and after subjecting cells to an oxidant. A clear positive action of BC on the antioxidant defence is manifested, seemingly attributable to the combined presence of soluble LMW and HMW products.

  1. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration as a post-treatment of biogas plant digestates for producing concentrated fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir; Wei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas plant digestate liquid fractions can be concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Two types of microfiltration membranes (polysulphone (PS) and surface-modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) were used to process digestate liquid fractions, and to assess their applicability in ...

  2. Drinking water treatment by ultrafiltration membranes; Potabilizacion de aguas mediante membranas de ultrafiltracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J. C.; Moreno, B.; Poyatos, J. M.; Rua, A. de la; Perez, J. J.; Plaza, F.; Garralon, G.; Gomez, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper the application of ultrafiltration technology as a drinking water treatment was evaluated. For this reason, a pilot scale ultrafiltration module equipped with a flat membrane cassette of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with an average pore size of 0.05 {mu}m was used. Different types of artificially polluted waters (with urban waste water and soil suspension) were used. the performance of ultrafiltration technology was evaluated by means of different physicochemical and microbiological parameters both feed water and treated water. Bacterial and viral indicators were efficiently retained by the system and the same time organoleptic parameters were improved. However, it is important to emphasize the problems that the ultrafiltration technology has for the eliminate dissolves compounds remaining the most dissolve organic compounds in the feed water. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  4. Comparison of ultrafiltration and dissolved air flotation efficiencies in industrial units during the papermaking process

    OpenAIRE

    Monte Lara, Concepción; Ordóñez Sanz, Ruth; Hermosilla Redondo, Daphne; Sánchez González, Mónica; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of an ultrafiltration unit has been studied and compared with a dissolved air flotation system to get water with a suited quality to be reused in the process. The study was done at a paper mill producing light weight coated paper and newsprint paper from 100% recovered paper. Efficiency was analysed by removal of turbidity, cationic demand, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand, hardness, sulphates and microstickies. Moreover, the performance of the ultrafiltration unit an...

  5. Making equipment to process paddy water for providing drinking water by using Ozone-UVC& Ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styani, E.; Dja'var, N.; Irawan, C.; Hanafi

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on making equipment which is useful to process paddy water to be consumable as drinking water by using ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration. The equipment which is made by the process of ozone-UVC and ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis is driven by electric power generated from solar panels. In the experiment, reverse osmosis system with ozone-UVC reactor proves to be good enough in producing high quality drinking water.

  6. High Concentration Protein Ultrafiltration: a Comparative Fouling Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y. P.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the predominant fouling mechanism via pH manipulation in gelatin ultrafiltration (UF) at constant operating pressure was studied. Two 30 kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO) UF membranes with different hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties were tested at solution pH near gelatin isoelectric point (IEP), pH below and above gelatin’s IEP. The resistance-in-series model was used to determine quantitatively the contribution of each filtration resistance occurred during gelatin UF. The governing fouling mechanisms were investigated using classical blocking laws. The results demonstrated that concentration polarization remain as dominant fouling resistance in gelatin UF, but exceptional case was observed at pH away from gelatin’s IEP, showing that combined reversible and irreversible fouling resistances contributed around 57% and 37%, respectively to the overall fouling resistances. Under all experimental condition tested, permeate flux decline was accurately predicted by all the models studied. Fouling profile was fitted well with “Standard Blocking”, “Intermediate Blocking” and “Cake Filtration” model for regenerated cellulose acetate (RCA) membrane and “Cake Filtration” model for polyethersulphone (PES) membrane.

  7. THE MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT POLISHING IN ULTRAFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dudziak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from the municipal sewage treatment plant was comparatively treated in the ultrafiltration process using ceramic and polymer membranes. Filtration was carried out in the cross-flow system under the conditions of the transmembrane process pressure 0.1 MPa - the ceramic membrane and 0.2 MPa – the polymer membrane at a temperature of 20°C. The effectiveness of the process had been assessed by various physical and chemical analyses (pH, turbidity, color, absorbance, TOC and phenol index. There was included the toxicological assessment (by applying as an indicator organism the bioluminescence bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri and microbiological assessment of tested samples. During filtration there was studied the hydraulic efficiency of membranes. Is was specified, that the efficiency of the process depends on the conditions of membrane filtration, wherein the better effects of the removal of organic pollutants had been noted in the case of polymer membrane than ceramic membrane. However, the polymer membrane, in the comparison to the ceramic membrane, was more susceptible to pore blocking, which caused the reduction of hydraulic efficiency. Regardless of what type of membrane the permeats were not toxic and did not contain microorganisms.

  8. Summary of the ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorbents project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvin, C.M.; Roberts, R.C.; Williams, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The design for a medium-size (40 gal/min) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane unit includes a schematic diagram, capital and operating costs, a list and discussion of the radioisotopes tested and the results achieved, operating parameters, and characteristics of the available membrane configurations. The plant design for a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit includes a conceptual diagram, specifications for a RO unit producing 40 gal/min of permeated product, a list of radioisotopes tested on RO units and the rejections achieved, a discussion of the principal of RO, a discussion of the upper limits of cation and anion concentrations (there are no lower limits), a discussion of membrane configurations and porosities, a discussion of factors affecting membranes, a section on calculating the membrane area needed for a particular application, and capital and operating cost calculations. The design for an ion-exchange pilot plant includes a schematic diagram; flow, resin, and column specifications; impurity limits; and operating and capital costs. A short theoretical discussion and process description are also included. The design retains flexibility so that application to a specific stream can be determined

  9. Whey protein concentration by ultrafiltration and study of functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Iltchenco

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper aim to evaluate the ultrafiltration (UF process for constituents recovery from whey. Sequences of factorial designs were performed by varying temperature (5 to 40°C and pressure (1 to 3 bar, to maximize the proteins concentration using membrane of 100kDa in dead end system. Based on the best result new experiments were performed with membrane of 50kDa and 10kDa. With the membrane of 50 the protein retention was about 3 times higher than the membrane of 100kDa. The concentrated obtained by UF membrane of 10kDa, 10°C and 2 bar in laboratory scale showed a mean protein retention of 80 %, greater protein solubility, emulsion stability and the identification of β-lactoglobulins (18.3 kDa and α-lactalbumin fractions (14.2kDa. Therefore, the use of membrane of 100 and 50kDa are became a industrially recommendable alternatives to concentration of whey proteins, and/or as a previous step to the fractionation of whey constituents using membrane ≤10kDa, aiming at future applications in different areas (food, pharmaceutical, chemical, etc..

  10. The potentialities of the complexation ultrafiltration technique for the decontamination of fission product contaminated aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibert, V.

    1995-07-01

    Many nuclear researchers and industrial operators lay emphasis on improving the back end of the fuel cycle. A major problem concerns the liquid wastes generated by the reprocessing plant at La Hague, discharged into the sea after treatment in the Effluent Treatment Station (STE) 3), and which have become crucial matter. The activity of these wastes is well below the current legal limits, and is constantly decreasing these last years. To bring it close to zero, and ambitious goal, entails innovative new reprocessing techniques. We accordingly investigated the possibilities of complexation-ultrafiltration, a technique that uses water-soluble macromolecules to complex the target elements to be separated. We first achieved the strontium (II) separation with poly-acrylic and poly-sulfonic acids. The effects of pH and NaNO 3 concentration influence on Sr (II) complexation were studied. The Sr (II) complexation and concentration phases, followed by cation de-complexation to recover the polymer, were also taken into account. This research, combined with a potentiometric study of the polymers, offered a close understanding of the chemical systems involved, and of the operating conditions and limits of complexation-ultrafiltration. The laboratory results were also validated on a tangential ultrafiltration pilot plant. We then used complexation-ultrafiltration to treat a real effluent generated bu La Hague's STE 3 plant. This experiment demonstrated minimum 90 % decontamination of Sr (II) (with polyacrylate complexing agent), and also for 134-137 Cs (with simple ultrafiltration). The use of two polyamides allowed partial decontamination of the effluent for 60 Co and 106 Ru. This work therefore offers a global approach to complexation-ultrafiltration, from laboratory to pilot scale, on real and simulated effluents. The future of this technique relies chiefly on the ability to solve the problem of polymer recovery. In other respect, complexation-ultrafiltration clearly offers a

  11. Una llamada al lector: los huecos en la escritura de Chantal Maillard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tort Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n2p18 En este artículo, se analiza la escritura de Chantal Maillard en relación con la importancia de los huecos en la estructura textual de la obra. Partiendo de la posición del lector, se revisan los rasgos de hipertextualidad presentes en la escritura maillardiana. Desde la convicción de que el espacio es un elemento que genera sentido, tanto en cada uno de los libros como en la red trazada entre todos ellos, se interpreta el quehacer textual de la autora como una llamada al lector. Este, como exigencia de la propia disposición de la obra, se ve impelido a configurar una nueva realidad a partir, no tanto de lo dicho, sino de lo sugerido; no tanto de lo presente, sino de lo ausente.

  12. Development of new ultrafiltration techniques maintaining in-situ hydrochemical conditions for colloidal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aosai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Mizuno, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Chemical state of elements in groundwater is one of the most important information for understanding behavior of elements in underground environment. Chemical state of elements controlled mainly by groundwater physico-chemical parameters. Because the change of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater, due to pressure release and oxidation during sampling, causes changes in chemical state of elements, systematic methodologies for understanding in situ chemical state is required. In this study, in order to understand chemical state of elements in groundwater, an ultrafiltration instrument for maintaining in-situ pressure and anaerobic conditions was developed. The instrument developed in this study for ultrafiltration made of passivated Stainless Used Steel (SUS) materials, was designed to keep groundwater samples maintaining in-situ pressure/anaerobic conditions. Ultrafiltration of groundwater was conducted at a borehole drilled from the 200 mbGL (meters below ground level) Sub-stage at a depth of 200 m at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Chemical analyses of groundwater were also conducted using samples filtered under both pressurized/anaerobic and atmospheric conditions and passivated SUS materials with different elapsed times after passivation. The results indicate that our ultrafiltration method is suitable for collection of filtered groundwater and passivation is an essential treatment before ultrafiltration. (author)

  13. Application of Ultrafiltration in a Paper Mill: Process Water Reuse and Membrane Fouling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High water consumption is a major environmental problem that the pulp and paper industry is facing. Ultrafiltration (UF can be used to remove the dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS concentrated during the recycling of white water (the process water to facilitate the reuse of white water and reduce fresh water consumption. However, membrane fouling limits the application of UF in this industry. In this study, super-clear filtrate obtained from a fine paper mill was purified with a polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration membrane to evaluate the reuse performance of the ultrafiltrate. The membrane foulants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the retention rate of stock and the strength properties of paper increased when the ultrafiltrate was reused in the papermaking process compared to when super-clear filtrate was used. The reversible membrane foulants during ultrafiltration accounted for 85.52% of the total foulants and primarily originated from retention aids, drainage aids, and wet strength resins, while the irreversible adsorptive foulants accounted for 14.48% and mostly came from sizing agents, coating chemicals, and others. Moreover, the presence of dissolved multivalent metal ions, especially Ca2+, accelerated membrane fouling.

  14. The Effect of Cellulose Acetate Concentration from Coconut Nira on Ultrafiltration Membrane Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulina, E.; Widyaningsih, S.; Kartika, D.; Romdoni, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Cellulose acetate is one of material in produce ultrafiltration membrane. Many efforts have been done to produce cellulose acetate from natural product to replace commercial one. In this research, ultrafiltration membrane has been produced from coconut flower water (nira). Ultrafiltration membrane is widely used in separation processes. This research aims to determine the characteristics of ultrafiltration membrane at a various concentration of cellulose acetate. The ultrafiltration membrane is conducted by phase inversion method at various concentration of cellulose acetate. The cellulose acetate concentration was 20%, 23% and 25% (w/w) with formamide as additives. The results showed that the greater the concentration of cellulose acetate, the smaller the flux value. The highest flux was a membrane with 20% cellulose acetate concentration with water flux value 55.34 L/(m2. h). But the greater the concentration of cellulose acetate the greater the rejection. The highest rejection value was on a membrane with 25% cellulose acetate concentration of 82.82%. While from the tensile strength test and the pore size analysis, the greater the cellulose acetate concentration the greater the tensile strength and the smaller the pore size

  15. Thin stillage fractionation using ultrafiltration: resistance in series model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2009-02-01

    The corn based dry grind process is the most widely used method in the US for fuel ethanol production. Fermentation of corn to ethanol produces whole stillage after ethanol is removed by distillation. It is centrifuged to separate thin stillage from wet grains. Thin stillage contains 5-10% solids. To concentrate solids of thin stillage, it requires evaporation of large amounts of water and maintenance of evaporators. Evaporator maintenance requires excess evaporator capacity at the facility, increasing capital expenses, requiring plant slowdowns or shut downs and results in revenue losses. Membrane filtration is one method that could lead to improved value of thin stillage and may offer an alternative to evaporation. Fractionation of thin stillage using ultrafiltration was conducted to evaluate membranes as an alternative to evaporators in the ethanol industry. Two regenerated cellulose membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 10 and 100 kDa were evaluated. Total solids (suspended and soluble) contents recovered through membrane separation process were similar to those from commercial evaporators. Permeate flux decline of thin stillage using a resistance in series model was determined. Each of the four components of total resistance was evaluated experimentally. Effects of operating variables such as transmembrane pressure and temperature on permeate flux rate and resistances were determined and optimum conditions for maximum flux rates were evaluated. Model equations were developed to evaluate the resistance components that are responsible for fouling and to predict total flux decline with respect to time. Modeling results were in agreement with experimental results (R(2) > 0.98).

  16. Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Multilayer Membranes Based on Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Livazovic, Sara

    2016-06-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose, has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. In the search for less harsh, greener membrane manufacture, the combination of cellulose and ionic liquid is of high interest. Due to the abundance of OH groups and hydrophilicity, cellulose-based membranes have high permeability and low fouling tendency. Membrane fouling is one of the biggest challenges in membrane industry and technology. Accumulation and deposition of foulants onto the surface reduce membrane efficiency and requires harsh chemical cleaning, therefore increasing the cost of maintenance and replacement. In this work the resistance of cellulose 5 membranes towards model organic foulants such as Suwanee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and crude oil have been investigated. Cellulose membrane was tested in this work for oil-water (o/w) separation and exhibited practically 100 % oil rejection with good flux recovery ratio and membrane resistivity. The influence of anionic, cationic and ionic surfactant as well as pH and crude oil concentration on oil separation was investigated, giving a valuable insight in experimental and operational planning.

  17. Measurements of serum-free thyroid hormone concentrations by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Norimichi; Hagiwara, Kohji; Taguchi, Hideo; Murakami, Shigeki; Taguchi, Shizuko

    1987-01-01

    An ultrafiltration method (UF) for measuring free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) using the Diaflow YM membrane (Centricon-10) is described. The results are compared with those by equilibrium dialysis (ED) and also by mathematical calculations derived from T 4 , T 3 , and binding protein concentrations. The precision with the UF method was excellent. The normal ranges of FT 4 and FT 3 by the three methods are all comparable. There was a high degree of correlation of FT 4 or FT 3 results by UF with those by ED and by calculation (r = 0.940 - 0.974, n = 161, P 4 and FT 3 by all methods agreed well for hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and for patients with low T 4 -binding globulin. The mean FT 3 in pregnancy was lower than the normal value for all methods, and FT 4 concentrations by UF and calculation also decreased in late pregnancy. The mean FT 4 by UF and ED in low T 3 syndrome were significantly higher than in the normal controls, while the calculated FT 4 was lower. The FT 3 in low T 3 syndrome distributed normal to subnormal in all methods. These results indicate that a) the UF method is a reliable reference method for measuring FT 4 and FT 3 concentrations; b) the UF results agree well with those by ED and also with theoretically derived values in subjects with thyroid diseases and TBG abnormalities; c) for patients with low T 3 syndrome, the FT 4 results obtained by UF and ED are similarly discrepant from the calculated results, implying the existence of binding inhibitor(s) which affect both UF and ED measurements. (author)

  18. Opening talk given by M. Dominique Maillard at the professional colloquium of the French federation of fuels; Discours d'ouverture prononce par M. Dominique Maillard au colloque professionnel de la Federation francaise des combustibles et des carburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This talk, given by D. Maillard, general director of energy and raw materials, presents first the 2004 world situation of petroleum products in terms of prices and production capacity and the role played by investment funds in this situation. Then, he proposes some short-term actions to be implemented: encouraging investment efforts in exploration-production, preservation of strategic stocks, influencing the consumers behaviour in order to reduce the demand, assigning exceptional financial helps to professionals whose activity is threatened by the rise of petroleum products price. In the last part of his talk, D. Maillard wants to reassure the petroleum products retailers about the evolutions of their profession in this context of prices inflation. The government will harmonize the tax discrepancies between natural gas and gas oil and will ensure the equilibrium between the different forms of trade in the petroleum products sector in order to maintain a sound competition between the small and big retailers. (J.S.)

  19. Maillard Conjugation of Sodium Alginate to Whey Protein for Enhanced Resistance to Surfactant-Induced Competitive Displacement from Air-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingqing; Saito, Anna; Ikeda, Shinya

    2018-01-24

    Whey protein adsorbed to an interface forms a viscoelastic interfacial film but is displaced competitively from the interface by a small-molecule surfactant added afterward. The present study evaluated the impact of the covalent conjugation of high- or low-molecular-weight sodium alginate (HA or LA) to whey protein isolate (WPI) via the Maillard reaction on the ability of whey protein to resist surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface. Surfactant added after the pre-adsorption of conjugate to the interface increased surface pressure. At a given surface pressure, the WPI-LA conjugate showed a significantly higher interfacial area coverage and lower interfacial film thickness compared to those of the WPI-HA conjugate or unconjugated WPI. The addition of LA to the aqueous phase had little effect on the interfacial area and thickness of pre-adsorbed WPI. These results suggest the importance of the molecular weight of the polysaccharide moiety in determining interfacial properties of whey protein-alginate conjugates.

  20. Combining electrophoresis with detection under ultraviolet light and multiple ultrafiltration for isolation of humic fluorescence fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskaya, Olga E; Shaloiko, Lubov A; Demin, Dmitrii V; Marchenkov, Victor V; Proskuryakov, Ivan I; Coelho, Christian; Trubetskoj, Oleg A

    2011-04-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of chernozem soil humic acids (HAs) followed by observation under UV (312 nm) excitation light reveals new low molecular weight (MW) fluorescent fractions. Ultrafiltration of HAs sample in 7 M urea on a membrane of low nominal MW retention (NMWR, 5 kDa) was repetitively used for separation of fluorescent and non-fluorescent species. Thirty ultrafiltrates and the final retentate R were obtained. Fluorescence maxima of separate ultrafiltrates were different and non-monotonously changed in the range of 475-505 nm. Fluorescence maxima of less than 490 nm were detected only in the four first utrafiltrates. For further physical-chemical analyses all utrafiltrates were combined into a fraction called UFchernozem soil HAs complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and utilization of the permeate and retentate obtained after “dead-end” ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, with the increase in bioethanol production, the increasing amounts of distillery wastewater are generated. Such wastewater (stillage is one of the most polluted waste product of the food and beverage industries. The present study evaluates the treatment of distillery wastewater by ultrafiltration (UF, in order to reduce its pollution and evaluate the composition of the permeate and retentate. Polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO 30000 Da, was used for the experiments. The UF was carried out in dead-end mode. The results of the analyses of the permeate and retentate obtained after ultrafiltration were considered as well as different ways for their further utilization. The pollutant level in the permeate was decreased significantly in comparison to the raw stillage, and suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  2. [Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics in decompensated heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ying-ying; Tang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping

    2013-08-13

    To explore whether ultrafiltration is superior to intravenous diuretics in ameliorating fluid overload and preserving renal functions in decompensated heart failure patients. By searching in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Springer, WanFang, CQVIP, CNKI and CBM database as well as related Chinese journals, qualified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included for meta-analysis by Revman 5.0 and STATA 10.0. Six RCTs were included with 241 patients in ultrafiltration group and 240 patients in intravenous diuretics group. Pooled analyses demonstrated ultrafiltration was superior to intravenous diuretics in the aspects of weight loss (WMD = 1.44 kg, 95%CI:0.33-2.55 kg, P = 0.01) and fluid removal (WMD = 1.23 kg, 95%CI:0.63-1.82 kg, P diuretics in mitigating fluid overload. No intergroup difference was observed in renal function preservation, mortality or rehospitalization.

