WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultradwarf bermudagrass cultivars

  1. Evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of hybrid ultradwarf bermudagrasses (UDBG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) on golf course putting greens is increasing in the southern United States. However, off-type grasses within many putting surfaces have been observed. To explore the genetic variation among UD...

  2. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp) dose-response relationships with clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Theodore M; Hanna, Wayne W; Mullinix, Benjamin G

    2004-12-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of three commercial cultivars, eight experimental cultivars and common bermudagrass to clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate. Each herbicide was applied at eight doses. Data were regressed on herbicide dose using a log-logistic curve (R2 = 0.56-0.95 for clethodim, R2 = 0.60-0.94 for glufosinate, and R2 = 0.70-0.96 for glyphosate). The herbicide rate that elicited a 50% plant response (I50) in the bermudagrass cultivars ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 kg ha(-1) clethodim, 0.19 to 1.33 kg ha(-1) glufosinate and 0.34 to 1.14 kg ha(-1) glyphosate. Relative to other cultivars, common bermudagrass was intermediate in its response to clethodim and among the most tolerant cultivars to glufosinate and glyphosate. TifSport was relatively tolerant to clethodim and glufosinate compared with other cultivars, but relatively sensitive to glyphosate. One cultivar, 94-437, was consistently among the most sensitive cultivars to each of the herbicides. While there were differential herbicide tolerances among the tested bermudagrass cultivars, there did not appear to be any naturally occurring herbicide resistance that could be commercially utilized. However, research indicated that breeding efforts should target herbicide resistance that is at least four times the registered use rate. Also, TifSport and Tifway have been identified as suitable representatives of triploid hybrid bermudagrass cultivars to be used to evaluate the success of turfgrass renovation programs. 2004 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Bermudagrass is an important warm-season forage and turf species widely grown in the southern United States. This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic bermudagrass plants, bypassing the callus formation phase. Stolon nodes are infected and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA binary vectors. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Green shoots are directly produced from infected stolon nodes 4 to 5 wk after hygromycin selection. Without callus formation and with minimum tissue culture, this procedure allowed us to obtain well-rooted transgenic plantlets in only 7 wk and greenhouse-grown plants in only 9 wk.

  4. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis burtt-Davy) putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) is one of the most widely used grasses on golf courses, with cultivars derived from ‘Tifgreen’ or ‘Tifdwarf’ particularly used for putting greens in the southern agronomic region. Many bermudagrass cultiv...

  6. Evaluation of a Hypocrea jecorina Enzyme Preparation for Hydrolysis of Tifton 85 Bermudagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, E. A.; Brandon, S. K.; Doran-Peterson, J.

    Tifton 85 bermudagrass, developed at the ARS-USDA in Tifton, GA, is grown on over ten million acres in the USA for hay and forage. Of the bermudagrass cultivars, Tifton 85 exhibits improved digestibility because the ratio of ether- to ester-linked phenolic acids has been lowered using traditional plant breeding techniques. A previously developed pressurized batch hot water (PBHW) method was used to treat Tifton 85 bermudagrass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Native grass (untreated) and PBHW-pretreated material were compared as substrates for fungal cultivation to produce enzymes. Cellulase activity, measured via the filter paper assay, was higher for fungi cultivated on PBHW-pretreated grass, whereas the other nine enzyme assays produced higher activities for the untreated grass. Ferulic acid and vanillin levels increased significantly for the enzyme preparations produced using PBHW-pretreated grass and the release of these phenolic compounds may have contributed to the observed reduction in enzyme activities. Culture supernatant from Tifton 85 bermudagrass-grown fungi were combined with two commercial enzyme preparations and the enzyme activity profiles are reported. The amount of reducing sugar liberated by the enzyme mixture from Hypocrea jecorina (after 192 h incubation with untreated bermudagrass) individually or in combination with feruloyl esterase was 72.1 and 84.8%, respectively, of the commercial cellulase preparation analyzed under the same conditions.

  7. Assessment of Bermudagrass and Bunch Grasses as Feedstock for Conversion to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William F.; Dien, Bruce S.; Brandon, Sarah K.; Peterson, Joy Doran

    Research is needed to allow more efficient processing of lignocellulose from abundant plant biomass resources for production to fuel ethanol at lower costs. Potential dedicated feedstock species vary in degrees of recalcitrance to ethanol processing. The standard dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by simultaneous sacharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed on leaf and stem material from three grasses: giant reed (Arundo donax L.), napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.), and bermudagrass (Cynodon spp). In a separate study, napiergrass, and bermudagrass whole samples were pretreated with esterase and cellulose before fermentation. Conversion via SSF was greatest with two bermudagrass cultivars (140 and 122 mg g-1 of biomass) followed by leaves of two napiergrass genotypes (107 and 97 mg g-1) and two giant reed clones (109 and 85 mg g-1). Variability existed among bermudagrass cultivars for conversion to ethanol after esterase and cellulase treatments, with Tifton 85 (289 mg g) and Coastcross II (284 mg g-1) being superior to Coastal (247 mg g-1) and Tifton 44 (245 mg g-1). Results suggest that ethanol yields vary significantly for feedstocks by species and within species and that genetic breeding for improved feedstocks should be possible.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides new insights into erect and prostrate growth in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Xiaolin; Zong, Junqin; Chen, Jingbo; Li, Jianjian; Guo, Hailin; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-12-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage. In this study, we compared the stem internode transcriptome of two bermudagrass wild accessions with extremely different tiller angles and stem growth directions. A total of 2088 and 12,141 unigenes were preferentially expressed in prostrate-growing wild accession C792 and erect-growing wild accession C793, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology-based Annotation System (KOBAS) analyses further indicated that light- and gravity-responsive genes were enriched in accession C792, whereas lignin synthesis-related genes were enriched in accession C793, which well explains the difference in lignification of vascular bundles and mechanical tissues in the two accessions. These results not only expand our understanding of the genetic control of tiller angle and stem growth direction in bermudagrass but also provide insight for future molecular breeding of C. dactylon and other turfgrass species with different plant architectures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  10. Acetyl-CoA Carbuxylase herbicide tolerance in bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of newly planted bermudagrass (Cynodon spp. L.) varieties by undesirable offtype bermudagrass genotypes is an ever increasing concern for turf managers because selective control options are limited. In 2009, a sethoxydim tolerant bermudagrass genotype (93-175) was identified during her...

  11. The genetic and phenotypic variability of interspecific hybrid bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) used on golf course putting greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Trigiano, Robert N; Elsner, J Earl; Henry, Gerald M; Schwartz, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Some interspecific hybrid bermudagrass cultivars used on golf course putting greens are genetically unstable, which has caused phenotypically different off-type grasses to occur in production nurseries and putting surfaces. Management practices to reduce the occurrence of off-type grasses in putting green surfaces and the effect they can have on putting quality and performance need to be researched until genetically stable cultivars are developed. Golf course putting green surfaces in subtropical and tropical climates are typically planted with an interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), because of the superior putting quality and performance of these cultivars. 'Tifgreen' was one of the first interspecific hybrids developed for putting green use in lieu of common bermudagrass. However, off-type grasses began appearing in established Tifgreen stands soon after commercial release. Off-type grasses are those with different morphology and performance when compared to the surrounding, desirable cultivar. Off-types have the potential to decrease surface uniformity, which negatively affects putting surface quality. However, several unique off-types from Tifgreen have been selected as commercial cultivars, the first being 'Tifdwarf'; then 'Floradwarf', 'MS-Supreme', 'Pee Dee-102', and 'TL-2', identified later. The cultivars 'Champion Dwarf', 'P-18', 'RJT', and 'Emerald Dwarf' were subsequently selected as off-types in Tifdwarf. The naturally occurring off-types and cultivars that have been identified within the Tifgreen family have widely differing phenotypes; however, they are reported to be genetically similar, supporting the hypothesis that their occurrence is a result of somatic mutations. Genetic instability in currently available commercial cultivars is likely to lead to the continued presence of off-types in production nurseries and putting greens. Additional research is needed to understand the nature of

  12. Freeze Tolerance of Seed-Producing Turf Bermudagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., suffers periodic severe winter-kill throughout much of its area of use in the contiguous USA. A research goal is to increase freeze tolerance in cultivars to lessen the risk of such damage. An identified research need is for Cynodon germplasm resources to be characterized for freeze tolerance and hybridization potential. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to characterize the relative freeze tolerance of selected fertile bermudagrass plants. Nine tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) C. dactylon and two triploid (2n = 3x = 27) hybrid (C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) clonal plants (standards) were evaluated in two experiments. Plants were propagated clonally and established in Cone-tainers (Ray Leach Cone-tainer Nursery, Canby, OR) for about 10 wk. Acclimation took place for 4 wk in controlled environment chambers at 8/2 degrees C (day/night) temperatures with a 10-h photoperiod. Following acclimation, Cone-tainers were placed into a freeze chamber and cooled rapidly to -2 degrees C, induced to freeze with ice chips, then held overnight at -2 degrees C. The freeze chamber was then programmed to cool linearly at 1 degrees C per hour. For each cultivar, three Cone-tainers were removed at each test temperature. Following thawing, Cone-tainers were transferred to a greenhouse and regrowth was evaluated visually. Nonlinear regression was used to estimate T(mid), which corresponded to the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve of survival vs temperature. Within experiment one, Tifgreen (T(mid) = -7.2 degrees C) was significantly less cold hardy than Quickstand (-9.0 degrees C), A-12204 (-9.2 degrees C), Midiron (-9.9 degrees C), and A-12195 (-10.5 degrees C). A-12195 was significantly hardier than all genotypes except Midiron. In the second experiment, Arizona Common (-6.6 degrees C), Tifgreen (-7.1 degrees C), and A-12205 (-7.1 degrees C) were less hardy than A-9959 (-8.7 degrees C), A-12156 (-8.9 degrees C), A

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Staton, Margaret E; Lane, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N; Wadl, Phillip A; Conner, Joann A; Schwartz, Brian M

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] is one of the most widely used grasses on golf courses, with cultivars derived from 'Tifgreen' or 'Tifdwarf' particularly used for putting greens. Many bermudagrass cultivars established for putting greens can be genetically unstable and lead to the occurrence of undesirable off-type grasses that vary in phenotype. The objective of this research was to genetically and phenotypically differentiate off-type grasses and hybrid cultivars. Beginning in 2013, off-type and desirable hybrid bermudagrass samples were collected from golf course putting greens in the southeastern United States and genetically and phenotypically characterized using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphology. Genotyping-by-sequencing determined that 11% (5) of off-type and desirable samples from putting greens were genetically divergent from standard cultivars such as Champion, MiniVerde, Tifdwarf, TifEagle, and Tifgreen. In addition, genotyping-by-sequencing was unable to genetically distinguish all standard cultivars from one another due to their similar origin and clonal propagation; however, over 90,000 potentially informative nucleotide variants were identified among the triploid hybrid cultivars. Although few genetic differences were found in this research, samples harvested from golf course putting greens had variable morphology and were clustered into three distinct phenotypic groups. The majority of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass putting greens were genetically similar with variable morphological traits. Off-type grasses within golf course putting greens have the potential to compromise putting surface functionality and aesthetics.

  14. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...

  15. Effects of Infection by Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Rooting Dynamics among St. Augustinegrass and Bermudagrass Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Sudarshan K; Crow, William T; McSorley, Robert; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Rowland, Diane L; Poudel, Bishow; Kenworthy, Kevin E

    2015-12-01

    Understanding rooting dynamics using the minirhizotron technique is useful for cultivar selection and to quantify nematode damage to roots. A 2-yr microplot study including five bermudagrass ('Tifway', Belonolaimus longicaudatus susceptible; two commercial cultivars [TifSport and Celebration] and two genotypes ['BA132' and 'PI 291590'], which have been reported to be tolerant to B. longicaudatus) and two St. Augustinegrass ('FX 313', susceptible, and 'Floratam' that was reported as tolerant to B. longicaudatus) genotypes in a 5 x 2 and 2 x 2 factorial design with four replications, respectively, was initiated in 2012. Two treatments included were uninoculated and B. longicaudatus inoculated. In situ root images were captured each month using a minirhizotron camera system from April to September of 2013 and 2014. Mixed models analysis and comparison of least squares means indicated significant differences in root parameters studied across the genotypes and soil depths of both grass species. 'Celebration', 'TifSport' and 'PI 291590' bermudagrass, and 'Floratam' St. Augustinegrass had significantly different root parameters compared to the corresponding susceptible genotypes (P ≤ 0.05). Only 'TifSport' had no significant root loss when infested with B. longicaudatus compared to non-infested. 'Celebration' and 'PI 291590' had significant root loss but retained significantly greater root densities than 'Tifway' in B. longicaudatus-infested conditions (P ≤ 0.05). Root lengths were greater at the 0 to 5 cm depth followed by 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 cm of vertical soil depth for both grass species (P ≤ 0.05). 'Celebration', 'TifSport', and 'PI 291590' had better root vigor against B. longicaudatus compared to Tifway.

  16. Classification of genetic variation for cadmium tolerance in Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] using physiological traits and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Luo, Hongji; Hu, Longxing; Sun, Xiaoyan; Lou, Yanhong; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants that caused severe threats to animal and human health. Bermudagrass is a dominant species in Cd contaminated soils, which can prevent Cd flow and spread. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variations in major physiological traits related to Cd tolerance in six populations of Bermudagrass collected from China, and to examine the genetic diversity and relationships among these accessions that vary in Cd tolerance using molecular markers. Plants of 120 accessions (116 natural accessions and 4 commercial cultivars) were exposed to 0 (i.e. control) or 1.5 mM CdSO4·8/3H2O for 3 weeks in hydroponic culture. Turf quality, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content, leaf water content and growth rate showed wide phenotypic variation. The membership function method was used to comprehensively evaluate Cd-tolerance. According to the average subordinate function value, four accessions were classified as the most tolerant genotypes and four accessions as Cd-sensitive genotypes. The trend of Cd tolerance among the six studied populations was as follows: Hunan > South China > North China > Central China > West South China and Xinjiang population. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of accessions from the same or adjacent regions were clustered into the same groups or subgroups, and the accessions with similar cadmium tolerance displayed a close phylogenetic relationship. Screening genetically diverse germplasm by combining the physiological traits and molecular markers could prove useful in developing Cd-tolerant Bermudagrass for the remediation of mill tailings and heavy metal polluted soils.

  17. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  18. Genetic relationships of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... 1Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China. 2Key Laboratory ... cultivars developed in China, Australia and the USA by sequence-related amplified polymorphism. (SRAP) markers. ..... nursery, which might give rise to cross-contamination. The GSC of ...

  19. Using gamma irradiation to improve sterile turf and forage bermudagrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Georgia Univ., Tifton

    1976-01-01

    The widely-used Tif-series of turf bermudagrasses - Tifgreen, Tifway, and Tifdwarf - are vegetatively propagated sterile triploids that cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Dormant stolons, washed free of soil and cut into one-or two-node sections were treated with varying dosages of EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) and gamma irradiation ranging from 7 to 12 kR. EMS failed to produce noticeable variants but gamma irradiation from a Cobalt 60 source created 158 mutants. These mutants differed in many characters such as leaf size, hairiness, stem diameter, internode length, basic plant color, herbicide tolerance, spreading rate, and nematode resistance. Attempts to improve the winterhardiness of tetraploid sterile Coastcross-1 forage bermudagrass by exposing over 1,400,000 sprigs (vegetative stems) to 7 kR of gamma rays gave chlorophyll deficient mutants but progress in increasing winterhardiness has not been established. (author)

  20. Water deficit and nitrogen fertility effects on NDVI of 'Tifton 85' bermudagrass during regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of how bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) regrowth is influenced by production inputs will aid in advancing precision management in the southeast US. The objective of this two-yr study was to evaluate how irrigation and nitrogen influence bermudagrass regrowth. Normalized difference ...

  1. (Lilium) cultivar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... 2National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing, China. Accepted 6 August, 2012 ... hybrids lily cultivar 'eyeliner' was selected as the materials. By using the ... of sterilization was not ideal which led to higher.

  2. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  3. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed.

  4. EcoTurf - a case study: genetic variation and agronomic potential of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) germplasm collected from Australian biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Cynodon germplasm has not been comprehensively exploited for bermudagrass improvement. In this paper we will describe ‘EcoTurf’ a four year (2007-2011) project to develop water and nutrient use efficient bermudagrasses from Australian biodiversity. We describe the sampling strategies of A...

  5. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  6. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  7. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao Fan

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-xide (PTIO plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME were applied as NO inhibitor. Wild bermudagrass was subjected to 4 °C in a growth chamber under different treatments (Control, SNP, PTIO + L-NAME. The results indicated lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage (EL, higher value for chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities after SNP treatment than that of PTIO plus L-NAME treatments under cold stress. Analysis of Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence transient displayed that the OJIP transient curve was higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. Expression of cold-responsive genes was altered under cold stress after treated with SNP or PTIO plus L-NAME. In summary, our findings indicated that, as an important strategy to protect bermudagrass against cold stress, NO could maintain the stability of cell membrane, up-regulate the antioxidant enzymes activities, recover process of photosystem II (PSII and induce the expression of cold-responsive genes.

  8. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    Full Text Available Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid, four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid, and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  9. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  10. Effects of cadmium exposure on growth and metabolic profile of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Hu, Longxing; Du, Zhimin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Amombo, Erick; Fan, Jibiao; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic responses to cadmium (Cd) may be associated with variations in Cd tolerance in plants. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in metabolic profiles in bermudagrass in response to Cd stress and to identify predominant metabolites associated with differential Cd tolerance using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two genotypes of bermudagrass with contrasting Cd tolerance were exposed to 0 and 1.5 mM CdSO4 for 14 days in hydroponics. Physiological responses to Cd were evaluated by determining turf quality, growth rate, chlorophyll content and normalized relative transpiration. All these parameters exhibited higher tolerance in WB242 than in WB144. Cd treated WB144 transported more Cd to the shoot than in WB242. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 39 Cd responsive metabolites in both genotypes, mainly consisting of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, fatty acids and others. A difference in the metabolic profiles was observed between the two bermudagrass genotypes exposed to Cd stress. Seven amino acids (norvaline, glycine, proline, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and gulonic acid), four organic acids (glyceric acid, oxoglutaric acid, citric acid and malic acid,) and three sugars (xylulose, galactose and talose) accumulated more in WB242 than WB144. However, compared to the control, WB144 accumulated higher quantities of sugars than WB242 in the Cd regime. The differential accumulation of these metabolites could be associated with the differential Cd tolerance in bermudagrass.

  11. Use of FGD gypsum on a bermudagrass pasture in the Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of industrial by-products from coal fired power plants (FGD gypsum and FGD gypsum + fly ash) are thought to increase plant production. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of industrial by-products as a soil amendment on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) yield. The study was...

  12. Alleviation of cold damage to photosystem II and metabolisms by melatonin in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao eFan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a typical warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.Pers.] is widely applied in turf systems and animal husbandry. However, cold temperature is a key factor limiting resource utilization for Bermudagrass. Therefore, it is relevant to study the mechanisms by which Burmudagrass responds to cold. Melatonin is a crucial animal and plant hormone that is responsible for plant abiotic stress responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of melatonin in cold stress response of Bermudagrass. Wild Bermudagrass pre-treated with 100 μM melatonin was subjected to different cold stress treatments (-5 °C for 8 h with or without cold acclimation. The results showed lower malondialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage (EL values, higher levels of chlorophyll, and greater superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities after melatonin treatment than those in non-melatonin treatment under cold stress. Analysis of chlorophyll a revealed that the chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP curves were higher after treatment with melatonin than that of non-melatonin treated plants under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters increased after treatment with melatonin under cold stress. The analysis of metabolism showed alterations in 46 metabolites in cold-stressed plants after melatonin treatment. Among the measured metabolites, five sugars (arabinose, mannose, glucopyranose, maltose, turanose and one organic acid (propanoic acid were significantly increased. However, valine and threonic acid contents were reduced in melatonin-treated plants. In summary, melatonin maintained cell membrane stability, increased antioxidant enzymes activities, improved the process of photosystem II, and induced alterations in Bermudagrass metabolism under cold stress.

  13. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  14. A transcriptomic analysis of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) provides novel insights into the basis of low temperature tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Longxing; Hu, Zhengrong; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Yingzi; Lou, Yanhong; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-09-11

    Cold stress is regarded as a key factor limiting widespread use for bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Therefore, to improve cold tolerance for bermudagrass, it is urgent to understand molecular mechanisms of bermudagrass response to cold stress. However, our knowledge about the molecular responses of this species to cold stress is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptomic response to low temperature in bermudagrass by using RNA-Seq platform. Ten cDNA libraries were generated from RNA samples of leaves from five different treatments in the cold-resistant (R) and the cold-sensitive (S) genotypes, including 4 °C cold acclimation (CA) for 24 h and 48 h, freezing (-5 °C) treatments for 4 h with or without prior CA, and controls. When subjected to cold acclimation, global gene expressions were initiated more quickly in the R genotype than those in the S genotype. The R genotype activated gene expression more effectively in response to freezing temperature after 48 h CA than the S genotype. The differentially expressed genes were identified as low temperature sensing and signaling-related genes, functional proteins and transcription factors, many of which were specifically or predominantly expressed in the R genotype under cold treatments, implying that these genes play important roles in the enhanced cold hardiness of bermudagrass. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs revealed that photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation pathways play key roles in bermudagrass response to cold stress. The results of this study may contribute to our understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the responses of bermudagrass to cold stress, and also provide important clues for further study and in-depth characterization of cold-resistance breeding candidate genes in bermudagrass.

  15. Melatonin Is Involved in Regulation of Bermudagrass Growth and Development and Response to Low K+ Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress. Interestingly, exogenous melatonin application also promoted bermudagrass growth and development at normal condition. Furthermore, the K+ contents measurement revealed that melatonin-treated plants accumulated more K+ in both shoot (under both control and LK condition and root tissues (under LK condition compared with those of melatonin non-treated plants. Expression analysis indicated that the transcripts of K+ transport genes were significantly induced by exogenous melatonin treatment in bermudagrass under both control and LK stress conditions, especially under a combined treatment of LK stress and melatonin, which may increase accumulation of K+ content profoundly under LK stress and thereby contributed to the LK-tolerant phenotype. In addition, we investigated the role of melatonin in the regulation of photosystem II (PSII activities under LK stress. The chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP curves were obviously higher in plants grown in LK with melatonin (LK+Mel than those of plants grown in LK medium without melatonin application for 1 or 2 weeks, suggesting that melatonin plays important roles in PSII against LK stress. After a combined treatment of LK stress and melatonin, the values for performance indexes (PIABS, PITotal, and PICS, flux ratios (φP0, ΨE0, and φE0 and specific energy fluxes (ETO/RC were significantly improved compared with those of LK

  16. The Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve the Traffic Tolerance and Repair of Overseeded Bermudagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Christopher Scott

    2007-01-01

    An active football season during the fall acclimation period tests the traffic tolerance of bermudagrass. Exogenous applications of synthetic cytokinins or cytokinin-enhancing plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as trinexapac-ethyl, may improve the traffic tolerance of "Patriot" and "Tifsport" hybrid berudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis). This study was designed to mimic the agronomic practices and traffic stresses experienced at Virginia Tech's Worsham Fiel...

  17. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  18. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  19. Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Sun; Jay J Cheng [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials provides an alternative energy production system. Rye and bermudagrass that are used in hog farms for nutrient uptake from swine wastewater have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they have a relative high cellulose and hemicellulose content. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in this study. The biomass at a solid loading rate of 10% was pretreated at 121 deg C with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%, w/w) and residence times (30, 60, and 90 min). Total reducing sugars, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose in the prehydrolyzate were analyzed. In addition, the solid residues were hydrolyzed by cellulases to investigate the enzymatic digestibility. With the increasing acid concentration and residence time, the amount of arabinose and galactose in the filtrates increased. The glucose concentration in the prehydrolyzate of rye straw was not significantly influenced by the sulfuric acid concentration and residence time, but it increased in the prehydrolyzate of bermudagrass with the increase of pretreatment severity. The xylose concentration in the filtrates increased with the increase of sulfuric acid concentration and residence time. Most of the arabinan, galactan and xylan in the biomass were hydrolyzed during the acid pretreatment. Cellulose remaining in the pretreated feedstock was highly digestible by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei. (Author)

  20. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  1. Comparative proteomic responses of two bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard's similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them.

  3. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress. PMID:26617615

  4. sativa L.) Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ten rice cultivars from the International Rice Germplasm Centre originating from Bangladesh were analysedfor the~r genetics of resistance to bacterial blight. The test cultivars were selected on the basis of their high level ofresistance to races IV & VI ofXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The mode ofinheri- tance was ...

  5. BP-ANN for fitting the temperature-germination model and its application in predicting sowing time and region for Bermudagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erxu Pi

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the most significant environmental factors that affects germination of grass seeds. Reliable prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination is crucial for determining the suitable regions and favorable sowing timing for turf grass cultivation. In this study, a back-propagation-artificial-neural-network-aided dual quintic equation (BP-ANN-QE model was developed to improve the prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination. This BP-ANN-QE model was used to determine optimal sowing times and suitable regions for three Cynodon dactylon cultivars (C. dactylon, 'Savannah' and 'Princess VII'. Prediction of the optimal temperature for these seeds was based on comprehensive germination tests using 36 day/night (high/low temperature regimes (both ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments. Seed germination data from these temperature regimes were used to construct temperature-germination correlation models for estimating germination percentage with confidence intervals. Our tests revealed that the optimal high/low temperature regimes required for all the three bermudagrass cultivars are 30/5, 30/10, 35/5, 35/10, 35/15, 35/20, 40/15 and 40/20°C; constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C inhibited the germination of all three cultivars. While comparing different simulating methods, including DQEM, Bisquare ANN-QE, and BP-ANN-QE in establishing temperature based germination percentage rules, we found that the R(2 values of germination prediction function could be significantly improved from about 0.6940-0.8177 (DQEM approach to 0.9439-0.9813 (BP-ANN-QE. These results indicated that our BP-ANN-QE model has better performance than the rests of the compared models. Furthermore, data of the national temperature grids generated from monthly-average temperature for 25 years were fit into these functions and we were able to map the germination percentage of these C. dactylon cultivars in the national scale

  6. Exogenous application of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-10-01

    As a gaseous molecule, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be involved in plant responses to multiple abiotic stress. In this study, salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl), osmotic (15% and 30% PEG6000) and cold (4 °C) stress treatments induced accumulation of endogenous H2S level, indicating that H2S might play a role in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and cold stresses. Exogenous application of H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved salt, osmotic and freezing stress tolerances in bermudagrass, which were evidenced by decreased electrolyte leakage and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Additionally, NaHS treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress, via modulating metabolisms of several antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and GR (glutathione reductase)] and non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool and redox state. Moreover, exogenous NaHS treatment led to accumulation of osmolytes (proline, sucrose and soluble total sugars) in stressed bermudagrass plants. Taken together, all these data indicated the protective roles of H2S in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and freezing stresses, via activation of the antioxidant response and osmolyte accumulation. These findings might be applicable to grass and crop engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  8. An induced mutant of Coastcross 1 Bermudagrass with improved winter hardiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Constantin, M.J.; Dobson, J.W. Jr.; Hanna, W.W.; Powell, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Coastcross 1 bermudagrass, a sterile F 1 hybrid, (Coastal x PI 255445) establishes faster, yields as much dry matter, is 12% more digestible, and gives 30-35% better daily gains and liveweight gains per ha when fed to cattle than does the Coastal clone but fails to develop rhizomes and lacks the winter hardiness of Coastal. To create a winter hardy mutant, 500,000 green stems were exposed to 7000 rad of 60 -Co rays at Oak Ridge, TN June 21, 1971 and were immediately planted at Blairsville, GA where relatively severe winters occur frequently. One of 4 plants surviving the 1971-72 winter was like Coastcross 1 in yield, in vitro dry matter digestibility and appearance in a 3-yr test during mild winters at Tifton, GA. Following the moderate winter of 1976-77, Coastcross 1-M3 yielded more than Coastcross 1 but only about half as much as Coastal. The severe winter of 1977-78 destroyed about 98% of the plants of Coastcross 1 and Coastcross 1-M3 but reduced the stand of Coastal very little. The small gain in winter hardiness by Coastcross 1-M3 suggests that several genes control the winter hardiness of well-established Coastal bermudagrass. (author)

  9. Genetic diversity among Korean bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) ecotypes characterized by morphological, cytological and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si-Yong; Lee, Geung-Joo; Lim, Ki Byung; Lee, Hye Jung; Park, In Sook; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Rhee, Hye Kyung

    2008-04-30

    The genus Cynodon comprises ten species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Korean bermudagrasses at the morphological, cytological and molecular levels. Morphological parameters, the nuclear DNA content and ploidy levels were observed in 43 bermudagrass ecotypes. AFLP markers were evaluated to define the genetic diversity, and chromosome counts were made to confirm the inferred cytotypes. Nuclear DNA contents were in the ranges 1.42-1.56, 1.94-2.19, 2.54, and 2.77-2.85 pg/2C for the triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, and hexaploid accessions, respectively. The inferred cytotypes were triploid (2n = 3x = 27), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54), but the majority of the collections were tetraploid (81%). Mitotic chromosome counts verified the corresponding ploidy levels. The fast growing fine-textured ecotypes had lower ploidy levels, while the pentaploids and hexaploids were coarse types. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.42 to 0.94 with an average of 0.64. UPGMA cluster analysis and principle coordinate analysis separated the ecotypes into 6 distinct groups. The genetic similarity suggests natural hybridization between the different cytotypes, which could be useful resources for future breeding and genetic studies.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese natural bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] germplasm based on SRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqi; Xu, Shaojun; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-01-01

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], an important turfgrass used in public parks, home lawns, golf courses and sports fields, is widely distributed in China. In the present study, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure among 157 indigenous bermudagrass genotypes from 20 provinces in China. The application of 26 SRAP primer pairs produced 340 bands, of which 328 (96.58%) were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.36 to 0.49 with a mean of 0.44. Genetic distance coefficients among accessions ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, with an average of 0.32. The results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that 157 bermudagrass accessions can be grouped into three subpopulations. Moreover, according to clustering based on the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA), accessions were divided into three major clusters. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that accessions from identical or adjacent areas were generally, but not entirely, clustered into the same cluster. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among accessions. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SRAP markers revealed a similar grouping of accessions to the UPGMA dendrogram and STRUCTUE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 18% of total molecular variance was attributed to diversity among subpopulations, while 82% of variance was associated with differences within subpopulations. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of bermudagrass in China to date, and provides valuable information for the germplasm collection, genetic improvement, and systematic utilization of bermudagrass.