  3. Separation of racemic mixture by ultrafiltration of enantioselective micelles. 1 Effect of pH on separation and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdevest, P.E.M.; Bruin, de T.J.M.; Riet, van 't K.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Padt, van der A.

    2001-01-01

    Many enantiomer separation systems are studied to meet the increasing demand for enantiopure compounds. One way to obtain pure enantiomers is to apply enantioselective micelles in ultrafiltration systems. We have studied the separation of phenylalanine (Phe) enantiomers by the ultrafiltration of

  4. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N.; Drouiche, N.; Lounici, H.; Pauss, A.; Goosen, M.F.A.; Mameri, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m −2 bar −1 . However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ► Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ► Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ► Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ► Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. ► The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  5. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  6. Efecto de la ingesta de compuestos avanzados de la reacción de Maillard sobre el metabolismo gastrointestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastoriza de la Cueva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    La realización de la presente tesis doctoral se ha llevado a cabo gracias a un contrato de Técnico Superior de Laboratorio adscrito al Proyecto de Excelencia concedido por la Junta de Andalucía (AGR-4135) denominado "Repercusiones de la ingesta de compuestos avanzados de la reacción de Maillard sobre el metabolismo gastrointestinal y óseo".

  7. Treatment of simulated plutonium-containing wastewater by ultrafiltration-reverse osmosis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhonghua; Fan Xianhua; Luo Deli; Wang Tuo; Chen Qi

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis were employed for the treatment of low level radioactive water containing plutonium. The system consists of ultrafiltration module with hollow fibre membrane and reverse osmosis module with spiral membrane. The decontamination efficiency and volume concentration ratio affected by technical parameters were explored in the experiment. The results show that the decontamination efficiency achieves 99.94% and the volume concentration ratio achieves 12.5 at pH=10 for solution fed into the membrane separation system. This technology will be applied in radioactive waste minimization as a new treatment method. (authors)

  8. The rapid determination of americium curium, and uranium in urine by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.N.; Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Griffin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid ultrafiltration method developed for the assay of plutonium has been extended to the determination of americium, curium and uranium in urine. The limits of detection for americium and curium, and uranium are 0.09 and 0.12 dm -1 l -1 respectively, and the analysis time excluding counting less than 2 hours. The method can therefor be effectively used as a rapid screening procedure. When the reference level for plutonium is exceeded, the α activity may require to be characterised. The single ultrafiltration technique must be modified for turbid urine samples. The method is inappropriate, except for uranium, when the urine contains DTPA. (author)

  9. Decolourisations and biodegradations of model azo dye solutions using a sequence batch reactor, followed by ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, J.; Ploder, J.; Trček, J.

    2018-01-01

    RNA gene and ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequence analysis, respectively. Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella oxytoca were the most common bacteria with the highest number present during the aerobic and anaerobic phases of the bioprocess. In addition, a high number of Elizabethkingia miricola, Morganella morganii......, Comamonas testosteroni, Trichosporon sp. and Galactomyces sp. were detected. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the sequencing batch reactor system combined with ultrafiltration is an efficient technique for treatment of wastewater containing azo dye. Moreover, the ultrafiltration effectively...

  10. Predicting optimal back-shock times in ultrafiltration hollow fibre modules through path-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Pinelo, Manuel; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a two dimensional mathematical model of back-shocking in ultrafiltration. The model investigates the effect of back-shocking on concentration polarization. The model shows a positive effect on both the volumetric flux and the observed rejection when back-shocking is applied as...

  11. Mass transfer in corrugated-plate membrane modules. II. Ultrafiltration experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.J.; Stevanovic, S.; Racz, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    The application of corrugations as turbulence promoters in membrane filtration was studied. In ultrafiltration experiments with polysulfone membranes using Dextran T70 as solute, it was found that the corrugations result in reduced energy consumption or pressure drop compared with flat membranes at

  12. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions by means of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of micellar–enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF for removal of copper ions from water solutions in comparison with classic ultrafiltration process. The tests were conducted in a semi–pilot membrane installation with the use of ultrafiltration module KOCH/ROMICON® at a transmembrane pressure of 0.05 MPa. The effect of concentration of copper ions on ultrafiltration process efficiency was investigated. The second part of the tests concerned the removal of copper ions by MEUF under wide range of anionic surfactant concentration (0.25, 1, and 5 CMC (critical micelle concentration. Concentration of copper ions in model solutions was equal to 5, 20, and 50 mg Cu/L. Furthermore, the effect of surfactant leakage to the permeate side during filtration was evaluated. Conducted experiments confirmed effectiveness of MEUF in copper ions removal. For the highest copper concentration in the feed (i.e. 50 mg/L, the average concentration of copper ions in the permeate ranged from 1.2–4.7 mg Cu/L depending on surfactant concentration. During filtration experiments, UF module exhibited stable transport properties for model solutions containing copper. For the highest concentration of metal, the decrease of permeate flux did not exceed 11% after 60 minutes of filtration. In the presence of the surfactant, a slight deterioration of transport properties was observed.

  13. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  14. A New Concept of Ultrafiltration Fouling Control : Backwashing with Low Ionic Strength Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is a proven technology in water treatment nowadays. However, fouling remains a major challenge in the operation of UF, especially in regard to colloidal NOM fouling. In general, a number of colloidal NOM fouling mechanisms may occur, such as adsorption, gel formation. Colloidal

  15. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  16. The difference in causes of early and late ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Watske; Parikova, Alena; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis. Although it seems associated with long-term treatment, it can also occur in recently started patients. To identify the causes of this complication in patients with early and late UFF we studied a group of 48

  17. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Marinated herring processing brines, which are usually discarded, are rich in salt, protein, non-protein nitrogen, iron, fatty acids, antioxidant and even possess enzymatic activity. This study investigated the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration of two herring spice brines with a major focus...

  18. Flux limitation in ultrafiltration: Osmotic pressure model and gel layer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Nakao, S.; Smolders, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic permeate flux behaviour in ultrafiltration, i.e., the existence of a limiting flux which is independent of applied pressure and membrane resistance and a linear plot of the limiting flux versus the logarithm of the feed concentration, is explained by the osmotic pressure model. In

  19. Ultrafiltration of protein solutions; the role of protein association in rejection and osmotic pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.B.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Smolders, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The monomer-dimer equilibrium of the protein β-lactoglobulin under neutral conditions appears to influence the rejection and the osmotic pressure build-up, both phenomena closely related to ultrafiltration. Rejection measurements indicate different rejections for the β-lactoglobulin monomers and

  20. Optimisation of ultrafiltration of a highly viscous protein solution using spiral-wound modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipnizki, Jens; Casani, S.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2005-01-01

    The ultrafiltration process of highly viscous protein process water with spiral-wound modules was optimised by analysing the fouling and developing a strategy to reduce it. It was shown that the flux reduction during filtration is mainly caused by the adsorption of proteins on the membrane and no...

  1. Slow ultrafiltration for continuous in vivo sampling : application for glucose and lactate in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, RG; Kaptein, WA; Venema, K; Korf, J

    1999-01-01

    Background: An ultrafiltration (UF) technique was developed for continuous subcutaneous (s.c.) sampling and on-line analysis of absolute glucose and lactate concentrations in tissue. The relation between subcutaneous and blood concentrations was studied in men, because a subcutaneous monitoring

  2. Purification of Drug Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Prepared by Emulsification Solvent Evaporation Using Stirred Cell Ultrafiltration Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Suresh K; Saini, T R

    2017-12-01

    The emulsifiers in an exceedingly higher level are used in the preparation of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This creates great problem to the formulator due to their serious toxicities when it is to be administered by parenteral route. The final product is therefore required to be freed from the used surfactants by the conventional purification techniques which is a cumbersome job. The solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration unit (Millipore) was used in this study using polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane (Biomax®) having pore size of NMWL 300 KDa as the membrane filter. The purification efficiency of this technique was compared with the conventional centrifugation technique. The flow rate of ultrafiltration was optimized for removal of surfactant (polyvinyl alcohol) impurities to the acceptable levels in 1-3.5 h from the nanoparticle dispersion of tamoxifen prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. The present investigations demonstrate the application of solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration technique for removal of toxic impurities of surfactant (PVA) from the polymeric drug nanoparticles (tamoxifen) prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This technique offers added benefit of producing more concentrated nanoparticles dispersion without causing significant particle size growth which is observed in other purification techniques, e.g., centrifugation and ultracentrifugation.

  3. Non-aqueous retention measurement: ultrafiltration behaviour of polystyrene solutions and colloidal silver particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage, M.A.M.; Beerlage, M.A.M.; Heijnen, M.L.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The retention behaviour of polyimide ultrafiltration membranes was investigated using dilute solutions of polystyrene in ethyl acetate as test solutions. It is shown that flow-induced deformation of the polystyrene chains highly affects the membrane retention. This coil-stretch transition is not

  4. Analysis of ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis patients by means of standard peritoneal permeability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho-Dac-Pannekeet, M. M.; Atasever, B.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment that occurs especially in long-term patients. Etiological factors include a large effective peritoneal surface area [measured as high mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) of creatinine], a high

  5. Icodextrin with nitroprusside increases ultrafiltration and peritoneal transport during long CAPD dwells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; Hiralall, J. K.; de Waart, D. R.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    Addition of the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroprusside to 1.36% glucose dialysate enlarges the effective peritoneal surface area during four-hour dwells. The theoretical positive effect on ultrafiltration is, however, counteracted by an increase in glucose absorption. The absorption of the glucose

  6. Crossflow ultrafiltration of raw municipal wastewater : Investigations using PVDF tubular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravazzini, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the usual wastewater treatment schemes the application of membranes follows a biological process. However, ultrafiltration of untreated wastewater produces permeate free of particles and bacteria in one single step and could represent the starting point for new water-reuse concepts. This thesis

  7. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  8. A survey of structure characterization methods for ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, C.A.; Mulder, M.H.V.; van der Velden, P.M.

    1976-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes consist of a thin skin, which is permselective to certain molecules in solution, and a porous support, serving as a mechanical support layer and also as a transport layer for the permeate. Both in ultrafiltration and in hyperfiltration (reverse osmosis) asymmetric membranes are

  9. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  10. UV/H2O2 process performance improvement by ultrafiltration and physicochemical clarification systems for industrial effluent pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the removal of TOC from an effluent with high organic load resulted from the treatment of oil-water emulsion by thermal process. Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration membrane (HF-UF and physicochemical clarification process were used as pretreatment options to assess the influence of feed effluent quality on the UV/H2O2 oxidation process. Results for TOC removals showed HF-UF and physicochemical clarification processes can significantly improve the efficiency of UV/H2O2 oxidation process, when compared with the direct effluent oxidation. Reaction time for obtaining a TOC removal higher than 90% was reduced to approximately half of the time needed when no pretreatment was applied. Considering both pretreatment processes it was not possible to notice any significant difference on the UV/H2O2 oxidation process performance. However, the complexity of physicochemical process due to the use of three different chemicals and sludge production made the HF-UF process the best pretreatment alternative, without increasing the Total Dissolved Solids of the effluent, a very important issue when water reuse is considered.

  11. The evaluation of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and celite concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses and bacteriophage from different water matrices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data to support the evaluation of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and celite concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses and bacteriophage from different water...

  12. Ultrafiltration technique in conjunction with competing ligand exchange method for Ni–humics speciation in aquatic environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Boissel, M.; Reuillon, A.; Babu, P.V.R.; Parthiban, G.

    The combination of ultrafiltration technique with competing ligand exchange method provides a better understanding of interactions between Ni and different molecular weight fractions of humic acid (HA) at varying pH in aquatic environment...

  13. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF). The high......Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF...

  14. Phenolic compounds reduce formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine and pyrazines formed by Maillard reactions in a model bread system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Siger, Aleksander; Szwengiel, Artur; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata

    2017-09-15

    This study had the objective of determining the antiglycation activity of phenolic compounds (PCs) ((+)-catechin, quercetin, gallic, ferulic, and caffeic acids) added to a model bread with regards to the inhibition of N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) formation. PCs were found to significantly reduce CML (31.77%-87.56%), even at the lowest concentration, with the exception of ferulic acid (FA). The strongest inhibitory effect of FA (∼62%) appeared when concentration was increased to 1.0g/100g of flour. The available lysine losses (0.00%-90.51%) showed a significant correlation (0.853-0.990) with effectiveness of CML inhibition, except in the case of samples with FA. (+)-Catechin reduced CML levels the most, probably due to its structure-antioxidant activity relationship, its thermal stability (∼51% loss), and its reactivity with ε-lysine side chains (∼40.77% loss). Although the bread supplemented with PCs contained low levels of CML, this process may adversely affect bread flavor, reducing the formation of pyrazines (1.10%-80.77%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Faox enzymes inhibited Maillard reaction development during storage both in protein glucose model system and low lactose UHT milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Dathan, N.A.; Fiore, A.; Roviello, G.; Fiore, Di A.; Caira, S.; Cuollo, M.; Simone, De G.; Fogliano, V.; Monti, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fructosamines, also known asAmadori products, are formed by the condensation of glucose with the amino group of amino acids or proteins. These compounds are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can be formed either endogenously during aging and diabetes, and exogenously in

  16. Glycation of human cortical and cancellous bone captures differences in the formation of Maillard reaction products between glucose and ribose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna E Sroga

    Full Text Available To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25-30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation or ribose (ribosylation. Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women. More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples. Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar supplementation in food and drinks.

  17. Fouling reduction by ozone-enhanced backwashing process in ultrafiltration of petroleum-based oil in water emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, Nita; Prihatiningtyas, Indah; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko

    2017-06-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane has been successfully applied for oily waste water treatment. However, one significant drawback of membrane technology is fouling which is responsible for permeate flux decline as well as reducing membrane performance. One method commonly used to reduce fouling is a backwashing process. The backwashing is carried out by a push of reversed flow from permeate side to the feed side of a membrane to remove fouling on the membrane pore and release fouling release fouling layer on the external side. However, for adsorptive fouling, the backwashing process was not effective. On the other hand, Ozone demonstrated great performance for reducing organics fouling. Hence this research was focused on backwashing process with ozone for removing fouling due to ultrafiltration of petroleum based oil emulsion. Gasoline and diesel oil were selected as dispersed phase, while as continuous phase was water added with Tween 80 as a surfactant. This research found that the Ozone backwashing was effective to improve flux recovery. In ultrafiltration of gasoline emulsion, the flux recovery after Ozone backwashing was in the range of 42-74%. For ultrafiltration of diesel oil emulsion, the permeate flux recovery was about 35-84%. In addition, foulant deposition was proposed and predicting that foulant deposition for ultrafiltration of gasoline-in-water emulsion was surfactant as the top layer and the oil was underneath the surfactant. On the other hand, for ultrafiltration of diesel oil-in-water emulsion, the oil was predicted as a top layer above the surfactant foulant.

  18. Energy rationalization in the dairy industry through the use of ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faletti, L; Peri, C

    1987-02-01

    This study is one of several made by Italian universities on behalf of ENEL to razionalize the energy demand pattern of some industrial branches and identify, among the various solutions, those that might bring about primary energy saving through the use of electricity. Specifically, this study was undertaken to verify the applicability of certain diaphragm separation technologies such as ultrafiltration in Italy, and to assess their energy-efficiency in terms of primary energy. Research carried out on this subject and the industrial experience of the last years point to the possibility of using ultrafiltration in the manufacture of typical soft cheese in direct competition with conventional technologies. The expected benefits of greater yield and energy saving are of great national economic relevance, since Italy imports both the raw material (milk) and energy resources.

  19. EFFICIENCY OF ULTRAFILTRATION CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR TOXIC ELEMENTS REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alami Younssi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of porous ceramics multilayer ultrafiltration membrane is described. The first step consisted to prepare high-quality macroporous support in Moroccan clay. The choice of this material is based on its natural abundance and thermal stability.The microporous interlayer was then prepared by slip casting from zirconia commercial powders and finally the active UF toplayers was obtained by sol-gel route using ZnAl2O4 and TiO2 mixed sols. The performance of ultrafiltration membrane (TiO2 (50�20– ZnAl2O4 (50� was evaluated by pores diameter, water flux, thickness and molecular weight cut off (MWCO. The water permeability measured for this composite membrane is 9.42 L/(m2•h•bar, the thickness is less than 700 nm, the pore diameter is centered near 5 nm and the MWCO was about 4500 Da.

  20. Deposition of thin ultrafiltration membranes on commercial SiC microfiltration tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facciotti, Marco; Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Porous SiC based materials present high mechanical, chemical and thermal robustness, and thus have been largely applied to water-filtration technologies. In this study, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes with nominal pore size of 0.04 m were used as carrier for depositing thin aluminium oxide....... After 5 times coating, a 5.6 µm thick γ-Al2O3 layer was obtained. This membrane shows retention of ~75% for polyethylene glycol molecules with Mn of 8 and 35 kDa, indicating that, despite their intrinsic surface roughness, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes can be applied as carrier for thin...... ultrafiltration membranes. This work also indicates that an improvement of the commercial SiC support surface smoothness may greatly enhance permeance and selectivity of Υ-Al2O3 ultrafiltration membranes by allowing the deposition of thinner defect-free layers....

  1. Processing used nuclear fuel with nanoscale control of uranium and ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Ernest M.; Peruski, Kathryn M.; Prizio, Sarah E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bridges, Andrea N.A.; Rudisill, Tracy S.; Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Phillip, William A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Current separation and purification technologies utilized in the nuclear fuel cycle rely primarily on liquid–liquid extraction and ion-exchange processes. Here, we report a laboratory-scale aqueous process that demonstrates nanoscale control for the recovery of uranium from simulated used nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL). The selective, hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative dissolution of SIMFUEL material results in the rapid assembly of persistent uranyl peroxide nanocluster species that can be separated and recovered at moderate to high yield from other process-soluble constituents using sequestration-assisted ultrafiltration. Implementation of size-selective physical processes like filtration could results in an overall simplification of nuclear fuel cycle technology, improving the environmental consequences of nuclear energy and reducing costs of processing. - Highlights: • Nanoscale control in irradiated fuel reprocessing. • Ultrafiltration to recover uranyl cage clusters. • Alternative to solvent extraction for uranium purification.

  2. More Efficient Sodium Removal by Ultrafiltration Compared to Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure; Underexplored and Overstated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazory, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced removal of sodium has often been cited as an advantage of ultrafiltration (UF) therapy over diuretic-based medical treatment in the management of acute decompensated heart failure. However, so far clinical studies have rarely evaluated the precise magnitude of sodium removal, and this assumption is largely based on the physiologic mechanisms and anecdotal observations that predate the contemporary management of heart failure. Recent data suggest that patients treated with UF experience substantial reduction in urinary sodium excretion possibly due to prolonged intravascular volume contraction. Consequently, the efficient sodium extraction through production of isotonic ultrafiltrate can be offset by urine hypotonicity. Based on the limited currently available data, it seems unlikely that the persistent benefits of UF could be solely explained by its greater efficiency in sodium removal. The design of the future studies should include frequent measurements of urine sodium to precisely compare the impact of UF and diuretics on sodium balance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Enhancing performance and surface antifouling properties of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with salicylate-alumoxane nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Samaneh; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shamsabadi, Ahmad Arabi; Habibzadeh, Setareh; Soroush, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration membranes, we studied the use of salicylate-alumoxane (SA) nanoparticles as a novel hydrophilic additive. The effects of SA nanoparticles on the membrane characteristics and performance were investigated in terms of membrane structure, permeation flux, solute rejection, hydrophilicity, and antifouling ability. The new mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) possess asymmetric structures. They have smaller finger-like pores and smoother surfaces than the neat PS membranes. The embedment of SA nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and the improvement of surface hydrophilicity were investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the pure-water flux of the new MMMs initially increases with SA nanoparticles loading followed by a decrease at high loadings. Higher BSA solution flux was achieved for the MMMs compared to the neat PS membranes. Membranes with 1 wt.% SA nanoparticles exhibit the highest flux recovery ratio of 87% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 13%.