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue.

  12. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  13. Characterization of Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with different layers of polyethylene film and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Caroline Daiane; Neres, Marcela Abbado; Scheidt, Kácia Carine; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Sunahara, Samantha Mariana Monteiro; Sarto, Jaqueline Rocha Wobeto; Stangarlin, José Renato; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Sereno, Mallu Jagnow; Perin, Ana Paula

    2018-03-02

    The objective was to characterize the fermentative and microbiological profile of Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with different layers of polyethylene film and storage time. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four and six wrapping layers (100 and 150 microns in total. respectively) allocated in the main plots, through repeated measures analysis (30, 60, and 90 days of storage) with four replicates. The storage time and number of wrapping layers did not show changes in the population of Clostridium and lactic acid bacteria. A decrease was observed in the enterobacteria population with an increase in the storage period in the two wrapping layers studied. Upon opening of the haylage at 30 days, the population of Bacillus was lower in haylages made with six layers of wrapping (3.63 log colony forming units (CFU) g-1). No growth of Listeria sp. or Salmonella sp. was observed during the experimental period. The fungal genera with greater occurrence were Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. The following mycotoxins were not detected: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and zearalenone. Relative to the organic butyric, propionic, and acetic acids, the haylages presented a low concentration of lactic acid; this may have prevented a drop in the pH, which was high when the silos were opened (5.4). The levels of ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble carbohydrates presented no variation among the number of wrapping layers, with an overall average of 35.55 and 38.04 g kg-1. Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage wrapped with four and six layers presented adequate fermentation and microbiological characteristics in the evaluated periods.

  14. ABA Is Involved in Regulation of Cold Stress Response in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a representative warm-season grass, Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] is widely used in turf systems. However, low temperature remarkably limits its growth and distribution. ABA is a crucial phytohormone that has been reported to regulate much important physiological and biochemical processes in plants under abiotic stress. Therefore, the objective of this study was to figure out the effects of ABA on the cold-sensitive (S and cold-resistant (R Bermudagrass genotypes response to cold stress. In this study, the plants were treated with 100 μM ABA solution and exposed to 4°C temperature. After 7 days of cold treatment, the electrolyte leakage (EL, malonaldehyde (MDA and H2O2 content were significantly increased in both genotypes compared with control condition, and these values were higher in R genotype than those of S genotype, respectively. By contrast, exogenous ABA application decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL, MDA and H2O2 content in both genotypes compared with those plants without ABA treatment under cold treatment condition. In addition, exogenous ABA application increased the levels of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve for both genotypes, and it was higher in R genotype than that of S genotype. Analysis of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters revealed that ABA treatment improved the performance of photosystem II under cold condition, particularly for the R genotype. Moreover, cold stress significantly increased δ13C values for both genotypes, while it was alleviated by exogenous ABA. Additionally, exogenous ABA application altered the expression of ABA- or cold related genes, including ABF1, CBF1, and LEA. In summary, exogenous ABA application enhanced cold resistance of both genotypes by maintaining cell membrane stability, improving the process of photosystem II, increasing carbon isotopic fractionation under cold stress, and more prominently in R genotype compared with S genotype.

  15. Reflectance, absorbance and transmittance spectra of bermudagrass and manilagrass turfgrass canopies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Volterrani

    Full Text Available Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella 'Zeon', were studied. The aim was to describe their canopy architecture grown with minimal disturbance to the natural arrangement of the leaves and stems, and to determine the potential effects of canopy architecture on light penetration and reflectance. Radiometric measurements were carried out at eight different profile levels of turfgrasses that were up to 12 cm tall. A LI-COR 1800 spectroradiometer with an optical fiber cable and a 7 mm diameter sensor was used. Measurements were carried out in the 390-1100 nm region at 5 nm intervals. The LAI value was higher for the manilagrass (9.0 than for the hybrid bermudagrass (5.6. The transmitted radiation was found to be closely dependent on downward cumulative LAI. Despite a more upright habit (mean insertion angle of 22.4° ±3.4, Zoysia matrella showed a higher NIR reflectance compared to Cdxt, which has a horizontal leaf arrangement (mean insertion angle 62.1° ± 9.6. The species studied showed substantial differences both in terms of phytometric characteristics and in the capacity to attenuate solar radiation.

  16. Reflectance, absorbance and transmittance spectra of bermudagrass and manilagrass turfgrass canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterrani, Marco; Minelli, Alberto; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Caturegli, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis) 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) 'Zeon', were studied. The aim was to describe their canopy architecture grown with minimal disturbance to the natural arrangement of the leaves and stems, and to determine the potential effects of canopy architecture on light penetration and reflectance. Radiometric measurements were carried out at eight different profile levels of turfgrasses that were up to 12 cm tall. A LI-COR 1800 spectroradiometer with an optical fiber cable and a 7 mm diameter sensor was used. Measurements were carried out in the 390-1100 nm region at 5 nm intervals. The LAI value was higher for the manilagrass (9.0) than for the hybrid bermudagrass (5.6). The transmitted radiation was found to be closely dependent on downward cumulative LAI. Despite a more upright habit (mean insertion angle of 22.4° ±3.4), Zoysia matrella showed a higher NIR reflectance compared to Cdxt, which has a horizontal leaf arrangement (mean insertion angle 62.1° ± 9.6). The species studied showed substantial differences both in terms of phytometric characteristics and in the capacity to attenuate solar radiation.

  17. Metabolic Pathways Involved in Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Heat Tolerance in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes involve elevated temperature and CO2 concentration, imposing significant impact on plant growth of various plant species. Elevated temperature exacerbates heat damages, but elevated CO2 has positive effects on promoting plant growth and heat tolerance. The objective of this study was to identify metabolic pathways affected by elevated CO2 conferring the improvement of heat tolerance in a C4 perennial grass species, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. Plants were planted under either ambient CO2 concentration (400 μmol⋅mol-1 or elevated CO2 concentration (800 μmol⋅mol-1 and subjected to ambient temperature (30/25°C, day/night or heat stress (45/40°C, day/night. Elevated CO2 concentration suppressed heat-induced damages and improved heat tolerance in bermudagrass. The enhanced heat tolerance under elevated CO2 was attributed to some important metabolic pathways during which proteins and metabolites were up-regulated, including light reaction (ATP synthase subunit and photosystem I reaction center subunit and carbon fixation [(glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase and sugars of photosynthesis, glycolysis (GAPDH, glucose, fructose, and galactose and TCA cycle (pyruvic acid, malic acid and malate dehydrogenase of respiration, amino acid metabolism (aspartic acid, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and isoleucine as well as the GABA shunt (GABA, glutamic acid, alanine, proline and 5-oxoproline. The up-regulation of those metabolic processes by elevated CO2 could at least partially contribute to the improvement of heat tolerance in perennial grass species.

  18. Bermudagrass sod growth and metal uptake in coal combustion by-product-amended media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Vanags, C.P.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science

    2004-04-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) include fly ash and bottom ash and are generated nationally at rates of 10{sup 8} Mg yr{sup -1}. Land applications of CCB have improved physicochemical properties of soil, yet inherent bulkiness and trace metal content of CCB often limit their use. Likewise, utilization of biosolids and manure as fertilizer can be problematic due to unfavorable nutrient ratios. A 2-yr field study evaluated environmental and technical parameters associated with CCB-organic waste utilization as growth media in turfgrass sod production. Experimental growth media formulated with CCB and organic waste and a sand-compost control mixture were uniformly spread at rates from 200 to 400 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} and sprigged with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy). Leaf clippings were collected and analyzed for total elemental content each year. In Year 2, growth media samples were collected during establishment 47 and 84 days after planting (DAP) and viable Escherichia coli organisms were quantified. At harvest (99 or 114 DAP), sod biomass and physicochemical properties of the growth media were measured. During sod propagation, micronutrient and metal content in leaf clippings varied by growth media and time. After 47 d of typical sod field management, viable E. coli pathogens were detected in only one biosolids-amended plot. No viable E. coli were measured at 84 DAP. In both years, sod biomass was greatest in media containing biosolids and fly ash. Following installation of sod, evaluations did not reveal differences by media type or application volume. Using CCB-organic waste mixes at the rates described herein is a rapid and environmentally safe method of bermudagrass sod production.

  19. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on postponing bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) turf dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Somayeh; Salehi, Hassan

    2012-06-15

    Growth chamber and field experiments were carried out to determine the effects of extended photoperiod under low and freezing temperatures on bermudagrass turf dormancy at Bajgah, in the southern part of Iran. The experiment in the growth chamber was conducted with four temperature regimes (15, 7.5, 0 and -7.5°C) and three light durations (8, 12 and 16h) in a completely randomized design with four replications. The field study was conducted in two consecutive years (2008-2009) with three light durations (8, 12 and 16h) in months with natural short day length and arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results in both experiments showed that decreasing temperature and photoperiod decreased verdure fresh and dry weight, shoot height, tiller density, leaf area and chlorophyll and relative water contents (RWC). However, rooting depth and fresh weight of roots increased in the growth chamber. Decreasing the temperature and light duration increased electrolyte leakage and proline content. Reducing sugars increased with decreasing temperature and declined with lowering light duration in both shoots and roots. Starch content of both shoots and roots showed an adverse trend compared to reducing sugars; starch content increased in both shoots and roots in all treatments by shortening the photoperiod. Practically, the problem of bermudagrass turf's dormancy could be solved via increasing the photoperiod in months with short day lengths. This treatment would be efficient and useful for turfgrass managers to apply in landscapes and stadiums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological responses of somaclonal variants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon) to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Chen, Chuanhao; Wang, Zhongcheng; Guo, Zhenfei; Li, Haihang

    2009-03-01

    Eight somaclonal variants with enhanced drought tolerance were isolated from regenerated plants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis cv., TifEagle). Three of them (10-17, 89-02, 117-08) with strong drought tolerance were selected for investigations of physiological responses to drought stress. Compared to the parent control, TifEagle, the somaclonal variants had higher relative water contents and relative growth, and lower ion leakages in the greenhouse tests, while no difference in evapotranspirational water losses and soil water contents was observed between the variants and TifEagle. The variants also had less leaf firing in the field tests under drought stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased gradually in responses to drought stress in all plants and exhibited negative correlations with ion leakage, indicating that the declined activities of these antioxidant enzymes were associated with drought injury in the triploid bermudagrass. However, CAT activities were significantly higher in all three variants than in TifEagle during drought stress. Two variants, 10-17 and 89-02, also had significantly higher APX activities than TifEagle before and during the first 4 days of drought treatments. These two lines also showed higher SOD activities after prolonged drought stress. Proline, total soluble sugars and sucrose were accumulated under drought stress in all plants and exhibited positive correlations with ion leakage. More proline and sugars were accumulated in TifEagle than in the variants. The results indicated that higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the variants during drought stress are associated with their increased drought tolerance.

  1. Development of highly regenerable callus lines and biolistic transformation of turf-type common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qu, R

    2004-01-01

    Common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, is a widely used warm-season turf and forage species in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Improvement of bermudagrass via biotechnology depends on improved tissue culture responses, especially in plant regeneration, and a successful scheme to introduce useful transgenes. When the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine was adjusted in the culture medium, yellowish, compact calluses were observed from young inflorescence tissue culture of var. J1224. Nine long-term, highly regenerable callus lines (including a suspension-cultured line) were subsequently established, of which six were used for biolistic transformation. Five independent transgenic events, with four producing green plants, were obtained following hygromycin B selection from one callus line. Three transgenic events displayed resistance to the herbicide glufosinate, and one of these showed beta-glucuronidase activity since the co-transformation vector used in the experiments contained both the gusA and bar genes.

  2. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and comparative analysis within the family Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Haryono, Mindia; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) belongs to the subfamily Chloridoideae of the Poaceae family, one of the most important plant families ecologically and economically. This grass has a long connection with human culture but its systematics is relatively understudied. In this study, we sequenced and investigated the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass, which is 134,297 bp in length with two single copy regions (LSC: 79,732 bp; SSC: 12,521 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (21,022 bp). The annotation contains a total of 128 predicted genes, including 82 protein-coding, 38 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. Additionally, our in silico analyses identified 10 sets of repeats longer than 20 bp and predicted the presence of 36 RNA editing sites. Overall, the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass resembles those from other Poaceae lineages. Compared to most angiosperms, the accD gene and the introns of both clpP and rpoC1 genes are missing. Additionally, the ycf1, ycf2, ycf15, and ycf68 genes are pseudogenized and two genome rearrangements exist. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes supported the placement of common bermudagrass within Chloridoideae. Our phylogenetic character mapping based on the parsimony principle further indicated that the loss of the accD gene and clpP introns, the pseudogenization of four ycf genes, and the two rearrangements occurred only once after the most recent common ancestor of the Poaceae diverged from other monocots, which could explain the unusual long branch leading to the Poaceae when phylogeny is inferred based on chloroplast sequences.

  3. Chemical composition, intake by sheep, and in situ disappearance in cannulated cows of bermudagrass hayed at two moisture concentrations and treated with a non-viable lactobacillus-lactic acid preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] is commonly used for grazing and haying in the southern USA, but hay curing can be challenging due to frequent rainfall events during spring and early summer. An existing stand of ‘Greenfield’ bermudagrass was divided into 12 plots using a randomized comple...

  4. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar Babu, A.; Sudhakara Reddy, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  5. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giridhar Babu, A., E-mail: anamgiri@gmail.co [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India); Sudhakara Reddy, M., E-mail: msreddy@thapar.ed [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India)

    2011-01-15

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  6. Nitric oxide-activated hydrogen sulfide is essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important gaseous molecules, serving as important secondary messengers in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interaction between NO and H2S in plant stress response was largely unclear. In this study, endogenous NO and H2S were evidently induced by cadmium stress treatment in bermudagrass, and exogenous applications of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) or H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved cadmium stress tolerance. Additionally, SNP and NaHS treatments alleviated cadmium stress-triggered plant growth inhibition, cell damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, partly via modulating enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, SNP and NaHS treatments also induced the productions of both NO and H2S in the presence of Cd. Interestingly, combined treatments with inhibitors and scavengers of NO and H2S under cadmium stress condition showed that NO signal could be blocked by both NO and H2S inhibitors and scavengers, while H2S signal was specifically blocked by H2S inhibitors and scavengers, indicating that NO-activated H2S was essential for cadmium stress response. Taken together, we assigned the protective roles of endogenous and exogenous NO and H2S in bermudagrass response to cadmium stress, and speculated that NO-activated H2S might be essential for cadmium stress response in bermudagrass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of adding cofactors to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on preingestive hydrolysis, in vitro digestibility, and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Ma, Z X; Gonzalez, C F; Adesogan, A T

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to examine if adding metal ion cofactors (COF) to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) would increase the beneficial effects of the EFE on the preingestive hydrolysis and in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage. In experiment 1, 5 COF (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were screened to select the best candidates for synergistically enhancing release of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) from bermudagrass haylage by 5 EFE. The 5 EFE (1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) were sourced from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae and they were the most effective of 12 EFE at increasing the neutral detergent fiber digestibility of bermudagrass haylage in a previous trial. Adding 1mM of each of the COF to EFE 2A or 11C synergistically increased release of WSC from bermudagrass haylage, as did adding (1mM) Fe(2+) to 1A, Mn(2+), Co(2+), or Fe(2+) to 13D, or Co(2+)or Fe(2+) to 15D. The greatest release of WSC responses were obtained by adding Mn(2+) to 11C (38%) or by adding Fe(2+) to 2A or 13D (10 and 21.9%, respectively). In experiment 2, the effect of increasing the COF dose on in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage was examined using the best EFE-COF combinations from experiment 1. Effects of adding increasing doses of these COF on EFE-mediated changes in vitro digestibility depended on the COF-EFE combination. Adding 10mM Mn(2+) alone to bermudagrass haylage increased DMD and NDFD by 2.7 and 6.3% and adding 11C alone increased these measures by 6.6 and 15.5%, respectively. However, adding 10mM Mn(2+) with 11C resulted in 3.5 and 8.1% increases in DMD and NDFD, respectively, beyond the increases caused by adding 11C alone. Adding Fe(2+) to 2A had no effects on EFE-mediated digestibility responses, but 2A prevented adverse effects of adding Fe(2+) alone on DMD and NDFD. In contrast, adding Fe(2+) to 13D reduced the increases in DMD and NDFD caused by adding the EFE alone. This study shows that adding COF

  8. Effect of microbial inoculants on the quality and aerobic stability of bermudagrass round-bale haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, K G; Queiroz, O C M; Romero, J J; Casper, D; Muniz, E; Hamie, J; Adesogan, A T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using 4 commercially available microbial inoculants to improve the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass haylage. We hypothesized that the microbial inoculants would increase the fermentation and aerobic stability of the haylages. Bermudagrass (4-wk regrowth) was harvested and treated with (1) deionized water (control); (2) Buchneri 500 (B500; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Milwaukee, WI) containing 1×10(5) of Pediococcus pentosaceus and 4×10(5) of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788; (3) Biotal Plus II (BPII; Lallemand Animal Nutrition) containing 1.2×10(5) of P. pentosaceus and Propionibacteria freudenreichii; (4) Silage Inoculant II (SI; AgriKing Inc., Fulton, IL) containing 1×10(5) of Lactobacillus plantarum and P. pentosaceus; and (5) Silo King (SK; AgriKing Inc.), containing 1×10(5) of L. plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and P. pentosaceus, respectively. Forty round bales (8 per treatment; 441±26kg; 1.2×1.2 m diameter) were made and each was wrapped with 7 layers of plastic. Twenty bales were stored for 112 d and the remaining 20 were stored for 30 d and sampled by coring after intermediary storage periods of 0, 3, 7, and 30 d. The pH of control and inoculated haylages sampled on d 3 did not differ. However, B500 and BPII had lower pH (5.77±0.04 vs. 6.16±0.04; 5.06±0.13 vs. 5.52±0.13) than other treatments by d 7 and 30, respectively. At final bale opening on d 112, all treatments had lower pH than the control haylage (4.77±0.07 vs. 5.37±0.07). The B500, BPII, and SI haylages had greater lactic acid and lactic-to-acetic acid ratios than SK and control haylages. No differences were detected in neutral detergent fiber digestibility, dry matter losses, dry matter, lactic and acetic acid concentrations, and yeast and coliform counts. The SK haylage had lower clostridia counts compared with the control (1.19±0.23 vs. 1.99±0.23 cfu/g). Treatments B500, BPII, SI, and SK tended to reduce

  9. Tiller size/density compensation in grazed Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the tiller size/density compensation mechanism in Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards grazed by sheep under continuous stocking. Treatments corresponded to four sward steady state conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm of sward surface height, maintained by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Pasture responses evaluated include: tiller population density, tiller mass, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller, and herbage mass. Tiller volume, leaf area index, tiller leaf/stem ratio, and tiller leaf area/volume ratio were calculated and simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller mass were performed. Measurements were made in December, 1998, and January, April, and July, 1999. The swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism in which high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa, except in July, 1999. Regression analyses revealed that linear coefficients were steeper than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. Increments in herbage mass were attributable to increases in tiller mass in December and January. Leaf area/volume ratio values of Tifton 85 tillers were much lower than those commonly found for temperate grass species.

  10. Elucidating polyploidization of bermudagrasses as assessed by organelle and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsen, Osman; Ceylan, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    Clarification of relationships among ploidy series of Cynodon accessions could be beneficial to bermudagrass breeding programs, and would enhance our understanding of the evolutionary biology of this warm season grass species. This study was initiated to elucidate polyploidization among Cynodon accessions with different ploidy series collected from Turkey based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA. Forty Cynodon accessions including 7 diploids, 3 triploids, 10 tetraploids, 11 pentaploids, and 9 hexaploids were analyzed using chloroplast DNA restriction fragment-length polymorphism (cpDNA RFLP), chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat (cpDNA SSR), and nuclear DNA markers based on neighbor-joining (NJ) and principle component analyses (PCA). All three-marker systems with two statistical algorithms clustered the diploids apart from the other ploidy levels. Assuming autopolyploidy, spontaneous polyploidization followed by rapid diversification among the higher ploidy levels than the diploids is likely in Cynodon's evolution. Few tetraploid and hexaploid accessions were clustered with or closely to the group of diploids, supporting the hypothesis above. Eleven haplotypes as estimated by cpDNA RFLP and SSR markers were detected. This study indicated that the diploids had different organelle genome from the rest of the ploidy series and provided valuable insight into relationships among ploidy series of Cynodon accessions based on cp and nuclear DNAs.

  11. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and to harvest once yr -1 after senescence.

  12. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-6026 (United States); Taliaferro, Charles M. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and to harvest once yr{sup -1} after senescence. (author)

  13. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum on Reducing Soluble Phosphorus in Successive Runoff Events from a Coastal Plain Bermudagrass Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the threat that pastures intensively managed with poultry litter (PL) pose to accelerating eutrophication is a major issue in the southeastern United States. Gypsum (CaSO) has been identified as a promising management tool for ameliorating litter P losses to runoff. Thus, research was conducted to elucidate gypsum's residual effects on P losses from a bermudagrass ( L.) pasture. Runoff events (60 min) were created using rainfall simulations. Treatments consisted of applying four flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum rates (0, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.9 Mg ha) to bermudagrass fertilized with 13.4 Mg ha PL plus a nonfertilized check (no litter or gypsum) and 8.9 Mg ha FGD gypsum only as controls. Rainfall simulations (∼ 85 mm h) were conducted immediately, 5 wk, and 6 mo (i.e., at the end of growing season) after PL application to determine gypsum's effectiveness at controlling P loss over successive runoff events. The greatest dissolved P (DP) in runoff occurred immediately after PL application. Gypsum effectively reduced cumulative DP concentration losses (54%) compared with PL alone in initial runoff events. Gypsum reduced DP concentrations in succeeding runoff events also regardless of timing, suggesting that its effect is persistent and will not diminish over a growing season. Generally, maximum DP reductions were achieved with 8.9 Mg ha. However, it was surmised from this study that optimal P reduction in a bermudagrass pasture can be achieved with 4.4 Mg ha. Information ascertained from this study may be useful in aiding land managers making prescriptions for management practices that reduce DP losses from agricultural fields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Differential accumulation of dehydrins in response to water stress for hybrid and common bermudagrass genotypes differing in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Wang, Zhaolong; Du, Hongmei; Huang, Bingru

    2010-01-15

    Expression of dehydrin proteins may be induced or enhanced by environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. The objective of the this study was to investigate genetic variation in dehydrin protein accumulation in response to drought stress of whole-plants or dehydration of detached leaves and to identify dehydrins differentially expressed in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Plants of four hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon L. xCynodontransvaalensis L.) ('Tifway', 'Tifdwarf', 'Tifeagle', 'Kan1') and four common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) ('C299', 'Sportbermuda', 'H10', and 'H19') genotypes were subjected to 14d of drought stress and detached leaves of two genotypes were exposed to dehydration in growth chambers. Turf quality and leaf relative water content (RWC) decreased while electrolyte leakage (EL) increased during whole-plant drought stress for all genotypes, with more pronounced changes in each parameter for 'C299' and 'Tifeagle' than those for other genotypes ('Tifway', 'Kan 1', 'Sportbermuda', 'H10', and H19'), suggesting that the former two genotypes were more sensitive to drought stress than the other genotypes. During dehydration of detached leaves, relative water loss rate (RWL) was significantly lower in drought-tolerant 'Tifway' than in drought-sensitive 'C299'. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that no dehydrin polypeptides were detected in all genotypes under well-watered conditions. A 24-kDa polypeptide was detected in 'C299' at 6 d of drought, but not in the other genotypes. The dehydrin polypeptides of about 14-74kDa accumulated at 10d of drought stress and in a range of RWL for detached leaves, and two dehydrins (31 and 40kDa) exhibited differential accumulation in the drought-sensitive 'C299' and tolerant 'Tifway', as demonstrated by the whole-plant drought responses. The 31-kDa dehydrin polypeptide was present only in 'Tifway' and 'H19' at 10d of drought stress, and accumulated with the

  15. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasqualotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM. The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm. In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt. The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, internal CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration (T, water use efficiency (WUE, and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi. In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment, baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were

  16. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  17. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos Taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatme...

  18. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  19. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous polyamines in the bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) response to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-11-01

    Polyamines conferred enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in multiple plant species. However, the effect of polyamines on abiotic stress and physiological change in bermudagrass, the most widely used warm-season turfgrasses, are unknown. In this study, pretreatment of exogenous polyamine conferred increased salt and drought tolerances in bermudagrass. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed to further investigate polyamines mediated responses, and 36 commonly regulated proteins by at least two types of polyamines in bermudagrass were successfully identified, including 12 proteins with increased level, 20 proteins with decreased level and other 4 specifically expressed proteins. Among them, proteins involved in electron transport and energy pathways were largely enriched, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and three antioxidant enzymes were extensively regulated by polyamines. Dissection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels indicated that polyamine-derived H2O2 production might play dual roles under abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, accumulation of osmolytes was also observed after application of exogenous polyamines, which is consistent with proteomics results that several proteins involved in carbon fixation pathway were mediated commonly by polyamines pretreatment. Taken together, we proposed that polyamines could activate multiple pathways that enhance bermudagrass adaption to salt and drought stresses. These findings might be applicable for genetically engineering of grasses and crops to improve stress tolerance.

  20. Screening exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparations for improved in vitro digestibility of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Arriola, K G; Gonzalez, C F; Silva-Sanchez, C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2015-04-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of 12 exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) on ruminal in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) and preingestive hydrolysis of a 4-wk regrowth of bermudagrass haylage (BH), to examine the accuracy of predicting NDFD with EFE activity measures, and to examine the protein composition of the most and least effective EFE at increasing NDFD. In experiment 1, effects of 12 EFE on NDFD of BH were tested. Enzymes were applied in quadruplicate to culture tubes containing ground BH. The suspension was incubated for 24 h at 25 °C before addition of rumen fluid media and further incubation for 24 h at 39 °C. The experiment was repeated twice. In addition, regression relationships between EFE activity measures and NDFD were examined. Compared with the values for the control, 9 EFE-treated substrates had greater NDFD (37.8 to 40.4 vs. 35.6%), 6 had greater total VFA concentration (59.1 to 61.2 vs. 55.4 mM), and 4 had lower acetate-to-propionate ratios (3.03 to 3.16 vs. 3.24). In experiment 2, EFE effects on preingestive fiber hydrolysis were evaluated by incubating enzyme-treated and untreated bermudagrass suspensions in quadruplicate for 24 h at 25 °C and examining fiber hydrolysis measures. Compared with values for the control, 3 EFE reduced neutral detergent fiber concentration (62.8 to 63.7 vs. 67.3%), 10 increased release of water-soluble carbohydrates (26.8 to 58.5 vs. 22.8 mg/g), and 8 increased release of ferulic acid (210 to 391 vs. 198 μg/g). Regression analyses revealed that enzyme activities accurately [coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.98] predicted preingestive hydrolysis measures (water-soluble carbohydrates, ferulic acid), moderately (R(2) = 0.47) predicted neutral detergent fiber hydrolysis, but poorly (R(2) ≤ 0.1) predicted dry matter and NDFD. In experiment 3, proteomic tools were used to examine the protein composition of the most and least effective EFE at improving NDFD. Relative to

  1. Tiller size/population density compensation in grazed Coastcross bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several compensatory mechanisms in pastures do not allow optimisation of responses from the processes of herbage production and utilisation. Compensation due to tiller size/density relationships is one of these mechanisms. This experiment evaluated this process for Coastcross bermudagrass and compared the responses to those reported for temperate forages. Treatments were "steady state" sward surface heights of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm that were maintained from August, 1998, through July, 1999 by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a randomised complete block, replicated four times. Pasture responses were evaluated on four separate dates (15/12/1998, 25/01/1999, 07/04/1999 and 04/07/1999 with respect to: tiller population density, tiller weight, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller and herbage mass (biomass. Tiller volume, leaf area index (LAI, tiller leaf:stem ratio and tiller leaf area:volume ratio (R were calculated. Simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller weight were also performed. Coastcross swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism where high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa; except on the last evaluation. However, regression analysis revealed linear coefficients of -3.83 to -2.05, which are lower than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. The lower R values observed, when compared to those reported for perennial ryegrass, suggest that Coastcross swards optimised their LAI via clonal integration among tillers in contrast with tillers of cool-season grasses that respond more as individuals. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally verified.

  2. Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont U.S. IV. Soil Surface Nitrogen Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of nitrogen (N applied in forage-based agricultural systems is important for understanding the long-term production and environmental impacts of a particular management strategy. We evaluated the factorial combination of three types of N fertilization (inorganic, crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.] cover crop plus inorganic, and chicken [Gallus gallus] broiler litter pressure and four types of harvest strategy (unharvested forage, low and high cattle [Bos Taurus] grazing pressure, and monthly haying in summer on surface residue and soil N pools during the first 5 years of ̒Coastal̓ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. management. The type of N fertilization used resulted in small changes in soil N pools, except at a depth of 0 to 2 cm, where total soil N was sequestered at a rate 0.2 g ‧ kg–1‧ year–11 greater with inorganic fertilization than with other fertilization strategies. We could account for more of the applied N under grazed systems (76–82% than under ungrazed systems (35–71%. As a percentage of applied N, 32 and 48% were sequestered as total soil N at a depth of 0 to 6 cm when averaged across fertilization strategies under low and high grazing pressures, respectively, which was equivalent to 6.8 and 10.3 g ‧ m–2 ‧ year–1. Sequestration rates of total soil N under the unharvested-forage and haying strategies were negligible. Most of the increase in total soil N was at a depth of 0 to 2 cm and was due to changes in the particulate organic N (PON pool. The greater cycling of applied N into the soil organic N pool with grazed compared with ungrazed systems suggests an increase in the long-term fertility of soil.

  3. Fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechler, S R; Mullenix, M K; Holland, C M; Muntifering, R B

    2017-09-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine effects of N fertilization level on fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass (T85). Six 0.76-ha pastures of stockpiled T85 were cut to a 10-cm stubble height on August 1 of each yr and fertilized with 56 (56N), 112 (112N), or 168 (168N) kg N/ha (2 pastures/treatment). Fiber digestion kinetics included the 72-hr potential extent of NDF digestion (PED), rate of NDF digestion, and lag time. In yr 1 and 2, PED decreased over the stockpile season. Rates of NDF digestion did not differ ( > 0.05) among N fertilization treatments in either yr. In yr 1, rate of NDF digestion was greatest ( digestion decreased ( digestion rates were similar for November and January 21 sampling dates. Lag time was greater ( digestion ( = -0.60 and -0.25 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) was observed. There was a trend ( = 0.06) for lignin concentration to be positively correlated with lag time ( = 0.39) in yr 1, and a strong relationship was observed in yr 2 ( = 0.91; digestion in stockpiled T85 were influenced more by temporal changes over the stockpile season than by N fertilization level. Supplement formulations based on kinetic parameters of fiber digestion may require periodic adjustment to insure that energy-yielding components of NDF are sufficient to meet animal requirements throughout the stockpile season. The CP fraction in stockpiled T85 contains sufficient RDP to support fibrolytic activity and growth of ruminal microorganisms throughout the stockpile season. Toward the latter end of the season, supplementation with sources of digestible fiber and RDP could be expected to increase MP supply to the host animal.

  4. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  5. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  6. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  7. Carrot Cultivar Evaluation: Soilless Media vs. Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Nine cultivars of carrots were grown in a growth chamber. Each cultivar was grown both in hydroponic and soil-less media root-zone for sixty days. Three 30L tubs were used for each root-zone treatment. Three cultivars were planted in each tub, initially at 180 plants m-2 then thinned to 90 plants m-2 on day 45.

  8. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  9. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  10. Transformation of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis cv. TifEagle) by means of biolistic bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Lu, S; Chen, T A; Funk, C R; Meyer, W A

    2003-06-01

    A transformation system for triploid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis cv. TifEagle) was established with a biolistic bombardment delivery system. Embryogenic callus was induced from stolons and maintained on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 30 microM dicamba, 20 microM benzylaminopurine, and 100 mg/l myo-inositol. Using the hygromycin phosphotransferase ( hpt) gene as the selectable marker gene, we obtained 75 transgenic lines from 18 petri dishes bombarded. Integration of the hpt gene into genomic DNA and transcription of hpt was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Through suspension culture screening, we obtained homogeneously transformed plants showing stable transcription of the hpt gene.

  11. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Matthew D; Gannon, Travis W; Brosnan, James T; Ahmed, Khalied A; Breeden, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT- 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT- 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure.

  12. First record of Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs, Poaceae in Brazil: morphological and molecular tools for identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro do Prado Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs is an important food source for dairy cattle in the semi-intensive milk production systems most often used in southern Brazil. Although many insect pests are associated with feed grasses, we report here the first occurrence of the fly Atherigona (Atherigona reversura Villeneuve, 1936 (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on bermudagrass in Brazil. This potential pest was observed in April 2015 in three localities (Abelardo Luz, Palmitos, and Videira in western Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. The infested plants had senescent and necrotic terminal leaves that reduced plant growth. New growth had to sprout new tillers from basal nodes, which resulted in a reduced plant growth rate. We also provide a morphological identification key (with figures for A. (Atherigona reversura and A. (Acritochaeta orientalis Schiner, 1868. A molecular identification based on COI is also provided to better differentiate species. Keywords: COI gene, Insect pest, Pastures, Plant–insect interaction

  13. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. © 2014 SETAC.

  14. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  15. SSR-enriched genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis), and their comparison with allied plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sameer; Kim, Changsoo; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Adhikari, Jeevan; Schwartz, Brian M; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-04-01

    We report SSR-enriched genetic maps of bermudagrass that: (1) reveal partial residual polysomic inheritance in the tetraploid species, and (2) provide insights into the evolution of chloridoid genomes. This study describes genetic linkage maps of two bermudagrass species, Cynodon dactylon (T89) and Cynodon transvaalensis (T574), that integrate heterologous microsatellite markers from sugarcane into frameworks built with single-dose restriction fragments (SDRFs). A maximum likelihood approach was used to construct two separate parental maps from a population of 110 F 1 progeny of a cross between the two parents. The T89 map is based on 291 loci on 34 cosegregating groups (CGs), with an average marker spacing of 12.5 cM. The T574 map is based on 125 loci on 14 CGs, with an average marker spacing of 10.7 cM. Six T89 and one T574 CG(s) deviated from disomic inheritance. Furthermore, marker segregation data and linkage phase analysis revealed partial residual polysomic inheritance in T89, suggesting that common bermudagrass is undergoing diploidization following whole genome duplication (WGD). Twenty-six T89 CGs were coalesced into 9 homo(eo)logous linkage groups (LGs), while 12 T574 CGs were assembled into 9 LGs, both putatively representing the basic chromosome complement (x = 9) of the species. Eight T89 and two T574 CGs remain unassigned. The marker composition of bermudagrass ancestral chromosomes was inferred by aligning T89 and T574 homologs, and used in comparisons to sorghum and rice genome sequences based on 108 and 91 significant blast hits, respectively. Two nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) shared by two other chloridoids (i.e., zoysiagrass and finger millet) and at least three independent translocation events were evident during chromosome number reduction from 14 in the polyploid common ancestor of Poaceae to 9 in Cynodon.

  16. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  17. Molecular characterisation of radish cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Michelly Cruz

    Full Text Available The radish has been gaining importance in the Brazilian market due to its use as a green manure and cover crop, and also due to its potential for the production of biodiesel, however there are only two registered cultivars, which are morphologically very similar. Determination of genetic purity is a prerequisite in marketing seeds as it ensures uniformity of the crop and is important in breeding programs. The aim of this work therefore was to evaluate the similarity and genotype patterns which permit differentiation of the commercial radish cultivars IPR 116 and CATI AL-1000. In order to do this, isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns were analysed in dry seeds, soaked seeds, seedling leaves and young leaves; the isoenzymes used being: superoxide dismutase, catalase, esterase, glutamate-oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Thirty-seven RAPD primers and 10 ISSR primers in leaves of the CATI AL-1000 and IPR-116 cultivars were analysed. Among the isoenzymes under study, the most polymorphic were glutamate oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase, esterase and superoxide dismutase, with the superoxide dismutase system giving the best characterisation for all stages of development. The catalase isoenzyme system did not make it possible to differentiate between cultivars at any stage of development, and isocitrate lyase was not revealed by the protocol used. In analysis of the markers, 27 RAPD primers and eight ISSR primers showed polymorphism. The results indicate that it is possible to determine reliable descriptors based on isoenzymes at different stages of development of the radish and with the use of RAPD and ISSR primers.

  18. Crescimento do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Growth analysis of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under nitrogen fertilization and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os índices de crescimento do capim-tifton 85 adubado com quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 33, 66, 100, e 133 kg/ha de N e colhido em três alturas da planta (30, 40 e 50 cm. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas na data de corte, às subparcelas. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, a interação dose de N × altura da planta não foi significativa. A taxa assimilatória líquida e a taxa de crescimento relativo do capim-tifton 85 aumentaram com as doses de nitrogênio. A razão de área foliar (RAF decresceu linearmente com a altura de corte das plantas, mas aumentou, também de forma linear, com a dose de nitrogênio. De modo linear, a razão de peso foliar decresceu com a altura de corte da planta forrageira e aumentou com a dose de nitrogênio. A área foliar específica do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma linear e positiva apenas pela adubação nitrogenada. O índice de área foliar (IAF do capim-tifton 85 aumentou cerca de 0,05 unidade a cada centímetro de incremento na altura de corte das plantas. Houve resposta quadrática da dose de nitrogênio no IAF do capim-tifton 85. O acréscimo na altura do capim-tifton 85 na época do corte reduz a participação de lâmina foliar na forragem. A adubação nitrogenada aumenta a taxa de crescimento do capim-tifton 85, portanto, para assegurar colheita eficiente da forragem, ao aumentar a dose de nitrogênio, é necessário reduzir o intervalo de colheita.The objective this study was to evaluate the growth rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under four nitrogen levels (0, 33, 66, 100, and 133 kg/ha N and harvested at three plant heights (30, 40 and 50 cm. The experimental design was completely randomized in a split plot scheme with three replications. Nitrogen rates were set in the plots and plants heights in the

  19. Determining the Pollinizer for Pecan Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoon Ajamgard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the best pollinizer for five selected pecan cultivars in southwest of Iran at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center in 2014-2015. The cultivars included: 'GraTex', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw' as pollinated cultivars (♀ and 'GraTex', 'Peruque', 'Comanche 4M', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'Mohawk', 'Mahan', 'Stuart 2J', '3J', 'Stuart 4J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw', 'Apache', '6M', 'Wichita 7J' and 'Comanche 5M.' as pollinizer cultivars (♂. In the first step, a pollination chart of cultivars was determined in two years. The pollination chart of cultivars showed that all the cultivars investigated during this study were dichogamous and also protogynous except for the 'Peruque'. ‘GraKing’ had the longest duration of shedding pollen. Pollination chart showed that 'Peruque', ‘GraKing’, and 'Stuart 2J' had flowering overlap with the selected cultivars. Pollen germination test showed that the germination ability was different among the cultivars. It was 45% for 'GraKing' and 35% for 'Peruque', which were both recommended as pollinizers in this study. '6M', 'GraTex' and 'Stuart 4J' cultivars had the highest pollen germination percentage of 65%, 60% and 60%, respectively. The results of controlled pollinationtest showed that different pollen sources had no significant effect on nuts per cluster but self-pollinated all of the cultivars significantly reduced fruit set in first and second years. Based on the present research, pollination in pecan orchard was necessary for adequate yield. Also, 'Peruque', 'GraKing' and 'Stuart 2J' were the best pollinizers for five selected cultivars in southwest of Iran.

  20. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  1. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  3. Developing native Vaccinium crops and cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium species have long been harvested from the wild. Breeding and cultivar development, however, did not begin until about 1911 in New Jersey with efforts to commercially cultivate northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Cultivar development spread to cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and ...

  4. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  5. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  6. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  7. Genotype x environment interactions in preweaning traits of purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman calves on common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Tharel, L M; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1993-02-01

    Preweaning data on 486 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross calves (AB, BA) managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interactions of forage type and sex of calf with direct effects, individual heterosis, and maternal effects. Calves were spring-born in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 to five sires of each breed. Male calves were castrated at birth, and calves were not creep-fed. Average values of heterosis for birth weight, 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (WT/HT) were important (P < .01) and consistent across forage environment. Heterosis for birth weight was larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .05), whereas heterosis for other preweaning traits were consistent across sex of calf. Average maternal effects for WT/HT (P < .10) were important and consistent across forage environment. Maternal effects for birth weight were larger with bull calves than with heifer calves (P < .01). Maternal effects for weaning hip height favored the Angus dam managed on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not managed on fescue. A similar but nonsignificant trend occurred in maternal effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for birth weight were larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .01). Direct effects for weaning height were larger in calves managed on bermudagrass than in calves managed on tall fescue (P < .07). A similar but nonsignificant trend was evident in direct effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for WT/HT were relatively small and unimportant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions wer...

  9. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  10. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass (C. dactylon) and switchgrass (P. virgatum) in mixture with alfalfa (M. sativa) or treated with urea and plantain (Musa AAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage...

  11. Adaptation of cotton cultivars | Wondimu | African Crop Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each cultivar a linear regression of yield on the mean yield of all cultivars for each year was computed to measure cultivar adaptation. The cultivars with the highest mean yield exhibited a similar degree of adaptation to different environments with regression coefficient close to 1.0. For example, the breeding lines, Acala ...

  12. Preliminary study of N[sub 2]O flux over irrigated Bermudagrass in a desert environment. [USA - Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias, A.D.; Artiola, J.F.; Musil, S.A. (Arizona University, Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Soil and Water Science)

    1993-04-01

    The increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide is believed to be related to human activities, including increased agricultural use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N[sub 2]O flux (F(N)) into the atmosphere using chamber and gradient profile methods over an irrigated, N fertilized, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. 'Midiron') field in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. For the gradient profile method it was hypothesized that locally stable atmospheric conditions would enhance N[sub 2]O concentration differences sufficiently (more than approximately) 4 nl l[sup -1] to be resolved by gas chromatographic analysis of air samples collected at two heights (0.05 and 3.3 m) over the field. Significant differences (205 and 30 nl l[sup -1]) in mean concentration occurred during two sampling intervals in late afternoon and early morning of a 24 h period on 18-19 July 1991. During those intervals the surface layer was stable and relatively large F(N) estimated by the chamber method (371 and 48 ng m[sup -2] s[sup -1]) were comparable with F(N) estimated by the gradient profile method (283 and 101 ng m[sup -2] s[sup -1]). Simulations based on similarity theory indicate that resolution of N[sub 2]O concentration differences less than l nl l[sup -1] was required, but could not be achieved, when the surface layer was unstable and/or F(N) was small. Analysis also indicates that uncertainty of F(N) estimated by the chamber method was reduced slightly by estimation of temporal variation of vapour pressure in chamber air.

  13. Estimation of Biomass and Canopy Height in Bermudagrass, Alfalfa, and Wheat Using Ultrasonic, Laser, and Spectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Joshua Pittman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  14. Biomass flow in Tifton-85 bermudagrass canopy subjected to different management strategies under rotational grazing with dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alves Cutrim Junior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flow characteristics and forage accumulation were evaluated in Bermudagrass (Tifton 85 pasture managed under intermittent stocking with different management strategies. The management levels utilized were conventional (10 cm residual height and unfertilized, light (20 cm residual height and unfertilized, moderate (20 cm residual height with fertilization of 300 kg N/ha.year and intensive (10 cm residual height with fertilization of 600 kg N/ha.year. A randomized design was used with repeated measurements over time, in two periods of the year, with four replicates. There was significant effect of management × period of the year on the leaf elongation rate (LER. The management levels under fertilization (0.59 and 0.60 cm/tiller.day for the intensive and moderate management, respectively and the rainy season (0.49 cm/tiller.day showed the greatest stem elongation rate. Leaf senescence rate (LSR before and after and total LSR were modified by the management × period of the year interaction. The intensive management, with 0.38 leaves/tiller.day, as well as the dry period, with 0.27 leaves/tiller.day, showed higher leaf appearance rate. The lowest phyllochron was observed in intensive management and dry periods, as well as an interaction with the management of the same periods of the year. There was management × period of year interaction effect on leaf lifespan; the highest value was found under conventional management and dry period. Both production and forage accumulation rates were higher in the intensive and moderate management levels and dry season, and there was interaction of the intensive management system with the seasons. Managing pastures under moderate and intensive rotational stocking, which occurred mainly in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, maximizes the flow of tissues and consequently production and accumulation of forage.

  15. Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved abiotic stress resistance in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] by exogenous melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-xian; Reiter, Russel J.; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:25225478

  16. Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved abiotic stress resistance in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] by exogenous melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-02-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4 , were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses ( Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  18. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.: Tifway (drought-tolerant and C299 (drought-sensitive. The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  19. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  20. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  1. New cultivars of jujube induced by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, V.T.; Tuynh, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Mutation breeding of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lin.) received attention by the Food Crops Research Institute since 1978. Mutations can be directly released as new cultivars or indirectly as bud grafting source. N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH) was used at a concentration of 0.02-0.04% for 12 h treatment of pre-germinated seeds of different jujube cultivars. Some useful mutants were selected and directly released as new cultivars to farmers. Of the selected mutants two cultivars, ''Ma hong'' and ''Dao tien'', are the most preferable and popularly grown in the country. ''Ma hong'' is a mutant of ''Gia Loc'', a very popular cultivar. Main useful traits of ''Gia Loc'' such as early maturing, two crops of fruits per year are maintained (harvest in December and August). ''Ma hong'' has round-formed, pink rose coloured, sweeter fruits and stable fruit yield in off-season (Aug.) as compared with oval-formed, yellow-coloured and sour fruit of ''Gia Loc''. ''Dao tien'' is a mutant of the local variety ''Thien Phien'' with quite different traits. The original cultivar is late maturing (harvested in Feb.) with one crop of fruit per year and has small fruits (mean wt. of fruit at harvest 20 g). ''Dao tien'' is one month earlier in maturing allowing two crops of fruit per year (harvested in Jan. and Nov.). Fruits are round-formed, bigger (mean wt. of fruit: 25 g) and more tasteful (peach-flavored and brittle). (author)

  2. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  3. BIODIVERSITY OF NATIONAL SQUASH CULTIVAR ACCESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Bukharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The squash is one of  the most  ancient plants, bearing numerous qualities. The squash gave high yield and is unpretentious plant, the fruit of which is long-stored and can be used as boiled, stewed, baked, fried product, and be added to bread, mush and pudding, and be prepared as puree, jam, candied fruit and other meals. Owing to useful characteristics the squash is a valuable source or raw  material for  food  canning  industry,  for  health-care and functional foodstuff production. Its best cultivar accessions contain to 30% of dry matter, to 12% of sugars  and  to  36%  of  carotene.  The  species  of  squash includes 4 subspecies and 20 varieties. One accession that came from Spain in 1937 served as an initial breeding accession for many other table cultivars for long time. For 80 years of national breeding program the many cultivars for  table  use have been released. There are the classic cultivars, such as ‘Mramornaya’, ‘Stolovaya Zimnaya’,  Gribovskaya Zimnaya’,  ‘Donskaya  Sladkaya’, ‘Michurinskaya’ that are selected or developed from first Spanish accession. This richness and originality of cultivar squash accessions should be carefully preserved. There are the new generation cultivars, such as ‘Kroshka’, ‘Malishka’,    ‘Rossiyanka’,    ‘Konfetka’,    ‘Moskvichka’, ‘Vnuchka’ and many others, which are short-tendrils and suitable for  modern  mechanized cultivation  technology. Moreover the development of new cultivars, bearing resistance to biotic and abiotic stress is the main goal of nearest breeding program.

  4. Morphological, mechanical and antioxidant properties of Portuguese almond cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Meyer, Anne S.; Afonso, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological (of fruit and kernel), mechanical (namely shell rupture force) and antioxidant properties (including phenolics and flavonoid content) of five Portuguese almond cultivars, comparing them with two commercial cultivars (Glorieta and Ferragnès). Of ...... high kernel weight, low percentages of double kernels or losses during shelling and considerable higher phenolics and flavonoids content may be considered by industry during selection of almond.......). Of the analyzed traits, nut and kernel dimensions varied substantially and were used to describe cultivars. However, some traditional cultivars recorded similar (Pegarinhos), or even higher (Amendoão, Casanova and Refêgo) nut and kernel weight than commercial cultivars. Furthermore, shelling percentage...... of traditional cultivar (Bonita) was higher than commercial cultivars. Rupture force necessary to break fruits of all traditional cultivars was higher than commercial ones, and was correlated to nut weight cultivars. The phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidants were higher for Casanova. Parameters like...

  5. Salt Tolerance of Six Switchgrass Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youping Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass cultivars (‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, ‘Kanlow’, ‘NL 94C2-3’, ‘NSL 2009-1’, and ‘NSL 2009-2’ were evaluated for salt tolerance in two separate greenhouse experiments. In experiment (Expt. 1, switchgrass seedlings were irrigated with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution (spiked with salts at an EC of 5.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5 or 10.0 dS·m−1 (EC 10 for four weeks, once a week. Treatment EC 10 reduced the tiller number by 32% to 37% for all switchgrass cultivars except ‘Kanlow’. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a significant reduction of 50% to 63% in dry weight. In Expt. 2, switchgrass was seeded in substrates moistened with either a nutrient solution of EC 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution of EC of 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5, EC 10, or EC 20. Treatment EC 5 did not affect the seedling emergence, regardless of cultivar. Compared to the control, EC 10 reduced the seedling emergence of switchgrass ‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, and ‘NL 94C2-3’ by 44%, 33%, and 82%, respectively. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a 46% to 88% reduction in the seedling emergence index except ‘NSL 2009-2’. No switchgrass seedlings emerged under EC 20. In summary, high salinity negatively affected switchgrass seedling emergence and growth. Dendrogram and cluster of six switchgrass cultivars indicated that ‘Alamo’ was the most tolerant cultivar, while ‘NSL 2009-2’ was the least tolerant cultivar at both seedling emergence and growth stages. A growth-stage dependent response to salinity was observed for the remaining switchgrass cultivars. ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘Cimarron’ and ‘Kanlow’ at the seedling emergence stage; however, ‘Kanlow’ and ‘Cimarron’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ at the seedling growth

  6. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA GONÇALVES GUIMARÃES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em quatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas, apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos.

  7. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  8. Molecular characterization of rye cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 The results of molecular analysis of 45 rye taxa (Secale cereale L. represented by agricultural varieties originated from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN are presented. The genetic diversity of rye cultivars by 6 SSR markers was evaluated. Six specific microsatellite primer pairs produced 58 polymorphic alleles with an average of 9.7 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 6 (SCM2 to 14 (SCM86. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The diversity index (DI of SSR markers ranged from 0.5478 (SCM2 to 0.887 (SCM86 with an average of 0.778. The lowest value of polymorphic information content was recorded for SCM2 (0.484 and the highest value for SCM86 (0.885 of PIC was detected in SCM86 with an average of 0.760.The dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed, based on UPGMA algorithm. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided rye genotypes into 4 main clusters. The first cluster of 14 genotypes was subdivided in two subclusters (1a and 1b where 50% of genotypes were Czechoslovak origin. The second cluster contained four genotypes were three (75% of them had Czech or Czechoslovak origin. In the third subcluster separated three rye genotypes of different origin. The rest (24 of rye genotypes in the fourth cluster were divided into two subclusters (4a and 4b where clearly separated group of Polish (4aa and Czech and Czechoslovak (4ab genotypes. Two genotypes of 4aa subcluster (Wojcieszyckie and Dankowskie Nowe from Poland were genetically the closest. In the dendrogram alle genotypes were differentiated and clustering partially reflects geographic origin of studied rye genotypes. In this experiment, SSRs markers proved to be a high informative and usefull tool in genetic diversity research for the distinguishing and characterization of close related varieties. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  9. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  10. Competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho

    OpenAIRE

    Balbinot Junior,Alvadi Antonio; Fleck,Nilson Gilberto; Menezes,Valmir Gaedke; Agostinetto,Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Características morfológicas e fisiológicas de plantas cultivadas podem afetar sua habilidade competitiva com plantas daninhas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Investigou-se na safra 2000/2001 o comportamento de oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência da cultivar de arroz EEA 406, que simulou infestação de arroz-vermelho. Aos 45 e aos 60 dias após a semeadura, ...

  11. Rapid identification of red-flesh loquat cultivars using EST-SSR markers based on manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Xu, H X; Chen, J W

    2014-04-29

    Manual cultivar identification diagram is a new strategy for plant cultivar identification based on DNA markers, providing information to efficiently separate cultivars. We tested 25 pairs of apple EST-SSR primers for amplification of PCR products from loquat cultivars. These EST-SSR primers provided clear amplification products from the loquat cultivars, with a relatively high transferability rate of 84% to loquat; 11 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic products. After analysis of 24 red-fleshed loquat accessions, we found that only 7 pairs of primers could clearly separate all of them. A cultivar identification diagram of the 24 cultivars was constructed using polymorphic bands from the DNA fingerprints and EST-SSR primers. Any two of the 24 cultivars could be rapidly separated from each other, according to the polymorphic bands from the cultivars; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct position on the cultivar identification diagram. This red-flesh loquat cultivar identification diagram can separate the 24 red-flesh loquat cultivars, which is of benefit for loquat cultivar identification for germplasm management and breeding programs.

  12. Seed storage effects on germination for two forage kochia cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivar ‘Snowstorm’ forage kochia was released by the USDA-ARS in 2012. It is a synthetic cultivar selected for stature, forage production, and adaptation to semiarid environments. Similar to the earlier released (1984) ‘Immigrant’ cultivar it can increase rangeland productivity magnitudes when...

  13. Variation between cut chrysanthemum cultivars in response to suboptimal temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Kularathne, R.J.K.N.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2007-01-01

    To breed for more energy-efficient cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars it is important to know the variation of the temperature response existing in modern cultivars. In a greenhouse experiment with 25 chrysanthemum cultivars, a significant variation was observed in

  14. Secondary metabolism responses in two Pisum sativum L. cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cultivars were grown in the absence or presence of Fe with the addition of bicarbonate for twelve days. Higher concentrations of phenols and flavonoids were observed in Fe-deficient tissues of both cultivars; however, the increase was greater in the tolerant cultivar than in the susceptible one. The activity of shikimate ...

  15. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  16. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  17. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  18. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  19. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  20. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  1. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  2. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  3. (EAHB-AAA) cultivars to drought stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) yields are estimated at 5-30 t ha-1yr-1, lower than the potential 60 t ha-1yr-1, with the cause being drought stress. Much evidence among stakeholders shows little understanding about banana cultivar sensitivity, escape and avoidance mechanisms to drought due to un-attempted measures of retaining ...

  4. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT: Seeds of five different landrace cultivars of Kersting's groundnut, Macrotyloma geocarpum. (Harms) Marechal and Baudet, obtained from northern Ghana, were evaluated for their suscep- tibility to infestation and damage by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. The com- pletely randomized design ...

  5. Bloemverdroging: Cultivars met vroege bloemaanleg koeler bewaren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Uitval in de tulpenbroeierij door bloemverdroging kwam de afgelopen jaren veel meer voor dan daarvoor. Reden voor PPO om na te gaan wat hiervan de oorzaak zou kunnen zijn. In dit artikel legt onderzoeker Martin van Dam uit dat vooral in warme lentes bij vroege cultivars de kans op bloemverdroging

  6. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; An Jing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2010-01-01

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  7. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  8. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  9. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  10. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  11. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  12. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  13. Epistatic association mapping in homozygous crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Lü

    Full Text Available The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perform EAM. In our EAM, all the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs, environmental effects, QTL-by-environment interactions and QTL-by-QTL interactions were included in a full model and estimated by empirical Bayes approach. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to confirm the reliability of the new method. Next, the information from all detected QTLs was used to mine novel alleles for each locus and to design elite cross combination. Finally, the new approach was adopted to dissect the genetic basis of seed length in 215 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 19 main-effect QTLs and 3 epistatic QTLs were identified, more than 10 novel alleles were mined and 3 elite parental combinations, such as Daqingdou and Zhengzhou790034, were predicted.

  14. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  15. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  16. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg(-1)) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg(-1)) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (price grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  17. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  18. Newly registered small grains cultivars from Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principal properties of 5 new cultivars of small grains created in the Center for Agricultural and Technological Research in Zaječar. They are as follows: Arena (winter bread wheat, Premium (winter malting barley, Tango (winter triticale, Center (spring oat and Balsa (spring naked barley. In 2004 and 2005 these cultivars were registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The Arena cultivar has good indices of technological quality and high yield genetic potential which is successfully preserved even in dry years. The Premium cultivar, besides high yield capacity, has a very low protein grain content what makes it especially suitable for brewers industry. Triticale Tango is intended, in the first place, for animal feeds and like Arena cultivar. is highly tolerant to draught. Spring oat Center is Zaječar's first made oat cultivar in this group of small grains. Cultivar Balsa is the first spring six-row naked barley in Serbia and Montenegro. Creating of Balsa cultivar is the attempt to meet the future demands on the market. By the act of registering above mentioned cultivars the Center in Zajecar has completed and enlarged its already existing variety of small grains assortment.

  19. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawraca?a, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; ?acka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium?solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-s...

  20. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. In vitro selection of salinity tolerant variants from triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x C. dactylon) and their physiological responses to salt and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Peng, Xinxiang; Guo, Zhenfei; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Zhongcheng; Wang, Congying; Pang, Chaoshu; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Jihua

    2007-08-01

    A protocol was established for in vitro selection of salinity tolerant somaclonal variations from suspension cultured calli of triploid bermudagrass cv. TifEagle. To induce somaclonal variations the calli were subcultured for 18 months and were then subject to three-round selections for salt-tolerant calli by placing on solid medium containing 0.3 M NaCl for 10 days followed by a recovery for 2 weeks. The surviving calli were regenerated on regeneration medium containing 0.1 M NaCl. Three somaclonal variant lines (2, 71, and 77) were obtained and analyzed. The selected somaclonal lines showed higher relative growth and less injury than TifEagle under salt stress, indicating that they increased salt tolerance. In addition, they had higher relative water content and lower electrolyte leakage than TifEagle after withholding irrigation, indicating that they also increased drought tolerance. The three somaclonal variant lines had higher proline content than TifEagle under normal growth condition. The line 71 had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio, whereas the lines 2 and 77 had higher CAT activity under control and salt stress conditions, indicating that different mechanisms for salt tolerance might exist in these three lines.