  4. The processing of used cooking oil (yellow grease) using combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnelly, C. M.; Sofyana; Amalia, D.; Sarah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Yellow grease is used cooking oil whose quality has degraded due to the oxidation, polymerization, or hydrolysis process. In previous studies, yellow grease refining had been conducted either by adsorption or by using membrane. In this study, adsorption process using adsorbent from bagasse activated with H3PO4 12.5%, and ultrafiltration using Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane were combined. In adsorption stage, several variation of bagasse mass was fed into 200 ml of yellow grease and stirred for 60 minutes at 60 rpm. Yellow grease produced from adsorption with best condition was then processed using ultrafiltration membran that is PES membran with concentration by 15 wt % with transmembrane pressure variation by 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; and 2.5 Bar. Analysis of yellow grease characteristics before refined showed its acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content respectively by 2.68 mgKOH/Kg; 5.97 Meq/Kg; 51,48; and 1.29%. Characteristics of yellow grease after adsorption at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 2.55 mgKOH/Kg; 4.19 Meq/Kg; 40,02; and 0.27%. Characteristics of yellow grease after ultrafiltration at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 1.12 mgKOH/Kg; 1.8 Meq/Kg; 41,36; and 0.02%. Combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration processes for yellow grease processing showed decreasing value on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, and water content that conforms to the SNI quality standard, but has not been able to increase the iodine number.

  5. The use of ultrafiltration for the clean-up of alkaline Pu containing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Gutman, R.G.

    1983-07-01

    Ultrafiltration has been used to clean up low level Pu solutions at high pH. The decontamination factors achieved were greater than 1000 and were significantly higher than those attained by sedimentation or centrifugation. The results confirmed the findings of earlier work based on the use of Th as a simulant for Pu. A preliminary flowsheet for the decontamination of Pu oxalate liquors is proposed. (author)

  6. Removal of phenol from synthetic waste water using Gemini micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (GMEUF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wei, Jia [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A2 (Canada); Li, Huiqin; Zheng, Rubing; Zhou, Ya [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gemini surfactant micellar enhanced ultrafiltration was used to remove phenol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of different hydrophilic head groups of surfactant was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM, ATR-FTIR and mercury porosimeter were applied to elucidate membrane fouling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gemini surfactant had superior performance in comparing with conventional surfactant. - Abstract: Comprehensive studies were conducted on the phenol wastewater ultrafiltration (UF) with the help of various concentrations of cationic Gemini surfactant (N1-dodecyl-N1,N1,N2,N2-tetramethyl-N2-octylethane-1,2-diaminium bromide, CG), conventional cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and nonionic surfactant ((dodecyloxy)polyethoxyethanol, Brij35). A flat sheet module with polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was employed in this investigation. The effects of feed concentration (phenol and surfactant) on the retention of phenol and surfactant, permeate flux and membrane fouling by micelles were evaluated. The distribution coefficient (D), the loading of the micelles (L{sub m}) and the equilibrium distribution constant (K) were also utilized to estimate the micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration ability for phenol. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR-FTIR) and mercury porosimeter were applied to analyze membrane surface morphology, membrane material characteristics and membrane fouling for the original and fouled membranes. Based on the above analysis, the performance of the selected Gemini surfactant was proved superior in the following aspects: retention of phenol/surfactant (peak value is 95.8% for phenol retention), permeate flux and membrane fouling with respect to other conventional surfactants possessing equal alkyl chain length. These results demonstrated

  7. Hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration of a simulated secondary treatment wastewater. Process and fouling modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Cabezas, José Luis; Vincent Vela, Maria Cinta; Mendoza Roca, José Antonio; Martínez Francisco, Francisco Juan

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that there is a scarcity of drinking and irrigation water around the world nowadays. According to the United Nations, water scarcity affects 1.2 billion people (one-fifth of the world's population) and the water use has been growing at twice the rate of population increase in the last century. This fact makes the reuse of the wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) an interesting option. Ultrafiltration after the secondary settling is becoming more f...

  8. Decontamination by ultrafiltration of low radioactivity waste water from fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    It could be demonstrated that waste waters which contain uranium in a filterable form, such as laundry and floor-cleaning waste, can be sufficiently decontaminated by means of ultra-filtration. In the case of process waste solutions, which contain uranium in a dissolved form, high decontamination factors could be achieved by means of flocculation or coprecipitation. The following methods were tested: - flocculation with Fe (OH) 3 , - coprecipitation with CaHPO 4 , - precipitation with K 4 (Fe(CN) 6 ). The phosphate precipitation, whereby the uranium is probably coprecipitated as Ca(UO 2 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2 , was found to be the most reliable method. Difficulties were encountered when complex-forming anions, notably carbonate, oxalate and fluoride were present. These necessitate specific pretreatment steps. Whether ultrafiltration then still remains an economical option must be judged in each individual case. The application of the methods so far developed on combined waste streams remains an object for further research. In combination with a phosphate precipitation, ultrafiltration is a suitable method for the decontamination of low-activity, uranium-contaminated waste waters

  9. [Study on the interface of human hepatocyte/micropore polypropylene ultrafiltration membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Hong; Han, Bao-San; Gao, Chang-You; Ma, Zu-Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Yong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Gui-di; Yang, Mei-Juan

    2004-09-02

    To found a new interface of human hepatocyte/micropore polypropylene ultrafiltration membrane (MPP) with good cytocompatibility so as to construct bioartificial bioreactor with polypropylene hollow fibers in future. MPP ultrafiltration membrane underwent chemical grafting modification through ultraviolet irradiation and Fe(2+) reduction. The contact angles of MPP and the modified MPP membranes were measured. Human hepatic cells L-02 were cultured. MPP and modified MPP membranes were spread on the wells of culture plate and human hepatic cells and cytodex 3 were inoculated on them. Different kinds of microscopy were used to observe the morphology of these cells. The water contact angle of MPP and the modified MPP membranes decreased from 78 degrees +/- 5 degrees to 27 degrees +/- 4 degrees (P < 0.05), which indicated that the hydrophilicity of the membrane was improved obviously after the grafting modification. Human hepatocyte L-02 did not adhere to and spread on the modified MPP membrane surface, and only grew on the microcarrier cytodex 3 with higher density and higher proliferation ratio measured by MTT. Grafting modification of acrylamide on MPP membrane is a good method to improve the human hepatocyte cytocompatibility with MPP ultrafiltration membrane.

  10. Enhanced starch hydrolysis using α-amylase immobilized on cellulose ultrafiltration affinity membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Viktoriia; Guzikevich, Kateryna; Burban, Anatoliy; Kujawski, Wojciech; Jarzynka, Karolina; Kujawa, Joanna

    2016-11-05

    In order to prepare ultrafiltration membranes possessing biocatalytic properties, α-amylase has been immobilized on cellulose membranes. Enzyme immobilization was based on a covalent bonding between chitosan and a surface of cellulose membrane, followed by an attachment of Cibacron Blue F3G-A dye as affinity ligand. Various factors affecting the immobilization process, such as enzyme concentration, pH of modifying solution, zeta-potential of membrane surface, and stability of immobilized enzyme were studied. The applicability of immobilized α-amylase has been investigated in ultrafiltration processes. The immobilization of α-amylase on membrane surface allows to increase the value of mass transfer coefficient and to decrease the concentration polarization effect during ultrafiltration of starch solutions. The enzyme layer on the membrane surface prevents a rapid increase of starch concentration due to the amylase hydrolysis of starch in the boundary layer. The presented affinity immobilization technique allows also for the regeneration of membranes from inactivated enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ceramic membrane by tape casting and sol-gel coating for microfiltration and ultrafiltration application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandini; Maiti, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    Alumina membrane filters in the form of thin (0.3-0.8 mm) discs of 25-30 mm diameter suitable for microfiltration application have been fabricated by tape-casting technique. Further using this microfiltration membrane as substrate, boehmite sol coating was applied on it and ultrafiltration membrane with very small thickness was formed. The pore size of the microfiltration membrane could be varied in the range of 0.1-0.7 μm through optimisation of experimental parameter. In addition, each membrane shows a very narrow pore size distribution. The most important factor, which determines the pore size of the membrane, is the initial particle size and its distribution of the ceramic powder. The top thin ultrafiltration, boehmite layer was prepared by sol-gel method, with a thickness of 0.5 μm. Particle size of the sol was approximately 30-40 nm. The structure and formation of the layer was analysed through TEM. At 550 °C formation of the top layer was completed. The pore size of the ultrafiltration membrane measured from TEM micrograph was almost 10 nm. Results of microbial (Escherichia coli—smallest-sized water-borne bacteria) test confirm the possibility of separation through this membrane

  12. Pretreatment with ceramic membrane microfiltration in the clarification process of sugarcane juice by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla dos Santos Gaschi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the sugar cane juice from COCAFE Mill, was clarified using tubular ceramic membranes (α-Al2O3/TiO2 with pore size of 0.1 and 0.3 µm, and membrane area of 0.005 m2. Experiments were performed in batch with sugar cane juice, in a pilot unit of micro and ultrafiltration using the principle of tangential filtration. The sugar cane juice was settled for one hour and the supernatant was treated by microfiltration. After that, the MF permeate was ultrafiltered. The experiments of micro and ultrafiltration were carried out at 65ºC and 1 bar. The ceramic membranes were able to remove the colloidal particles, producing a limpid permeated juice with color reduction. The clarification process with micro- followed by ultrafiltration produced a good result with an average purity rise of 2.74 units, 99.4% lower turbidity and 44.8% lighter color in the permeate.

  13. Preparation of ultrafiltration membrane by phase separation coupled with microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryani, Puput Eka [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang 50275, Central Java (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani, Surakarta 57102, Central Java (Indonesia); Purnama, Herry [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani, Surakarta 57102, Central Java (Indonesia); Susanto, Heru, E-mail: heru.susanto@undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang 50275, Central Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membrane is still a big challenge in the membrane field. In this paper, polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) coupled with microwave irradiation. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) were used as additives to improve membrane hydrophilicity. In this study, the concentration of additive, irradiation time and microwave power was varied. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the performances were tested by adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling experiments. The results show that the irradiation time and irradiation power are very important parameter that influence the membrane characteristic. In addition, type and concentration of additive are other important parameters. The results suggest that microwave irradiation is the most important parameter influencing the membrane characteristic. Both pure water flux and fouling resistance increase with increasing irradiation time, power irradiation, and additive concentration. PES membrane with addition of 10% w/w PEG and irradiated by 130 W microwave power for 180 seconds is the best membrane performance.

  14. FLUX PROFILES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF FOULING MECHANISM FOR ULTRAFILTRATION OF KONJAC GLUCOMANNAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITA ARYANTI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on principles and fouling analysis of konjac glucomannan (KGM separation using ultrafiltration system. Two Polyethersulfone membranes (PES having molecular weight cut-off of 10 and 20 kDa were used. It was found that membrane having larger pore size provided higher flux profiles. Evaluation of different transmembrane pressures resulted on possibility of more severe fouling at higher membrane pressure. With the increase of konjac glucomannan concentration, decrease of profile flux was observed. Further, a simple mathematical modelling of fouling mechanism was analyzed based on Hermia’s model. The images of membrane surfaces and cross-sections obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM were examined and being compared with the model. The research found that the fouling mechanisms of KGM ultrafiltration using membrane with pore size of 10 kDa was complete blocking. On the contrary, cake/gel layer formation was a fouling mechanism for ultrafiltration system with pore size of 20kDa.

  15. Fouling Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Papermaking Process Water on Polyethersulfone Ultrafiltration Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the papermaking industry, closure of process water (whitewater circuits has been used to reduce fresh water consumption. Membrane separation technology has potential for use in treating process water for recirculation. The purpose of this study was to reveal the fouling characteristics of a polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration membrane caused by dissolved organic matter (DOM in process water. Ultrafiltration membranes (UF and DAX ion exchange resins were applied to characterize the molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity distribution of DOM. The interactions between various fractions of DOM and a PES ultrafiltration membrane were investigated. The membrane fouling characteristics were elucidated by examining the filtration resistances and linearized Herman’s blocking models. The results demonstrated that the membrane was fouled significantly by much of the MW distribution. The membrane was fouled more significantly by the low MW fraction rather than the high MW fraction. The filtration resistances and the fitted equation of Hermia’s laws indicated that hydrophilic organics were the main foulants. The hydrophilic organics partially block the membrane pores and form intermediate blocking, reducing the effective filtration area, while the hydrophobic organics form a gel layer or cake on the surface of the membrane.

  16. Increased saccharification of kallar grass using ultrafiltrated enzyme from sporrotrichum thermophile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, F.; Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The local wild type strain of sporotrichum thermophile when grown on untreated lingo cellulose was found to produce a greater level of B-glucosidase component along with other cellulase/xylanase components than most of the reported wild type potent strains. Culture filtrate obtained, when grown on 4% leptochloa fusca (kallar grass) was used as such and after concentration by ultrafiltration technique for saccharification purpose. Concentrated enzymes titre was increased to 1.2 and 4.0 U/ml for Fp-ase and B-glucosidase, respectively. There were losses in the enzyme titre obtained through ultrafiltration possibly due to adsorption on to the ultrafiltration membrane. Enzyme preparations used, saccharifide 5% kallar grass to 70, 55, 75 and 60% (theoretical basis) from cellulases of S. thermophile concentrate, dilute, T. reesei alone and in supplementation with B-glucosidase from A. niger, respectively. Analysis by HPLC revealed slightly higher glucose yield from S. thermophile enzyme preparations, whereas higher level of xylose was attained from T. reesei preparations. Rest of the sugars pooled as Oligo-sugars were found in almost similar concentrations. (author)

  17. Research on the experiment of reservoir water treatment applying ultrafiltration membrane technology of different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyong; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Kai; Liu, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    The processes and effects of coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) and coagulation sedimentation-ultrafiltration (CS-UF) process used in the treatment of Dalangdian Reservoir water were compared. The experiment data indicated that 99% of turbidity removal and basically 100% of microorganism and algae removal were achieved in both C-UF and CS-UF process. The organic removal effect of CS-UF? process was slightly better than C-UF process. However, the organic removal effect under different processes was not obvious due to limitation of ultrafiltration membrane aperture. Polyaluminium chloride was taken as a coagulant in water plant. The aluminum ion removal result revealed that coagulant dosage was effectively saved by using membrane technology during megathermal high algae laden period. Within the range of certain reagent concentration and soaking time, air-water backwashing of every filtration cycle of membrane was conducted to effectively reduce membrane pollution. Besides, maintenance cleaning was conducted every 60 min. whether or not restorative cleaning was conducted depends on the pollution extent. After cleaning, recovery of membrane filtration effect was obvious.

  18. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER membrane was used as pre-treatment for electrochemical process. The obtained permeate from the ultrafiltration process allowed COD removal efficiency of about 96% from OMW. Obtained permeate with an average COD of about 1.1gdm-3 was treated by electrochemical reactor equipped with a reactor with bipolar iron plate electrodes. The effect of the experimental parameters such as current density, pH, surface electrode/reactor volume ratio and NaCl concentration on COD removal was assessed. The results showed that the optimum COD removal rate was obtained at a current density of 93.3Am-2 and pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5. At the optimum operational parameters for the experiments, electrocoagulation process could reduce COD from 1.1gdm-3 to 78mgdm-3, allowing direct discharge of the treated OMW as that meets the Algerian wastewater discharge standards (<125mgdm-3). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Non-Enzymatic-Browning-Reaction: A Versatile Route for Production of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots with Tunable Multicolor Luminescent Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Weili; Xu, Can; Wu, Li; Wang, Jiasi; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    The non-enzymatic browning, namely Maillard reaction is commonly invoked to account for abiotic chemical transformations of organic matter. Here we report a new reaction pathway via the Maillard reaction to systematically synthesize a series of nitrogen-doped carbon dots (C-dots) with superhigh quantum yield (QY) and tunable multicolor luminescent displayment. The starting materials are glucose and the serial amino acid analogues which allow systemically controlling luminescent and physicochemical properties of C-dots at will. Unexpectedly, the as-prepared C-dots possess bright photoluminescence with QY up to 69.1% which is almost the highest ever reported, favorable biocompatibility, excellent aqueous and nonaqueous dispersibility, ultrahigh photostability, and readily functionalization. We have demonstrated that they are particularly suitable for multicolor luminescent display and long-term and real-time cellular imaging. Furthermore, the methodology is readily scalable to large yield, and can provide sufficient amount of C-dots for practical demands.

  20. The potentialities of the complexation ultrafiltration technique for the decontamination of fission product contaminated aqueous effluents; Potentialites de la complexation - ultrafiltration a la decontamination d`effluents radioactifs en produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibert, V

    1995-07-01

    Many nuclear researchers and industrial operators lay emphasis on improving the back end of the fuel cycle. A major problem concerns the liquid wastes generated by the reprocessing plant at La Hague, discharged into the sea after treatment in the Effluent Treatment Station (STE) (3), and which have become crucial matter. The activity of these wastes is well below the current legal limits, and is constantly decreasing these last years. To bring it close to zero, and ambitious goal, entails innovative new reprocessing techniques. We accordingly investigated the possibilities of complexation-ultrafiltration, a technique that uses water-soluble macromolecules to complex the target elements to be separated. We first achieved the strontium (II) separation with poly-acrylic and poly-sulfonic acids. The effects of pH and NaNO{sub 3} concentration influence on Sr (II) complexation were studied. The Sr (II) complexation and concentration phases, followed by cation de-complexation to recover the polymer, were also taken into account. This research, combined with a potentiometric study of the polymers, offered a close understanding of the chemical systems involved, and of the operating conditions and limits of complexation-ultrafiltration. The laboratory results were also validated on a tangential ultrafiltration pilot plant. We then used complexation-ultrafiltration to treat a real effluent generated bu La Hague`s STE 3 plant. This experiment demonstrated minimum 90 % decontamination of Sr (II) (with polyacrylate complexing agent), and also for {sup 134-137}Cs (with simple ultrafiltration). The use of two polyamides allowed partial decontamination of the effluent for {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru. This work therefore offers a global approach to complexation-ultrafiltration, from laboratory to pilot scale, on real and simulated effluents. The future of this technique relies chiefly on the ability to solve the problem of polymer recovery. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Efficient purification of cell culture-derived classical swine fever virus by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruining WANG,Yubao ZHI,Junqing GUO,Qingmei LI,Li WANG,Jifei YANG,Qianyue JIN,Yinbiao WANG,Yanyan YANG,Guangxu XING,Songlin QIAO,Mengmeng ZHAO,Ruiguang DENG,Gaiping ZHANG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of cell culture-based classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccine is hampered by the adverse reactions caused by contaminants from host cell and culture medium. Hence, we have developed an efficient method for purifying CSFV from cell-culture medium. Pure viral particles were obtained with two steps of tangential-flow filtration (TFF and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, and were compared with particles from ultracentrifugation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, infectivity and recovery test, and real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR. TFF concentrated the virus particles effectively with a retention rate of 98.5%, and 86.2% of viral particles were obtained from the ultrafiltration retentate through a Sepharose 4 F F column on a biological liquid chromatography system. CSFV purified by TFF-SEC or ultracentrifugation were both biologically active from 1.0×10-4.25 TCID50·mL-1 to 3.0×10-6.25 TCID50·mL-1, but the combination of TFF and SEC produced more pure virus particles than by ultracentrifugation alone. In addition, pure CSFV particles with the expected diameter of 40—60 nm were roughly spherical without any visible contamination. Mice immunized with CSFV purified by TFF-SEC produced higher antibody levels compared with immunization with ultracentrifugation-purified CSFV (P<0.05. The purification procedures in this study are reliable technically and feasible for purification of large volumes of viruses.