  2. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  3. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  4. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pseudobulbo apresenta em mé dia 11 flores. As flores têm durabilidade de aproximadamente 30 dias.UEL 7 is a Dendrobium nobile's cultivar developed at The Department of Agronomy of Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is the result of the crossing between D3 x D8 and selected for its yellow flowers and format with similar width and length (7.0 cm, almost forming a circle. The plants were pollinated artificially, and the seeds sowed in growth media in vitro. The cultivar presents flowers of yellow coloration, labelo with the center dark brown color and the pseudobulb presents 11 flowers on average. The flowers durability is about 30 days.

  5. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  6. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  7. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  8. Processing properties of grains from some maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the dry milling, whole or pealed grains were simply processed in a hammer mill and the flour fractions separated as with wet milling. Results indicated some variation in the proximate composition with nine cultivars exhibiting protein contents above 8%. High protein cultivars were in order hybrids 88094X87036, ...

  9. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  10. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  11. Effect of environment and cultivar on the expression of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were evaluated for BSV expression so as to determine the tolerant cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions and stages of disease expression. A number of factors including plant age, cultivar, season and growth site were investigated in the greenhouse and field to assess their effect on BSD symptom expression.

  12. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  13. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  14. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  15. Solanum cultivar responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a sandy soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate responsiveness of four Solanum aethiopicum cultivars to indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Results showed clear interaction between genetic variability of cultivars and fungal isolates on shoot biomass and on ...

  16. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  17. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Meulenbroek, Bert J.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Gilissen, Luud J. W. J.; Puehringer, Helene; Laimer, Margit; Martinelli, Alessio; Zaccharini, Marzio; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E. N. Clare; Zuidmeer, Laurian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.

  18. IPR CATUARA TM – new cultivar of high gluten wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar IPR Catuara TM, obtained from a cross between the line LD 975 and the cultivar IPR 85, exhibits high gluten strength, which will allow the milling industry to supplement flours from wheats with weaker gluten strength, resulting in better quality products for the final consumer.

  19. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  20. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  1. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  2. Comparison between four blackberry (Rubus sp.) cultivars to light variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enciso, B.E.; Gómez, C.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper compares four Colombian blackberry cultivars- (Rubus sp.) light compensation points, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity. Time can be saved and efficiency improved by adapting different cultivars to differing luminosity once these parameters have been determined and established. The four cultivars involved were -Guarne-, -San Antonio-, -Sara 3- and -Pacho 2- forming part of Corpoica-s blackberry collection at the Sena farm in Manizales. The results revealed that all four cultivars had different light compensation points. They also showed that net photosynthesis varied amongst cultivars, even when grown in the same environmental conditions and that total chlorophyll and leaf area may be used as indicators of response to the conditions being evaluated. Key words: Photosynthesis, leaf area, radiation, compensation point, photons flow density (PFD), chlorophyll [es

  3. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  4. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Khattak, A. M.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.

    2015-01-01

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  5. Effects of Site and Cultivar on Consumer Acceptance of Pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, John M; Merhaut, Donald J; Jia, Zhenyu; Arpaia, Mary Lu; Mauk, Peggy A; Preece, John E

    2018-05-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and juice have risen in popularity as it was discovered that pomegranate has relatively high antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to determine consumer acceptance compared to the industry standard, 'Wonderful,' which comprises 90% to 95% of commercial production in the United States. Fruit were sourced from 2 cultivar field trials, one in inland Riverside, California, and one in coastal Ventura County, California. Cultivars selected for the study included 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' 'Haku Botan,' 'Loffani,' 'Phoenicia,' 'Wonderful,' and 'cv. 857,' an heirloom cultivar from Ventura County, CA, U.S.A. Pomegranate arils were subject to sensory evaluation by 87 untrained consumer panelists in late 2016. Panelists were given pomegranate arils and asked to score the samples using a 9-point Hedonic scale for the following fruit quality traits: aril color, sweetness, tartness, seed hardness, bitterness, and overall desirability. There were significant differences among cultivars for all traits assessed by the sensory panelists. There were differences in acceptance among consumers for 'Wonderful' depending on if it was grown on the coast versus inland, and consumers preferred inland- versus coastal-grown 'Wonderful.' 'Wonderful' pomegranate was associated with cultivars that consumers scored low on desirability for bitterness. Cultivars that scored well in overall desirability compared with 'Wonderful' were 'cv. 857,' 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' and 'Phoenicia.' Consumer sensory panels are important to determine scientifically which cultivars are desired by the public. These panels allowed for the determination of which pomegranate cultivars are liked or disliked by consumers and why. If the pomegranate growers know the most desirable cultivars for consumers, they are more likely to adopt and plant them, thus potentially increasing the

  6. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  7. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  8. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  10. Effect of the dose of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparations on preingestive fiber hydrolysis, ruminal fermentation, and in vitro digestibility of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Adesogan, A T

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of the dose rates of 5 Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE; 1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) on in vitro digestibility, fermentation characteristics, and preingestive hydrolysis of bermudagrass haylage and to identify the optimal dose of each EFE for subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies. In experiment 1, EFE were diluted in citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 6) and applied in quadruplicate in each of 2 runs at 0× (control), 0.5×, 1×, 2×, and 3×; where 1× was the respective manufacturer-recommended dose (2.25, 2.25, 10, 15, and 15g of EFE/kg of dry matter). The suspension was incubated for 24h at 25°C and for a further 24h at 39°C after the addition of ruminal fluid. In experiment 2, a similar approach to that in experiment 1 was used to evaluate simulated preingestive effects, except that sodium azide (0.02% wt/vol) was added to the EFE solution. The suspension was incubated for 24h at 25°C and then 15mL of water was added before filtration to extract water-soluble compounds. For both experiments, data for each enzyme were analyzed separately as a completely randomized block design with a model that included effects of EFE dose, run, and their interaction. In experiment 1, increasing the EFE dose rate nonlinearly increased the DM digestibility of 1A, 2A, 11C, and 13D and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) of 1A, 2A, 11C, and 13D. Optimal doses of 1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D, as indicated by the greatest increases in NDFD at the lowest dose tested, were 2×, 2×, 1×, 0.5×, and 0.5×, respectively. Increasing the dose rate of 2A, 11C, and 13D nonlinearly increased concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and propionate (mM), decreased their acetate-to-propionate ratios and linearly decreased those of samples treated with 1A and 15D. In experiment 2, increasing the dose rate of each EFE nonlinearly decreased concentrations of netural detergent fiber; also, increasing

  11. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows.

  12. Comparison of wet brewers' grains or dried distillers' grains as supplements to conserved bermudagrass forage as winter feeding options for beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M V; Hersom, M J; Thrift, T A; Yelich, J V

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of 2 byproduct supplements and conserved warm-season forage as winter feeding options for primiparous beef cows. Gestating Angus ( = 48) and Brangus ( = 24) 2-yr-old cows were stratified by BW and breed to 1 of 12 pens. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 supplements, wet brewers' grains (WBG) or dried distillers' grains (DDG). Coastal bermudagrass hay or round bale silage (RBS) was fed free choice (6 pens each) and cows received WBG or DDG supplements at a daily rate of 0.05% BW (DM basis) prorated for feeding 3 d/wk. Total BW and BCS changes did not differ ( = 0.65 and = 0.93, respectively) between DDG- and WBG-supplemented cows. Total amount of forage DM offered and mean calculated daily forage DM offered did not differ ( = 0.59 and = 0.20, respectively) between supplement treatments. Estimated daily mean and total supplement DM offered was greater ( forage sources were used in an unbalanced 6 × 4 design to measure intake, digestibility, and rumen parameters in ruminally fistulated steers. Supplement did not affect forage DMI of hay ( = 0.31) or RBS ( = 0.63). Total DMI was not different ( = 0.37 and = 0.73) for hay-based and RBS-based diets, respectively. Total tract digestibility tended to be greater ( = 0.06) for DDG than for WBG in hay diets but was not different ( = 0.76) for RBS diets. Daily mean ruminal pH was greater ( = 0.03) for WBG than for DDG when supplemented to hay-based diets. In RBS diets, a supplement × hour interaction ( = 0.05) existed for ruminal pH. Daily mean ruminal ammonia N concentration was greater ( forage. High-moisture forage sources can be coupled with high-moisture byproduct supplements.

  13. Intraspecific responses of 188 rice cultivars to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Peng, A.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Phytotron studies were conducted to determine the intraspecific variation in sensitivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to enhanced UVB and to test the hypothesis that rice cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB radiation are more tolerant to enhanced UVB. Out of the 188 rice cultivars (from various rice growing regions and ecosystems) tested, 143 had significantly reduced plant height, 52 had smaller leaf area, 61 had lower plant dry weight and 41 had less tiller number under elevated UVB radiation (13.0 kJ m −2 day −1 ) for 3 weeks. Six cultivars showed significant positive growth response to enhanced UVB radiation, although the mechanism is not clear at present. These six cultivars were from the summer rice crop of Bangladesh and from high elevation rice areas where prevailing UVB radiation is most likely to be greater. However, there was no correlation between the dry matter changes under enhanced UVB and the ambient UVB level at the origin of the cultivar across the 188 cultivars tested. Therefore, cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB are not necessarily more tolerant to enhanced UVB radiation. (author)

  14. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, N.O.; Ogunbodede, B.A.; Adediran, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Productive performance of blackberry cultivars in altitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Information on the production performance of blackberry in less colder regions are fundamentals to the expansion of the cultivated area and extension of management practices for cultivars adapted to climate conditions in Brazil. The research was carried out with the aim to evaluate the productive performance of different blackberries cultivars in altitude region of 1,387m with mild temperatures, situate at 18º14’56”S, 43º36’0”W, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was carried during the seasons 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. The blackberry cultivars evaluated were the following ones ‘Brazos’, ‘Guarani’, ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’. Flowering and harvesting of cultivars were evaluated as well as climatological data of the area in order to relate the number of hours of accumulated cold less than 13°C, 10°C and 7.2°C with production and crop time. To determine the production, the mass of blackberries harvested per plant was measured. Production of blackberry cultivars was extended in altitude region with similar productivity to the other producing regions in Brazil. Productive performance of the cultivars varied according to the accumulation of cold hours with mild temperatures that occurred in cultivation region. ‘Brazos’, ‘Guarani’, ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’ showed good adaptation, being ‘Brazos’ the cultivar most productive.

  16. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afolabi, N O; Ogunbodede, B A; Adediran, J A [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ibadan (Nigeria). Inst. of Agricultural Research and Training

    1996-07-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  18. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  19. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  20. Amino Acid Composition of Grape Cultivars ( Vitis Spp.) in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; 白石, 眞一

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of free amino acids and other chemical constituents in 75 grape cultivars at maturity were examined. The amino acid concentrations were found to be in decreasing order of arginine, proline, threonine and alanine in Vitis vinifera cultivars and alanine, arginine, threonine and proline in Vitis labmsca cultivars. The concentration of total amino acid was 5,083 ,umol in ‘Campbell Early’ and 3,391 pmol in ‘Yates’, both Vitis labrusca and table grapes. The amounts of total amino ...

  1. Breeders’ work after cultivar development - the stage of recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new cultivars is the ultimate goal of breeding programs and is the result of many years of hard work and dedication of breeders and their teams. An important part of the process, often neglected by geneticists, is the stage from recommendation to the production of breeder seed (post-breeding. This paper discusses the role of the breeder in the recommendation, registration, protection and marketing of new cultivars. The breeder’s active participation in all phases of post-breeding is fundamental to ensure that the cultivar reaches farmers quickly and can provide the benefits expected by society

  2. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawracała, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; Łacka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars ( Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly ( Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium-solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-stemmed AC Abbey cultivar. There was no regeneration from the explants of four cultivars: CLTR 7027, Alentejano, Marquis and Bombona. Principal component analysis showed no differences between the cases under observation (callus induction and green plant regeneration) in their response to pre-treatment temperatures (4 and 8°C). The examination of the effects of various auxin types in the induction medium on callus formation and green plant regeneration revealed that the strongest stimulation of these processes was observed in the C17 medium with 2,4-D and dicamba. The efficiency of callus formation and green plant regeneration was greater in solid-stemmed cultivars than in hollow-stemmed cultivars.

  3. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  4. Characterisation of mucilages extracted from seven Italian cultivars of flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Bagnasco, Lucia; Benjakul, Soottawat; Lanteri, Silvia; Morelli, Carlo F; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition, physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of mucilages, extracted from seven Italian flax cultivars, were evaluated. All samples were composed of neutral and acidic sugars, with a low protein content. From the NMR data, a rhamnogalacturonan backbone could be inferred as a common structural feature for all the mucilages, with some variations depending on the cultivar. All the suspensions showed a poor stability, which was consistent with a low zeta potential absolute value. The viscosity seemed to be positively correlated with the neutral sugars and negatively with the amount of proteins. Functional properties were dependent on the cultivar. The sensory analysis showed that most mucilages are tasteless. All these outcomes could support the use of flaxseed mucilages for industrial applications. In particular, Solal and Festival cultivars could be useful as thickeners, due to their high viscosity, while Natural, Valoal and Kaolin as emulsifiers for their good surface-active properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic divergence of roundup ready (RR) soybean cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity in 74 RR soybean cultivars from different Brazilian breeding programs. ... chosen SSR markers were effective in assessing the genetic diversity among genotypes, besides proving to be ...

  6. Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars using molecular markers. ... Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops and is broadly cultivated worldwide. To determine the level of ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Testing Optimum Seeding Rates for five Bread Wheat Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, S.J.; Kiriswa, F.; Owuoche, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cultivar by seed rate trial was conducted in 1994-1995 crop seasons at Njoro, Kenya. Yield results were found to be significant (P > 0.01) for year, variety, seed rate and year by seed rate interaction. Test weight was highly significant (P -1 were grouped together for significantly higher yields (A) whereas seed rates 85 and 50 kg ha -1 had lower significant yields (B and C respectively). The same grouping was repeated for test weight. There was no significant cultivar by seed rate interaction and no cultivar, specific seed rate. However, since seed rates 245, 205, 165 and 125 kg ha -1 were grouped together, the lowest seed rate, 125 kg ha -1 can be recommended as the optimum seed rate for the above cultivars, as higher seed rates do not give significantly higher yields or higher test weights

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity among sugarcane cultivars using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    UPGMA), the average- linkage method, with the .... pestle and transferred to 25 ml sterilized tube containing 10 ml pre warmed CTAB buffer ..... cultivars from China, Japan and Kenya revealed by ISSR markers and its implication for ...

  9. Biochemical responses of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... cultivars, as shown by the increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the level of lipid ..... Moreover, salinity perturbs plant hormone balances. (Khan and Rizvi, 1994) and ..... water deficit and desiccation. New Phytol. 125: 27-58.

  10. Variation of Citrus cultivars in Egypt assessed by RAPDs, cluster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR-Seham

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... for the low productivity are inappropriate cultivation practices, old trees, lack ... the development of high yielding varieties (Golein et al.,. 2012). Thus .... maintained when trees are grown from seeds, cultivars are susceptible to ...

  11. Selection of resistance and sensitive cultivars of lentil in Ardabil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of resistance and sensitive cultivars of lentil in Ardabil region of Iran ... irrigation from planting until maturity and non-irrigation from seed emergence ... Key words: Lentil, yield, normal and stress conditions, drought tolerance index.

  12. Molecular diversity in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... morphological differences among cultivars of persimmon might be the result of genetic differences ... Key words: DNA fingerprinting, Diospyros kaki L., genetic variability, RAPD. ..... trees and conifers using PVP. Nuc.

  13. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  14. Vernalização em cinco cultivares de morangueiro Vernalization on five cultivars of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fontanetti Verdial

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de morango é sazonal, e os melhores preços dos frutos são obtidos fora da estação. Buscando obter frutos fora da estação, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da vernalização em mudas de cinco cultivares de morangueiro. As mudas foram produzidas no sistema de vasos suspensos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso em fatorial 5x2x4, com cinco cultivares ("IAC-Campinas", "Dover", "Sweet Charlie", "Cartuno" e "Oso Grande", dois tratamentos (com e sem vernalização das mudas e quatro tempos, com quatro repetições. Para vernalização, as mudas foram levadas para câmara fria à temperatura de 10+2°C e fotoperíodo de 8h de luz dia-1 durante 28 dias, e em seguida transplantadas. Foram avaliadas as percentagens de sobrevivência, florescimento, frutificação, emissão de estolhos, a massa e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. A sobrevivência de mudas não foi afetada pela vernalização. Houve efeito significativo no florescimento e na frutificação das plantas vernalizadas. O estolonamento de plantas foi mais precoce nas mudas vernalizadas. Para todas as cultivares e tratamentos, a produção de frutos foi insignificante e comercialmente inviável.The strawberry production is seasonal, and the best fruit prices are obtained during the off season. Seeking to get fruits off season, this research was aimed at evaluating the effect of the seedling vernalization of five strawberry cultivars. The strawberry seedling were produced in suspended pot system. The experimental design was is completely randomized blocks with the factorial design 5x2x4, with five strawberry cultivars (IAC-Campinas, Dover, Sweet Charlie, Cartuno and Oso Grande, two treatments (with and without strawberry runners vernalization and four times. For vernalization, the strawberry seedling was taken to cold chamber at 10±2°C, and photoperiod of 8h of light day-1 for 28 days, after this they were transplanted. The

  15. Morphogenic variability of some autochthonous plum cultivars in western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Milosevic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted over a period of two years in a Western Serbian valley included in situ identification of autochthonous plum cultivars. Observation and recording of their phenological and pomological traits were performed using IBPGR and UPOV methodologies. Fifteen cultivars derived from Prunus domestica L. and two cultivars derived from P. insititia L. were identified. Flowering started between 24 March and 7 April and fruit ripening between 12 July (Petrovača and 16 September (Trnovača. Fruit weight ranged from 6.79± 0.018 to 36.62± 0.251 g and stone weight from 0.14± 0.002 to 1.95± 0.023 g. The cultivars were classified as being extremely small in terms of fruit size. Rounded fruit shape and light-yellow ground colour were dominant. Skin colour ranged from amber to black. Yellow green was a dominant flesh colour and medium flesh firmness predominated. The fruits of the above cultivars could be processed, particularly into plum brandy, or they could be used fresh or dried. The selected plum cultivars can be used both in breeding programmes and as rootstocks as well as in further disease-related systematic studies under field and laboratory conditions.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  17. SSR Analysis of Genetic Diversity Among 192 Diploid Potato Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In potato breeding, it is difficult to improve the traits of interest at the tetraploid level due to the tetrasomic inheritance. A promising alternative is diploid breeding. Thus it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity of diploid potato germplasm for efficient exploration and deployment of desirable traits. In this study, we used SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of diploid potato cultivars. To screen polymorphic SSR markers, 55 pairs of SSR primers were employed to amplify 39 cultivars with relatively distant genetic relationships. Among them, 12 SSR markers with high polymorphism located at 12 chromosomes were chosen to evaluate the genetic diversity of 192 diploid potato cultivars. The primers produced 6 to 18 bands with an average of 8.2 bands per primer. In total, 98 bands were amplified from 192 cultivars, and 97 of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed the genetic relationships of all accessions tested: 186 of the 192 accessions could be distinguished by only 12 pairs of SSR primers, and the 192 diploid cultivars were divided into 11 groups, and 83.3% constituted the first group. Clustering results showed relatively low genetic diversity among 192 diploid cultivars, with closer relationship at the molecular level. The results can provide molecular basis for diploid potato breeding.

  18. Molecular genetic identification of some wheat cultivars in the sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekki, I. I; El Amin, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely condor, El-Nellene, Wadi El Neil and Debeira were characterized on biochemical and molecular bases. The biochemical ones were protein-banding patterns, using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and isozymes to identify the biochemical genetic fingerprint of the four cultivars. Water-soluble protein-banding pattern showed no polymorphisms among the tested cultivars. The data from starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST) and acid phosphate (ACPH) showed that the cultivars are monomorphic. Further trials to identify the molecular genetic fingerprints of the studied cultivars were carried out using RAPD-PCR twenty-five primers were tested to perform. RAPD-PCR analysis. From the PCR products, a phylogenetic map, i.e, dendrogram, was constructed for the studied cultivars which depicted tow groups. The first group contained Wadi El Neil and Deberia with 48.4% similarity, and the second group contained Condor and El Neileen with 100% similarity. There was no similarity between Condor and Debeira (100% dissimilarity). Therefor, these data can be used subsequently for genetic engineering research and for wheat breeding programmes in the Sudan.(Author)

  19. Bioactive compounds in different acerola fruit cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Aparecida de Carvalho Mariano-Nasser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of acerola in Brazil was triggered because it is considered as a functional food mainly for its high ascorbic acid content, but the fruit also has high nutritional value, high levels of phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and carotenoids in its composition. The objective was to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of acerola tree. The acerolas used in the research were the harvest 2015, 8 varieties: BRS 235 - Apodi, Mirandópolis, Waldy - CATI 30, BRS 238 - Frutacor, Okinawa, BRS 236 - Cereja, Olivier and BRS 237 - Roxinha, from the Active Bank Germplasm APTA Regional Alta Paulista in Adamantina - SP. Avaluated the following attributes: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, reducing sugar, instrumental color, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The design was completely randomized, 8 varieties and 3 replications of 20 fruits each. Acerola fruit of the analyzed varieties prove to be good sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, ensuring its excellent nutritional quality relative to combat free radicals. The variety BRS 236 - Cereja presents higher ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, and the lowest value for flavonoid, which was higher than the other cultivars, especially Olivier and Waldy CATI-30.

  20. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  1. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  2. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  3. MGS Esmeralda: new large seed mungbean cultivar MGS Esmeralda: nova cultivar de mungo-verde de sementes grandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Faria Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean cultivar MGS Esmeralda was developed by Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (Shanhua, Taiwan, as a result of crossing between the lines VC 1973A and VC 2768A. In ten trials conducted in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, it produced 13.5% more grains than 'Ouro Verde MG-2' (control cultivar, and its highest yield was 2,550 kg ha-1. The cultivar MGS Esmeralda is more susceptible to lodging, and its pods mature more uniformly than Ouro Verde MG-2 pods. One hundred-seed mass of 'MGS Esmeralda' ranged between 5.5 and 6.8 g. Both cultivars are susceptible to powdery mildew and cercospora leaf spot.A cultivar de mungo-verde MGS Esmeralda foi criada pelo Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, localizado em Shanhua, Formosa. Ela é resultado do cruzamento entre as linhagens VC 1973A e VC 2768A. Em dez ensaios conduzidos em Minas Gerais, ela produziu 13,5% mais grãos do que a cultivar Ouro Verde MG-2 (testemunha, e sua produtividade mais alta foi 2.550 kg ha-1. A cultivar MGS Esmeralda é mais suscetível ao acamamento do que a Ouro Verde MG-2, mas suas vagens amadurecem mais uniformemente. A massa de 100 grãos da 'MGS Esmeralda' varia de 5,5 a 6,8 g. Ambas as cultivares são suscetíveis ao oídio e à cercosporiose.

  4. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  5. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento natural da nogueira Pecan às principais doenças é de suma importância para o estabelecimento do planejamento da implantação da cultura. O controle fitossanitário e tratos culturais devem ser realizados de modo a não comprometerem a qualidade do produto final, as amêndoas. Foram avaliadas nozes produzidas na safra de 2005 e oriundas de Uraí-PR, pelas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker, para identificar e quantificar os microrganismos associados à amêndoas e cascas dos frutos, bem como observar diferenças entre organismos colonizadores das cultivares. Os frutos foram avaliados na pós-colheita, aos trinta dias de armazenamento em ambiente, através da metodologia do papel de filtro, sendo submetidos ou não à assepsia superficial. O fungo Cladosporium caryigenum, promotor da rancificação das amêndoas foi observado, em amêndoas e cascas, nas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., foi encontrado em porcentuais elevados, tanto em amêndoas quanto em cascas das três cultivares estudadas; Cephalothecium roseum, causador do mofo róseo em amêndoas, na cultivar Frotscher. Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., causadores de emboloramento e produtores de aflotoxinas foram observados em porcentuais representativos, em amêndoas da cultivar Frotscher e em amêndoas e cascas das cultivares Frotscher, Burkett e Moneymaker, respectivamente. Os maiores porcentuais de perda do rendimento foram observados na cultivar Burkett, por causa da incidência de Colletotrichum sp., causador da antracnose em amêndoas, que acarreta escurecimento e deterioração do produto final, levando-o ao descarte.The knowledgement of the natural behavior of the main diseases of Pecan nut is of utmost importance for the stablishment of an implantation plan for that culture. The phytosanitary control and cultural treatments should be performed in order not to change the quality of the final product. Nuts harvest

  6. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  7. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  8. Morphological composition of cultivar of Urochloa brizantha under light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of silvopastoral systems (SSP is a management option that gives good results for animal production, but the shading of the trees can alter production, growth behavior and morphological composition of the forage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological composition of Urochloa brizantha cultivars Marandu and Piatã under natural light and artificial shading of 30 and 60%. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (three shading levels: 0, 30 and 60% and two cultivars: Marandu and Piatã with three replications and repeated measures in time (3 cuts. Sample collection occurred when the cultivars reached in 35 cm of height. Significant effects (P<0.05 of cultivar x shade x cut interaction were observed on the dry matter production of leaves and stems (Table 1. The higher production of leaves and stems (P<0.05 occurred for Piatã under natural light in the third cut (3731 and 1920 kg/ha, respectively. The absence of shade favored greater leaf production, 35 and 27% higher than the reductions of 30 and 60% respectively. The increment of stems for Piatã under natural light is related to the increase of inflorescences. The leaf:stem ratio was higher (P< 0.05 for Marandu under natural light (Table 2, with effect from the interaction cultivar x brightness level. A significant effect (P<0.05 cultivar x level of light reduction for light interception parameter was detected (Table 2. For Marandu, light levels were not influenced (P<0.05 light traps (Table 2, being close to the 95% criterion used for pasture management, justified by the collection at the point of balance between forage productivity and nutritional content, and strong relationship with high input grazing. The results indicate that the morphological composition of the cultivars is modified by reducing the light intensity.

  9. Características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses and harvesting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 adubado com nitrogênio nas doses de 0, 33, 66, 100 ou 133 kg/ha.ano em três alturas à data de corte (30, 40 ou 50 cm. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio (N corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas ao tempo de corte, às subparcelas. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma negativa pela altura da planta na época do corte e de maneira positiva pela dose de nitrogênio. A taxa de senescência foliar e o número total de folhas por perfilho diminuíram, enquanto a taxa de alongamento foliar aumentou com a adubação nitrogenada. Por outro lado, a taxa de senescência foliar e o número total de folhas por perfilho aumentaram com a altura das plantas na época da colheita. Já o número de folhas vivas por perfilho não foi influenciado pela dose de nitrogênio nem pela altura da planta na época do corte. Para uma mesma altura do capim-tifton 85 na época da colheita, a adubação nitrogenada aumenta o fluxo de tecidos e a frequência de desfolhação. Na condição de desfolhação intermitente, o capim-tifton 85 deve ser colhido com altura de até 30 cm.The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses (0, 33, 66, 100 or 133 kg/ha.year of N and three different plant heights (30, 40 or 50 cm at harvesting time. A split plot scheme in a completely randomized design with three replications was used. The nitrogen (N doses stood for the portions and the haversting heights, for the subportions. The leaf appearance rate of tifton 85 bermudagrass was negatively influenced by plant height at harvesting time, but positively influenced by N dose. Leaf senescence rate and total number of leaves per tiller decreased, whereas leaf elongation rate

  10. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207 to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46, the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA, and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  11. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  12. Analysis of pecan cultivars Mahan and Western in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Wan, X

    2016-09-16

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree. Appropriate cultivation practices that can be implemented to enhance fruit yield of cultivars Mahan and Western include soil-applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) at certain concentrations, pinching, and supplementary pollination. For example, the addition of 1.25 g/m 2 of PBZ inhibits pecan branch growth and stimulates short bearing branches, which promotes fruit yield. We found that soil-applied PBZ reached optimal performance 82 days after application. A pinching length of 40 cm resulted in a fruit yield increase. In addition, grafting and transplantation may promote male flowering, but delays female flowering. These cultural practices may provide insights that can be used to improve pecan cultivation in East China.

  13. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  14. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  15. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  16. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  17. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  18. Adaptability and stability of carotenoids in maize cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Almeida Rios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adaptability and stability of carotenoids in maize cultivars inthe 2004/2005 growing season. Total carotenoids (TC, total carotenoids with provitamin A activity (Pro VA (μg g-1 andgrain yield (kg ha-1 were quantified in 10 cultivars at five locations. The chemical analyses were conducted in a laboratoryof the EMBRAPA/CNPMS, in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais. The methodologies of Eberhart and Russell (1966, Lin and Binns(1988 and Rocha et al. (2005 were used to analyze adaptability and stability. In general, the linear regression modelproposed by Eberhart and Russell (1966 failed to fit the Pro VA contents in the evaluated cultivars satisfactorily. However,with regard to the TC levels, all different analysis methodologies of adaptability and stability rated hybrid BRS 2020 as anideal genotype with general adaptability.

  19. Diversity of catechin in northeast Indian tea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g(-1), 202 ± 5 mg g(-1), and 157 ± 4 mg g(-1) of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis.