  2. Carprofen pharmacokinetics in plasma and in control and inflamed canine tissue fluid using in vivo ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, K M; Wofford, J A; Papich, M G

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of unbound drug concentrations at their sites of action is necessary for accurate PK/PD modeling. The objective of this study was to determine the unbound concentration of carprofen in canine interstitial fluid (ISF) using in vivo ultrafiltration and to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of free carprofen concentrations between inflamed and control tissue sites. We hypothesized that active concentrations of carprofen would exhibit different dispositions in ISF between inflamed vs. normal tissues. Bilateral ultrafiltration probes were placed subcutaneously in six healthy Beagle dogs 12 h prior to induction of inflammation. Two milliliters of either 2% carrageenan or saline control was injected subcutaneously at each probe site, 12 h prior to intravenous carprofen (4 mg/kg) administration. Plasma and ISF samples were collected at regular intervals for 72 h, and carprofen concentrations were determined using HPLC. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) concentrations were quantified in ISF using ELISA. Unbound carprofen concentrations were higher in ISF compared with predicted unbound plasma drug concentrations. Concentrations were not significantly higher in inflamed ISF compared with control ISF. Compartmental modeling was used to generate pharmacokinetic parameter estimates, which were not significantly different between sites. Terminal half-life (T½) was longer in the ISF compared with plasma. PGE2 in ISF decreased following administration of carprofen. In vivo ultrafiltration is a reliable method to determine unbound carprofen in ISF, and that disposition of unbound drug into tissue is much higher than predicted from unbound drug concentration in plasma. However, concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates are not significantly different in inflamed vs. un-inflamed tissues. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Preparation of hydrophilic and antifouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane derived from phenolphthalin by copolymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mi, Zhiming; Chen, Chunhai; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Daming

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The mechanisms fouling and cleaning process of PSF-COOH membranes (A) the content of carboxyl less than 80%. (B) the content of carboxyl at 80%, 100%. - Highlights: • Phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl was successfully introduced into the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). • A series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized and prepared as ultrafiltration membranes. • The introduction of PPL significantly improved the hydrophilicity, permeation flux and antifouling property of membranes. • This method is valuable for large-scale industrial production of hydrophilic membrane material. - Abstract: In this task, carboxylated polysulfone (PSF-COOH) was achieved by introducing the monomer of phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl to the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). And a series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized by adjusting the molar (%) of bisphenol A (BPA) and PPL in direct copolymerization method and was prepared as PSF-COOH ultrafiltration membranes via phase separation method. The effect of PPL molar (%) in copolymers on the morphology, hydrophilicity, permeation flux, antifouling and mechanical properties of membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), water contact angle, ultrafiltration experiments and universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that with the increased carboxyl content in membranes, the hydrophilicity, permeation fluxes and antifouling properties of membranes gradually increased. When the molar (%) of PPL to BPA was 100:0, the membrane exhibited the highest pure water flux (329.6 L/m"2 h) and the maximum flux recovery rate (92.5%). When the content of carboxyl in the membrane was 80% or more, after three cycles of BSA solution (1 g/L) filtration, the flux recovery rate was basically constant or showed a slightly increase. Thus, it can achieve the goal of

  4. Preparation of hydrophilic and antifouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane derived from phenolphthalin by copolymerization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mi, Zhiming; Chen, Chunhai; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Daming, E-mail: wangdaming@jlu.edu.cn

    2017-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The mechanisms fouling and cleaning process of PSF-COOH membranes (A) the content of carboxyl less than 80%. (B) the content of carboxyl at 80%, 100%. - Highlights: • Phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl was successfully introduced into the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). • A series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized and prepared as ultrafiltration membranes. • The introduction of PPL significantly improved the hydrophilicity, permeation flux and antifouling property of membranes. • This method is valuable for large-scale industrial production of hydrophilic membrane material. - Abstract: In this task, carboxylated polysulfone (PSF-COOH) was achieved by introducing the monomer of phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl to the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). And a series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized by adjusting the molar (%) of bisphenol A (BPA) and PPL in direct copolymerization method and was prepared as PSF-COOH ultrafiltration membranes via phase separation method. The effect of PPL molar (%) in copolymers on the morphology, hydrophilicity, permeation flux, antifouling and mechanical properties of membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), water contact angle, ultrafiltration experiments and universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that with the increased carboxyl content in membranes, the hydrophilicity, permeation fluxes and antifouling properties of membranes gradually increased. When the molar (%) of PPL to BPA was 100:0, the membrane exhibited the highest pure water flux (329.6 L/m{sup 2} h) and the maximum flux recovery rate (92.5%). When the content of carboxyl in the membrane was 80% or more, after three cycles of BSA solution (1 g/L) filtration, the flux recovery rate was basically constant or showed a slightly increase. Thus, it can achieve the

  5. Analysis of ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis patients by means of standard peritoneal permeability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-dac-Pannekeet, M M; Atasever, B; Struijk, D G; Krediet, R T

    1997-01-01

    Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment that occurs especially in long-term patients. Etiological factors include a large effective peritoneal surface area [measured as high mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) of creatinine], a high effective lymphatic absorption rate (ELAR), a large residual volume, or combinations. The prevalence and etiology of UFF were studied and the contribution of transcellular water transport (TCWT) was analyzed. A new definition of UFF and guidelines for the analysis of its etiology were derived from the results. Peritoneal dialysis unit in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. Cross-sectional study of standard peritoneal permeability analyses (4-hr dwells, dextran 70 as volume marker) with 1.36% glucose in 68 PD patients. Patients with negative net UF (change in intraperitoneal volume, dIPV rate (TCUFR) were lower (p lower residual volume (p = 0.03), and lower TCUFR (p = 0.01). Ultrafiltration failure was associated with a high MTAC creatinine in 3 patients, a high ELAR in 4 patients, and a combination of factors in one. As an additional possible cause, TCWT was studied, using the sodium gradient in the first hour of the dwell, corrected for diffusion (dNA). Five patients had dNA > 5 mmol/L, indicating normal TCWT. The 3 patients with dNA lower TCUFR (p = 0.04). A smaller difference was found between dIPV 3.86% and 1.36% (p = 0.04) compared to the dNA > 5 mmol/L group, but no differences were present for MTAC creatinine, ELAR, residual volume, or glucose absorption. In addition to known factors, impairment of TCWT can be a cause of UFF. A standardized dwell with 1.36% glucose overestimates UFF. Therefore, 3.86% glucose should be used for identification of patients with UFF, especially because it provides additional information on TCWT. Ultrafiltration failure can be defined as net UF exchange.

  6. Concentration of infectious aquatic rhabdoviruses from freshwater and seawater using ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Amelia A M; Jakob, Eva; Richard, Jon; Garver, Kyle A

    2011-12-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and spring viremia of carp virus were concentrated and detected from freshwater and seawater samples by using hollow-fiber ultrafiltration. Within 60 min, virus in a 50-L freshwater or saltwater sample was concentrated more than 70-fold, and virus retention efficiencies were consistently greater than 88%. Retention efficiency was highly dependent upon concentrations of column blocking and sample stabilization solutions. A large column with a surface area of 1.15 m2 and a filtration capacity of 5-200 L exhibited optimal viral retention when blocked with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and when the samples were supplemented with 0.1% FBS. Conversely, a small column with 100-fold less surface area and a filtering capacity of 0.5-2.0 L was optimized when blocked with 1% FBS and when the samples were supplemented with 0.1% FBS. The optimized ultrafiltration procedure was further validated with water from a tank that contained IHNV-exposed juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, resulting in an average virus retention efficiency of 91.6 +/- 4.1% (mean +/- SE). Virus quantification of concentrated samples demonstrated that IHNV shedding in sockeye salmon preceded mortality; shedding of the virus was observed to increase significantly as early as 7 d postchallenge and peaked at day 14, when virus levels reached 4.87 x 10(3) plaque-forming units/mL. We conclude that ultrafiltration is a reliable and effective method for concentrating viable aquatic rhabdoviruses from large volumes of water and has application for the analysis of environmental water samples.

  7. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of natural surface water with ultrasound enhanced backwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, A; Narasimhan, K; Kieninger, M; Müller, W-R

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane cleaning with ultrasound enhanced backwashing was investigated with two ceramic membrane systems in parallel. One of them was subjected to ultrasound during backwashing, the other acted as a reference system. The feed water was directly taken from a creek with a sedimentation process as only pre-treatment. The cleaning performance was improved with ultrasound but after 3 weeks of operation damages occurred on the membranes. These effects were studied with online measurements of flux, trans-membrane-pressure and temperature, but also with integrity tests, turbidity measurements and visual examination.

  8. Preparation of antifouling ultrafiltration membranes via irradiation induced graft polymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Liu Zhognying; Lu Xiaofeng; Li Jingye; Yang Xuanxuan; Yu Ming; Zhang Bowu

    2010-01-01

    PVDF powders were irradiated in air at dose of 15 kGy by using gamma-rays. Macromolecular peroxides transformed from free radicals in the irradiated PVDF powders in air can be preserved for long-term at appropriate temperature stably. By mixing acrylic monomers with irradiated PVDF powders then the graft polymerization can be initiated by heating. Then a series of hydrophilic ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were fabricated by dissolving the PVDF-g-PAAc powders in the NMP under phase inversion method. The antifouling performances of UF membranes cast from virgin and grafted PVDF powders were compared. (authors)

  9. Focused ultrasound-modulated glomerular ultrafiltration assessed by functional changes in renal arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS to modulate glomerular ultrafiltration by renal artery sonication and determine if protein-creatinine ratios are estimated through vascular parameters. All animal experiments were approved by our Animal Care and Use Committee. The renal arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically exposed and sonicated at various acoustic power levels using a FUS transducer with a resonant frequency of 1 MHz. The mean peak systolic velocity (PSV of the blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound imaging. Urinary protein-creatinine ratios were calculated during the experiments. Histological examination of renal arteries and whole kidneys was performed. The PSV, pulsatility index, and resistance index of blood flow significantly increased in the arteries after FUS sonication without microbubbles (p<0.05. The change in normalized protein-creatinine ratios significantly increased with increasing acoustic power, but such was not observed when microbubbles were administered. Furthermore, no histological changes were observed in the hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections. Glomerular ultrafiltration is regulated temporarily by renal artery sonication without microbubbles. Monitoring vascular parameters are useful in estimating the normalized change in protein-creatinine ratios.

  10. Pharmacokinetic analysis of flomoxef in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and modified ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Zenichi; Kurosaki, Yuji; Ishino, Kozo; Yamauchi, Keita; Sano, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The purpose of this study was to model the pharmacokinetics of flomoxef, a cephalosporin antibiotic, in pediatric cardiac surgery. Each patient received a flomoxef dose of 30 mg/kg as a bolus after the induction of anesthesia and an additional dose (1 g for a child weighing or = 10 kg) was injected into the CPB prime. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) was routinely performed. Blood samples, urine, and ultrafiltrate were collected. In seven patients (group I), serum flomoxef concentration-time courses were analyzed by a modified two-compartment model. Utilizing the estimated parameters, serum concentrations were simulated in another eight patients (group II). The initiation of CPB resulted in an abrupt increase in serum flomoxef concentrations in group I; however, concentrations declined biexponentially. The amount of excreted flomoxef in the urine and by MUF was 47% +/- 8% of the total administered dose. In group II, an excellent fit was found between the values calculated by the program and the observed serum concentrations expressed; most of the performance errors were flomoxef in children undergoing CPB and MUF were well fitted to a modified two-compartment model. Using the kinetic data from this study, the individualization of dosage regimens for prophylactic use of flomoxef might be possible.

  11. Metal removal from aqueous media by polymer-assisted ultrafiltration with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégorio Crini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymer assisted ultrafiltration (PAUF is a relatively new process in water and wastewater treatment and the subject of an increasing number of papers in the field of membrane science. Among the commercial polymers used, poly(ethyleneimine and poly(acrylic acid are the most popular to complex numerous metal ions. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of chitosan, a natural linear polymer, as chelating agent for complexing metals. Chitosan has a high potential in wastewater treatment mainly due to its polyelectrolyte properties at acidic pH. The objectives of this review are to present the PAUF process and to highlight the advantages gained from the use of chitosan in the process of complexation–ultrafiltration. For this, a PAUF-based literature survey has been compiled and is discussed. From these data, chitosan, a biopolymer that is non-toxic to humans and the environment, is found to be effective in removing metal ions and exhibits high selectivity. It might be a promising polyelectrolyte for PAUF purposes.

  12. Crossflow Ultrafiltration for Removing Direct-15 Dye from Wastewater of Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration membrane was used to treat the effluent from textile industries. Crossflow ultrafiltration using GN polymeric membrane was used to remove the dye from textile effluent. A synthetic textile effluent of Direct-15 dye was used. The study focused through the effect of feed concentration, transmembrane pressure and solution’s pH on the permeate flux and percentage of dye removal were investigated. Dye concentration had significant effects on flux values. Under the fixed pressures and pH, the flux decreased while the dye rejection increased with increasing feed concentration. Transmembrane pressure also had significant effect on flux values. Under the fixed feed concentration and pH, the flux increased while dye rejection decreased with increasing pressure. Experiment data showed that the highest flux was observed at pH 4 (acidic condition while the highest dye removal observed at pH 7. Data collection could be used to improve the effectiveness of dye removal from textile industry wastewater using membrane technology.

  13. Differential natural organic matter fouling of ceramic versus polymeric ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic ultrafiltration membranes has drawn increasing attention in drinking water treatment sectors as an alternative to traditional polymeric counterparts, yet only limited information has been made available about the characteristics of ceramic membrane fouling by natural organic matter. The effects of solution chemistry including ionic strength, divalent ion concentration and pH on the flux behavior were comparatively evaluated for ceramic and polymeric ultrafiltration of synthetic water containing model natural organic matter. Filtration characteristics were further probed via resistance-in-series model analysis, fouling visualization using quantum dots, batch adsorption test, contact angle measurement, solute-membrane surface adhesion force measurement, and quantitative comparison of fouling characteristics between ceramic and polymeric membranes. The results collectively suggested that the effects of solution chemistry on fouling behavior of ceramic membranes were generally similar to polymeric counterparts in terms of trends, while the extent varied significantly depending on water quality parameters. Lower fouling tendency and enhanced cleaning efficiency were observed with the ceramic membrane, further promoting the potential for ceramic membrane application to surface water treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient Preparation of Super Antifouling PVDF Ultrafiltration Membrane with One Step Fabricated Zwitterionic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinzhen; He, Chunju

    2015-08-19

    On the basis of the excellent fouling resistance of zwitterionic materials, the super antifouling polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was efficiently prepared though one-step sulfonation of PVDF and polyaniline blend membrane in situ. The self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) was generated as a novel zwitterionic polymer to improve the antifouling property of PVDF ultrafiltration membrane used in sewage treatment. Surface attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface zeta potential, and water contact angle demonstrated the successful fabrication of zwitterionic interface by convenient sulfonation modification. The static adsorption fouling test showed the quantified adsorption mass of bovine serum albumin (BSA) pollutant on the PVDF/SPANI membrane surface decreases to 3(±2) μg/cm(2), and the water flux recovery ratio (FRR) values were no less than 95% for the three model pollutants of BSA, sodium alginate (SA), and humic acid (HA), which were corresponding hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and natural pollutants in sewage, respectively. This Research Article demonstrated the antifouling advantages of zwitterionic SPANI and aimed to provide a simple method for the large scale preparation of zwitterionic antifouling ultrafiltration membranes.

  15. Appropriateness of mechanistic and non-mechanistic models for the application of ultrafiltration to mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry; Ghosehajra, Malay

    2007-01-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) How appropriate is the use of a basic filtration equation to the application of ultrafiltration of mixed waste, and (2) How appropriate are non-parametric models for permeate rates (volumes)? To answer these questions, mechanistic and non-mechanistic approaches are developed for permeate rates and volumes associated with an ultrafiltration/mixed waste system in dia-filtration mode. The mechanistic approach is based on a filtration equation which states that t/V vs. V is a linear relationship. The coefficients associated with this linear regression are composed of physical/chemical parameters of the system and based the mass balance equation associated with the membrane and associated developing cake layer. For several sets of data, a high correlation is shown that supports the assertion that t/V vs. V is a linear relationship. It is also shown that non-mechanistic approaches, i.e., the use of regression models to are not appropriate. One models considered is Q(p) = a*ln(Cb)+b. Regression models are inappropriate because the scale-up from a bench scale (pilot scale) study to full-scale for permeate rates (volumes) is not simply the ratio of the two membrane surface areas. (authors)

  16. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian; Katuri, Krishna; Logan, Bruce E.; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Stabilization of flux during dead-end ultra-low pressure ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter-Varbanets, Maryna; Hammes, Frederik; Vital, Marius; Pronk, Wouter

    2010-06-01

    Gravity driven ultrafiltration was operated in dead-end mode without any flushing or cleaning. In contrary to general expectations, the flux value stabilized after about one week of operation and remained constant during an extended period of time (several months). Different surface water types and diluted wastewater were used as feed water and, depending on the feed water composition, stable flux values were in the range of 4-10 L h(-1) m(-2). When sodium azide was added to the feed water to diminish the biological activity, no stabilization of flux occurred, indicating that biological processes play an important role in the flux stabilization process. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of a biofouling layer, of which the structure changed over time, leading to relatively heterogeneous structures. It is assumed that the stabilization of flux is related to the development of heterogeneous structures in the fouling layer, due to biological processes in the layer. The phenomenon of flux stabilization opens interesting possibilities for application, for instance in simple and low-cost ultrafiltration systems for decentralized drinking water treatment in developing and transition countries, independent of energy supply, chemicals, or complex process control. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Combined Cake Filtration-Complete Blocking Model to Ultrafiltration of Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Kazemimoghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane ultrafiltration (UF is widely used in dairy industries like milk concentration and dehydration processes. The limiting factor of UF systems is fouling which is defined as the precipitation of solutes in the form of a cake layer on the surface of the membrane. In this study, the combined cake filtration-complete blocking model was compared to cake filtration mechanism for flux data through ultrafiltration of skim milk at constant flow rate. The resistance data also was modeled using cake filtration model and standard blocking model. The effect of different trans-membrane pressures and temperatures on flux decline was then investigated. Based on the results obtained here, the combined complete blocking-cake formation model was in excellent agreement with experimental data. The cake filtration model also provided good data fits and can be applied to solutions whose solutes tend to accumulate on the surface of the membrane in the form of a cake layer. With increasing pressure, the differences between the model and experimental data increased.

  19. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yan, E-mail: zhang.yan113@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Tian Jiayu; Nan Jun; Gao Shanshan; Liang Heng; Wang Meilian; Li Guibai [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25 deg, C and 10 L/(m{sup 2} h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9 {+-} 1.7%), UV{sub 254} (by 27.1 {+-} 1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR{sub eq}, by 40.8 {+-} 4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR{sub eq} concentration by PAC adsorption.

  20. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  1. Analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Desmodium styracifolium using centrifugal ultrafiltration coupled with HPLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liangliang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of human methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning and the suppression of acetaldehyde accumulation in alcoholics. In this study, centrifugal ultrafiltration coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS was utilized to screen and identify ADH inhibitors from ethyl acetate extract of Desmosium styracifolium (Osb. Merr. The experiment conditions of centrifugal ultrafiltration were optimized. At the optimum conditions (ADH concentration: 37.5 μg mL-1, incubation time: 90 min, pH: 7.0 and temperature: 15°C, formononetin and aromadendrin were successfully screened and identified from ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium styracifolium. The screening result was verified by ADH inhibition assays. The IC50 values of formononetin and aromadendrin were 70.8 and 84.7 μg mL-1, which were accorded with the binding degrees of them. Aromadendrin was first reported to have inhibitory activity on ADH. This method provided an effective way to screen active compounds from natural products.