  20. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in Lactuceae, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    The germination time under standard conditions was determined in control material of three cultivars of Lactuca sativa and L. serriola, and also the time of first nuclear division from dormancy, together with mitotic index at stated times from onset of mitosis. The effect of seed irradiation on the mitotic index and on the production of anaphase bridges at the same dose in the different cultivars or species was investigated. Results are presented as histograms and/or tables. The order of sensitivity to radiation of two of the cultivars of L. sativa and L. serriola, determined by growth inhibition studies, not presented, was as follows: Tom Thumb (L. sativa) < Cos (L. sativa) < L. serriola. More aberrations were produced at the same dose in the sensitive species. The results are discussed. (author)

  1. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  2. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  3. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  4. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity of sweet corn cultivars. We detected a total of 86 alleles using 30 microsatellite primers. The mean polymorphism was 82 %. The highest heterozygosity values (Ho = 0.20 were found in the PR030-Doce Flor da Serra and BR427 III OPVs, whereas the lowest values (0.14 were recorded in the MG161-Branco Doce and Doce Cubano OPVs. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.19 (Umc2319 to 0.71 (Umc2205. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was concentrated within the cultivars of sweet corn (75 %, with less variability between them (25 %. The consensus tree derived from the neighbor-joining (NJ algorithm using 1,000 bootstrapping replicates revealed seven genetically different groups. Nei’s diversity values varied between 0.103 (Doce do Hawai × CNPH-1 cultivars and 0.645 (Amarelo Doce × Lili cultivars, indicating a narrow genetic basis. The Lili hybrid was the most distant cultivar, as revealed by Principal Coordinates Analysis and the NJ tree. This study on genetic diversity will be useful for planning future studies on sweet corn genetic resources and can complement the breeding programs for this crop.

  5. PROPAGATION OF NEW BLACKBERRY CULTIVARS FOR PRODUCING CERTIFIED PROPAGATION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Isac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the behaviour of two new Romanian thorn blackberry cultivars DAR 24 and DAR 8 in process of micropropagation, compared with Darrow cultivar usually commercially micropropagated in our laboratory. Due to several drawbacks of the conventional propagation of Rubus, the efficiency of micropropagation was tested in order to obtain high quality planting material and to introduce rapidly these new cultivars in a certification program. Thorn blackberry cultivars DAR 8 and DAR 24 with resistance to winter colds was successfully micropropagated. Blackberry plants were found without virus infection after biological and ELISA tests. Axillary buds from the branches in full growth were used as the initial explants. After four weeks of growth, aseptic cultures was established on MS basal mineral salts, LS vitamins with 0.3 mg/l BAP, 0.1mg/l GA3 and 0.001mg/l NAA. The rate of successfully established cultures was on average 65.11%. Good proliferation of the regenerated shoots was obtained on the same medium composition used for initiation phase, whereas medium MS with mineral salts reduced to ½ and LS vitamins with 0.1 mg/l IBA and 0.1 mg/l GA3 was used in the rooting phase. Dar 24 and Dar 8 cultivars responded by good rates of micropropagation on medium culture B as compared to control Darrow cultivar, even if the obtained shoots length was lower than on medium A. The statistical analysis reveled that the highest MR (20.66 plantlets/explant was obtained for Dar 24. In this case the length of shoots was 1.92 cm. The highest rooting percentages (over 85% were obtained with shoots multiplied on medium B. High quality of rooted plants induced a high percentage of acclimatization of cultivar Dar 8, 86.36% under mist system in green house whereas the percentage of acclimatization of cultivar Dar 24 was lower, 51.85%.

  6. Germination and development of pecan cultivar seedlings by seed stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of seed stratification on germination rate, germination speed, and initial development of seedlings of six pecan (Carya illinoinensis cultivars under subtropical climatic conditions in southern Brazil. For stratification, the seeds were placed in boxes with moist sand, in a cold chamber at 4°C, for 90 days. In the fourteenth week after sowing, the emergence speed index, total emergence, plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated. Seed stratification significantly improves the germination potential and morphological traits of the evaluated cultivars.

  7. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in Lactuceae, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Estimation of DNA amounts (in arbitrary units) in two genera, two species, and three cultivars of one species, permits comparison between them and indicates that the biggest difference is between the two genera, Lactuca and Cichorium; but that the difference between the cultivars of Lactuca sativa is greater than the difference between Lactuca serriola and the mean for Lactuca sativa. Lactuca serriola is a presumed ancestor of Lactuca sativa. The most radiosensitive species, L. serriola, has slightly less DNA and smaller nuclear volume than the next most sensitive, L. sativa cult. Cos. This is discussed. (author)

  8. Authenticity of old cultivars in genebank collections: a case study on lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de M.J.; Treuren, van R.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Ex situ collections in genebanks conserve many old cultivars that had disappeared from mainstream agriculture before modern genebanks were established. The collections incorporated cultivars from many sources, such as botanical gardens and working collections, sometimes with little further

  9. (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... resistance of melon cultivars to three important soil-borne plant pathogens found worldwide. Key words: Melon ... use of cultivars resistant to plant diseases is one of the ..... emerging disease of melons worldwide. Plant Dis.

  10. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  11. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  12. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. Produção comercial de cultivares de alface em Bananeiras Marketable production of lettuce cultivars in Bananeiras, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djail Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto importante na escolha de cultivares para uma determinada condição ambiental é a determinação da produção comercial, que indica o potencial de produção por área. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção comercial de cultivares de alface nas condições de solo e clima de Bananeiras, Paraíba, durante a estação chuvosa. Foram avaliadas oito cultivares (Cindy, Elba, Grand Rapids, Kaesar, Mimosa, Sabrina, Summer Green e Verônica, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As parcelas tinham 27 plantas, espaçadas de 30 cm entre fileiras e entre linhas. Aos 51 dias após o transplante, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto à massa fresca total e comercial, massa seca de folhas, número de folhas, diâmetro da planta, índice comercial e produção comercial. Os maiores valores de massa fresca total e comercial, de diâmetro da planta e produção comercial foram verificados para a cultivar Kaesar. Quanto à massa seca, 'Kaesar' e 'Elba' apresentaram os valores mais elevados. Os maiores números de folha foram obtidos com 'Mimosa', 'Elba', 'Sabrina' e 'Summer Green'. As cultivares Grand Rapids, Verônica e Kaesar mostraram-se mais suscetíveis à septoriose, principalmente nas folhas mais velhas. Considerando-se os resultados e a preferência dos consumidores, 'Kaesar' e 'Summer Green' foram as mais promissoras para introdução e testes em áreas de produção comercial de alface.An important issue when choosing cultivars for specific environmental conditions is to estimate the marketable production, which indicates the potential production per area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the marketable production of lettuce cultivars under the soil and climatic conditions of Bananeiras, Paraíba, Brazil, during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out as a complete randomized blocks design with eight cultivars (Cindy, Elba, Grand Rapids, Kaesar, Mimosa, Sabrina

  14. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...

  15. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Favetti,Bruna Magda; Butnariu,Alessandra Regina; Foerster,Luís Amilton

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 degrees C +/- C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunare and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the c...

  16. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  17. Production of cultivars of Anthurium andraeanum in Acorizal-MT conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Ferreira Fava

    2014-11-01

    cover with sugarcane bagasse. The cultivars Eidibel and Supremo were the most productive with 2,4 stalks/month/plant; the bigger spathe was obtained by the cultivar Brasão with 17,2 cm of width and 12,6 cm length; and the cultivar Sonata presents the bigger spadix with 7,6 cm. The seven cultivars of anthurium, as a cut flower, develop and bloom satisfactorily.

  18. banana cultivar distribution in rwanda abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Gisubi (ABB), Gros Michel (AAA), and 'Kamaramasenge'. (AAB) were the most abundant. Farms with a higher proportion of Gisubi contained fewer other cultivars. Also, new cultivars were identified and these should be added to the National Banana germplasm collection. Key Words: Cultivars, diversity indexes, germplasm, ...

  19. Cultivar and year-to-year variation of phytosterol content in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, M.; Hansen, H.B.; Jørgensen, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    on phytosterol content in the different cultivars. The studied cultivars had all the lowest phytosterol contents in the dry and warm harvest season of 1999. Although there were statistically significant cultivar and year-to-year variations in the sterol composition (p

  20. The Study of Phenological and Morphophysiological Traits of New and Old Barely Shoot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Moshfeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare morphophysiological traits between new and old cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. a greenhouse experiment was conducted in greenhouse condition in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in spring and summer 2011.The type of experiment was a completely randomized design with eight treatments (Nosrat , Youssof , Fagr30 , Nick and four old cultivars include (Reihan, Kavir, Zarjo , Valfajr and three replications. All seeds were grown in PVC tubes contained washed sands and disruptive sampling was occurred with destroying plastic bags in the end of the four stages uncluding 6th leaf stage, jointing, heading and ripening. Results indicated that new cultivars showed better performances in all shoot growth parameters than the old cultivars. Modern cultivars for most traits, particularly traits that were positively correlated with yield and its components proved more successful than the old cultivars. They had longer reproductive periods and grain filling duration but their vegetative period were shorter than old cultivars. Among shoots characteristics, new cultivars had higher leaf area, stem dry weight and stem length than old cultivars. Result of this study showed that, among all the characteristics of grain yield and yield components, such as grain weight ,spike length, spike per plant, grain per spike and number tiller , new figures were better than old figures. In general, new cultivar Nick was introduced as the best cultivar and Zarjo was introduced as the weakest cultivar.

  1. Effect of lentil cultivar on N2 fixation and N partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Kalifa, K.; Al-Shamma, M.

    1996-12-01

    The study conducted on five lentil cultivars. the results showed that dry matter production, nodulation and N sup 2 fixation were influenced by the cultivar. Beyond flowering, N sup 2 fixation, soil N uptake, and N and P remobilization differed by the cultivar. (author). 32 Refs., 7 Figs., 9 Tabs

  2. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...

  3. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  4. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    mêmes sont plus performantes que la variété. Petomech. Mots clés : Performance, tomate, jaunisse en cuillère, flétrissement bactérien, nématodes, Côte d'Ivoire. Abstract. Performance of six cultivars of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mills. against ...

  5. Atividade antioxidante de frutos de quatro cultivares de pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esforços são empregados para identificar plantas com teores de antioxidantes que conferem benefícios à saúde. A capacidade antioxidante do pêssego deve-se aos compostos fenólicos, vitamina C e carotenoides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar quatro cultivares de pessegueiro (Aurora, Biuti, Diamante e Douradão em relação à capacidade antioxidante, determinando o teor dos compostos antioxidantes relacionados a essa atividade. Os frutos foram separados em dois grupos: sem armazenamento e armazenados por cinco dias à temperatura ambiente. Foram determinados os teores de vitamina C, carotenoides, compostos fenólicos e a capacidade antioxidante, pelos métodos DPPH e β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. As quatro cultivares mostraram-se ricas em substâncias antioxidantes, porém a intensidade dessa ação foi diferenciada entre elas. A cultivar Biuti apresentou maior teor das substâncias analisadas e maior atividade antioxidante em relação às outras cultivares. Foi observado que o potencial antioxidante dos frutos de pêssego aumentou durante o período de armazenamento.

  6. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic (As) uptake ability based on kinetic parameters by two lettuce cultivars; Sijibaiye (SJBY) and Texuanyanlingsun (TXYLS) was investigated in nutrient solution containing eight levels of arsenic (As). Depletion of As from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time to estimate As uptake kinetics of the ...

  7. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, F.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  8. Genetic evaluation of domestic walnut cultivars trading on Korean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is regarded as a healthy food because of its high nutritional composition and various health benefits. Although several walnut cultivars are being actively traded for domestic plantation or ornament in Korea, no particular effort has been made to evaluate genetic quality.

  9. Some chemical and physico-mechanical properties of pear cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... carried out at the Biological Material Laboratory in Agricultural. Machinery Department and Fruit Science Laboratory in Horticulture. Department of Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Chemical analysis. All chemical properties of the pear cultivars were investigated on randomly selected fifty fruit samples.

  10. Seed Size And Physiological Quality Of Three Cultivars Of Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Lopes Filho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important crops, both in the national context and worldwide. Being that, its fiber, constitutes an important raw material for the textile industry. The process of improving cottonseeds, favoured cultivars with smaller seeds. The goal of this work was to evaluate three cultivars of cottonseeds with different sizes through vigour tests. The work was developed in the seeds laboratory and the post-harvest Laboratory of plant products of the Instituto Federal Goiano – Campus Rio Verde. Cottonseeds of 3 cultivars were used (FiberMax 913 GLT, FiberMax 910 and DeltaPine 1648 B2RF, obtained in the crop of 2014 in the city of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with eight replications of 50 seeds. Determinations of moisture content and weight of a hundred seeds, germination test and germination velocity index, emergency test, and emergency speed index, electrical conductivity and accelerated aging were conducted. The dimensions of the size of the seeds (length, width and thickness were also determined, with the aid of digital caliper, and the weight of the seeds, with the aid of a balance of precision of resolution 0, 001g. The data was subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared to the Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no clear relationship between the size of the seed and its physiological performance in assessed cultivars/batches, making it necessary more studies that can prove that type of association.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses. Keywords: RNA-Seq, Pumpkin, Contrasting cultivars, Cucurbita pepo

  12. Oxidative enzymes in coconut cultivars in response to Raoiella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... Santiago, Chile. ... R. indica feeding were studied in the cultivars where red palm mites showed .... decision was made due to the lack of information on which specific .... Técnica de Ambato) for his valuable revision of English.

  13. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  15. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Genetic diversity among some blackberry cultivars and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Bursa 3, Chester, Dirckson Thornless, Jumbo, Navaho and Loch. Ness) and a Boysenberry clone were included in this study for. AFLP analysis. While eight of these are known cultivars from North. America, remaining three, Bursa 1, Bursa 2 and Bursa 3, are the blackberry genotypes with unknown origin.

  17. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matiacevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days, temperature (4 and 15°C, and relative humidity (75 and 90%. Results. Significant differences (P<0.05 were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%, both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  18. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The average genetic diversity index of wild soybeans and landraces was 1.5421 and ... genetic identity (0.5265) and gene flow (1.8338) between wild soybeans and cultivars ..... The project was financed by the National Natural Science .... Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Alberta.

  19. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  20. CD 121 - cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioro, Volmir Sergio; Franco, Francisco de Assis; Dalla Nora, Tatiane; Schuster, Ivan; Evangelista, Adriel; Lima, Fábio Junior Alcântara de; Polo, Mateus

    2013-01-01

    CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR, SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yield of 3.622 kg ha-1.

  1. CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CD 121 is indicated for wheat regions with the classification Value for Cultivation and Use 1 and 2, in the states of PR,SC and RS. The cultivar is tolerant to leaf rust, has good agronomic traits, flour suited for cookie baking and an average grain yieldof 3.622 kg ha-1.

  2. Determination of Juglone concentration for differentiate two Musa spp cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva Mora

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxins production by fungal pathogenic can enhance penetration and colonization of the host tissues and reproduce symptoms of diseases. Juglone is the main and the most toxic metabolite characterized from the culture filtrate of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In the present work it was used different concentrations of juglone (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg.l-1 and a control solution of methanol 10%. Foliar injections were performed in the underside of two last open leaves of Grande naine (AAA and Fougamou (ABB cultivars. The percentage of necrosis per plant was evaluated at 24 hours after the injection. The concentration of 100 mg.l-1 was able to produce necrotic symptoms in both cultivars; nevertheless with the 50 mg.l-1 was possible to obtain differences between the two cultivars. This result established a concentration for screening two Musa spp cultivars with different resistance levels to Black Leaf Streak by the use of juglone. Key word: banana leaf streak, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, selection, toxins

  3. Germination of Several Groundnut Cultivars in Relation to Incidence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed et al.

    In Nigeria, it has good potential as a legume crop due to its ability to add nitrogen to the ... The germination index (GI) was calculated as number of seedling emerging in .... isolated from all cultivars and this agreed with the work of. Mohammed ...

  4. Molecular characterization of Cymbidium kanran cultivars based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Fifty-four Cymbidium kanran cultivars from China, Japan and Korea were examined and analyzed by using the successive screening of 3′-end extended random primer amplified polymorphic DNA (ERAPD) markers to determine their molecular diversity and relationships. In ERAPD analyses, the strand-.

  5. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  6. Biochemical and cytological analysis of five cultivars of Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein profiling of seed proteins using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a high polymorphism between the five cultivars. The total number of polypeptide bands recorded was 36, the 4 bands were monomorphic and the rest32 were polymorphic with an average ...

  7. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  8. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  9. Man bhawan - new chrysanthemum cultivar induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to find out the biochemical difference between two gamma ray induced chrysanthemum cultivars, 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' by thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of pigments. The analysis were done from florets extracts of original cv., 'Flirt' and mutant 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage and also at fading of 'Man Bhawan'. (author)

  10. Responses of Several Apple Cultivare to Chemical Thinning Sprays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatments did not affect (PS 0.05) the number of seeds in the fruit, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit length to diameter .... Table 2. Eiïecl of Accel and Carbaiyi on number of fruit per cross sectional limb area, sugar. CETtet torix) and mean fmit weight of three Apple cultivars grown at the Pontotoc Research and Extension ...

  11. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  12. Effect of substrate and cultivar on growth characteristic of strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    11(56), pp. 11960-11966, 12 July, 2012. Available online at ... the highest of leaf area, length of petiole, runner number and total biomass. Mrak cultivar was the .... design with four replications. ..... Brochure of research station for floriculture and.

  13. Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars of Cajanus cajan in Nigeria. BA Iwalokun, OJ Adeyemi, TI Adeleke, EO Abayomi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 50-60. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Improvement of west Sumatra black rice cultivar through mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny Warman; Sobrizal; Irfan Suliansyah; Etti Swasti; Auzar Syarif

    2015-01-01

    Black rice cultivar is a local rice cultivar originating from East Pasaman, West Sumatera which has black endosperm, long growth duration and high plant height. The research was conducted from March 2012 until March 2013 with the objective of improvement the genetic of this black rice cultivar, especially related to the growth duration through mutation breeding. To get the optimum dose, the seeds of this cultivar were irradiated by gamma ray with doses of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy, respectively at Center of the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Nuclear Energy Agency (PAIR - BATAN), Jakarta. Base don the data of percentage of germination, plant height and root length in the seedling stage, and the percentage of grain sterility in M1 plants, it was obtained that the dose of 200-300 Gy is an effective dose in generating genetic diversity. It was agree with result of variability observations in M2 population derived from 200 Gy irradiated seeds, in which the extensive genetic diversities were observed in the variable of plant height, number of productive tillers and growth duration. From the selection in M2 population it was obtained 81 early maturing plants, with mutant frequency of 0.08 %. These selected early maturing mutants are very useful as initial plant materials in developing black rice leading mutant variety(s) in the future. (author)

  15. cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Online resources. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers. S. K. Jaiswal Shree P. Pandey S. Sharma R. Prasad L. C. Prasad R. P. S. Verma Arun K. Joshi. Volume 89 Online ...

  16. Anthocyanin content of two Hibiscus sabdariffa cultivars grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocyanin content of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces was determined to compare two cultivars from Senegal called Koor and Vimto. Results showed a significant difference in terms of total anthocyanin content (TA) and relative abundance (RA) of anthocyanin species. Values of TA for Vimto were 3-fold higher than Koor's.

  17. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed

  18. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... most abundant with the highest mean value of 1.46% in 'Royal' while flavonoids and anthraquinones were trace, 0.002 and 0.003%, in 'Sunray' ... At present, 56 cultivars are being maintained in the Biological garden of the Babcock ..... Crotons www.crotons.net. Audesirk T, Audesirk G, Byers BE (2006).

  19. The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) tissue culture. Taha Roodbar Shojaei1*, Vahid Salari2, Darioush Ramazan3, Mahdi Ehyaei1, Javad. Gharechahi4 and Roya Motallebi Chaleshtori5. 1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of ...

  20. The effect of plant growth regulators, explants and cultivars on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve the best explants and media for spinach tissue culture, the effects of two different plant growth regulators, two explants and cultivars on adventitious shoot regeneration were tested. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that the effects of plant growth regulators on spinach tissue culture were significant; ...

  1. Evaluation of genetic diversity between 27 banana cultivars (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated bananas (Musa spp.) are mostly diploid or triploid cultivars with various combinations of the A and B genomes inherited from their diploid ancestors Musa acuminata Colla. and Musa balbisiana. Colla. respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish the relatedness of 27 ...

  2. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  3. Efficient regeneration of the endangered banana cultivar 'Virupakshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantlets of the banana cultivar 'Virupakshi' (AAB) were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from embryogenic cells of calli from immature male flower explants. Induction of calli from explants was favored by a relatively moderate concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (4 mg/L), high concentrations of ...

  4. Selection of resistance and sensitive cultivars of lentil in Ardabil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... The 10th Iranian congress crop sciences, p. 368. Azizi CSH, Mostafaei H, Hassanpanah D, Kazemi Arbat H, Yarnia M,. Dadashi M, Safaripour F (2009). Path analysis of the yield and yield components of advanced cultivars of lentil under rain fed conditions. The 10th Iranian congress crop sciences. p. 156.

  5. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of multiple lily cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yue; Kronenburg-van de Ven, van B.C.E.; Menzel, T.R.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Shen, X.; Krens, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    To pursue genetic improvement of lily, efficiency of both regeneration and transformation from callus cultures induced from different explants were evaluated in multiple cultivars. Thirty-five callus lines induced from filaments or styles and one control callus line derived from bulb scales of in

  6. Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Quantum yield for B. berminyak were unaffected and it showed the least reduction in growth parameters studied when expose to salinity stress. From both salinity tolerance and genetic variation investigations for these 12 cultivars, it may probably be better to intercross between Arat (moderately tolerant) ...

  7. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  8. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinguish varieties of crop plants and establish their purity as a prerequisite for any ... of genetic material in germplasm collection and as a general guide for the choice ... Sixty-nine barley cultivars were grown under field condi- tions in three ...

  9. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 3. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho H. Guedes-Pinto J. Lima-Brito. Research Note Volume 88 Issue 3 December 2009 pp 363-367 ...

  10. Genetic evaluation of domestic walnut cultivars trading on Korean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is regarded as a healthy food because of its high nutritional composition and various health benefits. Although several walnut cultivars are being actively traded for domestic plantation or ornament in Korea, no particular effort has been made to evaluate genetic quality management of walnut ...

  11. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L. producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were ‘Brunswick’, ‘Calabacita’, ‘Negro de Bursa’, ‘Mini Figo’, ‘Lampa Preta’, ‘Lemon’, ‘Troiano’,’ Nazaré’, ‘Três num Prato’, ‘Princesa’, ‘Colo de Dama’, ‘Montes’, ‘Bêbera Branca’, ‘Pingo de Mel’, and ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. The propagation methods used were layering, hardwood cuttings, nodal segments, herbaceous cuttings originating from the removal of sprouts, and herbaceous cuttings obtained during growth. We found that the propagation method influences the rooting of stem segments, and cultivars differ in their rooting potential.

  12. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  13. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  14. Effects of site and cultivar on consumer acceptance of pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and 17 juice have risen in popularity as it was recently discovered that pomegranate has relatively high 18 antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to 19 determin...

  15. Enumeration and estimation of insect attack fruits of some cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, five cultivars of Punica granatum identified (two of which are endemic, while the other three are new) were grown in certain farms at Al-Taif, Saudi Arabia. Enumeration to the insects attack its' fruits illustrated that, there are three insects, namely, Virchola livia, Ectomyelois ceratonia and Pseudococcus maitimus ...

  16. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  17. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  18. Maize cultivar performance under diverse organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize cultivar performance can vary widely among different production systems. The need for high-performing hybrids for organic systems with wide adaptation to various macroenvironments is becoming increasingly important. The goal of this study was to characterize inbred lines developed by distinc...

  19. Responses of Several Apple Cultivars to Chemical Thinning Sprays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, significantly (P 0.05) the number of seeds in the fruit, fruit the treatments did not affect (P length, fruit diameter and fruit length to diameter ratio. The chemical thinner and cultivar interactions were significant for some fruit characteristics. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 7 No.1, 2002, pp.

  20. Stability and adaptability of soybean cultivars in Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I O; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Guilherme, S R; Bianchi, M C; Silva, K B; Fronza, V; Teixeira, C M

    2017-08-17

    Genotypes x environment (G x E) interaction consists of different behavior of genotypes cultivated in different environments. This interaction occurs due to the performance variation of each genotype in different environments. To reduce the effect of the interaction in soybean crops, some studies have been reported in the literature to study their adaptability and stability. However, these studies are still scarce in Minas Gerais State. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars and identify the cultivars that contribute least to the G x E interaction in Minas Gerais. Six soybean cultivars were evaluated in 9 different environments. The plots were composed of 4 rows of 5 m with a spacing of 0.5 m between rows, and only the two central rows were harvested. The inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum was performed through sowing furrow. The fertilization followed the recommendations of the Soil Fertility Commission of Minas Gerais. Grain yield was evaluated in kg/ha after conversion to 13% moisture. After individual analysis, the joint analysis was performed by grouping the phenotypic means by the Scott and Knott (1974) test. Wricke's ecovalence methodologies and the Annicchiarico confidence index were applied for the adaptability and stability analysis. The interaction was decomposed into a simple and a complex part. The cultivars BRSMG 820RR and BRSMG 760SRR have wide adaptability and stability. The first one presents a better index of confidence and a small contribution to the interaction.

  1. Molecular characterization of Cymbidium kanran cultivars based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-four Cymbidium kanran cultivars from China, Japan and Korea were examined and analyzed by using the successive screening of 3'-end extended random primer amplified polymorphic DNA (ERAPD) markers to determine their molecular diversity and relationships. In ERAPD analyses, the strandspecific DNA ...

  2. Cassava chips quality as influenced by cultivar, blanching time and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, fried cassava chips and crisps are increasingly being consumed as snacks; and fried cassava chips are produced by street processors. The quality and safety of these products is not known, therefore, the current study was to establish the influence of cassava cultivar, blanching time and slice thickness on quality ...

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of rice cultivars from various origins using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity is of paramount importance for the success of any plant breeding program. An experiment was conducted to assess the extent of genetic diversity and similarity of 24 rice cultivars from various origins using 29 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 144 alleles were detected at the 29 SSR primer ...

  4. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of 27 cultivars of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Luo, Liyong; Li, Hongjun; Liu, Ruihai

    2017-08-01

    Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37.7-134.3 μmol of QE/g DW without PBS wash and 25.3-75.4 μmol of QE/g DW with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activity (53.0-90.8% at the concentration of 400 μg/mL extracts). The PSC, ORAC and CAA values were significantly correlated with phenolics, epicatechin gallate (ECG), CC and TC. Knowledge of specific differences among tea cultivars is important for breeding tea cultivars and gives sights to its potential application to promote health.

  5. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  6. Genetic identification and characterization of Armenian grapevine cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebish Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Armenia is an important area of crop origins including grapes. The objectives of this study were the molecular characterization of 38 Armenian grape genotypes and the detection of the genetic relationships between the accessions. In total, 164 alleles were obtained at 18 SSRs loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 15 with a mean number of 9.17 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.514 (VVIN73 to 0.90 (VVS2 and the observed heterozygosity from 0.417 (VVIV37 to 0.947 (VVMD7 and VMC1B11. In our research the highest values of polymorphic information content (PIC were obtained using markers VVS2, VRZAG62 and VRZAG79, while the least informative ones were VVIN73 and VVIB01. A high level of gene diversity was observed between ancient and new bred cultivars. Higher values were recorded for the new grape varieties, (He = 0.792 and lower values for ancient cultivars (He = 0.739. The mean number of alleles (MNA for all loci per population ranged from 7.39 in ancient to 8,00 in new crosses. A clear separation was observed for the groups of ancient aboriginal cultivars, Vitis vinifera L.xVitis vinifera L. and Vitis vinifera L. x Vitis amurensis Rupr .crosses, which were bred in Armenia and seedless cultivars. Very close relationships with high similarity were determined for 5 pairs of cultivars. Two cases of possible homonymy were also detected. Our results are the basis for future MAS selection and target breeding.

  7. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, P.; Rehman, S. U.; Ju, H. J.; Jung, H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  8. Different Preclimacteric Events in Apple Cultivars with Modified Ripening Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available “Anna” is an early season apple cultivar exhibiting a fast softening and juiciness loss during storage, in comparison to two mid-late season cultivars “Galaxy” and “GD.” The poor storage capacity of “Anna” was correlated with high lipid oxidation-related autoluminescence, high respiration and ethylene production rates, associated with high expression of MdACO1, 2, 4, 7, and MdACS1. All cultivars at harvest responded to exogenous ethylene by enhancing ethylene production, typical of system-II. The contribution of pre-climacteric events to the poor storage capacity of “Anna” was examined by comparing respiration and ethylene production rates, response to exogenous ethylene, expression of genes responsible for ethylene biosynthesis and response, and developmental regulators in the three cultivars throughout fruit development. In contrast to the “Galaxy” and “GD,” “Anna” showed higher ethylene production and respiration rates during fruit development, and exhibited auto-stimulatory (system II-like effect in response to exogenous ethylene. The higher ethylene production rate in “Anna” was correlated with higher expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, MdACS3a MdACO2, 4, and 7 during early fruit development. The expression of negative regulators of ripening (AP2/ERF and ethylene response pathway, (MdETR1,2 and MdCTR1 was lower in “Anna” in comparison to the other two cultivars throughout development and ripening. Similar pattern of gene expression was found for SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box genes, including MdCNR and for MdFUL. Taken together, this study provides new understanding on pre-climacteric events in “Anna” that might affect its ripening behavior and physiology following storage.

  9. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições ambientais verificadas no estado do Acre, caracterizado pela ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas e alta precipitação, as cultivares tradicionalmente utilizadas pelos produtores apresentam baixo rendimento e qualidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento das novas cultivares de alface disponíveis no mercado, em termos de características agronômicas e rendimento, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. Para isso foram realizados dois ensaios no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em um solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura argilosa. O primeiro de maio a julho de 1996 (período seco e o segundo de dezembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997 (período chuvoso. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa e Verônica, sendo que 'Regina 71' e 'Elisa' foram incluídas apenas no ensaio do período seco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No período seco, as cultivares Simpson, Lucy Brown e Regina 71 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios (373; 362 e 341 g, respectivamente e produções comerciais de 49,8; 48,3 e 45,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Em geral, as cultivares dos tipos lisa sem cabeça e lisa com cabeça apresentaram maior índice de ataque de nematóide (Meloidogyne javanica quando comparadas às do tipo crespa. No ensaio realizado no período chuvoso, as cultivares Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá e Piracicaba-65 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios e produções comerciais. Entretanto, as médias obtidas foram bem inferiores às verificadas no ensaio do período seco, variando de 164 a 198 g para o peso médio, e 21,9 a 25,9 t/ha para produção comercial. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no período seco, Regina 71 (lisa, sem cabeça e Carolina AG-576 (lisa, com cabeça destacaram-se entre as do tipo

  10. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  11. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  12. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Norvell, W.A.; Welch, R.M.; Sullivan, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  13. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  14. Genetic diversity of high performance cultivars of upland and irrigated Brazilian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, G R C; Brondani, C; Hoffmann, L V; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Mendonça, J A; Rodrigues, L A; de Menezes, I P P

    2017-09-21

    The objective of this study was to analyze the diversity and discrimination of high-performance Brazilian rice cultivars using microsatellite markers. Twenty-nine rice cultivars belonging to EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão germplasm bank in Brazil were genotyped by 24 SSR markers to establish their structure and genetic discrimination. It was demonstrated that the analyzed germplasm of rice presents an expressive and significant genetic diversity with low heterogeneity among the cultivars. All 29 cultivars were differentiated genetically, and were organized into two groups related to their upland and irrigated cultivation systems. These groups showed a high genetic differentiation, with greater diversity within the group that includes the cultivars for irrigated system. The genotyping data of these cultivars, with the morphological e phenotypical data, are valuable information to be used by rice breeding programs to develop new improved cultivars.

  15. BRS Ana: cultivar de batata de duplo propósito BRS ANA: A dual purpose potato cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione da S Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O genótipo BRS Ana é uma nova cultivar de batata adequada para fritura à francesa, com potencial de processamento na forma de palitos pré-fritos congelados e de flocos, liberada em 2007. Foi desenvolvida pelo Programa de Melhoramento de Batata da Embrapa (Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Transferência de Tecnologia - Escritório de Canoinhas-SC e Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, com base na aparência e rendimento de tubérculos, peso específico e qualidade de fritura. Os tubérculos têm película vermelha, levemente áspera, polpa branca, formato oval e olhos rasos. O potencial produtivo é alto. No ecossistema subtropical, apresentou maior produtividade (31,2 t ha-1 que as cultivares mais plantadas no país, quando cultivada no outono, e não diferiu na primavera. Em ecossistema tropical, plantio da seca, a cultivar BRS Ana foi tão produtiva (33,8 t ha-1 quanto as demais cultivares avaliadas. Produziu maior percentagem de tubérculos graúdos (55,6% e peso médio dos tubérculos (108,4 g que as testemunhas no outono do ecossistema subtropical. Em ambos os ecossistemas, a cultivar BRS Ana apresentou elevados valores de peso específico (1,086 e conteúdo de matéria seca (19,7%. Nos testes sensoriais mostrou-se adequada à fritura na forma de palitos, tanto no preparo doméstico, quanto na industrialização. É moderadamente suscetível à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e tem boa resistência à pinta-preta (Alternaria solani. A reação à podridão-mole (Pectobacterium sp. é similar à das cultivares mais plantadas. Apresenta baixa degenerescência de sementes por viroses, conferida pela resistência moderadamente alta ao PVY e baixa incidência do PLRV. Suscetibilidade a distúrbios de origem fisiológica nos tubérculos não tem sido observada. No ecossistema subtropical a tuberização é mais tardia na primavera, devendo portanto ser plantada mais cedo.The genotype BRS Ana is a new potato cultivar adequate for French fries, with

  16. Efeito de extratos aquosos de estruturas de grama-seda no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de arroz, milho e trigo Effects of aqueous extracts of bermudagrass structures on initial growth of rice, corn and wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Salvo Soares Novo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de estruturas de grama-seda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers e de exsudatos radiculares presentes no solo no qual a planta se desenvolveu, sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de arroz, trigo e milho. O extrato aquoso das estruturas da parte aérea, subterrâneas e da planta inteira, assim como do estolão, da folha + colmo, estolão + folha + colmo, rizoma, raiz e de rizoma + raiz de grama-seda foi elaborado a partir de 100 g L-1 de material seco. Foram avaliados a protrusão da radícula e os crescimentos da radícula e da plúmula de cada espécie. A inibição ou o estímulo do desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas foi dependente da espécie avaliada e da estrutura vegetal empregada na elaboração do extrato. A protrusão da radícula foi mais inibida que os crescimentos da radícula e da plúmula. O estímulo do desenvolvimento da radícula e da plúmula foi mais evidente quando o extrato foi elaborado a partir das estruturas do sistema radicular, da parte aérea e da planta inteira que de estruturas individualizadas de grama-seda. De modo geral, o arroz e o milho foram mais inibidos por extratos elaborados a partir da parte aérea e subterrânea, respectivamente. Para o trigo, a inibição ou o estímulo foi dependente da variável analisada. O desenvolvimento da radícula e da plúmula de arroz, milho e trigo foi estimulado por extrato elaborado a partir da planta inteira. O extrato produzido a partir da fração argila + silte estimulou o desenvolvimento da radícula do milho e da plúmula do trigo.The objective of this work was to study the effects of aqueous extracts of Bermudagrass structures (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers and soil exudates, on the germination and initial growth of rice, corn and wheat seedlings. The aqueous extracts of above-ground and subterranean parts and of the whole plant, as well as of stolons, leaves + culm, stolons + leaves + culm, rhizome, root and rhizome

  17. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  18. Effect of Planting Date on Physiological and MorphologicalCharacteristics of Four Canola Cultivars in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Fallah Heki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the physiological and morphological characteristics of canola cultivars at different planting dates, an experiment was carried out in 2008-2009 at the Agriculture Research Station of Yasouj. A factorial with Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications was conducted. Four planting dates (September 12, September 22, October 2 and October 12 and four cultivars (Zarfam, Okapi, Elite and SLM-046 were used in this study. Results showed that cultivars and planting dates had significant effects on more characteristics. In addition, interaction of planting date and cultivar was significant on plant height, height to lowest silique, number of branches, growth indices and grain yield. Zarfam and Elite cultivars had lower initial fluorescence (Fo and higher maximum fluorescence (Fm and photochemical capacity of photosystem II (Fv/Fm than Okapi and SLM-046 cultivars. Elite cultivar at September 12 planting date had the highest plant height (173 cm and height to lowest silique (87.5 cm and Okapi cultivar at October 12 planting date showed the lowest plant height (91 cm and height to lowest silique (43.7 cm. At September 12 planting date, Elite cultivar had the greatest leaf area index (5.21 and grain yield (5231 kg/ha. At other planting dates, Zarfam cultivar because of priority in leaf area index, crop growth rate and total dry matter have the greatest grain yield than other cultivars. In general, seems at September 12 planting date, Elite cultivar and for delayed sowing, Zarfam cultivar had better reaction than other cultivars.

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Sodium Chloride on Germination Characteristics of 20 Cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat20 Cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bijanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salt stress is a major stress influencing wheat seedling establishment. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of 20 cultivars of wheat to two levels of salinity (8 and 16 dS/m NaCl, at the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran in 2008. Maximum root length was obtained in Dabira (5.73 mm at 16dS/m salinity level. In control, durum wheat cultivars including D81-17, Yavaros, D82-16, D79-15 and Taro3 had the maximum root length compared to bread wheat, however, with increasing salinity level to 16dS/m, minimum root length was observed in D82-16 (0.3 mm. In all cultivars, with increasing salinity level, shoot length was decreased and minimum shoot length was observed in D82-16 and D79-15. Under control conditions, Taro 3 cultivar had maximum seedling dry weight (108.6 mm, however, at 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels, seedling dry weight of this cultivar was decreased to 92.33 and 78.43 mg, respectively. All seeds (100% were germinated in D82-16, Taro3, Bolani Cross, and Chamran cultivars under 16 dS/m but in Marvdasht cultivar, seed germination percentage under 8 and 16 dS/m reached to 65 and 50%, respectively. Shiraz (10.8 seeds/day, Adl Cross(10 seeds/day, and Bolani Cross (9.1 seeds/day had maximum germination rate under 16 dS/m salinity level. Differences among wheat cultivars also found in germination stress index (germination rate under stress divided by germination rate under control and Shiraz, Adl Cross and Bolani Cross had maximum germination stress index, while Yavaros and D82-16 had minimum germination stress index. Furthermore, with increasing salinity level, different responses were observed among wheat cultivars in root and shoot length, germination rate and germination stress index which demonstrated the genetic diversity among wheat cultivars. It appeared that durum wheat cultivars, compared to bread wheat cultivars, had lower germination stress index and germination rate. Among what

  20. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in lactuceae, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1985-01-01

    Seeds of Lactuca sativa (cultivars Lobjoits Green Cos, Tom Thumb) and Lactuca serriola collected from the field, were irradiated with 10 and 30 Kr of gamma radiation. These and control seeds were grown on, and the chiasma frequencies determined in the M 1 plants. Chromosome types had been identified (Haque and Godward, Paper I) so that it was possible to determine chiasma frequency for each chromosome type. The relationship between chromosome length and chaisma frequency, dose and chiasma frequency, per bivalent and per nucleus, for each cultivar or species, was examined. There was reduction with dose of chiasma frequency in L. serriola, but increase with dose in the two clutivars of L. sativa. The results are discussed in relation to genic control of chiasma frequency, and genic control of sensitivity to radiation. Chiasma frequency was not determined in C. intybus. (author)

  1. Petunia cultivar sensitivity to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Ozone and sulfur dioxide are widespread pollutants in many of the areas in which petunias are grown as bedding-plants. Controlled environment experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of Capri, White Magic and White Cascade to separate or combined O3 and SO2 at 2 growth stages. Relative cultivar sensitivity was the same for O3, SO2 or O3 + SO2, with Capri leaves least injured and White Cascade leaves most injured. Visible injury symptoms were similar in all cultivars. Leaves of intermediate age were most sensitive, but early vegetative plants were more sensitive to O3 than plants in immediate prefloral stage. Severity of leaf injury was generally greater from the combined gases than from the single gases, and the combination treatment at the early vegetative stage significantly reduced plant growth and flower weight 4 weeks later. 29 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Brazilian rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Vicentin Palombini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study quantified the fatty acids and evaluated the proximate composition, antioxidant activity (using the Quencher procedure, and total phenolic compound concentrations in Brazilian rice cultivars. The cultivars studied showed high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acid. The ratios of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids obtained were high. Regarding the antioxidant activity, the best results were found using the ABTS method and the worst in the DPPH assay. The results of the DPPH and FRAP assays showed the highest correlation. The antioxidant capacity results obtained were also much higher than those reported for other varieties worldwide. Therefore, the Quencher procedure is highly suitable for application in cereals such as rice, especially when combined with the ABTS radical capture method.

  3. Capacidade embriogênica da cultivar IAS-5 de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Mauro Antonio Orlando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da formação de embriões somáticos da cultivar IAS-5 de soja. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, cultivando-se quatro plantas por vaso, sob fotoperíodo de 14 horas e temperatura em torno de 28°C. Efetuaram-se cruzamentos entre os parentais não-embriogênicos (cultivares IAC-6, Paraná e IAC-15 e embriogênico (cultivar IAS-5 e retrocruzamentos para obtenção das gerações F1, F2,RC1P1 e RC1P2. Cotilédones imaturos, com 4-6 mm de comprimento, derivados dos parentais das gerações F1, F2, RC1P1 e RC1P2 foram cultivados em placas de Petri contendo meio N10, por um período de 90 dias, em câmara de crescimento. Os embriões somáticos derivados da indução foram contados, e os números, usados para obtenção dos parâmetros genéticos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o caráter capacidade de produção de embriões somáticos da cultivar IAS-5 é de natureza quantitativa e controlado por, aproximadamente, 20 genes.

  4. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  5. Kaempferol tri- and tetraglycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2012-02-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2) was isolated from the flowers of Clematis cultivar "Jackmanii Superba", together with a known kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1). The chemical structures of the isolated glycosides were established by UV, LC-MS, characterization of acid hydrolysates, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  6. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  7. Morphological composition of cultivar of Urochloa brizantha under light intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Luciane do Carmo Seraphim; Marco Aurélio Factori; Vania Luiza Fournou de Lima; Janaína Carolina de Sá

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of silvopastoral systems (SSP) is a management option that gives good results for animal production, but the shading of the trees can alter production, growth behavior and morphological composition of the forage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological composition of Urochloa brizantha cultivars Marandu and Piatã under natural light and artificial shading of 30 and 60%. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu. The experimental design was a rand...

  8. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  9. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb [S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate] was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of 14 C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of 14 C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized 14 C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides

  10. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  11. Susceptibility of different parsley cultivars to infestation by pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nawrocki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 on parsley seeds of 6 cultivars: Alba, Berlińska, Cukrowa, Kinga, Lenka, and Vistula. Mycological analysis of parsley seeds showed that the most common inhabitans were fungi from genus Alternaria (mainly A. alternata and A. radicina and Fusarium, especially F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum. During the glasshouse investigations fungi Alternaria radicina, A. alternata and Fusarium avenaceum were the main reason for parsley damping-off. The highest number of infected seedlings was observed for Berlińska and Kinga, because in both years of experiments these cultivars had the lowest number of healthy seedlings. The highest number of healthy seedlings had cultivars Alba and Lenka, especially in the second year of experiments. In the field experiments not only fungi from genus Alternaria and Fusarium were the most often isolated from diseased parsley seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum was more often isolated from diseased field seedlings than from glasshouse parsley seedlings. Other fungies isolated often from parsley seedlings cultivated in the field were: Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Stemphylium botryosum.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  13. Diversity of Catechin in Northeast Indian Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g−1, 202 ± 5 mg g−1, and 157 ± 4 mg g−1 of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis. PMID:22448135

  14. Productive performance of soybean cultivars grown in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Belchior Marchetti Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants density in soybean cultivation is an important management practice to achieve high grain yield. In this way, the objective was to evaluate the agronomic traits and grain yield in soybean in different plant densities, in two locations in the south of Minas Gerais. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, arranged in a split plot design, with three replications. Plots were composed of four population densities (300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plants per hectare and the subplots were composed of six cultivars (‘BMX Força RR’, ‘CD 250 RR’, ‘FMT 08 - 60.346/1’, ‘NA 5909 RR’, ‘TMG 7161 RR’ and ‘V - TOP RR’ grown in Lavras and Inconfidentes, both in Minas Gerais. At the time of harvest was determined the plant height, lodging, insertion of the first pod, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of grains, number of grains per pod and yield. Regardless of the soybean cultivar, the plant density of up to 600,000 per ha does not affect grain yield, plant height, lodging, harvest index, and number of grains per pod. The cultivars ‘V-TOP RR’ and ‘BMX FORÇA RR’ showed high grain yield and good agronomic traits in Lavras and Incofidentes.

  15. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO GALON

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed interference is a factor that limits the productivity of beans and, among these, hairy beggarticks is one of the main species competing with the crop for environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean cultivars (BRS Campeiro, IPR Uirapuru, SCS204 Predileto and BRS Supremo in the presence of a biotype of hairy beggarticks. The experimental design is a completely randomized block with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a replacement series, consisting of a proportion of the crop and the hairy beggarticks: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50: 24:75, and 0:100, which corresponds to 40:0, 30:10, 20:20, 10:30, and 0:40 plant pots1. We accomplished competitive analysis through diagrams applied to the replacement series, as well as using relative competitive indices. The leaf area and shoot dry mass were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the species. There was competition between bean cultivars and hairy beggarticks for the same environmental resources, causing negative interference in the growth of the species, independent of the proportion of plants. Bean cultivars had a lower relative loss by reducing the morphological variables of the hairy beggarticks, thereby demonstrating superiority in its competitive ability in relation to the weed. Interspecific competition is less damaging than intraspecific competition for both species.

  17. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  18. Genetic studies on two soybean cultivars irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of gamma irradiation was used in two Egyptian soybean cultivars; Giza-22 and Giza-82, to induce genetic variability with doses of 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Some agronomic characters were tested in M1 and M2 generations single plants. Oil and protein contents were measured from the resulted mutants of the two soybean cultivars at M2 generation. Some genetic parameters were estimated on the mean values of M2 generation. The results showed significant differences induced by gamma ray doses in all studied characters, particularly for 200 Gy in M1 generation. Gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability in M2 generation, which helped in selecting some high yielding mutants and some mutants with high oil and protein contents from the two cultivars. The estimated coefficients of phenotypic variance as well as coefficient of genotypic variance were high for seeds weight/plant, pod weight/plant, number of seeds/plant, number of pods/plant and number of nods/plant which showed better scope in genetic improvement. Heritability in the broad sense was high in most of the studied characters. The expected genetic advance (G.A) from selection was high for number of seeds, for number of pods, for pods weight and for mature plant height

  19. Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer accumulation in relation to UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Junmin; Wang Ruibin; Meng Zhaoni

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the relationship between cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) accumulation and UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars. Two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. Qindou -2 0 and Zhonglü -1 ) were grown in greenhouse with treatment or without treatment of UV-B radiation (0.4 W * m -2 ) for four days. The UV-B-induced CPDs in mung bean DNA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with specific monoclonal antibody and the relationship between CPDs accumulation and the UV-B sensitivity of mung bean seedlings were discussed. The UV-B-induced inhibition of the biomass and net photosynthetic rate of the primary leaves of cultivar Zhonglü -1 were respectively lower than that of cultivar Qindou -2 0, so that the cultivar Zhonglü -1 was more tolerant to UV-B than the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Meanwhile, the cultivar Zhonglü -1 had lower CPD accumulation and susceptibility to CPD induction, higher photorepair capacity and same dark repair capacity as compared with the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Different UV-B sensitivities between two mung bean cultivars may be mainly caused by the differences in CPD accumulation, which are caused by the different susceptibility to CPD induction and the different photorepair capacities. In addition, the different susceptibility to CPD induction between two mung bean cultivars is related to the different levels of UV-absorbing compounds

  20. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  1. Srain Yield Stability of some Bread Wheat Cultivars Introduced in Moderate and Cold Area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tarinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to genotype×environmental interaction, seed yields of genotypes are usually evaluated in broad range of environmental conditions to obtain efficient information concering cultivar selection and introduction. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted based on RCBD with three replications, using 20 bread wheat cultivars to study seed yield stability of cultivars introduced during the past several years to cold, and moderate areas of Iran. This experiment was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch during 2009-2012, for 4 years. Because of significant genotype×environmental interaction, stability analysis was performed by all possible methods to obtain stable and high potential cultivars. The result of stability analysis showed non parametric, AMMI, GGE biplot and simultaneous selection stability methods introduce lower, high, and higher yielding cultivars to be stable. On basis of all stability methods, Bahar (spring type introduced in 2008, Mahdavi (facultative type released in 1995, and Azadi cultivar (winter type introduced in 1989 respectively with 7.27, 7.13 and 6.88 (t/ha grain yield were stable and were highly potential cultivars among other cultivars. These cultivars could be introduced to researchers as stable cultivars to be used as parental ones in breeding programs for production of highly stable and seed yielding lines.

  2. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  3. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Sindarovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleases (RNases are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  4. In vitro Digestibility and Gas Production Characteristics of Four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Cultivars as Fresh Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan, M.Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass was first introduced to Malaysia in the 1920?s and there were many cultivars introduced in Malaysia since 1950?s. However, there is a need to have comparative evaluation of these Napier cultivars so that definite recommendations can be made in the choice and management of the respective cultivars. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and gas production characteristic of four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum cultivars, namely Common, Silver, Red and Dwarf Napier. Common, Silver and Red Napier are classified as tall cultivars while Dwarf Napier is a short cultivar. Gas production was determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 32, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation period and its kinetics was described using the equation p = a + b (1 ? e?ct. Dwarf Napier had the highest (P 0.05 in the rate of gas production (C of Napier cultivars which ranged from 0.024 to 0.035 h-1. The metabolisable energy (ME was significantly higher in Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars (8.7 MJ/kg DM compared to Silver and Common Napier cultivars. The cumulative gas production within 32 h was highest (P0.05 ranged from 52 to 73 mM, 88 to 70%, 6.2 to 6.8%, respectively.. Dwarf Napier cultivar had superior nutritional quality. Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars could be classified as high quality grasses due to their high digestibility, gas production and degradation rates compared to the other cultivars. The low quality of Common and Silver Napier cultivars is mainly reflected by the extensive lignification of their cell wall structure.

  5. DNA methylation polymorphism in a set of elite rice cultivars and its possible contribution to inter-cultivar differential gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Lin, Xiuyun; Dong, Bo; Wang, Yingdian; Liu, Bao

    2004-01-01

    RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) fingerprinting on HpaII/MspI-digested genomic DNA of nine elite japonica rice cultivars implies inter-cultivar DNA methylation polymorphism. Using both DNA fragments isolated from RAPD or ISSR gels and selected low-copy sequences as probes, methylation-sensitive Southern blot analysis confirms the existence of extensive DNA methylation polymorphism in both genes and DNA repeats among the rice cultivars. The cultivar-specific methylation patterns are stably maintained, and can be used as reliable molecular markers. Transcriptional analysis of four selected sequences (RdRP, AC9, HSP90 and MMR) on leaves and roots from normal and 5-azacytidine-treated seedlings of three representative cultivars shows an association between the transcriptional activity of one of the genes, the mismatch repair (MMR) gene, and its CG methylation patterns.

  6. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  7. Cultivares de soja sob plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho compactado = Soybean cultivars under no-till on a compacted oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de compactação pode modificar os atributos físicos do solo a ponto de limitar o potencial genético de desenvolvimento de culturas agrícolas ou de cultivares mais sensíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico, a resposta de parâmetros de produção de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e atributos físicos do solo ao sistema plantio direto em condições de lavoura e com compactação adicional. O estudo foi conduzido na C-Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, em Palotina, Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois tratamentos de solo: sistema plantio direto sem compactação adicional (SPD-C0 e sistema plantio direto com compactação adicional (PD-C1, e cinco cultivares de soja: (1 Coodetec 204, (2 Coodetec 215, (3 Monsoy 5942,(4 Embrapa 48 e (5 Spring. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2. Os atributos de solo avaliados foram: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fitomassa seca, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, massa demil grãos e produtividade. Os resultados demonstraram que as variáveis de produção das cultivares de soja não foram influenciados pelos diferentes níveis de compactação do solo, e as diferenças observadas se deveram às características das próprias cultivares.The compaction process can promote changes in the physical attributes of soil, to the point of limiting the genetic potential for the development of more sensitive agricultural crops or cultivars. Thegoal of this study was to evaluate, on a clayed Red Latosol (Oxisol, the response of production parameters of different varieties of soybean (Glycine max and physical attributes of soil under tillage farming, and with additional compression. The study was conducted at C-Valley Agroindustrial Cooperative, in Palotina (Paraná State. Two treatments

  8. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiro em diferentes densidades de plantio The behavior of coffee cultivars under different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em Adamantina, na Região da Alta Paulista, em São Paulo, entre maio de 1995 e junho de 2000, o crescimento e quatro produções de cafeeiros das cultivares de porte baixo Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 de Coffea arabica L., submetidas às densidades de plantio de 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 e 10.000 plantas ha-1, com uma planta por cova. Estudou-se também a população de 2.500 plantas.ha-1 em covas com duas plantas com 2,0 m de distância na linha de plantio. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas subdivididas, onde as parcelas foram as populações e as subparcelas, as cultivares. Os resultados permitiram inferir que, no período estudado, o aumento da densidade influenciou positivamente a altura e negativamente o diâmetro do caule e da base da copa dos cafeeiros, mas não a altura da inserção do primeiro ramo plagiotrópico a partir do nível do solo. O aumento da população de cafeeiros acarretou menor produção de café beneficiado por planta, mas concorreu para o aumento da produtividade no período de 1997 a 2000. O plantio de duas mudas de café por cova acarretou também diminuição do diâmetro do caule e da produção individual dos cafeeiros. Observou-se na cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 maior diâmetro da base da copa e maior crescimento em altura, enquanto a cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 evidenciou seu maior diâmetro do caule. As cultivares Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 não diferiram entre si quanto à produção individual e à produtividade de café beneficiado no quadriênio (1997-2000.This experiment was developed at Adamantina, west region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during May of 1995 to June of 2000. The plant growth and productivity of two coffee cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 and Obatã IAC 1669-20, were evaluated considering to plant densities of 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 and 10.000 plants ha-1. The density of 2500 also was

  9. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  10. Genome-wide indel markers shared by diverse Asian rice cultivars compared to Japanese rice cultivar ?Koshihikari?

    OpenAIRE

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Choi, Sun Hee; Sakai, Hiroaki; Ando, Tsuyu; Shomura, Ayahiko; Yano, Masahiro; Wu, Jianzhong; Fukuoka, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphisms, such as simple sequence repeats, have been widely used as DNA markers to identify QTLs and genes and to facilitate rice breeding. Recently, next-generation sequencing has produced deep sequences that allow genome-wide detection of indels. These polymorphisms can potentially be used to develop high-accuracy polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers. Here, re-sequencing of 5 indica, 2 aus, and 3 tropical japonica cultivars and Japanese elite cultiva...

  11. Quantification of trash in early sugarcane cultivars; Quantificacao do palhico em cultivares precoces de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, Fernando A. de; Silva, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: fernando_abackerli@hotmail

    2010-07-01

    The energy generated from biomass of sugarcane is on the spotlight on the world stage. The straw remaining in the soil after harvest of sugarcane, brings several attributes that qualify as plant material to be used for power cogeneration. Thus, this study aimed to quantify the straw in early cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars) and three replications. At harvest, we counted the number of stems on the meter and the weight of stems was estimated agricultural productivity. After harvesting the cane was used a rectangle of 4.5 m2, which was placed randomly within each plot and all trash contained therein was weighed. From these results was estimated the number of people benefiting the energy from this trash. The SP80-1842 had the best performance, the highest amounts of trash (31.00 t ha-1), the largest index value of straw (28.33%) and more people benefit from the energy generated from the same (26.66x10-1) showing its greater suitability for cogeneration. Cultivars CTC9 and SP91-1049 presented the results less satisfactory. (author)

  12. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, Juvenal; Philipp, Dirk; Coffey, Kenneth P; Kegley, Elizabeth B; West, Charles P; Gadberry, Shane; Jennings, John; Young, Ashley N; Rhein, Robert T

    2014-01-13

    The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Forage DMI was affected by diet (P = 0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary components to digestibility across a wide range of forages.

  13. Impact of vacuum cooking process on the texture degradation of selected apple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourles, E; Mehinagic, E; Courthaudon, J L; Jourjon, F

    2009-01-01

    Thermal treatments are known to affect the textural properties of fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of vacuum cooking process on the mechanical properties of various apple cultivars. A total of 10 apple cultivars were industrially processed by vacuum pasteurization at 95 degrees C for 25 min. The raw material was characterized by penetrometry, uniaxial double compression, soluble solid content, and titrable acidity. Textural properties of processed apples were analyzed by uniaxial double compression. As expected, for all cultivars, fruit resistance was lower after processing than before. Results showed that texture degradation due to vacuum pasteurization was different from one cultivar to another. Indeed, some cultivars, initially considered as the most resistant ones, such as Braeburn, were less suitable for processing, and became softer than others after thermal treatment. Consequently, it is worth noting that the texture classification of the investigated apple cultivars was changed by the vacuum-cooking process.

  14. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  17. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer......, popular among the farmers, was investigated using the 15N isotope dilution technique. No differences were found between cultivars with respect to the uptake of NDFS and NDFF, but the improved cultivar yielded 27% more (P¿=¿0.05) grain compared with the traditional cultivar. This was largely due to its...

  18. Análise do pólen em dezoito cultivares de macieira Pollen analysis of eighteen apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campo Dall'Orto

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Como subsídio essencial ao projeto de melhoramento genético da macieira (Malus spp. por hibridação e ao conhecimento da polinização natural nas condições do Estado de São Paulo, efetuaram-se estudos sobre a quantidade e a viabilidade do pólen existente em dezoito cultivares de maior interesse no momento. Constatou-se que, entre os cultivares mais utilizados nos cruzamentos, Anna, Brasil, Dulcina, Ein Shemer, Gala, Rainha e Valinhense, juntamente com as novas seleções - IAC 170-1 e IAC 570-38 - foram os que se apresentaram mais ricos de pólen, com número superior a 50.000 grãos por flor. Quanto à viabilidade polínica desse material estudado, a germinação situou-se em níveis bastante satisfatórios - quase sempre maior que 50% - mesmo quando se armazenou o pólen por um período de 70 dias, em ambiente frio (-1ºC em dessecadores.Aiming to find out variations in pollen quantity and viability in eighteen apple cultivars, analysis of "in vitro" germination was performed to contribute - as a parameter for genetic breeding by hybridization and as a pollination basis. The apple cultivars or selections recommended for commercial planting, at the mild climate conditions prevailing in the State of São Paulo, Brasil, and most utilized in crosses, are nowadays the following: Anna, Brasil, Dulcina, Ein Shemer, Gala, Rainha, Valinhense, IAC 170-1 and IAC 570-38. These cultivars presented more than 50 thousand pollen grains per one flower. The germination index observed (also an indicator of pollen viability was higher than 50 percent in great number of materials, indicating that the pollen of the apple plant, well prepared, can be stored in a cold and dry environment (a desiccator at -1ºC during a period of about 70 days.

  19. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant activity of several pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luana; Pereira, J.A.; Lopéz-Cortés, Isabel; Salazar, Domingo M.; González-Álvarez, Julia; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Nine pomegranate cultivars grown in Spain were selected, and their physicochemical (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, maturity index, monomeric anthocyanin pigment, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, and vitamin C) and antioxidant properties and polyphenolic composition of the juices were compared. A total of 53 polyphenols were identified, showing cultivars different profiles. Of all nine cultivars, Katirbasi had the highest contents of flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins and vitamin...