  2. Dual-Functional Ultrafiltration Membrane for Simultaneous Removal of Multiple Pollutants with High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shunlong; Li, Jiansheng; Noonan, Owen; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wan, Gaojie; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-05-02

    Simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants from aqueous solution with less energy consumption is crucial in water purification. Here, a novel concept of dual-functional ultrafiltration (DFUF) membrane is demonstrated by entrapment of nanostructured adsorbents into the finger-like pores of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane rather than in the membrane matrix in previous reports of blend membranes, resulting in an exceptionally high active content and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants from water due to the dual functions of rejection and adsorption. As a demonstration, hollow porous Zr(OH) x nanospheres (HPZNs) were immobilized in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) UF membranes through polydopamine coating with a high content of 68.9 wt %. The decontamination capacity of DFUF membranes toward multiple model pollutants (colloidal gold, polyethylene glycol (PEG), Pb(II)) was evaluated against a blend membrane. Compared to the blend membrane, the DFUF membranes showed 2.1-fold increase in the effective treatment volume for the treatment of Pb(II) contaminated water from 100 ppb to below 10 ppb (WHO drinking water standard). Simultaneously, the DFUF membranes effectively removed the colloidal gold and PEG below instrument detection limit, however the blend membrane only achieved 97.6% and 96.8% rejection for colloidal gold and PEG, respectively. Moreover, the DFUF membranes showed negligible leakage of nanoadsorbents during testing; and the membrane can be easily regenerated and reused. This study sheds new light on the design of high performance multifunction membranes for drinking water purification.

  3. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-15

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Current advances in screening for bioactive components from medicinal plants by affinity ultrafiltration mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Huang, Bill X; Guo, Mingquan

    2018-05-21

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in maintaining human health for thousands of years. However, the interactions between the active components in medicinal plants and some certain biological targets during a disease are still unclear in most cases. To conduct the high-throughput screening for small active molecules that can interact with biological targets, which is of great theoretical significance and practical value. The ultrafiltration mass spectrometry (UF-LC/MS) is a powerful bio-analytical method by combining affinity ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), which could rapidly screen and identify small active molecules that bind to biological targets of interest at the same time. Compared with other analytical methods, affinity UF-LC/MS has the characteristics of fast, sensitive and high throughput, and is especially suitable for the complicated extracts of medicinal plants. In this review, the basic principle, characteristics and some most recent challenges in UF-LC/MS have been demonstrated. Meanwhile, the progress and applications of affinity UF-LC/MS in the discovery of the active components from natural medicinal plants and the interactions between small molecules and biological target proteins are also briefly summarised. In addition, the future directions for UF-LC/MS are also prospected. Affinity UF-LC/MS is a powerful tool in studies on the interactions between small active molecules and biological protein targets, especially in the high-throughput screening of active components from the natural medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: Roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2015-04-07

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  6. Concentration of aqueous extracts of defatted soy flour by ultrafiltration; Effect of suspended particles on the filtration flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, T.R.; Kooiker, K.; Bel, W.; Dekker, M.; Wesselingh, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Suspended particles can have a positive effect on the flux and concentration curve of soy flour extracts during ultrafiltration. This is described by a simple empirical model. The suspended particles in this study were insoluble milled bean material (mean particle size 25 m). It is shown that it is

  7. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jun

    2015-04-07

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater.

  8. Analysis of the prevalence and causes of ultrafiltration failure during long-term peritoneal dialysis: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Watske; Schouten, Natalie; van den Berg, Nicole; Langedijk, Monique J.; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). It can occur at any stage of PD, but develops in time and is, therefore, especially important in long-term treatment. To investigate its prevalence and to identify possible causes, we performed a

  9. Fabrication of TiO_2-modified polytetrafluoroethylene ultrafiltration membranes via plasma-enhanced surface graft pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yingjia; Chi, Lina; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifunctional TiO_2/PAA/PTFE ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated via tight coating of TiO_2 functional layer onto the plasma-assisted graft of PAA on PTFE. • The high water flux rate, remarkable enhanced ultrafiltration performance and excellent self-cleaning ability were demonstrated. • The formation of COO−Ti bidentate coordination between TiO_2 and PAA was responsible for the successful coating. - Abstract: Surface hydrophilic modification of polymer ultrafiltration membrane using metal oxide represents an effective yet highly challenging solution to improve water flux and antifouling performance. Via plasma-enhanced graft of poly acryl acid (PAA) prior to coating TiO_2, we successfully fixed TiO_2 functional thin layer on super hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The characterization results evidenced TiO_2 attached on the PTFE-based UF membranes through the chelating bidentate coordination between surface-grafted carboxyl group and Ti"4"+. The TiO_2 surface modification may greatly reduce the water contact angle from 115.8° of the PTFE membrane to 35.0° without degradation in 30-day continuous filtration operations. The novel TiO_2/PAA/PTFE membranes also exhibited excellent antifouling and self-cleaning performance due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity and photocatalysis properties of TiO_2, which was further confirmed by the photo-degradation of MB under Xe lamp irradiation.

  10. Predicting optimal back-shock times in ultrafiltration hollow fiber modules II: Effect of inlet flow and concentration dependent viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Pinelo, Manuel; Brøns, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamics of back-shocking during hollow fibre ultrafiltration of dextran T500. In this paper we present a mathematical model based on first Principles, i.e., solving the Navier-Stokes equation along with the continuity equation...

  11. Glycation Reactions of Casein Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Ulrike; Duerasch, Anja; Weiz, Alexander; Ruck, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-13

    After suspensions of micellar casein or nonmicellar sodium caseinate had been heated, respectively, in the presence and absence of glucose for 0-4 h at 100 °C, glycation compounds were quantitated. The formation of Amadori products as indicators for the "early" Maillard reaction were in the same range for both micellar and nonmicellar caseins, indicating that reactive amino acid side chains within the micelles are accessible for glucose in a comparable way as in nonmicellar casein. Significant differences, however, were observed concerning the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), namely, N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), pyrraline, pentosidine, and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD). CML could be observerd in higher amounts in nonmicellar casein, whereas in the micelles the pyrraline formation was increased. Pentosidine and GOLD were formed in comparable amounts. Furthermore, the extent of protein cross-linking was significantly higher in the glycated casein micelles than in the nonmicellar casein samples. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that glycation has no influence on the size of the casein micelles, indicating that cross-linking occurs only in the interior of the micelles, but altered the surface morphology. Studies on glycation and nonenzymatic cross-linking can contribute to the understanding of the structure of casein micelles.

  12. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity

  13. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  14. Aerosol-Forming Reactions of Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal and Amino Acids in Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, D. O.; Smith, K. W.; Stroik, D. R.; Corrigan, A. L.; Lee, F. E.; Phan, J. T.; Conley, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are two common aldehydes present in fog and cloud water. Amino acids are present in clouds at similar concentrations. Here we present bulk and aerosol mass spectroscopic data demonstrating that irreversible reactions between glyoxal and amino acids, triggered by droplet evaporation, produce N-derivatized imidazole compounds along with deeply colored Maillard reaction products. These reactions can occur in the dark and in the absence of oxidants. Reactions between methylglyoxal and amino acids produce analogous methylated products plus oligomers with masses up to m/z = 1000. These reactions, which go to completion on the 10-min-timescale of cloud processing, could be significant sources of secondary organic aerosol and humic-like substances (HULIS or brown carbon).

  15. Experimental and computational investigation of polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membrane for industrial oily wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib Hooman; Hassanajili, Shadi; Sheikhi-Kouhsar, Mohammad Reza; Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on separation of industrial oil from oily wastewater has been done. A polyacrylonitrile membrane with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 20 kDa was used and an outlet wastewater of API unit of Tehran refinery was employed. The main purpose of this study was to develop a support vector machine model for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance in a cross-flow hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile membrane during ultrafiltration. The operating conditions which have been applied to develop a support vector machine model were transmembrane pressure (TMP), operating temperature, cross flow velocity (CFV), pH values of oily wastewater, permeation flux decline and fouling resistance. The testing results obtained by the support vector machine models are in very good agreement with experimental data. The calculated squared correlation coefficients for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance were both 0.99. Based on the results, the support vector machine proved to be a reliable accurate estimation method

  16. A Review of Ultrafiltration and Forward Osmosis:application and modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Gong; Shuili, Yu; Yufei, Shangguan; Zhengyang, Gu; Wangzhen, Yang; Liumo, Ren

    2018-03-01

    As a new treatment, membrane filtration is playing a more prominent role in treating many kinds of wastewater. Among all the membrane technologies, ultrafiltration(UF) and forward osmosis(FO) technology has been widely utilized and developed in oil field and refinery produced water. However, the reports about the differences between the two kinds of membrane technology used in oily wastewater are not yet available. In this review, at first we introduce the advantages, shortcomings and applications of UF and FO membranes. Among these, we mainly illustrate the membrane fouling, which now is a big problem because it increases costs and decreases membrane life to limit the industrialization of the membrane, and the different modification methods of membranes are discussed to figure out how these ways can ease the membrane fouling. Next we make a comparison of the two membranes. Finally we illustrate the future research topics.

  17. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  18. Preparation, Characterization and Performance Studies of Active PVDF Ultrafiltration-Surfactants Membranes Containing PVP as Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Izzah Md Fadilah; Abdul Rahman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The role of surfactants in the formation of active Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration (AUF) membranes was studied. The effect combination of surfactants that are Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 formulations on performance and morphological structures were investigated for the first time. The influence of surfactants blends on the membrane pores was also examined. Experimental data showed that combination of Tween 80/ Triton X-100 give the highest BSA permeation flux with a value of 285.51 Lm -2 h -1 . With combination of SDS/ Tween 80, the AUF membrane showed the highest protein rejection up to 93 % and 79 % for Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Egg Albumin (EA), respectively. Moreover, membranes characterization demonstrated that the addition of SDS/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 were found to affect the performance, surface morphologies and membrane pores of AUF PVDF membranes. (author)

  19. Liquid Whey Protein Concentrates Produced by Ultrafiltration as Primary Raw Materials for Thermal Dairy Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Henriques

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the gelation properties of liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPC produced by ultrafiltration (UF as raw material for thermally induced gels intended for food applications. LWPC thermal gelation was performed using different types of LWPC (non-defatted, defatted and diafiltered of different protein mass fractions and pH. Most of the produced gels showed viscoelastic behaviour. Non-defatted LWPC gave stronger heat-induced gels with a more cohesive microstructure, a higher water holding capacity and also higher elastic modulus (G’ and viscous modulus (G’’. Gel properties were not improved in products with lower content of non-protein compounds. As expected, the increase in protein mass fraction positively influences protein interactions. However, the pH is responsible for the equilibrium between attraction and repulsion forces in the gel components that influence gel hardness and water holding capacity.

  20. Study on cross-flow ultrafiltration for the radioactive liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Jo, E. S.; Lee, D. G.; Lee, G. W.; Jung, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the UF membranes on permeate flux was investigated in the ultrafiltration of dodecane (0.1v%) / water emulsion and dodecane-SDS-water emulsion in view of the treatment of radioactive oily emulsion liquid waste in the future. For variety of membranes, experiments in cross-flow modes have been performed at various pressure and different cross-flow velocities. Permeate flux decreased with the time and reached a constant steady-state value. Steady-state flux was found to be dependent by the hydrodynamic conditions but independent by the pressure. Flux decrease and rates of permeate flow resistance change have been analysed using a formulation of the equations illustrating the method of resistance mechanism recognition

  1. Polyethersulfone/Graphene Oxide Ultrafiltration Membranes from Solutions in Ionic Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Mahalingam, Dinesh. K.; Kim, DooLi.; Nunes, Suzana. P.

    2017-01-01

    Novel high flux polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated by incorporating different amounts of graphene oxide (GO) sheets to PES as nanofillers. The membranes were prepared from solutions in 50/50 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-diethylphosphate/N,N-dimethyl formamide. It was observed that the water permeance increased from 550 to 800 L m-2h-1bar-1, with incorporation of 1 wt% GO, keeping a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of approximately 32-34 kg mol-1. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of GO/PES membranes showed the formation of ultrathin selective layer unlike pristine membranes. Contact angle measurements confirmed the increase of hydrophilicity, by increasing the GO concentration. The rejection of humic acid and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated. The mechanical properties were improved, compared with the pristine membranes. The performance was just above the trade-off relationship between permeance and separation factor for PES membranes reported in the literature.

  2. Development of a Model for a Continuous Ultra-Filtration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jhamb, Spardha Virendra; Gani, Rafiqul; Rype, Jens-Ulrik

    Due to the wide applicability and simplicity of the ultra-filtration process, it is currently being used in a variety of commercial processes for the purpose of separation and concentration of valuable products and/or recovery of raw materials from dilute systems [1]. A predictive model......) system consisting of different geometry (and ‘N’ membrane stacks) used for the concentration of enzyme solutions from a known inlet concentration to a desired (target) outlet concentration during the recovery and/or downstream processing of enzymes. The envisaged purpose of this model is to improve...... for a system derived from first principles, is instrumental in evading the costs of conducting time-consuming experiments while also allowing one to not be dependent on a trial and error analysis approach. The validated final model can serve to understand the operational issues of the process and from...

  3. Characterization of Irreversible Fouling after Ultrafiltration of Thermomechanical Pulp Mill Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuvander, Johan; Zarebska, Agata; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    process streams is fouling of the membranes. Fouling not only increases operating costs but also reduces the operating time of the membrane plant. When optimizing the membrane cleaning method, it is important to know which compounds cause the fouling. In this work fouling of an ultrafiltration membrane...... was studied. The fouling propensity of untreated process water and microfiltrated process water was compared. Fouled membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Acid hydrolysis of membranes exposed to untreated process......Large volumes of wastewater with dissolved wood components are treated in wastewater treatment plants at thermomechanical pulp mills. It has been shown previously that hemicelluloses in these wastewater streams can be recovered by membrane filtration. A serious obstacle when treating lignocellulose...

  4. Experimental and computational investigation of polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membrane for industrial oily wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib Hooman; Hassanajili, Shadi; Sheikhi-Kouhsar, Mohammad Reza [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study on separation of industrial oil from oily wastewater has been done. A polyacrylonitrile membrane with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 20 kDa was used and an outlet wastewater of API unit of Tehran refinery was employed. The main purpose of this study was to develop a support vector machine model for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance in a cross-flow hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile membrane during ultrafiltration. The operating conditions which have been applied to develop a support vector machine model were transmembrane pressure (TMP), operating temperature, cross flow velocity (CFV), pH values of oily wastewater, permeation flux decline and fouling resistance. The testing results obtained by the support vector machine models are in very good agreement with experimental data. The calculated squared correlation coefficients for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance were both 0.99. Based on the results, the support vector machine proved to be a reliable accurate estimation method.

  5. Polyethersulfone/Graphene Oxide Ultrafiltration Membranes from Solutions in Ionic Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Mahalingam, Dinesh. K.

    2017-07-18

    Novel high flux polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated by incorporating different amounts of graphene oxide (GO) sheets to PES as nanofillers. The membranes were prepared from solutions in 50/50 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-diethylphosphate/N,N-dimethyl formamide. It was observed that the water permeance increased from 550 to 800 L m-2h-1bar-1, with incorporation of 1 wt% GO, keeping a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of approximately 32-34 kg mol-1. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of GO/PES membranes showed the formation of ultrathin selective layer unlike pristine membranes. Contact angle measurements confirmed the increase of hydrophilicity, by increasing the GO concentration. The rejection of humic acid and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated. The mechanical properties were improved, compared with the pristine membranes. The performance was just above the trade-off relationship between permeance and separation factor for PES membranes reported in the literature.

  6. Modeling the improvement of ultrafiltration membrane mass transfer when using biofiltration pretreatment in surface water applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netcher, Andrea C; Duranceau, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    In surface water treatment, ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are widely used because of their ability to supply safe drinking water. Although UF membranes produce high-quality water, their efficiency is limited by fouling. Improving UF filtrate productivity is economically desirable and has been attempted by incorporating sustainable biofiltration processes as pretreatment to UF with varying success. The availability of models that can be applied to describe the effectiveness of biofiltration on membrane mass transfer are lacking. In this work, UF water productivity was empirically modeled as a function of biofilter feed water quality using either a quadratic or Gaussian relationship. UF membrane mass transfer variability was found to be governed by the dimensionless mass ratio between the alkalinity (ALK) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). UF membrane productivity was optimized when the biofilter feed water ALK to DOC ratio fell between 10 and 14. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of paraquat and linuron from water by continuous flow adsorption/ ultrafiltration membrane processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic activated carbon (MAC) was prepared, characterized and compared with powdered activated carbon (PAC) for its adsorptive parameters. Both adsorbents were then used in combination ultrafiltration (UF) membrane as pretreatment for the removal of paraquat and linuron from water. The comparison of membrane parameters like percent retention, permeate flux and backwash times for PAC/UF and MAC/UF hybrid processes showed that percent retention of paraquat and linuron was high for PAC due to its high surface area. However due to cake formation over membrane surface the decline permeate fluxes and long backwash times for PAC were observed. PAC also caused blackening of pipes and flow meter. MAC (an iron oxide and PAC composite) was removed from slurry through magnet thus no cake formation and secondary problems observed for PAC was not encountered. Also the backwash times were minimum for MAC/UF process. (author)

  8. Polypropylene Track Membranes for Mikro and Ultrafiltration of Chemically Aggressive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    A production process for track membranes on the basis of chemically resistant polymer polypropylene has been developed. Research in all stages of the formation of the polypropylene track membranes has been conducted: the main principles of the process of chemical etching of polypropylene irradiated with accelerated ions have been investigated, the most effective structure of the etchant for a selective etching of the heavy ion tracks has been selected, the parameters of etching have been optimized. A method for sensibilization of latent tracks in polypropylene by effect of solvents has been developed. It helps to reach a significant increase in etching selectivity. A method for destruction of an absorbed chromocontaining layer on the surface of polypropylene track membranes formed during etching has been elaborated. Experimental samples of the membranes for micro and ultrafiltration have been obtained and their properties have been studied in course of their exploitation in chemically aggressive agents. For t...

  9. Antifouling Ultrafiltration Membranes via Post-Fabrication Grafting of Biocidal Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Mauter, Meagan S.; Wang, Yue; Okemgbo, Kaetochi C.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    Figure Presented: Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes perform critical pre-treatment functions in advanced water treatment processes. In operational systems, however, biofouling decreases membrane performance and increases the frequency and cost of chemical cleaning. The present work demonstrates a novel technique for covalently or ionically tethering antimicrobial nanoparticles to the surface of UF membranes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) encapsulated in positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) were reacted with an oxygen plasma modified polysulfone UF membrane with and without 1-ethyl-3-(3- dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) present. The nucleophilic primary amines of the PEI react with the electrophilic carboxyl groups on the UF membrane surface to form electrostatic and covalent bonds. The irreversible modification process imparts significant antimicrobial activity to the membrane surface. Post-synthesis functionalization methods, such as the one presented here, maximize the density of nanomaterials at the membrane surface and may provide a more efficient route for fabricating diverse array of reactive nanocomposite membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Antifouling Ultrafiltration Membranes via Post-Fabrication Grafting of Biocidal Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Mauter, Meagan S.