  20. Advantageous use of an early Jerusalem artichoke cultivar for the production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, N.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an early maturing Jerusalem artichoke D19 cultivar combined with that of the late maturing Violet de Rennes cultivar would singificantly prolong the harvest season for the production of ethanol from their tuber extracts using yeast strains with inulinase activity. The D19 cultivar shows a low content of highly polymerized inulin (in early October) and is thus very satisfactory as a fermentation substrate. 9 references.

  1. RESISTANCE OF SOME GROUNDNUT CULTIVARS TO SOYBEAN POD BORER, ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA TREIT. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.  Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit.  Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.

  2. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  3. Identification of apple cultivars on the basis of simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G S; Zhang, Y G; Tao, R; Fang, J G; Dai, H Y

    2014-09-12

    DNA markers are useful tools that play an important role in plant cultivar identification. They are usually based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include simple sequence repeats (SSRs), inter-simple sequence repeats, and random amplified polymorphic DNA. However, DNA markers were not used effectively in the complete identification of plant cultivars because of the lack of known DNA fingerprints. Recently, a novel approach called the cultivar identification diagram (CID) strategy was developed to facilitate the use of DNA markers for separate plant individuals. The CID was designed whereby a polymorphic maker was generated from each PCR that directly allowed for cultivar sample separation at each step. Therefore, it could be used to identify cultivars and varieties easily with fewer primers. In this study, 60 apple cultivars, including a few main cultivars in fields and varieties from descendants (Fuji x Telamon) were examined. Of the 20 pairs of SSR primers screened, 8 pairs gave reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns. The banding patterns obtained from these 8 primers were used to construct a CID map. Each cultivar or variety in this study was distinguished from the others completely, indicating that this method can be used for efficient cultivar identification. The result contributed to studies on germplasm resources and the seedling industry in fruit trees.

  4. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  5. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  6. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Local Wheat Cultivars Susceptibility to infection with Black Stem Rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of seven local wheat cultivars from Palestine to infection with black stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Two techniques of disease inoculation were applied during bioassays: global inoculation of entire wheat plants with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores and localized inoculation with urediospores on wheat leaf-pieces incubated under humid conditions. Susceptibility of tested cultivars was evaluated according to disease scale based on number and size of typical unredial pustules that appeared after inoculation on entire plants or leaf pieces. Results obtained on bioassay of susceptibility and disease rating on entire plants indicated that Anbar, Kamata and Hetiya safra cultivars were the least susceptible to P. g. tritici infection, whereas Debiya beda cultivar was the most susceptible. The other tested cultivars such as Nab-El-Jama, sawda and Senf 870 were moderately susceptible. On leaf-pieces, Anbar and Kamatat were the least susceptible cultivars, whereas Debiya beda and Nab-El-Jamal were the most susceptible cultivars. The other tested cultivars such as Debiya swada, Senf 870 and Hetiya safra were moderately susceptible. Significant reductions were obtained for the size of unredial postules formed on leaf-pieces when inoculated in an unwounded state compared to the wounded indicating the importance of wounds during inoculation. The global results indicated the possibility of using above method of disease inoculating, scaling and rating for evaluation of wheat cultivars susceptibility for the eventual use in breeding program for resistant varieties in Palestine. (author)

  8. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  9. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  10. Características qualitativas de cultivares de cebola no sul de Minas Gerais Qualitative characteristics of onion cultivars in southern Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Júlio de Rezende Chagas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a composição físico-química e química de cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio na Fazenda Experimental de Lavras da EPAMIG, Lavras-MG, no período de março a setembro de 1995. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 6 tratamentos, constituídos pelas cultivares Baia Periforme, Crioula, Granex 33, Pira Ouro, Jubileu e Texas Grano 502. Após a cura, avaliaram-se o pH, sólidos solúveis e totais (%, acidez titulável (%, ácido pirúvico (µmol/g, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores (% e índice industrial dos bulbos. As cultivares Crioula, Baia Periforme, Pira Ouro e Jubileu apresentaram as maiores concentrações de sólidos totais e solúveis. A acidez mais elevada foi observada nas cultivares Crioula (0,370% e Pira Ouro (0,315%. Os maiores índices industriais foram apresentados pelas cultivares Crioula (0,87 e Baia Periforme (0,75, e os menores, pelas cultivares Texas Grano 502 (0,51 e Granex 33 (0,32.This study was carried out from March to September of 1995, in the Experimental Field of EPAMIG, Lavras-MG, Brazil, with the objective of determining the physico-chemical and chemical composition of onions from different cultivars (Allium cepa L.. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with four repetitions and six cultivars as follow: Baia Periforme, Crioula, Granex 33, Pira Ouro, Jubileu and Texas Grano 502. After the cure it was evaluated the pH, soluble and total solids (%, titrate acidity (%, pyruvic acid (µmol/g, total sugar, reducers and non reducers (% and industrial index. The cultivars Crioula, Baia Periforme, Pira Ouro and Jubileu showed the largest concentrations of total and soluble solids. The highest acidity indexes were observed in the cultivars Crioula (0.370% and Pira Ouro (0.315%. The largest industrial indexes were found in the cultivars Crioula (0.87 and Baia Periforme (0.75, and the smallest ones in the

  11. Potencial de melhoramento e divergência genética de cultivares de milho-pipoca Potential to breeding and genetic divergence in popcorn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Vieira Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de melhoramento e a divergência genética de nove cultivares tropicais de milho-pipoca. A divergência genética foi estimada por meio da técnica de análise multivariada e as cultivares foram agrupadas com base na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (DGM, utilizando o método de otimização de Tocher e a dispersão gráfica. Com produtividade de grãos acima de 3 t/ha, destacaram-se as cultivares CMS 43, IAC 112, Viçosa, CMS 42 e Branco, e com índices de capacidade de expansão acima de 24 (v/v, as cultivares IAC 112, RS 20 e Zélia. As estimativas da DGM indicaram (RS 20 e Beija-flor e (Rosa-claro e RS 20 os pares de cultivares mais distantes geneticamente, e (IAC 112 e Viçosa e (Branco e CMS 42, os pares mais similares. Foram identificados três ou quatro grupos divergentes dependendo do método de agrupamento. Para o melhoramento de milho-pipoca, as cultivares com maiores potenciais são RS 20, Zélia, IAC 112 e Beija-flor. As cultivares apresentam divergência genética.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the potential of breeding and genetic divergence in nine tropical popcorn cultivars. The genetic divergence was estimated using multivariate analysis techniques and the cultivars were grouped based in Mahalanobis' generalized distance (MGD, using Tocher's optimization and graphic dispersion. The best cultivars concerning the yield grain above 3 ton/ha were CMS 43, IAC 112, Viçosa, CMS 42 and Branco, and to popping expansion above 24 (v/v were IAC 112, RS 20 and Zélia. The estimates of MGD indicated the pairs genetically more distant (RS 20, Beija-flor and (Rosa-claro, RS 20 as well as pairs genetically more similar (IAC 112, Viçosa and (Branco, CMS 42. Tree or four genetic divergences groups were formed depending on the method. To popcorn breeding, cultivars with best potential are RS 20, Zélia, IAC 112, and Beija-flor. The cultivars show genetic divergence.

  12. In-vitro mutation and multiplication of chrysanthemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahloowalia, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental, grown as a cut and potted flower. No other flower rivals its volume of production and sale. As a result, growers are always on the look out for new or improved blooms which will maintain their market share. New and novel types of chrysanthemum were obtained for flower shape and size, and for plant height, by combining in-vitro radiation and micropropagation. This technique promises a rapid and efficinet method for obtaining new cultivars of vegetatively propagated plants. (author)

  13. Interspecific hybridization among cultivars of hardy Hibiscus species section Muenchhusia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Christensen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use...... in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube...

  14. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  15. Substratos para o enraizamento de microestacas de mirtileiro cultivar georgiagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Cristina Ristow

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a viabilidade e definir um substrato adequado para o enraizamento de microestaquia e o crescimento de mudas de mirtileiro cultivar Georgiagem. Foram avaliados diferentes substratos para a técnica de microestaquia mantida em condições de microambiente úmido, com temperatura e luz controladas. As microestacas foram acondicionadas em caixas de politereftalato de etileno, durante 48 dias. Os substratos turfa de musgo Sphagnum sp. e as misturas turfa + perlita, turfa + perlita + fibra de coco, turfa + perlita + serragem permitiram a obtenção de maior percentual de enraizamento.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative parameters in Acorn squash cultivar in the conditions of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Cucurbita pepo includes several types of squashes; in Slovak Republic, well-known and oftenly grown squash types are patisson, zucchini, spaghetti squash, oil pumpkin etc. Several interesting squash types of Cucurbita pepo are grown abroad, including Acorn squash which is well-known mainly in USA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the important quantitative (yield per hectare, average fruit weight and qualitative (total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids yield parameters of Acorn squash fruits in comparison with patisson which is typical squash type of Cucurbita pepo in Slovak Republic. The field trial was realised in Košice-Šaca in 2016. Within experiment, four cultivars of Acorn type pumpkin were tested (Thelma Sanders; Jet Set; Table Gold; Cream of The Crop. The patisson 'Orfeus' was used as a comparative cultivar for evaluation of individual parameters of Acorn type pumpkin cultivars. Matured pumpkin fruits were harvested on the 7th September 2016. From aspect of yield quantity, Acorn cultivars are appeared as very interesting squash type with good yield potential for growing. The highest yield of squash fruits was found in the cultivar 'Cream of The Crop' (17.8 t.ha-1. In mentioned Acorn cultivar, the yield was higher about 87.4% compared to the tested patisson cultivar 'Orfeus' (9.5 t.ha-1. On the contrary, the average weight of squash fruits was reached in patisson cultivar 'Orfeus' (780.7 g. The qualitative parameters of fruits were expressively influenced by squash cultivar. The content of total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total soluble solids was markedly higher in all Acorn cultivars, compared to the patisson cultivar 'Orfeus'. The highest content of total carotenoids (26.74 mg.kg-1 fresh weight and ascorbic acid (238.79 mg.kg-1 f. w. was found in the squash cultivar 'Table Gold'. The highest content of total soluble solids was determined in the cultivar 'Jet Set' (3.8

  17. Efeito de doses reduzidas de oxyfluorfen em cultivares de algodoeiro Effect of reduced oxyfluorfen rates on cotton cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio do algodão apresenta-se, no Brasil, como uma atividade de grande importância para a economia nacional, ocupando posição de destaque no processo produtivo do Estado do Mato Grosso. Para que a cultura possa expressar o máximo potencial produtivo, é necessária a adoção de técnicas de manejo e práticas agronômicas, visando o controle das plantas daninhas. A fim de que a lavoura se mantenha limpa e livre de matocompetição, o controle químico é o método mais utilizado. Os herbicidas registrados para algodão devem ser aplicados, quando do estabelecimento da cultura, em jato dirigido. O contato desses produtos, como o oxyfluorfen, nas folhas pode incorrer em fitointoxicação e prejuízos para o produtor. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o potencial de danos provocados pelo oxyfluorfen, quando em contato com diferentes cultivares de algodoeiro em estádio inicial de desenvolvimento. Para isso, foram avaliados cinco cultivares, tratados com 90 e 180 g ha-1 do herbicida, aplicado em plantas com 15 e 30 dias de emergência. Quanto às variáveis analisadas (fitointoxicação, altura de planta, número de folhas, massa seca de planta, foi possível observar que não houve diferença entre cultivares e que as plantas menores foram mais afetadas que as mais velhas, havendo aumento dos danos à medida que as doses eram aumentadas.Cotton agribusiness is a very important economic activity in Brazil, occupying a prominent position in the productive process of the state of Mato Grosso. For cotton crop to express its maximum productive potential, it is necessary to adopt handling techniques and agronomic practices seeking the control of weeds. For farming to stay clean and free from weed competition, chemical control is the most frequently used method. The herbicides registered for cotton crop should be applied when the culture is established in driven jet. The contact of products, such as oxyfluorfen, on the leaves may

  18. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yield efficiency for nine apple cultivars grafted on two rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caetano Fioravanço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Currently, using smaller trees is one of the most important trends in apple cultivation. It is expected that reduced size plants produce lower amount of fruit, but with high yield and yield efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield efficiency (YE of nine apple tree cultivars, grafted on two rootstocks, from the second to the seventh year after planting. The YE indexes oscillated from one to the other year, regardless of rootstock. Correlations between YE and yield per tree and between YE and trunk cross sectional area (TCSA confirmed that efficiency can be increased by the production increment or by the plant's vigor reduction. The usefulness of cumulative YE (ƩYE is highlighted to compare apple tree cultivars after the third year of production. The highest ƩYE indexes were observed for 'Royal Gala' and 'Baigent', on M-9 rootstock, and for 'Gala Real' and 'Maxi-Gala', on Marubakaido/M-9 rootstock.

  20. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihupi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar 'Afaa Mwanza 1/159' of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M 6 to M 9 generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. 'Supa India' and 'Salama' were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M 2 populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs

  1. New wheat cultivars induced by fast neutrons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Al-Maaroof, E.M.; Al-Aubaidi, M.O.; Al-Janabi, K.K.; Al-Janabi, A.A.; Al-Rawi, L.; Ali, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) seeds from the cultivar Mexipak and F2 of the cross SaberBeg/Mexipak and saberBeg/Mexipak/Abu-Ghraib-4 were irradiated with fast neutrons and screened for resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) during three generations. Thirty-eight and 226 variants showing resistant and moderately resistant reactions, respectively, were selected. Of these variants three mutants showing genetic purity and stability were studied for yield components for four successive generations. Analyses of proteins and isozymes along with chemical and physical properties were conducted on these mutants and their parents. Data on disease incidence, lodging, shattering and yield components indicated that all the mutants significantly surpassed the cultivars Mexipak, SaberBeg and Abu-Ghraib-4. Both mutants Tamuz-1 and Tamuz-2 surpassed Mexipak in bread-making quality, while the mutant Tamuz-3 had a higher tendency for better bread-making quality than Mexipak or SeberBeg

  2. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihupi, A [Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    1997-07-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar `Afaa Mwanza 1/159` of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M{sub 6} to M{sub 9} generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. `Supa India` and `Salama` were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M{sub 2} populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs.

  3. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background . This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results . MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α -amylase (IC 50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC 50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC 50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion . The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  4. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Min; Zhu, Xiaopei; Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) 'L. formolongo') to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil.

  5. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chai

    Full Text Available As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum 'L. formolongo' to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil.

  6. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  7. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  8. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de pessegueiro e nectarineira com microssatélites Molecular characterization of peach and nectarine cultivars though microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas, a identificação genética é importante em todas as etapas do processo de produção. Em pessegueiro, a identificação de genótipos baseada somente em características morfofenológicas deixa dúvidas quanto à verdadeira identidade de algumas cultivares. Marcadores moleculares de microssatélies foram utilizados objetivando a caracterização molecular de 8 cultivares de nectarineira e 28 de pessegueiro. Para a análise, foram utilizados 13 incializadores de microssatélites (primers, sendo que todos foram marcadores produzindo polimorfismo suficiente para identificar 32 das 36 cultivares analisadas. A maior similaridade genética verificada nas cultivares para consumo in natura foi entre Coral e Planalto (0,94 e entre Della Nona e Marfim (0,90, enquanto, para os pessegueiros para indústria, foi de 0,93 entre Jubileu e Capdeboscq e de 0,92 entre Jade e Esmeralda. Os marcadores de microssatélites permitiram separar em grupos distintos as nectarineiras e os pessegueiros de consumo in natura dos de indústria, havendo uma elevada concordância entre os dados genealógicos das cultivares e os dados gerados pelos microssatélites, confirmando a grande utilidade da técnica para a caracterização genética.Genetic identification of fruit tree plants is important in all phases of the production process. On peach the genotypes identification based only on the morphologic and phenologic characteristics leaves doubts on the true identity of some cultivars. Microsatellite markers were used aiming at the molecular characterization of eight nectarine and 28 peach cultivars. Thirteen microsatellite primers were used and all of them generated enough polimorfism that may identify 32 out of 36 of the analysed cultivars. The greatest genetic similarity was found between the fresh market 'Coral' and 'Planalto'(0,94 and between the 'Della Nona' and 'Marfim' cultivars (0,90, whereas for caning peaches the

  9. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  10. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  11. Genetic diversity and structure in a collection of tulip cultivars assessed by SNP markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, N.; Shahin, A.; Bijman, P.J.J.; Liu, J.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Arens, P.

    2013-01-01

    Although tulip is one of the most important bulbous crops worldwide, the genetic background of most cultivars is unclear at present. The purposes of this study are to investigate genetic diversity and to identify the genetic structure and relationships among tulip cultivars. A total of 236

  12. The influence of external factors on the growth and development of spinach cultivars (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    1967-01-01

    Influences of genotype (cultivar), temperature, light intensity, gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and daylength on stem elongation and flowering of spinach were investigated. Most cultivars reacted quantitatively to long days (LD) both for stem and flower formation. Daylength requirements varied

  13. Adaptation to partial resistance to powdery mildew in the hop cultivar Cascade by Podosphaera macularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hop cultivar Cascade has been grown in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. with minimal input for management of powdery mildew (Podosphaera macularis) for nearly 20 years due to the putatively quantitative resistance in this cultivar. While partial resistance is generally thought to be more durable th...

  14. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 22 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  15. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease

  16. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  17. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  18. Responses of east African highland banana (EAHB-AAA) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    50% among cooking cultivars, and less than 40% to dessert cultivars. Leaf orientation was significant to folding with cooking variety type opening leaves widely (up to 100o), and enhancing excessive leaf plant dehydration, even during stressful conditions. Soil evapo-transpiration showed that cvs. Kisansa and Mpologoma ...

  19. Variation in growth, physiology, and yield of six sugarcane cultivars from across the globe in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars with diverse genetic background under similar location can help in better understanding cultivar response to environment and in identifying various physiological traits that could lead to improved yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, yield...

  20. Soil and Cultivar Type Shape the Bacterial Community in the Potato Rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inceoglu, Ozgul; Salles, Joana Falcao; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    The rhizospheres of five different potato cultivars (including a genetically modified cultivar) obtained from a loamy sand soil and two from a sandy peat soil, next to corresponding bulk soils, were studied with respect to their community structures and potential function. For the former analyses,

  1. Reaction of rice cultivars to a virulent Rice Yellow Mottle Virus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of RYMV were collected from three “hot-spots” in Uganda (Lira, Luweero and Iganga). The isolate from Iganga was most virulent on RYMV susceptible cultivar (IR64), and thus used to constitute study treatment evaluated in the study. Cultivars were potted and raised in a screenhouse experiment arranged in a ...

  2. Cultivar variability of patatin biochemical characteristics: table versus processing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jan; Bártová, Veronika; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sedo, Ondrej

    2012-05-02

    Biochemical characteristics of patatin proteins purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from tubers of 20 potato cultivars were studied to evaluate their genotype differences with respect to utility groups, table potato cultivars (TPCs) and processing potato cultivars (PPCs). Both groups of cultivars showed similar values of protein content in dry matter (3.98-7.39%) and of patatin relative abundance (5.40-35.40%). Three mass levels (∼40.6, 41.8, and 42.9 kDa) of purified patatins were found by MALDI-TOF MS within all cultivars. Differences among mass levels corresponding with the mass of sugar antenna (∼1.2 kDa) confirmed the previous concept of different glycosylation extentsin patatin proteins. It was showed that the individual types of patatin varying in their masses occur in the patatin family in a ratio specific for each of the cultivars, with the lowest mass type being the major one. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated wide cultivar variability in number of patatin forms. Especially 2D-PAGE showed 17-23 detected protein spots independently on the utility group. Specific lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity of purified patatins from the individual tested cultivars varied between 0.92 and 5.46 μmol/(min mg). Patatin samples within most of the TPCs exhibited higher values of specific LAH activity than samples of PPCs. It may be supposed that individual patatin forms do not have similar physiological roles.

  3. Screening of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. cultivars for drought stress based on vegetative and physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Younis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important genotypic character to be exploited for the plant cultivar selection under water deficit conditions. In the recent study, we examined the response of two marigold cultivars (Inca and Bonanza under different regimes of drought stress. The aim was to determine the best performing cultivar under water/drought stress. Three irrigation treatments include; 4 days (T1, 6 days (T2 and 8 days (T3 in comparison to control 1 day (T0 interval were imposed. Response characters under study were morphological, physiological and anatomical. Complete Randomized Design (CRD with four replications in two factorial arrangements was followed for experiment layout. The results revealed that increasing water stress adversely affect plant height, in both cultivars. Both cultivars showed a decreasing trend to the number of flowers under water stress. Total chlorophyll contents including a, b were also showed reduction under prolonged drought treatment in both cultivars from (2.7 mg g-1 FW to (1 mg g-1 FW. Overall, the performance of cultivar (cv. Inca was satisfactory under water stress regimes. These results are helpful for selecting drought tolerant marigold cultivars in water scarce areas.   

  4. Effects of salt stress levels on five maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress levels on five maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars at germination stage. ... To investigation the effects of salt stress levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl) on five maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars at ... from 32 Countries:.

  5. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  6. Environmental effects on fruit ripening and average fruit weight for three peach cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three peach cultivars, ‘Crimson Lady’ (early), ‘Redhaven’ (mid-season) and ‘Cresthaven’ (late), were planted at twelve locations within the USA in 2009. All trees were grafted on ‘Lovell’ rootstock and came from the same nursery. Five trees of each cultivar were planted at a spacing of 6m by 5m at e...

  7. MG Travessia: a coffee arabica cultivar productive and responsive to pruning

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Gladyston Rodrigues; Bartholo, Gabriel Ferreira; Pereira, Antônio Alves; Rezende, Juliana Costa de; Botelho, Cesar Elias; Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Baião de; Silva, Felipe Lopes da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of progeny 1190-1170-2, which was recorded as ‘MGS Travessia’ and selected based on its performance in the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar has short size, cylindrical canopy, high yield capacity, high vegetative vigor, very satisfactory husk/bean ratio, grain quality compatible to traditional cultivars, and is very responsive to skeleton pruning.

  8. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien Jean Yves; Torp, Anna Maria; Holme, I.B.

    2007-01-01

     Fifty-nine Brassica oleracea cultivars, belonging to five botanical varieties, were evaluated for microsatellite (SSR) polymorphisms using 11 database sequence derived primer pairs. The cultivars represented 12 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), ten Brussels sprouts (B. o. var. gemmifera...

  9. Whitefly (Paraleyrodes sp. preference for avocado cultivars (Persea americana Mill. in Fresno, Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vanessa Sierra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly is a major pest that affects avocado and there is not enough information about the biolog y and management of this insect in Colombia. In this paper the incidence of the whitefly Paraleyrodes sp. pos. bondarion four avocado cultivars was studied (Choquette, Hass, Lorena, Santana. The crop management carried out by farmers was characterized and its effect on the white fly presence on three cultivars was evaluated (Choquette, Hass, Lorena. Presence of secondary metabolites on leaves from Hass and Lorena was measured and the effect of their leaf extracts on the mortality and repellency index of whitefly adults was established. There were interactions between crop management and cultivar for the presence of the insect; moderately chemical management had the lowest infestation in all cultivars. The increase in soil fertilization and chemical insecticides increased insect population, and removal of the hemiparasite decreased it. Lorena cultivar had the highest fly preference, insect population increase when there was interaction between cultivar and mature leaves, neutral repellency index, and high percentage of total and non-reducing carbohydrates. The Hass cultivar showed higher amount of coumarins, terpenes and steroids, and high rate of repellency. Lorena attracting the insect is due to the presence of carbohydrates; and Hass repellency is due to the terpene and / or steroids. Research works should be done on whitefly in avocado crops toward cultivars Lorena

  10. A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, I K S; Storkey, J; Sparkes, D L

    2015-06-01

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

  11. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  12. Modelling Visual Quality of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana: Influence of Cultivar and Pot Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Almeida, J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    An explanatory model for predicting kalanchoe plant height and cropping duration has been developed for one cultivar and one pot size, as described in earlier papers. In two experiments (winter and summer) seven contrasting cultivars (`Anatole¿, `Debbie¿, `Delia¿, `Mie¿, `Pandora¿, `Tenorio¿ and

  13. [Ecological adaptability evaluation of peanut cultivars based on biomass and nutrient accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Cui, Shao-xiong; Sun, Zhi-mei; Mu, Guo-jun; Cui, Shun-li; Wang, Peng-chao; Liu, Li-feng

    2015-07-01

    To identify the good peanut cultivars with the properties of high yield, high nutrient use efficiency and wide adaptability, 19 selected peanut cultivars were planted in the low champaign area and piedmont plain area of Hebei Province. By using principal component analysis, the adaptability of these 19 cultivars was evaluated for different ecological regions through comparing their 16 main traits including biomass and nutrient parameters. According to the critical value of principal component (>1.0), the 16 biomass and nutrient characteristics were integrated into 4 principal components which accounted for 85% of the original information. The results indicated that there were obvious differences in yield and nutrient use efficiency for the peanut cultivars in different ecological regions. The 19 peanut cultivars were classified into 2 groups according to their ecological adaptability, and the cultivars from the group with wide adaptability could further be divided into 3 categories according to their yield and nutrient use efficiency. Among these cultivars, Yuhua 9719, Jihua 0212-4, Weihua 10, Yuhua 15, Puhua 28 and Jihua 10 were selected as the better peanut cultivars with the properties of high yield, high nutrient use efficiency and wide adaptability.

  14. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  15. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during

  16. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  17. Differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi among three coffee cultivars in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligia Lebrón; Jean D. Lodge; Paul. Bayman

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is important for growth of coffee (Coffea arabica), but differences among coffee cultivars in response to mycorrhizal interactions have not been studied. We compared arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) extraradical hyphae in the soil and diversity of AM fungi among three coffee cultivars, Caturra, Pacas, and Borbon, at three farms in...

  18. Abordagem Bayesiana das curvas de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro Bayesian approach in the growth curves of two cultivars of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Martins Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizada a metodologia Bayesiana para ajustar o modelo não-linear logístico para dados de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, "Neguinho" e "Carioca". O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com vinte repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo que os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas cultivares e as subparcelas foram constituídas por 17 períodos de avaliações, do plantio até aos 85 dias. A metodologia permitiu comparar as curvas de crescimentos sem utilizar a teoria assintótica e estes resultados mostraram um maior incremento em altura para a cultivar "Carioca".In this paper the Bayesian methodology was used to fit the logistic nonlinear model to growth data of two common bean cultivars, 'Neguinho' and 'Carioca'. The experiment was a split plot under a completely randomized design with twenty replicates, being the main treatments constituted by cultivars and the sub plots constituted by seventeen periods of evaluations, from planting to 85 days. The methodology allowed comparing the growth curves without using the asymptotic theory, and these results showed a larger height increment for the 'Carioca' cultivar.

  19. Potential of bagasse production from middle sugarcane cultivars; Potencial de producao de bagaco por cultivares medias de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebre, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Siva Neto, Helio Francisco da; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos Omir; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV /UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: antoniocplebre8@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    In the search for sustainability a major concern relates to the sugarcane agroindustry waste, and their potential use as an energy source. In this sense, the objective was to identify the production and productivity of bagasse of different sugarcane cultivars, aimed at the completion of the cogeneration of electricity. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, obtaining the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who could benefit from the electricity that would be produced by the combustion of bagasse generated within a system of cogeneration of electricity put in practice by the sugar mills and ethanol distilleries. Cultivars with the best performance IAC91-1099 and CEC 15 who obtained the highest production and productivity of mulch increases the number of people benefited. Cultivars IAC94-4004-5000 and IAC95 showed intermediate results and the cultivars SP81-3250 and RB855536 obtained less satisfactory results. (author)

  20. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in different soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Magda Favetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 °C ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunaré and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the cultivar that most affected the prolonged in the duration larval, pupal and total cycle, showed lower pupal weight as well as reduction in the intrinsic rate increase. These results contribute to the management of this species in regions of outbreaks in soybean areas.

  1. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  2. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  3. Genetic Markers Analyses and Bioinformatic Approaches to Distinguish Between Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The genetic diversity of 22 olive tree cultivars (Olea europaea L.) sampled from different Mediterranean countries was assessed using 5 SNP markers (FAD2.1; FAD2.3; CALC; SOD and ANTHO3) located in four different genes. The genotyping analysis of the 22 cultivars with 5 SNP loci revealed 11 alleles (average 2.2 per allele). The dendrogram based on cultivar genotypes revealed three clusters consistent with the cultivars classification. Besides, the results obtained with the five SNPs were compared to those obtained with the SSR markers using bioinformatic analyses and by computing a cophenetic correlation coefficient, indicating the usefulness of the UPGMA method for clustering plant genotypes. Based on principal coordinate analysis using a similarity matrix, the first two coordinates, revealed 54.94 % of the total variance. This work provides a more comprehensive explanation of the diversity available in Tunisia olive cultivars, and an important contribution for olive breeding and olive oil authenticity.

  4. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  5. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing. © 2013 The Regents of California, Davis Campus Department of Plant Sciences.

  6. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  7. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Goto-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  8. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  9. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  10. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  11. Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.