    2011-08-24

    Figure Presented: Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes perform critical pre-treatment functions in advanced water treatment processes. In operational systems, however, biofouling decreases membrane performance and increases the frequency and cost of chemical cleaning. The present work demonstrates a novel technique for covalently or ionically tethering antimicrobial nanoparticles to the surface of UF membranes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) encapsulated in positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) were reacted with an oxygen plasma modified polysulfone UF membrane with and without 1-ethyl-3-(3- dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) present. The nucleophilic primary amines of the PEI react with the electrophilic carboxyl groups on the UF membrane surface to form electrostatic and covalent bonds. The irreversible modification process imparts significant antimicrobial activity to the membrane surface. Post-synthesis functionalization methods, such as the one presented here, maximize the density of nanomaterials at the membrane surface and may provide a more efficient route for fabricating diverse array of reactive nanocomposite membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Use of ultra-filtration in organic-rich groundwater for the physical separation of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Pimple, M.V.; Manisha, V.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    During this work, size fractionation technique 'ultra filtration' is used in physical speciation of thorium in organic rich groundwater. Laboratory simulated experiments were carried out to study the physical speciation of thorium in aquatic environment having elevated level of dissolved humus material classified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Samples were collected from organic rich environment having DOC in the range of 50-60 μg mL -1 . Th(IV) ions are extremely particle reactive having K d value of the order of 105-6, hence to avoid adsorption on suspended particulate matter, spiking of the solution with Th(NO 3 )4 was carried out in ground water samples after filtering through 450 nm pore size using suction filtration. Particles in dissolved state (colloids) ranging between 220 nm were separated using suction filtration assembly having a membrane with a pore diameter of 220 nm. Thereafter, solution was sequentially passed through the ultra-filtration membranes having pore diameters of 14 nm [300 k NMWL (nominal molecular weight limit)], 3.1 nm (50 k NMWL), 2.2 nm (30 k NMWL), 1.6 nm (10 k NMWL) and 1.1 nm (0.5 k NMWL) by using 'Stirred Ultra-filtration Cells', operating in concentration mode. Thorium has only one stable oxidation state i.e. IV, under all redox conditions in natural waters and therefore, its speciation is dominated by its interaction with various fractions of DOC. Experimental results show 50-60 % of the spiked Th is in association with fraction enriched with particles of 10 k NMWL (1.6 nm) followed by fraction enriched with particle of 0.5 k NMWL and <220 nm. (author)

  12. Size enlargement of radioactive and hazardous species and their separation by microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    Separation and volume reduction of aqueous solutions involving membranes is evolving into an expanding and diversified field. Numerous commercially successful membranes and their applications are now available. Among different driving forces used in membrane separation, pressure-driven separation has gained wide application. Depending on the size of the dissolved species in solution to be separated, the pressure needed to achieve the desired separation varies. The microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane systems are low-pressure processes that generally operate below 350 kPa. To exploit these membranes in applications involving the removal of dissolved contaminants from solutions, it is essential to create a suitable size for the dissolved contaminants, so that the membranes can effectively retain them while producing a filtrate stream essentially free of contaminants. Size enlargement of the dissolved contaminants can be achieved through solution conditioning with the addition of one or a combination of chemical reagents and powdered materials. Examples of typical additives include: pH chemicals, polyelectrolytes, microorganisms and powdered adsorption/ion-exchange materials. In many situations, adequate control and optimization of the system chemistry and hydraulic conditions provide high selectivity and efficiency for contaminant removal. This paper summarizes removal efficiency data for cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium, arsenic, strontium-90/85, cesium-137 and iron. These data resulted from various initiatives on membrane technology undertaken during the past five years by the Waste Processing Technology group at Chalk River Laboratories. The technology involves size enlargement of contaminants present in waste solution, and their separation using either microfiltration or ultrafiltration. The data support remedial applications involving treatment of contaminated groundwater and soils

  13. Ultrafiltration technology with a ceramic membrane for reactive dye removal: optimization of membrane performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alventosa-deLara, E; Barredo-Damas, S; Alcaina-Miranda, M I; Iborra-Clar, M I

    2012-03-30

    An ultrafiltration (UF) ceramic membrane was used to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5) solutions at different dye concentrations (50 and 500 mg/L). Transmembrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV) were modified to study their influence on initial and steady-state permeate flux (J(p)) and dye rejection (R). Generally, J(p) increased with higher TMP and CFV and lower feed concentration, up to a maximum steady-state J(p) of 266.81 L/(m(2)h), obtained at 3 bar, 3m/s and 50mg/L. However, there was a TMP value (which changed depending on operating CFV and concentration) beyond which slight or no further increase in steady-state J(p) was observed. Similarly, the higher the CFV was, the more slightly the steady-state J(p) increased. Furthermore, the effectiveness of ultrafiltration treatment was evaluated through dye rejection coefficient. The results showed significant dye removals, regardless of the tested conditions, with steady-state R higher than 79.8% for the 50mg/L runs and around 73.2% for the 500 mg/L runs. Finally response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize membrane performance. At 50mg/L, a TMP of 4 bar and a CFV of 2.53 m/s were found to be the conditions giving the highest steady-state J(p), 255.86 L/(m(2)h), and the highest R, 95.2% simultaneously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of trace organic chemicals and performance of a novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ryan W; Regnery, Julia; Nghiem, Long D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-09-16

    A hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor (UFO-MBR) was investigated for over 35 days for nutrient and trace organic chemical (TOrC) removal from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes in parallel to simultaneously extract clean water from an activated sludge reactor for nonpotable (or environmental discharge) and potable reuse, respectively. In the FO stream, water is drawn by osmosis from activated sludge through an FO membrane into a draw solution (DS), which becomes diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to reconcentrate the diluted DS and produce clean water suitable for direct potable reuse. The UF membrane extracts water, dissolved salts, and some nutrients from the system to prevent their accumulation in the activated sludge of the osmotic MBR. The UF permeate can be used for nonpotable reuse purposes (e.g., irrigation and toilet flushing). Results from UFO-MBR investigation illustrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removals were greater than 99%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. Twenty TOrCs were detected in the municipal wastewater that was used as feed to the UFO-MBR system. Among these 20 TOrCs, 15 were removed by the hybrid UFO-MBR system to below the detection limit. High FO membrane rejection was observed for all ionic and nonionic hydrophilic TOrCs and lower rejection was observed for nonionic hydrophobic TOrCs. With the exceptions of bisphenol A and DEET, all TOrCs that were detected in the DS were well rejected by the RO membrane. Overall, the UFO-MBR can operate sustainably and has the potential to be utilized for direct potable reuse applications.

  15. Organic fouling behavior of superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles: Implications for organic fouling in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai; Qi, Genggeng; Xiao, Kang; Sun, Jianyu; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Huang, Xia; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    This study systematically investigates the organic fouling behavior of a superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane functionalized via post-fabrication tethering of surface-tailored silica nanoparticles to poly

  16. Influence of fertilizer draw solution properties on the process performance and microbial community structure in a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis – ultrafiltration bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin; Li, Sheng; Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid system was proposed and operated for 55 days. The FDFO performance was first investigated in terms of flux

  17. Novel use of an ultrafiltration device as an alternative method for fluid removal in critically ill pediatric patients with cardiac disease: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Chakravarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid overload (FO is a common complication for pediatric patients in the intensive care unit. When conventional therapy fails, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is classically used for fluid removal. Unfortunately, these therapies are often associated with cardiovascular or respiratory instability. Ultrafiltration, using devices such as the AquadexTM system (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA, is an effective tool for fluid removal in adult patients with congestive heart failure. As compared to hemodialysis, ultrafiltration can be performed using smaller catheters, and the extracorporeal volume and minimal blood flow rates are lower. In addition, there is no associated abdominal distension as is seen in peritoneal dialysis. Consequently, ultrafiltration may be better tolerated in critically ill pediatric patients. We present three cases of challenging pediatric patients with FO in the setting of congenital heart disease in whom ultrafiltration using the AquadexTM system was successfully utilized for fluid removal while cardiorespiratory stability was maintained.

  18. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  19. Studies for the use of water soluble chelating polymer in ultra-filtration technique for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, S.K.; Mahatele, A.K.; Tripathi, S.C.; Vijayan, K.; Munshi, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out for the removal of uranium from aqueous medium using water soluble chelating polymer by ultra-filtration technique. The water soluble polymers are the option for the surfactants used in the micellar enhanced ultra-filtration technique. More than 95% separation of uranium carried out under different experimental conditions, suggest that the technique can be effectively employed for the removal uranium from the aqueous effluent streams. (author)

  20. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40°C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the binding of {sup 114m}In radiotracer to human serum components by ultrafiltration and chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulle, M. van; De Cremer, K.; Cornelis, R. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Lab. for Analytical Chemistry

    2000-10-01

    The chemical speciation of indium in serum was studied. Ultrafiltration was used to investigate the influence of several buffer systems on the binding characteristics of indium in serum and to study the association of indium with transferrin and albumin. This was performed by means of batch incubation experiments with a {sup 114m}In tracer. Different buffer systems were investigated. A series of bicarbonate, Tris:HCl and HEPES buffers were found to fit for this purpose. Phosphate buffer was not suitable, as it is capable of disrupting the binding between indium and transferrin. Batch ultrafiltration experiments with {sup 114m}In incubated solutions of transferrin and albumin showed that both proteins are capable of binding indium to a high degree. Three chromatographic techniques (SEC, AEC, AC) were used to study the different chemically active species of indium in serum. It is concluded that next to transferrin, albumin is also responsible for the binding and transport of indium in serum. (orig.)

  2. Enhanced permeability and antifouling performance of cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane assisted by l-DOPA functionalized halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keguang; Zhang, Dalun; Shao, Ziqiang; Qin, Dujian; Wang, Yalong; Wang, Shuo

    2017-10-15

    l-Dopa functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by the self-polymerization of l-dopa in the weak alkaline condition. Then different contents of l-dopa coated HNTs (LPDHNTs) were blended into cellulose acetate to prepare enhanced performance ultrafiltration membranes via the phase inversion method. The HNTs and LPDHNTs were characterized by FTIR, XPS, and TEM anysis. And the membranes morphologies, separation performance, antifouling performance, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity were also investigated. It was found that the composite membranes exhibited excellent antifouling performance. The pure water flux of 3.0wt% LPDHNTs/CA membrane increased from 11.4Lm -2 h -1 to 92.9Lm -2 h -1 , while the EA rejection ratio of the membrane was about 91.2%. In addition, the mechanical properties of the resultant membranes were strengthened compared with the CA ultrafiltration membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of High-Antifouling PPSU Ultrafiltration Membrane by Using Compound Additives: Preparation, Morphologies, and Filtration Resistant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Liu; Zhencheng Zhong; Rui Ma; Weichen Zhang; Jiding Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flat sheet asymmetric polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced antifouling properties were prepared with a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method through compound additives containing a polymeric pore-forming agent, a small molecular non-solvent and a surfactant. The formation processes of the porous asymmetric membranes with different kinds of additives were studied in detail, and the microstructure controllable preparation of membrane was a...

  4. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2}-modified polytetrafluoroethylene ultrafiltration membranes via plasma-enhanced surface graft pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yingjia [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chi, Lina, E-mail: lnchi@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zhou, Weili; Yu, Zhenjiang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Zhongzhi [College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Zhenjia [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jiang, Zheng, E-mail: z.jiang@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifunctional TiO{sub 2}/PAA/PTFE ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated via tight coating of TiO{sub 2} functional layer onto the plasma-assisted graft of PAA on PTFE. • The high water flux rate, remarkable enhanced ultrafiltration performance and excellent self-cleaning ability were demonstrated. • The formation of COO−Ti bidentate coordination between TiO{sub 2} and PAA was responsible for the successful coating. - Abstract: Surface hydrophilic modification of polymer ultrafiltration membrane using metal oxide represents an effective yet highly challenging solution to improve water flux and antifouling performance. Via plasma-enhanced graft of poly acryl acid (PAA) prior to coating TiO{sub 2}, we successfully fixed TiO{sub 2} functional thin layer on super hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The characterization results evidenced TiO{sub 2} attached on the PTFE-based UF membranes through the chelating bidentate coordination between surface-grafted carboxyl group and Ti{sup 4+}. The TiO{sub 2} surface modification may greatly reduce the water contact angle from 115.8° of the PTFE membrane to 35.0° without degradation in 30-day continuous filtration operations. The novel TiO{sub 2}/PAA/PTFE membranes also exhibited excellent antifouling and self-cleaning performance due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity and photocatalysis properties of TiO{sub 2}, which was further confirmed by the photo-degradation of MB under Xe lamp irradiation.

  5. Morphology and performance of polyvinylidene fluoride/perfluoro sulphonic acid hollow fiber ultrafiltration blend membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guo-Lin; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Wei, Yong-Ming; Yu, Li-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride-perfluoro sulphonic acid hollow fibre ultrafiltration blend membranes were prepared by wet-spinning method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and ethanol aqueous solutions were employed as additive and coagulants, respectively. The effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration in the dopes and ethanol concentration in the coagulants on morphology and performance of Polyvinylidene fluoride -perfluoro sulphonic acid hollow fibre ultrafiltration blend membranes were investigated. Blend membranes were characterized in terms of precipitation kinetics, morphology, thermal property and separation performance. The results showed that the increments of Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration in the dopes and ethanol concentration in coagulants both resulted in higher pure water permeation flux and worse rejection (R) of bovine serum albumin (with the increment of Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration from 0 to 5 wt% in the dopes, pure water permeation increased from 41.7 L.m -2 .h -1 to 134 L.m -2 .h -1 and R decreased from 99.8% to 84.4% as well as with the increase in ethanol concentration in coagulants from 0 to 40 wt%, pure water permeation increased from 33.5 L.m -2 .h- 1 to 123 L.m -2 .h -1 and R decreased from 97.7% to 88.7%). However, the proportion of sponge-like structure in the cross-section of membranes decreased with the increasing Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration in the dopes and the proportion increased with the increased ethanol concentration in the coagulations. In addition, the location of the sponge-like structure in the cross-section of membranes was significantly influenced by ethanol concentrations in the coagulants and differential scanning calorimeter results revealed that the crystallinity (X c ) of the blend membrane was in accordance with the proportion of sponge-like structure. These behaviours were attributed to the different roles of Polyvinylpyrrolidone in the dopes and ethanol in the coagulants, respectively. Polyvinylidene fluoride

  6. Effect of skim milk treated with high hydrostatic pressure on permeate flux and fouling during ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Mathilde; Marciniak, Alice; Chamberland, Julien; Pouliot, Yves; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) is largely used in the dairy industry to generate milk and whey protein concentrate for standardization of milk or production of dairy ingredients. Recently, it was demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extended the shelf life of milk and improved rennet coagulation and cheese yield. Pressurization also modified casein micelle size distribution and promoted aggregation of whey proteins. These changes are likely to affect UF performance. Consequently, this study determined the effect of skim milk pressurization (300 and 600 MPa, 5 min) on UF performance in terms of permeate flux decline and fouling. The effect of HHP on milk proteins was first studied and UF was performed in total recycle mode at different transmembrane pressures to determine optimal UF operational parameters and to evaluate the effect of pressurization on critical and limiting fluxes. Ultrafiltration was also performed in concentration mode at a transmembrane pressure of 345 kPa for 130 or 140 min to evaluate the decline of permeate flux and to determine fouling resistances. It was observed that average casein micelle size decreased by 32 and 38%, whereas β-lactoglobulin denaturation reached 30 and 70% at 300 and 600 MPa, respectively. These results were directly related to UF performance because initial permeate fluxes in total recycle mode decreased by 25% at 300 and 600 MPa compared with nonpressurized milk, critical flux, and limiting flux, which were lower during UF of milk treated with HHP. During UF in concentration mode, initial permeate fluxes were 30% lower at 300 and 600 MPa compared with the control, but the total flux decline was higher for nonpressurized milk (62%) compared with pressure-treated milk (30%). Fouling resistances were similar, whatever the treatment, except at 600 MPa where irreversible fouling was higher. Characterization of the fouling layer showed that caseins and β-lactoglobulin were mainly involved in membrane fouling after UF of

  7. Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Na Ry; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Sheungwoo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Lee, Jeong-Su; Joo, In-Sun; Hwang, In-Gyun; Choi, Changsun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The pH Dependence of Brown Carbon Formation in Maillard Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, L. N.; Welsh, H.; Alexander, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composes a non-negligible fraction of brown carbon (BrC), and typically appears as small, nitrated aromatics or larger, highly functionalized humic-like substances (HULIS). Both nitrated aromatics and HULIS contain nitrogen, indicating the importance of nitrogen to light-absorbing aerosol. It is therefore unsurprising that BrC, when generated in aqueous phase reactions (aqBrC) between amines and small aldehydes, often resembles atmospheric HULIS. The effects of pH and aqueous phase oxidation on absorptivity and composition were simulated using bulk (microliter) samples under a variety of experimental conditions, including evaporation. The system of amines and small aldehydes included methylamine, ammonium sulfate, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. Chemical composition of these products was characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and a desorption-based atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) spectrometer. The results of this study indicate that methylamine and methylglyoxal form the most absorptive BrC, cloud processing serves to increase BrC absorptivity, and the generated BrC is highly persistent to oxidative and photodegradation. Lowering the pH to values below 6 reduces absorptivity at shorter wavelengths, but produces a new shoulder beyond 400 nm indicating new chromophore formation. Results of this research also show that evaporation increased formation of large molecular fragments (m/z > 100). Furthermore, the mass spectra showed significant formation of these larger fragments in methylamine systems with little evidence for similar compounds in ammonium sulfate systems. Systems with methylglyoxal had higher absorptivity than all other systems, although in both methylamine and ammonium sulfate systems, glyoxal appeared to result in a higher percentage of large fragments than methylglyoxal. Lastly, hydroxyl radical degradation seemed to have a minimal effect on absorptivity and composition, although

  9. Physical–chemical properties, separation performance, and fouling resistance of mixed-matrix ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoek, Eric M.V.; Ghosh, Asim K.; Huang, Xiaofei; Liong, Monty; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report on the formation and characterization of mixed-matrix ultrafiltration (UF) membranes hand-cast by nonsolvent induced phase inversion. We evaluated nanometer-to-micrometer sized inorganic fillers (silver, copper, silica, zeolite, and silver-zeolite) materials with polysulfone (PSf) as the polymeric dispersing matrix. In general, mixed-matrix membranes were rougher, more hydrophilic, and more mechanically robust. Only sub-micron zeolite-PSf mixed-matrix membranes exhibited simultaneous improvements in water permeability and solute selectivity; all other mixed-matrix membranes were more permeable, but less selective due to defects associated with poor polymer-filler binding. Protein and bacterial fouling resistance of mixed-matrix membranes containing silver, zeolite, and silver-zeolite nanoparticles were compared to a low-fouling, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) UF membrane. Zeolite and silver containing membranes exhibited better protein fouling resistance (due to higher hydrophilicity), whereas silver and silver-zeolite based membranes produce better bacterial fouling resistance due to antimicrobial properties. Overall, zeolite-PSf and silver exchanged zeolite-PSf membranes offered the best combination of improved permeability, selectivity, and fouling resistance - superior to the commercial PAN membrane. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Ultrafiltration of thin stillage from conventional and e-mill dry grind processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2011-05-01

    We used ultrafiltration (UF) to evaluate membrane filtration characteristics of thin stillage and determine solids and nutrient compositions of filtered streams. To obtain thin stillage, corn was fermented using laboratory methods. UF experiments were conducted in batch mode under constant temperature and flow rate conditions. Two regenerated cellulose membranes (10 and 100 kDa molecular weight cutoffs) were evaluated with the objective of retaining solids as well as maximizing permeate flux. Optimum pressures for 10 and 100 kDa membranes were 207 and 69 kPa, respectively. Total solids, ash, and neutral detergent fiber contents of input TS streams of dry grind and E-Mill processes were similar; however, fat and protein contents were different (p stillage fractionation had higher mean total solids contents (27.6% to 27.8%) compared to E-Mill (22.2% to 23.4%). Total solids in retentate streams were found similar to those from commercial evaporators used in industry (25% to 35% total solids). Fat contents of retentate streams ranged from 16.3% to 17.5% for the conventional process. A 2% increment in fat concentration was observed in the E-Mill retentate stream. Thin stillage ash content was reduced 60% in retentate streams.