  12. Unraveling the genetic structure of Brazilian commercial sugarcane cultivars through microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manechini, João Ricardo Vieira; da Costa, Juliana Borges; Pereira, Bruna Turcatto; Carlini-Garcia, Luciana Aparecida; Xavier, Mauro Alexandre; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Pinto, Luciana Rossini

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry plays an important role in the worldwide supply of sugar and ethanol. Investigation into the genetic structure of current commercial cultivars and comparisons to the main ancestor species allow sugarcane breeding programs to better manage crosses and germplasm banks as well as to promote its rational use. In the present study, the genetic structure of a group of Brazilian cultivars currently grown by commercial producers was assessed through microsatellite markers and contrasted with a group of basic germplasm mainly composed of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum accessions. A total of 285 alleles was obtained by a set of 12 SSRs primer pairs that taken together were able to efficiently distinguish and capture the genetic variability of sugarcane commercial cultivars and basic germplasm accessions allowing its application in a fast and cost-effective way for routine cultivar identification and management of sugarcane germplasm banks. Allelic distribution revealed that 97.6% of the cultivar alleles were found in the basic germplasm while 42% of the basic germplasm alleles were absent in cultivars. Of the absent alleles, 3% was exclusive to S. officinarum, 33% to S. spontaneum and 19% to other species/exotic hybrids. We found strong genetic differentiation between the Brazilian commercial cultivars and the two main species (S. officinarum: [Formula: see text] = 0.211 and S. spontaneum: [Formula: see text] = 0.216, Pcommercial cultivars. Average dissimilarity within cultivars was 1.2 and 1.4 times lower than that within S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Genetic divergence found between cultivars and S. spontaneum accessions has practical applications for energy cane breeding programs as the choice of more divergent parents will maximize the frequency of transgressive individuals in the progeny.

  13. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  14. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  15. Alterations in growth, oxidative damage, and metal uptake of five aromatic rice cultivars under lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Abbas, Farhat; Tanveer, Mohsin; Noor, Mehmood Ali; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) affects plant growth and its related physio-biochemical functions negatively. The present study investigated the responses of five different fragrant rice cultivars viz., Meixiangzhan (MXZ-2), Xiangyaxiangzhan (XYXZ), Guixiangzhan (GXZ), Basmati-385 (B-385), and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) to four different Pb concentrations viz., 0, 400, 800 and 1200 μM. Results depicted that Pb toxicity significantly (P rice plants; nonetheless, a significant variation was found in the sensitivity of rice cultivars to Pb toxicity. Soluble sugars increased significantly only at 1200 μM in GXZ and 800 μM in B-385, whilst the maximum reductions in protein contents were observed at 1200 μM Pb for all rice cultivars. Proline contents were reduced for XYXZ and NX-18 at Pb1200 μM. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) showed differential behavior among Pb treatments and rice cultivars. Among rice cultivars, GXZ showed better antioxidative defense system under Pb toxicity compared with all other cultivars. For all rice cultivars, the trend for Pb accumulation was recorded as: roots > stems > leaves. Furthermore, significant but negative correlations among Pb uptake and plant height (r = -0.79), tillers per plant (r = -0.91) and plant dry biomass (r = -0.81) were recorded for all rice cultivars whereas the values of translocation factor (TF) from stems to leaves were higher than roots to stems. In sum, Pb reduced the early growth and caused physio-biochemical changes in all rice cultivars, nonetheless, GXZ proved better able to tolerate Pb stress than all other rice cultivars under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Efeito da autofecundação em cultivares de abacaxi Effects of self pollination in pineapple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Santos Cabral

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O elevado nível de heterozigose dos parentais utilizados em hibridações é a principal causa da baixa eficiência dos programas de melhoramento genético do abacaxizeiro em gerar novas cultivares. Por outro lado, os efeitos da autofecundação são pouco conhecidos em abacaxi, mas esta estratégia pode proporcionar avanços significativos no melhoramento desta planta. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo observar os efeitos da autofecundação em cultivares de abacaxi. Inflorescências das cultivares Primavera, Perolera, Roxo-de-Tefé, Pérola e Smooth Cayenne foram protegidas antes da antese para possibilitar a ocorrência de autofecundação. As sementes produzidas foram germinadas em câmara de crescimento, utilizando-se como substrato do meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 30 g.L-1 de sacarose e solidificado com 2 g.L-1 de "Phytagel. Durante a germinação, observou-se que cerca de 16% das sementes de 'Roxo-de-Tefé' produziram plântulas albinas. Foram obtidas 43 plantas a partir de 'Primavera', cinco de 'Perolera', onze de 'Roxo-de-Tefé' e nenhuma de 'Pérola' e 'Smooth Cayenne'. Todas as plantas da progênie de 'Primavera' apresentaram folhas sem espinhos nos bordos ("piping", evidenciando homozigose para esta característica, enquanto na progênie de 'Perolera' três plantas evidenciaram folhas sem espinhos nos bordos e duas com folhas espinhosas, segregando para o caráter espinescência. Na descendência de 'Roxo-de-Tefé', oito plantas apresentaram folhas de cor roxa e três com folhas verdes, com segregação para a cor da folha, mas todas evidenciaram folhas com espinhos no bordo. As baixas porcentagens de germinação, o crescimento lento e o baixo vigor observados nas plantas em casa de vegetação, viveiro e campo, evidenciaram a ocorrência de depressão por endogamia nestas fases de desenvolvimento.The high level of heterozygosis of parentals used to generate pineapple hybrids has resulted in low efficiency of the

  17. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  18. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF BALI SALAK CULTIVARS (SALACCA ZALACCA VAR. AMBOINENSIS (BECC. MOGEA BASED ON LEAF MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI MADE GARI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf micromorphology of 13 Bali salak cultivars was studied by using multivariate analysis (Principal component analysis. The results showed that the cultivars clustered into a main group consisted of nine cultivars (Boni, Bingin, Selem, Embad, Nangka, Penyalin, Maong, Nyuh, and Putih. However, two cultivars (Muani and Gondok were distinctly separated from this main group and two the others Nanas and Gula were intermediate. The principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the main group has highly correlated to the characters abaxial cell length and number of cross vein density. Muani cultivar generally had longer adaxial cells, wider guard cells and lower stomatal index than the other cultivars. These three characters strongly influenced the separation of Muani from the others. Similarly, Gondok cultivar generally had wider abaxial cells than the other cultivars that discriminated Gondok clearly from the others. Whereas, the intermediate cultivars (Gula and Nanas were placed between the main group that consisted of nine cultivars and the two separated cultivars (Muani and Gondok. These cultivars (Gula and Nanas had intermediate values, which influenced their separations.

  19. Electronic tongue discrimination of four tomato cultivars harvested at six maturities and exposed to blanching and refrigeration treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic tongue (e-tongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of full ripe tomato fruit of different cultivars, harvest maturities, and exposure to refrigeration or blanching. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ...

  20. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was

  1. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  2. pre-germination treatments in castor seeds, cultivar IAC 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Gomes Damascena, Joyce; Marcia, Andreia; Santos de Souza, David; Pereira dos Santos, Marlucia; Rodrigues Pereira, Adriana; Goncalves Pereira, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different pre-germination treatments in castor beans, IAC 226. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 4 (four temperatures and four immersion times), with four replications. Pre-germination treatments were: immersion in water at room temperature (25 Celsius degrade) and immersion in hot water at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 Celsius degrade for 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes. Water content of the seeds was determined before treatments. Before and after each treatment, seeds were subjected to germination test; 20-30 Celsius degrade alternating temperature, determining the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings, dormant and dead seeds. Independent of time, immersion in 70 Celsius degrade, water was the most efficient treatment for accelerating germination of castor bean cultivar IAC 226.

  3. Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.; Kawai, T.; Micke, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although about 500 cultivars are known to have been developed by using induced mutations, the range of mutant traits seems to be rather narrow. Mutant traits have mostly been used that can be detected visually on an individual plant basis. However, in the background of such mutants other valuable mutations have been found in later generations. In cross-breeding with mutants valuable characteristics occurred, which could not be predicted from the phenotypes of the parents. It is concluded that improved attributes in the released mutant varieties do not comprise the entire genetic variation that could derive from mutagenesis. Current selection techniques are inadequate to exploit the full potential of mutagenesis for plant breeding. (author)

  4. New cultivar produced by heavy-ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iwaki, Kazunari [Suntory Flowers Ltd., Higashiomi, Shiga (Japan); Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    The RIKEN accelerator research facility (RARF) is the one of the biggest facilities to accelerate heavy ions in all over the world since 1986. We started our trials in plant breeding since 1993. Soon we found that the ion beam is highly effective in the cause of mutagenesis of tobacco embryos during the fertilization without damage to other plant tissue. RIKEN and Suntory Flowers Ltd. have jointly developed some new ornamental varieties of Verbena and Petunia using ion-beam irradiation. We already put 5 new flower cultivars on the market in Japan, USA, Canada and EU since 2002. We report here a new variety of Torenia obtained by ion-beam irradiation. (author)

  5. Chemical regulation of sex expression in certain olive cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Hegazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modifying effect of growth regulators on bud burst, flower bud formation and sex expression in olives varies greatly according to cultivar, concentration and time of application. Cycocel 200, 500 mg/l, ethephon 200 mg/l and SADH 2000 mg/l stimulated bud burst and flower bud formation in the 'Blanquetta' cv. A noticeable increase in the percentage of perfect flowers was obtained by 100 mg/l of kinetin, and 200 mg/l of Cycocel in the cv. 'Picual', Ethephon 200/1, Cycocel 200 mg/l and SADH 2000 mg/l considerably increased the percentage of perfect flowers in the cvs 'Blanquetta', 'Serrana' and 'Picual'. Treatments at green cluster stage were not effective.

  6. EVALUATION OF SOME PLUM CULTIVARS IN A HIGH DENSITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Butac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three plum cultivars bred in Romania (‘Carpatin’, ‘Centenar’ and ‘Tita’ were tested together with several standards (‘Cacanska Rodna’ and ‘Stanley’ in a high density experimental orchard established at Pitesti - Maracineni in the spring of 2009, with spacing 4 x 2.25 m. Trees were trained as spindles, grafted on ‘Saint Julian’ rootstock. In the orchard the following characteristics were evaluated: tree vigour based upon measuring of trunk-diameter, yields in kg/tree, time of fruit ripening and basic parameters of fruit quality. All Romanian varieties were characterized by earliness and large fruit, but production was relatively small. Instead, foreign varieties were characterized by high productivity in the 4th year after planting.

  7. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM 1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  8. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  9. Nutritional composition of new Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 and Florunner were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash, amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Díaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha. Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm.The main sterol present was βsitosterol (approx. 65%. Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications.

    Se estudio el rendimiento agrícola y composición química (proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y cenizas, perfil de amino ácidos, digestibilidad, perfil de ácidos grasos, contenido de tocoferol y de esteroles de seis variedades de cacahuate (Arachis hypogaea L. Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 y Florunner. Los resultados mostraron que el mayor rendimiento se logró en las variedades Ranferi Díaz y Col-61-Gto (6.3 Ton/ha. El contenido de proteína fue de 23.5 a 26.6% y el contenido de grasa en un intervalo de 49.8 a 53.4%. La digestibilidad promedio de las seis variedades fue de 86%. El contenido de lisina y treonina en la proteína de todas las variedades fue suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos del humano. La composición del aceite

  10. New cultivar produced by heavy-ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iwaki, Kazunari; Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    The RIKEN accelerator research facility (RARF) is the one of the biggest facilities to accelerate heavy ions in all over the world since 1986. We started our trials in plant breeding since 1993. Soon we found that the ion beam is highly effective in the cause of mutagenesis of tobacco embryos during the fertilization without damage to other plant tissue. RIKEN and Suntory Flowers Ltd. have jointly developed some new ornamental varieties of Verbena and Petunia using ion-beam irradiation. We already put 5 new flower cultivars on the market in Japan, USA, Canada and EU since 2002. We report here a new variety of Torenia obtained by ion-beam irradiation. (author)

  11. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dudienas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada.Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of cultivars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different

  12. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de cebola com marcadores microssatélites Molecular characterization of onion cultivars using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer padrões alélicos e estimar as distâncias genéticas baseadas em marcador SSR de 44 cultivares de cebola adaptadas às condições de cultivo tropicais e subtropicais do Brasil. Para visualização da similaridade genética, utilizou-se o dendrograma UPGMA gerado da matriz de distâncias do coeficiente de Jaccard, com base em 40 alelos de 13 locos SSR. O DNA total foi extraído pelo método CTAB 2x, e os produtos de PCR foram analisados em géis de poliacrilamida desnaturante 6% e corados com nitrato de prata. O número de pares de bases foi estimado pelo método da mobilidade inversa, com base em regressão de produtos de tamanho conhecido. A média da heterozigosidade dos locos SSR foi 0,58. Os 40 alelos dos 13 locos SSR foram suficientes para distinguir as 44 cultivares de cebola. O maior número de alelos em comum foi observado entre as cultivares Yellow Granex e Henry's Special PRR e o menor, entre as cultivares Baia Periforme Super Precoce e Excel. Os sete grupos principais de cultivares identificados no dendrograma apresentaram concordância com a genealogia conhecida e o tipo agronômico das cultivares avaliadas. Os locos SSR selecionados são adequados para melhoramento e proteção de cultivares da espécie.The objective of this work was to establish allelic patterns and to estimate genetic distances based on the SSR marker in 44 onion cultivars adapted to Brazil's tropical and subtropical growing conditions. An UPGMA dendrogram generated from the distance matrix of the Jaccard's coefficient, based on 40 alleles of 13 SSR loci, was used for visualizing genetic similarities. Total DNA was extracted according to the CTAB 2x protocol, and the PCR products were analyzed in 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gels and stained with silver nitrate. The number of base pairs was estimated by the inverse mobility method, based on regression of products of known size. The heterozygosity mean was 0.58 for all

  13. Chemical desiccation for early harvest in soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of desiccants is an alternative to anticipate the soybean harvest and keep the physiological quality of seed. The objective of this work was to assess the production performance and germination seeds in response to differents stages and desiccation chemicals products to early harvest of soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in Campos Novos, in two harvests, it was used a randomized complete block design disposed in split-split-plots. Two phenological stages of application (stage R7.1 and R7.3 were tested in the main plot. Five soybean cultivars (NA 5909 RG, CD 2585 RR, BMX Turbo RR, SYN 1059 RR and BENSO 1RR were evaluated in the subplots, and three desiccants ammonium glufosinate, paraquat, carfentrazone-ethyl in the 2011/12 season and one control (without the desiccant application were evaluated in the sub-subplots. In the 2012/13 season the carfentrazone-ethyl was substituted by diquat. It were evaluated the number of the days in the early harvest, yield, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, mass of 100 seeds and germination percentage. The chemical dessecation with the use of glufosinate ammonium and paraquat applied in R7.1 stage allowed to anticipate the harvest in six days (2011/12 and provided maintenance germination percentage (90% and 92% compared to control (76%. The dessecation didn’t influence negatively on seeds productivity, but reduced the mass of seeds in the two growing seasons, and early harvest was dependent of pre-harvest rain absence, with this preamble. The use of dessicants is a possibility of early harvest in production field of soybean seeds.

  14. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oram, R N [Division of Plant industry, CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% {beta}-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  15. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  16. Methods to classify maize cultivars in use efficiency and response to nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Lacerda Godoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available n plant breeding programs that aim to obtain cultivars with nitrogen (N use efficiency, the focus is on methods of selection and experimental procedures that present low cost, fast response, high repeatability, and can be applied to a large number of cultivars. Thus, the objectives of this study were to classify maize cultivars regarding their use efficiency and response to N in a breeding program, and to validate the methodology with contrasting doses of the nutrient. The experimental design was a randomized block with the treatments arranged in a split-plot scheme with three replicates and five N doses (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200 kg ha-1 in the plots, and six cultivars in subplots. We compared a method examining the efficiency and response (ER with two contrasting doses of N. After that, the analysis of variance, mean comparison and regression analysis were performed. In conclusion, the method of the use efficiency and response based on two N levels classifies the cultivars in the same way as the regression analysis, and it is appropriate in plant breeding routine. Thus, it is necessary to identify the levels of N required to discriminate maize cultivars in conditions of low and high N availability in plant breeding programs that aim to obtain efficient and responsive cultivars. Moreover, the analysis of the interaction genotype x environment at experiments with contrasting doses is always required, even when the interaction is not significant.

  17. Genetic relationships among okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cultivars in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir O. Bello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cultivars at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. The objective was to evaluate the level of genetic divergence and heritability of eight characters in 2015 and 2016 dry seasons using irrigation. The results showed highly significant (p<0.01 differences in the ten okra cultivars for days to anthesis, plant height, fresh capsule length, fresh mass per capsule and fresh capsule diameter across the two years. A high genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, and genetic advance were detected in all the characters except for days to anthesis and fresh capsule diameter. This implied that different genetic constitution and preponderance of additive effects governed these characters, thus presenting a significant opportunity for selection. The Mahanalobis D2 analysis allotted the ten cultivars into four clusters. The highest was cluster I comprising four cultivars, followed by cluster II containing three cultivars, cluster III consisting two cultivars, and cluster IV with mono genotypic. The three most superior okra cultivars (Salkade, Y’ar gagure and Kwadag for yield and related characters could be exploited directly or introgressed with other promising ones in future breeding programs.

  18. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  19. Preferência alimentar do bicudo-do-algodoeiro por frutos de diferentes cultivares e idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busoli Antonio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência alimentar de adultos do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, por duas cultivares de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. com frutos de diferentes idades. Foram realizados quatro experimentos em laboratório, avaliando-se o número de orifícios de alimentação. Maçãs de 2, 8 e 12 dias de idade, das cultivares IAC-20 e Reba P288, foram oferecidas aos insetos, confinados em recipientes, com opção de escolha quanto à idade e cultivar (primeiro experimento, sem opção de escolha quanto à idade e cultivar (segundo experimento, sem opção de escolha quanto à cultivar e com opção quanto a idade (terceiro experimento e sem opção quanto à idade e com opção de escolha quanto à cultivar (quarto experimento. Observou-se preferência por maçãs da cultivar IAC-20 com dois dias de idade, com uma redução de danos de 23,53% e 78,43%, respectivamente, aos oito e aos doze dias de idade.

  20. A new avenue for classification and prediction of olive cultivars using supervised and unsupervised algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Beiki

    Full Text Available Various methods have been used to identify cultivares of olive trees; herein we used different bioinformatics algorithms to propose new tools to classify 10 cultivares of olive based on RAPD and ISSR genetic markers datasets generated from PCR reactions. Five RAPD markers (OPA0a21, OPD16a, OP01a1, OPD16a1 and OPA0a8 and five ISSR markers (UBC841a4, UBC868a7, UBC841a14, U12BC807a and UBC810a13 selected as the most important markers by all attribute weighting models. K-Medoids unsupervised clustering run on SVM dataset was fully able to cluster each olive cultivar to the right classes. All trees (176 induced by decision tree models generated meaningful trees and UBC841a4 attribute clearly distinguished between foreign and domestic olive cultivars with 100% accuracy. Predictive machine learning algorithms (SVM and Naïve Bayes were also able to predict the right class of olive cultivares with 100% accuracy. For the first time, our results showed data mining techniques can be effectively used to distinguish between plant cultivares and proposed machine learning based systems in this study can predict new olive cultivars with the best possible accuracy.

  1. Arsenic affects the production of glucosinolate, thiol and phytochemical compounds: A comparison of two Brassica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Chandana; Augustine, Rehna; Panthri, Medha; Zia, Ismat; Bisht, Naveen C; Gupta, Meetu

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic (As), a non-essential metalloid, severely affects the normal functioning of plants, animals and humans. Plants play a crucial role in metabolic, physiological and numerous detoxification mechanisms to cope up with As induced stress. This study aimed to examine the differential response in two Brassica juncea cultivars, Varuna and Pusa Jagannath (PJn) exposed to different doses of As (50, 150, 300 μM) for 48 h duration. Change in morphological traits, concentration of individual as well as total GSL, sulfur related thiol proteins, sulfur content, and phytochemicals were analyzed in both cultivars. Accumulation pattern of As showed dose dependent accumulation in both the cultivars, being more in PJn. Our finding revealed that both cultivars were tolerant at low concentrations of As, while at higher concentration Varuna excelled over PJn. The increased tolerance of Varuna cultivar exposed to 150 and 300 μM concentration of As, correlated with its increased thiol related proteins, sulfur content and phytochemicals, which serves as defence strategy in the plant against oxidative stress. Differential pattern of total as well as individual GSLs content was observed in both Varuna and PJn cultivars. Varuna cultivar showed higher level of total and aliphatic GSLs, which serves as defence compound with other detoxification machineries to combat As stress. Our findings provide foundation for developing metalloid tolerant crops by analyzing the role of different genes involved in GSL mechanism and signaling pathways in different organs of plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic phenotyping of various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars and understanding of their intrinsic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyang-Gi; Lee, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Jun Seong; Hong, Young-Shick

    2017-10-15

    Recently, we selected three tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars that are rich in taste, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) and then cultivated them through asexual propagation by cutting in the same region. In the present study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabotype and to understand the metabolic mechanism of these tea cultivars including wild type tea. Of the tea leaf metabolite variations, reverse associations of amino acid metabolism with catechin compound metabolism were found in the rich-taste, and EGCG- and EGCG3″Me-rich tea cultivars. Indeed, the metabolism of individual catechin compounds in the EGCG3″Me-rich cultivar differed from those of other tea cultivars. The current study highlights the distinct metabolism of various tea cultivars newly selected for cultivation and the important role of metabolomics in understanding the metabolic mechanism. Thus, comprehensive metabotyping is a useful method to assess and then develop a new plant cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  4. Comparison and flowering valuation of New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Startek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2003 the flowering of four New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups were compared. They were the following cultivars: 'Sonic Pink', 'Sonic Sweet Cherry', 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'. The experiments were carried out from the middle of April till the middle of October. Neutralised sphagnum peat with slow release fertiliser Osmocote Plus 5/6 was used as medium. It was found that the cultivar 'Sonic Pink' began blooming 1-4 weeks earlier than the other cultivars. The cultivars 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' had significantly more abundant flowering (105.3-113.3 flowers per plant than the cultivars 'Sonic Pink' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink' (72.0-92.8 flowers per plant. All the cultivars had big flowers (6.3-7.8 cm in diameter. The most similar flowers were found in 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and the least similar in 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'.

  5. Diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in various soybean cultivars under different continuous cropping regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants.

  6. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  7. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  8. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN SOME IRANIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS USING SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Reza Khoshroo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is most adapted tree to grow in desert areas. It has always been looked on as a key source of stability, survival and evolution of the oasis agro-system since it constitutes the basic features of the ecological pyramid in desert regions. Determining genetic variability and cultivars identification in date palm are two major important factors in breeding programs, characterization of germplasm, and conservation purposes. The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE for 9 cultivars in Shahdad region in Iran. A total of 16 alternative protein bands with different mobility rates were identified within a molecular weight range of 11 KDa to 350 KDa. Then, electrophorogram for each cultivar was scored, and Jaccard‘s Similarity Index was calculated. Relying on UPGMA and NJ methods, genetic diversity of cultivars was evaluated by constructing the dendrogram for protein bands. Moreover, genetic distance was calculated for all of the cultivars.  It is concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in genetic diversity studies and classification of cultivars. The cultivars from Shahdad were well separated from each other. This might have been done due to their unique genetic build-up. The cluster analysis displayed five major classes. In order to precise this assumption, data were computed to perform a PCA. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated their validity in establishing genetic diversity. When PCA was studied, the previously described results about Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram were also visualized.

  10. Assessment of potential soybean cadmium excluder cultivars at different concentrations of Cd in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yang; He, Kangxin; Sun, Ting; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-09-01

    The selection of cadmium-excluding cultivars has been used to minimize the transfer of cadmium into the human food chain. In this experiment, five Chinese soybean plants were grown in three soils with different concentrations of Cd (0.15, 0.75 and 1.12mg/kg). Variations in uptake, enrichment, and translocation of Cd among these soybean cultivars were studied. The results indicated that the concentration of Cd in seeds that grew at 1.12mg/kg Cd in soils exceeded the permitted maximum levels in soybeans. Therefore, our results indicated that even some soybean cultivars grown on soils with permitted levels of Cd might accumulate higher concentrations of Cd in seeds that are hazardous to human health. The seeds of these five cultivars were further assessed for interactions between Cd and other mineral nutrient elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn. High Cd concentration in soil was found to inhibit the uptake of Mn. Furthermore, Fe and Zn accumulations were found to be enhanced in the seeds of all of the five soybean cultivars in response to high Cd concentration. Cultivar Tiefeng 31 was found to fit the criteria for a Cd-excluding cultivar under different concentrations of Cd in soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Metabolite profiling of leek (Allium porrum L) cultivars by (1) H NMR and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Soininen, Pasi; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-01-01

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is consumed as a vegetable throughout the world. However, little is known about the metabolites of leek cultivars, especially those with potentially important beneficial properties for human health. We provide new information for the overall metabolite composition of several leek cultivars grown in Europe by using HPLC-MS and (1) H NMR. The use of a novel CTLS/NMR (constrained total-line-shape nuclear magnetic resonance) approach was found to be capable of reliable quantification, even with overlapping metabolite signals in the (1) H NMR of plant metabolites. Additionally, a new application for leek flavonoids was optimised for HPLC-MS. The total concentration of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, kestose/nystose and sucrose) and nine amino acids varied by fourfold in leek juice from different cultivars, while the total concentrations of four organic acids were similar in all cultivars. All the quantified flavonols were kaempferol derivatives or quercetin derivatives and threefold differences in flavonol concentrations were detected between cultivars. In this study, various phytochemical profiles were determined for several leek cultivars by (1) H NMR spectroscopy with CTLS combined with HPLC-MS. The wide variation in bioactive compounds among commercial leek cultivars offers promising opportunities for breeders to raise the levels of important biochemical compounds in leek breeding lines, and also provides some objective measure for quality assurance for the leek industry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar.

  13. Interaction of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Cultivars of Alfalfa Susceptible and Resistant to Meloidogyne hapla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, G S; Cooper, K M

    1986-04-01

    The interaction between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) was investigated using both nematode-susceptible (Grasslands Wairau) and nematode-resistant (Nevada Synthetic XX) cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at four levels of applied phosphate. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved plant growth and reduced nematode numbers and adult development in roots in dually infected cultures of the susceptible cultivar. The tolerance of plants to nematode infection and development when preinfected with mycorrhizal fungi was no greater than when they were inoculated with nematodes and mycorrhizal fungi simultaneously. Growth of plants of the resistant cultivar was unaffected by nematode inoculation but was improved by mycorrhizal inoculation. Numbers of nematode juveniles were lower in the roots of the resistant than of the susceptible cultivar and were further reduced by mycorrhizal inoculation, although no adult nematodes developed in any resistant cultivar treatment. Inoculation of alfalfa with VAM fungi increased the tolerance and resistance of a cultivar susceptible to M. hapla and improved the resistance of a resistant cultivar.

  14. Glucosinolates, Carotenoids, and Vitamins E and K Variation from Selected Kale and Collard Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins E and K contents were analyzed from various kale and collard cultivars at mature stage. We found a significant difference in these phytonutrients among cultivars. Among kale cultivars, “Beira” and “Olympic Red” were the highest in the total glucosinolate and “Toscano” kale was the highest in total carotenoid content. “Scarlet” kale was highest in tocopherols. For collard, total glucosinolate was the highest in “Top Bunch” while carotenoids were the highest in “Green Glaze.” An accession PI261597 was the highest in phylloquinone. In addition to the total content of each phytonutrient class, their composition differed among cultivars, indicating that each cultivar may have differential regulatory mechanisms for biosynthesis of these phytonutrients. Our result indicates that cultivar selection may play an important role in consumption of kale and collard with greater nutritional benefit. Therefore, the result of this study will provide a more thorough profile of essential and nonessential phytonutrients of kale and collard cultivars for consumers’ choice and for future research on nutritional value of these crops.

  15. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-04-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Obtention of microtubers and minitubers as pre basic seed in tree Peruvian potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Tapia y Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In potato (Solanum tuberosum L. seed certification programs, the use of in vitro plants, microtubers and minitubers as pre-basic seed are of great importance, especially in countries such as Peru, where there is a need to eradicate the informal production of the seed to promote new plantations. The present work had as objective to obtain of microtubers and minitubers as pre-basic seed in three Peruvian potato cultivars. When comparing the effect of both factors (method and cultivar in the number of seeds per plant it was possible to state that with the exception of the cultivar 'Capiro', no differences were found between both methods of seed production for the rest of the cultivars. This result is very important since it shows that it is possible to use both methods of pre-basic seed production for cultivars 'Canchan' and 'Papa3'. In the cultivar 'Capiro' a greater number of minitubers was achieved per plant, but its low fresh mass, which could prevent its use as a basic seed. Other studies are required to adjust the culture conditions to achieve better results in this cultivar.   Keywords: certified seed, genotype, in vitro techniques

  17. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  18. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  19. Salinity-induced modulation of plant growth and photosynthetic parameters in faba bean (vicia faba) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.; Embiale, A.; Husen, A.; Eref, I.E.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The present study assesses salt-tolerant cultivars of Vicia faba L.on the basis of their growth, biomass and foliar characteristics. Four levels of salt stress (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) were applied to three selected cultivars, viz. Degaga, Dosha and Hachalu. Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, salt-stress treatments, and their interaction, indicating the cultivars' variability and differential response to salt stress. Salinity stress adversely affected plant growth, plant water status and biomass production. Salt treatments decreased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but cultivar Dosha, which was ahead of others in height, leaf number, relative water content, total biomass and leaf-dry-mass ratio, was least affected. Functional leaf characters, such as photochemical efficiency of PSII (maximum quantum yield = Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (E) were also reduced under salt-stress, and againDosha cultivar did better than others except in gs. The relatively less decline in growth, water status, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and functional leaf characters of Dosha exhibits a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, while the other two varieties viz., Degaga and Hachalu proved to be sensitive to salt stress. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Cd effects on growth and some oxidative stress parameters of wheat cultivars during seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Esfandiari

    2016-03-01

    S-transferase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes are probably the main reasons of the lipid peroxidation increase in Kohdasht cultivar. However, there was no damage on membranes of Izengran and Pishtase cultivars, which indicates the balance between production and scavenging of damaging factors of these cultivars. Generally, it can be stated that available Cd in medium was adsorbed and accumulated in wheat leaves resulting in reduction in dry matter of different parts and whole seedling of wheat which is due to susebtability of different cultivars to Cd. However, there were no oxidative stresses in leaves of Gaskogen, Agosta and MV17 cultivars due to their better defense mechanisms.