  11. Nutrient recovery from the dry grind process using sequential micro and ultrafiltration of thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) for nutrient recovery from a thin stillage stream was determined. When a stainless steel MF membrane (0.1microm pore size) was used, the content of solids increased from 7.0% to 22.8% with a mean permeate flux rate of 45L/m(2)/h (LMH), fat increased and ash content decreased. UF experiments were conducted in batch mode under constant temperature and flow rate conditions. Permeate flux profiles were evaluated for regenerated cellulose membranes (YM1, YM10 and YM100) with molecular weight cut offs of 1, 10 and 100kDa. UF increased total solids, protein and fat and decreased ash in retentate stream. When permeate streams from MF were subjected to UF, retentate total solids concentrations similar to those of commercial syrup (23-28.8%) were obtained. YM100 had the highest percent permeate flux decline (70% of initial flux) followed by YM10 and YM1 membranes. Sequential filtration improved permeate flux rates of the YM100 membrane (32.6-73.4LMH) but the percent decline was also highest in a sequential MF+YM100 system. Protein recovery was the highest in YM1 retentate. Removal of solids, protein and fat from thin stillage may generate a permeate stream that may improve water removal efficiency and increase water recycling. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic behaviour of river colloidal and dissolved organic matter through cross-flow ultrafiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Andrew; Liu, Ruixia; Zhou, John L

    2005-07-01

    Through cross-flow filtration (CFF) with a 1-kDa regenerated cellulose Pellicon 2 module, the ultrafiltration characteristics of river organic matter from Longford Stream, UK, were investigated. The concentration of organic carbon (OC) in the retentate in the Longford Stream samples increased substantially with the concentration factor (cf), reaching approximately 40 mg/L at cf 15. The results of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colloidal organic carbon (COC) analysis, tracking the isolation of colloids from river waters, show that 2 mg/L of COC was present in those samples and good OC mass balance (77-101%) was achieved. Fluorescence measurements were carried out for the investigation of retentate and permeate behaviour of coloured dissolved organic materials (CDOM). The concentrations of CDOM in both the retentate and permeate increased with increasing cf, although CDOM were significantly more concentrated in the retentate. The permeation model expressing the correlation between log[CDOM] in the permeate and logcf was able to describe the permeation behaviour of CDOM in the river water with regression coefficients (r(2)) of 0.94 and 0.98. Dry weight analysis indicated that the levels of organic colloidal particles were from 49 to 71%, and between 29 and 51% of colloidal particles present were inorganic. COC as a percentage of DOC was found to be 10-16% for Longford Stream samples.

  13. Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaña, M.; Camacho, A.; Serrano, I.; Devesa, R.; Matia, L.; Vallés, I.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant. -- Highlights: ► A study with a pilot plant using different membranes technologies was made. ► Big reduction on natural uranium and 40 K by reverse osmosis was found. ► Pilot plant and full-scale treatment plant behave similarly

  14. Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaña, M; Camacho, A; Serrano, I; Devesa, R; Matia, L; Vallés, I

    2013-11-01

    A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kequan; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene

    2012-12-01

    Corn protein was hydrolysed by three microbial proteases and further separated by sequential ultra-filtration to 12 hydrolysate fractions which were investigated for free radical scavenging capacity and chelating activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the hydrolysates varied significantly between 65.6 and 191.4μmoles Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dried weight with a small peptide fraction (NP-F3) produced by neutral protease (NP) possessing the highest antioxidant activity. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH()) scavenging activities of the hydrolysate fractions also varied significantly between 18.4 and 38.7μmoles TE/g. Two fractions (AP-F2 and AP-F3) produced by alkaline protease (AP) showed the strongest activity. However, no significant difference was detected on the chelating activity of the fractions. NP-F3, AP-F2, and AP-F3 were incorporated into ground beef to determine their effects on lipid oxidation during 15-day storage period. NP-F3 was the only fraction that inhibited lipid oxidation at both 250 and 500μg/g levels by as much as 52.9%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic micro-pollutants’ removal via anaerobic membrane bioreactor with ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2015-12-15

    The removal of 15 organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) in synthetic municipal wastewater was investigated in a laboratory-scale mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) using ultrafiltration and AnMBR followed by nanofiltration (NF), where powdered activated carbon (PAC) was added to enhance OMPs removal. No significant effects of OMPs spiking and NF connection on bulk organics removal and biogas production were observed. Amitriptyline, diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, sulfamethoxazole, TDCPP and trimethoprim showed readily biodegradable characteristics with consistent biological removal over 80%. Atrazine, carbamazepine, DEET, Dilantin, primidone and TCEP showed refractory characteristics with biological removal below 40%. Acetaminophen, atenolol and caffeine showed a prolonged adaption time of around 45 d, with initial biological removal below 40% and up to 50-80% after this period. Most readily biodegradable OMPs contained a strong electron donating group. Most refractory OMPs contained a strong electron withdrawing group or a halogen substitute. NF showed consistent high rejection of 80-92% with an average of 87% for all OMPs, which resulted in higher OMPs removal in AnMBR-NF than in AnMBR alone, especially for refractory OMPs. Limited sorption performance of PAC for OMPs removal was mainly due to low and batch dosage (100 mg/L) as well as the competitive sorption caused by bulk organics.

  17. Comparison of acidic polymers for the removal of cobalt from water solutions by polymer assisted ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dambies, Laurent, E-mail: chemjobs@netcourrir.com [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Jaworska, Agnieszka, E-mail: a.jaworska@ichtj.waw.pl [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Sartowska, Bozena [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, three sulfonated water-soluble polymers based on poly(vinyl alcohol) of different molecular weights (10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 Da) were prepared and tested against commercially available poly(acrylic acid) for the removal of cobalt using polymer assisted ultrafiltration. High rejection rates were obtained between pH 3 and 6 with sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA 10,000 and 50,000 Da) whereas poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) of similar molecular weights performed rather poorly in this pH range. Sulfonation improved significantly sorption capability of PVA. Sulfonated PVA 10,000 was the best complexing agent with rejection rate above 95% between pH 3 and 6. For unmodified PVA the rejection rate was only 30-45% at pH 6 and there was no rejection at pH 3 at all. PAA rejection rate was above 90% at pH 6 and only about 10% at pH 3. Large scale experiment in cross-flow, continuous apparatus conducted by using PVA-SO{sub 3}H 10,000 Da to remove {sup 60}Co radioisotope from water solutions showed excellent results demonstrating the potential of this polymer to purify acidic radioactive wastes containing cobalt radioisotopes.

  18. Recovery of diverse microbes in high turbidity surface water samples using dead-end ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Bonnie; Hill, Vincent R

    2012-12-01

    Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) has been reported to be a simple, field-deployable technique for recovering bacteria, viruses, and parasites from large-volume water samples for water quality testing and waterborne disease investigations. While DEUF has been reported for application to water samples having relatively low turbidity, little information is available regarding recovery efficiencies for this technique when applied to sampling turbid water samples such as those commonly found in lakes and rivers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a DEUF technique for recovering MS2 bacteriophage, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface water samples having elevated turbidity. Average recovery efficiencies for each study microbe across all turbidity ranges were: MS2 (66%), C. parvum (49%), enterococci (85%), E. coli (81%), and C. perfringens (63%). The recovery efficiencies for MS2 and C. perfringens exhibited an inversely proportional relationship with turbidity, however no significant differences in recovery were observed for C. parvum, enterococci, or E. coli. Although ultrafilter clogging was observed, the DEUF method was able to process 100-L surface water samples at each turbidity level within 60 min. This study supports the use of the DEUF method for recovering a wide array of microbes in large-volume surface water samples having medium to high turbidity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Physical–chemical properties, separation performance, and fouling resistance of mixed-matrix ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoek, Eric M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report on the formation and characterization of mixed-matrix ultrafiltration (UF) membranes hand-cast by nonsolvent induced phase inversion. We evaluated nanometer-to-micrometer sized inorganic fillers (silver, copper, silica, zeolite, and silver-zeolite) materials with polysulfone (PSf) as the polymeric dispersing matrix. In general, mixed-matrix membranes were rougher, more hydrophilic, and more mechanically robust. Only sub-micron zeolite-PSf mixed-matrix membranes exhibited simultaneous improvements in water permeability and solute selectivity; all other mixed-matrix membranes were more permeable, but less selective due to defects associated with poor polymer-filler binding. Protein and bacterial fouling resistance of mixed-matrix membranes containing silver, zeolite, and silver-zeolite nanoparticles were compared to a low-fouling, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) UF membrane. Zeolite and silver containing membranes exhibited better protein fouling resistance (due to higher hydrophilicity), whereas silver and silver-zeolite based membranes produce better bacterial fouling resistance due to antimicrobial properties. Overall, zeolite-PSf and silver exchanged zeolite-PSf membranes offered the best combination of improved permeability, selectivity, and fouling resistance - superior to the commercial PAN membrane. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective removal of dissolved toxic metals from groundwater by ultrafiltration in combination with chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Le, V.T.; McConeghy, G.J.; Martin, J.F.

    1989-09-01

    An alternative in-place process for the removal of toxic heavy metals based on aqueous solution chemistry and treatment is being evaluated under the auspices of the Emerging Technologies Program funded through the USEPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. The technique involves the contacting of aqueous solutions containing the heavy metal contaminants with low concentrations of polyelectrolytes, and then removing the polyelectrolytes from solution with ultrafiltration membranes. The first phase of the program is considered complete. Success has been achieved for the separation of soluble, heavy metal ions: cadmium, lead, and mercury even in the presence of an organic compound, toluene. Removal was successful at alkaline conditions, using any combination of membrane material or polyelectrolyte. Arsenic was removed, but not effectively, using the current polyelectrolytes, simply because arsenic is present as an anionic species rather than as a cationic species. Optimization of the process variables is nearing completion and pilot and field testing will take place in the second year of the program to verify the process under realistic conditions and to establish process economics

  3. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondes, Mona Freda N.; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Ballesteros, Florencio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Above 99% of the emerging contaminants were removed in the USAMe process. • Influence of PAC dose and US frequency on removal is studied. • Improved performance is due to PAC adsorption enhancement and sonolytic degradation. • US irradiation improved efficiency and delayed declines in the removal of contaminants. • Performance of the hybrid process is better under lower frequency ultrasound irradiation. -- Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs

  4. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  5. [Determination of plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin with ultrafiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Ying; Wang, Wei; Tan, Ri-Qiu; Dou, De-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    To determine the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin. The ultrafiltration combined with HPLC was employed to determine the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin as well as rat plasma and healthy human plasma proteins. The plasma protein binding rate of arctiin with rat plasma at the concentrations of 64. 29, 32.14, 16.07 mg x L(-1) were (71.2 +/- 2.0)%, (73.4 +/- 0.61)%, (78.2 +/- 1.9)%, respectively; while the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin with healthy human plasma at the above concentrations were (64.8 +/- 3.1)%, (64.5 +/- 2.5)%, (77.5 +/- 1.7)%, respectively. The plasma protein binding rate of arctigenin with rat plasma at the concentrations of 77.42, 38.71, 19.36 mg x L(-1) were (96.7 +/- 0.41)%, (96.8 +/- 1.6)%, (97.3 +/- 0.46)%, respectively; while the plasma protein binding rate of arctigenin with normal human plasma at the above concentrations were (94.7 +/- 3.1)%, (96.8 +/- 1.6)%, (97.9 +/- 1.3)%, respectively. The binding rate of arctiin with rat plasma protein was moderate, which is slightly higher than the binding rate of arctiin with healthy human plasma protein. The plasma protein binding rates of arctigenin with both rat plasma and healthy human plasma are very high.

  6. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes 3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  7. Enzymatic treatment for controlling irreversible membrane fouling in cross-flow humic acid-fed ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chien-Hwa [Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Nanya Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fang, Lung-Chen; Lateef, Shaik Khaja [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chung-Hsin, E-mail: chunghsinwu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien Kung Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Fang [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Exploring reasonable ways to remove foulant is of great importance in order to allow sustainable operation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in water/wastewater treatment technology. Compounds of organic and inorganic origin largely contribute to irreversible fouling. This study attempted to remove problem of UF membrane fouling by using four different enzymes including {alpha}-amylase, lipase, cellulase and protease. This investigation showed that none of the above mentioned enzymes was found to be effective for the removal of foulant when used alone. However, when these enzymes were used in combination with NaOH and citric acid, about 90% cleaning was achieved. The addition of non-ionic surfactant to the enzymatic solution appears to increase the efficiency of flux recovery by reducing the adhesion of foulant species to the membrane surface through the decrease of contact angle. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were employed to qualitatively illustrate the foulant characteristics. The surface roughness through AFM was used to explain the potential mechanism for the enzymatic cleaning.

  8. Performance of Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes in the Clarification of Blood Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Conidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of blood orange juice by ultrafiltration (UF was investigated by using three hollow fiber membrane modules characterized by different membrane materials (polysulfone (PS and polyacrylonitrile (PAN and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO (50 and 100 kDa. The performance of selected membranes was investigated in terms of productivity and selectivity towards total anthocyanin content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant activity (TAA. All selected membranes allowed a good preservation of antioxidant compounds; however, the most suitable membrane for the clarification of the juice was found to be the PS 100 kDa membrane. In optimized operating conditions this membrane exhibited steady-state fluxes of 7.12 L/m2h, higher than those measured for other investigated membranes. Rejections towards TPC and TAA were of the order of 17.5% and 15%, respectively. These values were lower than those determined for PS 50 kDa and PAN 50 kDa membranes. In addition, the PS 100 kDa membrane exhibited a lower rejection (7.3% towards TAC when compared to the PS 50 kDa membrane (9.2%.

  9. Peritoneal transport in CAPD patients with permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbuerger, O.W.; Waniewski, J.; Werynski, A.; Tranaeus, A.; Lindholm, B.

    1990-01-01

    During a 10 year period, 14 out of 227 patients (6.2%) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) developed permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity (UFC). The risk of UFC loss increased from 2.6% after one year to 30.9% after six years of treatment. A six hour, single dwell study with glucose 3.86% dialysis fluid was carried out in nine of the UFC loss patients and in 18 CAPD patients with normal UFC. Intraperitoneal dialysate volumes were calculated using 131I-tagged albumin (RISA) as volume marker with a correction applied for its elimination from the peritoneal cavity. The RISA elimination coefficient (KE), which can serve as an estimation of the upper limit of the lymphatic flow, was also calculated. Diffusive mass transport coefficients (KBD) for investigated solutes (glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium, total protein, albumin and beta 2-microglobulin) were calculated during a period of dialysate isovolemia. Two patterns of UFC loss were observed: (a) seven patients had high KBD values for small solutes resulting in rapid uptake of glucose, whereas KBD values for proteins were normal; (b) two patients had normal KBD values but a threefold increase both in the fluid reabsorption rate and KE. We conclude that loss of the osmotic driving force (due to increased diffusive mass transport for small solutes) and increased fluid reabsorption (possibly due to increased lymphatic reabsorption) are the two major causes of permanent loss of UFC in CAPD patients

  10. Effect of different concentrations of nisin on starter culture of model Cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a natural preservative produced by strains of Lactococcuslactis subsp. Lactis, has been approved for use in food by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives and has been awarded generally recognized as safe (GRAS. It remains the only bacteriocin allowed in food as an addedpreservative. Nisin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity againstgram-positive bacteria, thus one of the problems associated with nisin application is inhibition of starter culture and prevention of ripening, which is required for development of cheese characteristics during ripening. In the current study, the effects of different concentrations of nisin and temperature on growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria in model cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk was evaluated. Cheese samples were supplemented with nisin at concentrations of 0, 2, 4 and 6 µg/g and stored at 8 and 25 °C up to 60 days. Microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the cheese samples were analyzedat 0, 1, 8, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Results showed that addition of nisin at concentrations of 4 and 6 µg/g affects (p

  11. Polyethersulfone-based ultrafiltration hollow fibre membrane for drinking water treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Chun Ming; Ng, K. M. David; Ooi, H. H. Richard

    2017-12-01

    Conventional media/sand filtration has been the mainstream water treatment process for most municipal water treatment plants in Malaysia. Filtrate qualities of conventional media/sand filtration are very much dependent on the coagulation-flocculation process prior to filtration and might be as high as 5 NTU. However, the demands for better quality of drinking water through public piped-water supply systems are growing. Polymeric ultrafiltration (UF) hollow fibre membrane made from modified polyethersulfone (PES) material is highly hydrophilic with high tensile strength and produces excellent quality filtrate of below 0.3 NTU in turbidity. This advanced membrane filtration material is also chemical resistance which allows a typical lifespan of 5 years. Comparisons between the conventional media/sand filtration and PES-based UF systems are carried out in this paper. UF has been considered as the emerging technology in municipal drinking water treatment plants due to its consistency in producing high quality filtrates even without the coagulation-flocculation process. The decreasing cost of PES-based membrane due to mass production and competitive pricing by manufacturers has made the UF technology affordable for industrial-scale water treatment plants.

  12. Performance of ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in treating car wash wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem, Shamima; Wills, Jamie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-03-01

    Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems. This study evaluates the performance of granular and membrane filtration systems with coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in treating car wash wastewater for the purpose of reuse. Overall, 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of suspended solids and 96% of COD were removed from the car wash wastewater after treating by coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis and the treated water meets the standards required for class A recycled water in Australia and standards imposed in Belgium and China. The treated water can be reused. However, optimisation is required to reduce the sludge produced by this system.

  13. Enzymatic treatment for controlling irreversible membrane fouling in cross-flow humic acid-fed ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chien-Hwa; Fang, Lung-Chen; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Exploring reasonable ways to remove foulant is of great importance in order to allow sustainable operation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in water/wastewater treatment technology. Compounds of organic and inorganic origin largely contribute to irreversible fouling. This study attempted to remove problem of UF membrane fouling by using four different enzymes including α-amylase, lipase, cellulase and protease. This investigation showed that none of the above mentioned enzymes was found to be effective for the removal of foulant when used alone. However, when these enzymes were used in combination with NaOH and citric acid, about 90% cleaning was achieved. The addition of non-ionic surfactant to the enzymatic solution appears to increase the efficiency of flux recovery by reducing the adhesion of foulant species to the membrane surface through the decrease of contact angle. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were employed to qualitatively illustrate the foulant characteristics. The surface roughness through AFM was used to explain the potential mechanism for the enzymatic cleaning.

  14. New aspects of the possible sites of ultrafiltration in annelids (oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U

    1995-02-01

    Electron microscopic investigations of blood vessels were conducted to show sites of filtration such as podocytes or fenestrated endothelia. The endothelia of the blood vessels of Aelosoma hemprichi, Nais elinguis, Dero obtusa and Enchytraeus buchholzi consist of myoendothelial cells, chloragocytes and podocytes. The podocytes form large archs over a considerable area of the vessels. On the lumen side of the vessel there are several columnar processes which split into numerous small pedicels. The gaps between the adjacent pedicles are bridged by slit membranes. The podocytes are restricted to the front part of the ventral vessel. They are presumed to form a filtration surface. Furthermore, some parts of the ventral vessel are formed by a fenestrated endothelium, mainly in Enchytraeus buchholzi. In the vascular system of E. buchholzi two separate filtration sites were found. Additionally to the filtration site between ventral vessel and coelomic cavity a second filtration site was found in the front part of the body between blood sinus and coelomic cavity. In such areas the basement membrane is the only continuous layer between the blood vessel and the coelomic cavity. Its thickness is in the range of 40 nm. Possible filtration sites in the form of podocytes and irregular fenestrations could be localized at the border between the blood compartment and the coelomic compartment. It can be presumed that the primary urine may be formed by ultrafiltration of blood.

  15. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  16. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  17. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondes, Mona Freda N. [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Naddeo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vnaddeo@unisa.it [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084 (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Belgiorno, Vincenzo [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084 (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Ballesteros, Florencio [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Above 99% of the emerging contaminants were removed in the USAMe process. • Influence of PAC dose and US frequency on removal is studied. • Improved performance is due to PAC adsorption enhancement and sonolytic degradation. • US irradiation improved efficiency and delayed declines in the removal of contaminants. • Performance of the hybrid process is better under lower frequency ultrasound irradiation. -- Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs.

  18. Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft 2 area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI 2 /day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs

  19. New method for exopolysaccharide determination in culture broth using stirred ultrafiltration cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmaier, D; Lacroix, C; Guadalupe Macedo, M; Champagne, C P

    2001-10-01

    A new method to remove simple carbohydrates from culture broth prior to the quantification of exopolysaccharides (EPS) was developed and validated for the EPS-producing strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M. This method uses ultrafiltration (UF) in stirred cells followed by polysaccharide detection in the retentate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The UF method was compared with a conventional method based on ethanol extraction, dialysis, protein removal by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and freeze-drying. EPS production during pH-controlled batch fermentations in basal minimum medium, whey permeate (WP). and whey permeate supplemented with yeast extract, minerals and Tween-80 (SWP) was determined by the new UF and conventional methods. EPS recovery by the new method ranged from 83% to 104% for EPS added in the concentration range 40-1,500 mg/l in 0.1 M NaCl solution or culture medium. The UF method was rapid (8 h), accurate and simple, and required only a small sample volume (1-5 ml). A very high maximum EPS production was measured in SWP by both the UF and conventional methods (1,718 and 1,755 mg/l).

  20. Contribution of different effluent organic matter fractions to membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of treated domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, effluent organic matter (EfOM) in treated domestic wastewater was separated into hydrophobic neutrals, colloids, hydrophobic acids, transphilic acids and neutrals and hydrophilic compounds. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was identified. Further characterization was conducted with respect to molecular size and hydrophobicity. Each isolated fraction was dosed into salt solution to identify its fouling potential in ultrafiltration (UF) using a hydrophilized polyethersulfone membrane. The results show that each kind of EfOM leads to irreversible fouling. At similar delivered DOC load to the membrane, colloids present the highest fouling effect in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The hydrophobic organics show much lower reversibility than the biopolymers present. However, as they are of much smaller size than the membrane pore opening, they cannot lead to such severe fouling as biopolymers do. In all of the isolated fractions, hydrophilics show the lowest fouling potential. For either colloids or hydrophobic substances, increasing their content in feedwater leads to worse fouling. The co-effect between biopolymers and other EfOM fractions has also been identified as one of the mechanisms contributing to UF fouling in filtering EfOM-containing waters. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  1. Ultrafiltration membranes from waste polyethylene terephthalate and additives: synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP is reported. PET is currently used in many applications, including the manufacture of bottles and tableware. Monomer extraction from waste PET is expensive, and this process has not yet been successfully demonstrated on a viable scale. Hence, any method to recycle or regenerate PET once it has been used is of significant importance from scientific and environmental research viewpoints. Such a process would be a green alternative due to reduced raw monomer consumption and the additional benefit of reduced manufacturing costs. The membranes described here were prepared by a phase-inversion process, which involved casting a solution containing PET, m-cresol as solvent, and polyethylene glycol (PEG of different molecular weights as additives. The membranes were characterized in terms of pure water permeability (PWP, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, and flux and membrane morphology. The results show that the addition of PEG with high molecular weights leads to membranes with higher PWP. The presence of additives affects surface roughness and membrane morphology.

  2. Contribution of different effluent organic matter fractions to membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of treated domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, effluent organic matter (EfOM) in treated domestic wastewater was separated into hydrophobic neutrals, colloids, hydrophobic acids, transphilic acids and neutrals and hydrophilic compounds. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was identified. Further characterization was conducted with respect to molecular size and hydrophobicity. Each isolated fraction was dosed into salt solution to identify its fouling potential in ultrafiltration (UF) using a hydrophilized polyethersulfone membrane. The results show that each kind of EfOM leads to irreversible fouling. At similar delivered DOC load to the membrane, colloids present the highest fouling effect in terms of both reversible and irreversible fouling. The hydrophobic organics show much lower reversibility than the biopolymers present. However, as they are of much smaller size than the membrane pore opening, they cannot lead to such severe fouling as biopolymers do. In all of the isolated fractions, hydrophilics show the lowest fouling potential. For either colloids or hydrophobic substances, increasing their content in feedwater leads to worse fouling. The co-effect between biopolymers and other EfOM fractions has also been identified as one of the mechanisms contributing to UF fouling in filtering EfOM-containing waters. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  3. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis ) and -negative ( Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation.

  4. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P coffee was significantly (P market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  5. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, James R; Blau, Caitlin L; Cornelius, Amanda M; Pike, Roxann B; Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N

    2016-03-01

    Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods.

  6. RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM MUNG BEAN STARCH PROCESSING WASTEWATER BY ROTATING ULTRAFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENPORN SRINIWORN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean wastewater containing valuable protein is very potential to be recovered for reuse. In this study, rotary disk ultrafiltration was employed to recover this protein. The effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP and membrane rotational speeds on process efficiency were studied and the optimum condition was chosen based on membrane permeate flux and protein retention. The results suggested that the use of TMP of 1.2 bar and rotating speed of 1,683 rpm under total recycle mode tended to achieve highest permeate flux (43 L/m3h compared to those using lower TMP and rotating speeds. The permeate fluxes under total recycle mode and batch concentration mode tended to increase with processing time, indicating the effectiveness of rotating shear force. In addition, the effect of stabilization technique on process performance under batch concentration mode was also studied. However, the variable did not show positive impacts on permeate flux and protein retention improvement. The optimum condition to achieve volume concentration factor (VCF of 5 was TMP of 1.2 bar and rotating speed of 1,403 rpm without stabilization. Under this condition, the average flux, protein retention and energy consumption were 42 L/m2h, 96% and 81 kWh/m3, respectively.

  7. Residual blood processing by centrifugation, cell salvage or ultrafiltration in cardiac surgery: effects on clinical hemostatic and ex-vivo rheological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Alexander B; Muntajit, Warayouth; Bhagirath, Pranav; van Barneveld, Laurentius J; Romijn, Johannes W; de Vroege, Roel; Boer, Christa

    2012-10-01

    The study compared the effects of three blood concentration techniques after cardiopulmonary bypass on clinical hemostatic and ex-vivo rheological parameters. Residual blood of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery was processed by centrifugation, cell salvage or ultrafiltration, and retransfused (n = 17 per group). Study parameters included blood loss, (free) hemoglobin, hematocrit, fibrinogen and erythrocyte aggregation, deformability and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate content. Patient characteristics were similar between groups. Ultrafiltration was associated with the highest weight of the transfusion bag [649 ± 261 vs. 320 ± 134 g (centrifugation) and 391 ± 158 g (cell salvage); P levels in the transfusion bag. Retransfusion of cell saver blood induced the largest gain in postoperative patient hemoglobin levels when compared to centrifugation and ultrafiltration, and was associated with the largest increase in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate when compared to ultrafiltration (Δ2,3-diphosphoglycerate 1.34 ± 1.92 vs. -0.77 ± 1.56 mmol/l; P = 0.03). Cell salvage is superior with respect to postoperative hemoglobin gain and washout of free hemoglobin when compared to centrifugation or ultrafiltration.

  8. Carbon dioxide nucleation as a novel cleaning method for ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ghamdi, Mohanned

    2016-12-08

    The use of low-pressure membranes, mainly ultrafiltration (UF), has emerged in the last decade and began to show acceptance as a novel pretreatment process for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination. This is mainly due to the superior water quality provided by these membranes, in addition to reduction in chemicals consumption compared to conventional methods. However, membrane fouling remains the main drawback of this technology. Therefore, frequent cleaning of these membranes is required to maintain water flux and its quality. Usually, after a series of backwash using UF permeate chemical cleaning is required under some conditions to fully recover the operating flux. Frequent chemical cleaning will probably decrease the life time of the membrane, increase costs, and will have some effects on the environment. The new cleaning method proposed in this study consists of using a solution saturated with carbon dioxide (CO2) to clean UF membranes. Under the drop in pressure, this solution will become in a supersaturated state and bubbles will start to nucleate on the surface of the membrane and its pores from this solution resulting in the removal of the fouling material deposited on the membrane. Different compositions of fouling solutions including the use of organic compounds such as sodium alginate and colloidal 5 silica with different concentrations were studied using synthetic seawater with different concentrations. This cleaning method was then compared to the backwash using Milli-Q water and showed an improved performance compared to it. An operational modification to this cleaning technique was then investigated which includs a series of sudden pressure drop during the backwash process. This enhanced technique showed an even better performance in cleaning the membrane, especially at severe fouling conditions. In most cases, the membrane permeability was fully recovered even at harsh conditions where conventional backwash failed to maintain a stable

  9. Applying polarity rapid assessment method and ultrafiltration to characterize NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Leavey, Shannon; Krasner, Stuart W; Mel Suffet, I H

    2014-06-15

    Certain nitrosamines in water are disinfection byproducts that are probable human carcinogens. Nitrosamines have diverse and complex precursors that include effluent organic matter, some anthropogenic chemicals, and natural (likely non-humic) substances. An easy and selective tool was first developed to characterize nitrosamine precursors in treated wastewaters, including different process effluents. This tool takes advantages of the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and ultrafiltration (UF) (molecular weight distribution) to locate the fractions with the strongest contributions to the nitrosamine precursor pool in the effluent organic matter. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for their high selectivity for nitrosamine precursors. The details of PRAM operation, such as cartridge clean-up, capacity, pH influence, and quality control were included in this paper, as well as the main parameters of UF operation. Preliminary testing of the PRAM/UF method with effluents from one wastewater treatment plant gave very informative results. SCX retained 45-90% of the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (FP)-a measure of the precursors-in secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents. These results are consistent with NDMA precursors likely having a positively charged amine group. C18 adsorbed 30-45% of the NDMAFP, which indicates that a substantial portion of these precursors were non-polar. The small molecular weight (MW) (10 kDa) fractions obtained from UF were the primary contributors to NDMAFP. The combination of PRAM and UF brings important information on the characteristics of nitrosamine precursors in water with easy operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes for treating low-level radioactive contaminated liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Roberts, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed on Waste Disposal Facility (WD) influent using Romicon hollow fiber ultrafiltration modules with molecular weight cutoffs ranging from 2000 to 80,000. The rejection of conductivity was low in most cases. The rejection of radioactivity ranged from 90 to 98%, depending on the membrane type and on the feed concentration. Typical product activity ranged from 7 to 100 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Experiments were also performed on alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater. Results ranged from 98 to >99.8%, depending on the membrane type. This yielded a product concentration of less than 0.1 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Tests on PP-Building decontamination water yielded rejections of 85 to 88% alpha radiation depending on the membrane type. These experiments show that the ability to remove radioactivity by membrane is a function of the contents of the waste stream because the radioactivity in the wastewater is in various forms: ionic, polymeric, colloidal, and absorbed onto suspended solids. Although removal of suspended or colloidal material is very high, removal of ionic material is not as effective. Alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater proved to be the easiest to decontaminate, whereas the low-level PP-Building decontamination water proved to be the most difficult to decontaminate. Decontamination of the WD influent, a combined waste stream, varied considerably from day to day because of its constantly changing makeup. The WD influent was also treated with various substances, such as polyelectrolytes, complexing agents, and coagulants, to determine if these additives would aid in the removal of radioactive material from the various wastewaters by complexing the ionic species. At the present time, none of the additives evaluated has had much effect; but experiments are continuing

  11. The source of net ultrafiltration during hemodialysis is mostly the extracellular space regardless of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonju; Lim, Chae-Wan; Choi, Hye-Min; Oh, Dong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Fluid shifts are common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) during the intradialytic periods, as several liters of fluid are removed during ultrafiltration (UF). Some patients have experienced frequent intradialytic hypotension (IDH). However, the characteristics of fluid shifts and which fluid space is affected remain controversial. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate the fluid spaces most affected by UF and to determine whether hydration status influences the fluid shifts during HD. This was a prospective cohort study of 40 patients undergoing HD. We measured the patient's fluid spaces using a whole-body bioimpedance apparatus to evaluate the changes in the fluid spaces before HD and 1-4 hours of HD and 30 minutes after HD. UF achieved during HD by the 40 patients (age, 60.0 ± 5.2 years; 50% men; 50% of patients with diabetes; body weight, 61.3 ± 10.5 kg) was 2.18 ± 0.78 L (measured fluid overload, 2.15 ± 1.24 L). 1) Mean relative reduction of total body water and extracellular water was reduced from the start to the end of HD. 2) However, mean relative reduction of intracellular water was not reduced from the start to the end of HD. 3) No significant differences in fluid shifts were observed according to hydration status. The source of net UF during HD is mostly the extracellular space regardless of hydration status. Thus, IDH may be related to differences in the interstitial fluid shift to the vascular space. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  12. Clay filter-aid in ultrafiltration (UF) of humic acid solution

    KAUST Repository

    Pontié , M.; Thekkedath, A.; Kecili, K.; Dach, H.; De Nardi, F.; Castaing, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Fouling studies with three different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (100. kDa, 30. kDa and 10. kDa) membranes in regenerated cellulose were carried out in the presence of Acros humic acids (HA) at pH 3.0, 6.7 and 9.5. It was shown that the tighter membranes were less fouled compared with the higher MWCO membranes. 100. kDa membrane showed the highest degree of fouling. The role of pH showed that the highest degree of fouling happened at a neutral pH (pH 6.7) and the lowest degree of fouling happened at a basic pH (pH 9.5).Effectiveness of a novel pre-treatment method was applied to the 100kDa membrane. We added in the HA solution clay particles, homemade synthetized from natural bentonite and denoted Mont-CTAB. We observed a gain in productivity of 25%. 2D-fractal dimension parameter decreased under 1.5, showing a de-organization of the cake due to clay particles in/on the cake and a specific resistance of 4.4×10 11m/kg was obtained in presence of clays versus 3.6×10 14m/kg with HA alone. Finally the development of clay assisted ultrafiltration process changes the cake morphology limiting fouling impact and it is hope that for long term experiments, formation of a gel-layer should be limited. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

  13. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  14. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  15. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Verberk, J. Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clay filter-aid in ultrafiltration (UF) of humic acid solution

    KAUST Repository

    Pontié, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fouling studies with three different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (100. kDa, 30. kDa and 10. kDa) membranes in regenerated cellulose were carried out in the presence of Acros humic acids (HA) at pH 3.0, 6.7 and 9.5. It was shown that the tighter membranes were less fouled compared with the higher MWCO membranes. 100. kDa membrane showed the highest degree of fouling. The role of pH showed that the highest degree of fouling happened at a neutral pH (pH 6.7) and the lowest degree of fouling happened at a basic pH (pH 9.5).Effectiveness of a novel pre-treatment method was applied to the 100kDa membrane. We added in the HA solution clay particles, homemade synthetized from natural bentonite and denoted Mont-CTAB. We observed a gain in productivity of 25%. 2D-fractal dimension parameter decreased under 1.5, showing a de-organization of the cake due to clay particles in/on the cake and a specific resistance of 4.4×10 11m/kg was obtained in presence of clays versus 3.6×10 14m/kg with HA alone. Finally the development of clay assisted ultrafiltration process changes the cake morphology limiting fouling impact and it is hope that for long term experiments, formation of a gel-layer should be limited. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

  17. Intermittent operation of ultra-low pressure ultrafiltration for decentralized drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter-Varbanets, Maryna; Gujer, Willi; Pronk, Wouter

    2012-06-15

    River water was treated by ultrafiltration at a relatively low transmembrane pressure (40 mbar). As observed before, flux stabilization occurred after several days of operation although no back-flushing or cross flow was applied. Interruptions in flux were applied by temporary offset of the transmembrane pressure. After restoration of the transmembrane pressure, the initial flux was higher than the stable flux level, and the flux recovery depended on the standstill time. Furthermore, if a short cross flow was applied after standstill, the flux was restored to an even higher level. In all cases, the flux decreased again during operation to reach finally the same stable level as before standstill. In order to evaluate the influence of intermittent operation as practiced for water treatment on a household level, daily interruptions of flux were applied. An optimum of total daily water production rate was obtained at 21 h of operation and 3 h of standstill per day. A model was developed which can describe the impact of intermittent operation on the flux depending on the duration of the standstill and operating periods. This enables the prediction of production capacity of the system operated intermittently. The flux increase during standstill could be explained by a relaxation and expansion of the biofouling layer, while the higher flux after forward-flushing was caused by this layer being partially sloughed off. Household water treatment with the process presented here will generally be operated on a discontinuous basis. The results show that such operation schemes do not compromise the permeability of the system, but actually lead to higher fluxes after standstill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EDTA fouling in dead-end ultrafiltration of low level radioactive wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Lixia [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Zhang, Xue [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hu, Hongying [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • EDTA in LLRW caused unrecoverable UF membrane fouling. • The rejection of nuclides by UF was significantly enhanced with EDTA addition. • The nuclide (except Ag) deposition on membrane increased with EDTA addition. • Reducing EDTA in the feed water or alkaline/ultrasonic washing were suggested. - Abstract: EDTA is widely used as a detergent, and finally enters into wastewater. The influence of EDTA on ultrafiltration of low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW) was investigated under different operation conditions. As the main organic pollutant, EDTA led to unrecoverable membrane fouling and the normalized flux decreased from 100% to 85% depending on its concentration. The clogging caused by EDTA increased the surface roughness of the membrane, leading to the flux reduction. Both nuclide rejections and depositions on the membrane surfaces were enhanced with EDTA addition, due to the strong complexation of the nuclides with EDTA. However, Ag deposition on the membrane decreased slightly in the presence of EDTA, which may be caused by the stronger attraction of Ag to the unmodified membrane than that to the EDTA-modified one. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of membranes had negligible effects on membrane fouling, while the nuclide rejections by membrane and the depositions of nuclides on membrane both decreased significantly when the TMP increased to 0.2 MPa and MWCO increased from 5 kDa to 30 kDa. Based on these results, it clearly showed that EDTA even at a low concentration had strong effects on the performance of UF treating LLRW. Therefore, it is suggested for industrial application that pretreatments to reduce EDTA or alkaline/ultrasonic washing involved in UF process were necessary to reduce the nuclide depositions on the membrane surfaces and irradiation dose of membrane surface.

  19. A new method to evaluate patient characteristic response to ultrafiltration during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, G; Teatini, U; Romei Longhena, G; Miglietta, F; Fumero, R; Costantino, M L

    2007-05-01

    Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of dialysis discomfort interfering with optimal fluid removal and reducing the efficacy of the treatment; the most important one is a decrease in blood volume caused by an imbalance between ultrafiltration (UF) and plasmarefilling (PR) rates. This study is aimed at devising a method to tailor the dialysis therapy to each individual patient, by analyzing the relationship between PR and UF during the sessions in stable patients and widening the knowledge of fluid exchanges during the treatment. Thirty stable patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled. Three dialysis sessions were monitored for each patient; systemic pressure, blood composition, blood volume % variation, weight loss and conductivity were recorded repeatedly. A Plasma Refilling Index (PRI), defined and calculated by means of parameters measured throughout the dialysis, was introduced as a novel instrument to study plasma refilling phenomena. Results. The PRI provides understanding of patient response (in terms of plasma refilling) to the set UF. In the monitored sessions, the PRI trend is found to be characteristic of each patient; a PRI course that is at variance with the characteristic trend is a signal of inadequate or unusual dialysis scheduling. Moreover, statistical analysis highlights two different PRI trends during the first hour and during the rest of the treatment, suggesting the presence of different treatment phases. The main advantage of the PRI index is that it is non-invasive peculiar to each patient and easy to compute in a dialysis routine based on online data recorded by the monitor. A deviation from the characteristic trend may be a warning for the clinician. The analysis of the PRI trend also suggests how to modulate UF as a function of interstitial to intravascular fluid removal balance during dialysis.

  20. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.