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Sample records for ultra-fine aluminum-nitride powder

  1. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  2. Preparation of aluminum nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite powder by the nitridation of aluminum silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itatani, K.; Tsukamoto, R.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Okada, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)-silicon carbide (SiC) nanocomposite powders were prepared by the nitridation of aluminum-silicon carbide (Al4SiC4) with the specific surface area of 15.5 m2·g-1. The powders nitrided at and above 1400°C for 3 h contained the 2H-phases which consisted of AlN-rich and SiC-rich

  3. [A technological study on the extraction of ultra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaohai; Huang, Mingqing; Zeng, Huifang; Guo, Wei; Xi, Ping

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the extraction of ultra-fine powder Panax notoginsen. The extraction rate of ginseng saponin Rg1, Re, Rb1, notoginseng saponin R1 and filtrated time were determined by alcoholic and aqueous extraction of Panax notoginsen in tablet, coarse powder, ultra-fine powder and recostitution granules of ultra-fine powder. The filtered time of ultra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen extraction and that of the tablet of Panax notoginsen extraction were similar, while the extraction rates of various saponins of it were high. The method of aqueous extrction in ltra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen is easy in filtrationer, higher in extraction rate of Panax notoginsen and lower in production cost.

  4. The Radiation Synthesis of Ultra-Fine Powdered Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (UFCSBR) and Property of Nylon 6/ UFCSBR Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.

    2006-01-01

    A serial of novel ultra-fine powdered carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (UFCSBR) were prepared by using radiation crosslinking and spray drying method. Thereafter, these powdered rubber particles were used as toughener of nylon 6.The radiation synthesis of ultra-fine powdered rubbers were studied, moreover, the mechanical and thermal property of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends were investigated. Finally, the toughening mechanism of nylon 6 modified with ultra-fine rubber particles was discussed. The UFCSBR could be dispersed well in nylon 6 as individual particles with a diameter of 150 nm by using melt blending. The Nylon 6/UFCSBR (80/20) blend possesses higher toughness and higher thermal stability than Nylon 6/POE-g-MAH (which is most often used elastomer in toughening nylon now). The deformation mechanism of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends includes shear deformation of nylon 6 and the formation of elongated rubber particles in matrix. In addition, the UFCSBR has good interfacial compatibility with nylon 6. Therefore, the nylon 6/UFCSBR blends with good mechanical performance could be prepared in this work

  5. Preparation of ultra-fine powders from polysaccharide-coated solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers by innovative nano spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-09-10

    In this study, five polysaccharides were applied as natural polymeric coating materials to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructure lipid carriers (NLC), and then the obtained lipid colloidal particles were transformed to solid powders by the innovative nano spray drying technology. The feasibility and suitability of this new technology to generate ultra-fine lipid powder particles were evaluated and the formulation was optimized. The spray dried SLN powder exhibited the aggregated and irregular shape and dimension, but small, uniform, well-separated spherical powder particles of was obtained from NLC. The optimal formulation of NLC was prepared by a 20-30% oleic acid content with carrageenan or pectin as coating material. Therefore, nano spray drying technology has a potential application to produce uniform, spherical, and sub-microscale lipid powder particles when the formulation of lipid delivery system is appropriately designed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  7. Radiation-induced copolymerization of styrene/n-butyl acrylate in the presence of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haibo [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng Jing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhai Maolin; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qiao Jinliang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SINOPEC Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Styrene (St)/n-butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by two-stage polymerization: St/BA was pre-polymerized to a viscous state by bulk polymerization with initiation by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) followed by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray radiation curing. The resultant copolymers had higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional methods. After incorporation of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) with a particle size of 100 nm in the monomer, the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of St-BA copolymer increased at low rubber content. Both the St-BA copolymer and the St-BA copolymer/UFSBR composites had good transparency at BA content below 40%.

  8. Influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the sintering and functional properties of an ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel obtained from ball-milled powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C., E-mail: clement.keller@insa-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Tabalaiev, K.; Marnier, G. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Noudem, J. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sauvage, X. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hug, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-05-17

    In this work, 316L samples with submicrometric grain size were sintered by spark plasma sintering. To this aim, 316L powder was first ball-milled with different conditions to obtain nanostructured powder. The process control agent quantity and milling time were varied to check their influence on the crystallite size of milled powder. Samples were then sintered by spark plasma sintering using different sets of sintering parameters (temperature, dwell time and pressure). For each sample, grain size and density were systematically measured in order to investigate the influence of the sintering process on these two key microstructure parameters. Results show that suitable ball-milling and subsequent sintering can be employed to obtain austenitic stainless steel samples with grain sizes in the nanometer range with porosity lower than 3%. However, ball-milling and subsequent sintering enhance chromium carbides formation at the sample surface in addition to intragranular and intergranular oxides in the sample as revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that using Boron nitride together with graphite foils to protect the mold from powder welding prevent such carbide formation. For mechanical properties, results show that the grain size refinement strongly increases the hardness of the samples without deviation from Hall-Petch relationship despite the oxides formation. For corrosion resistance, grain sizes lower than a few micrometers involve a strong decrease in the pitting potential and a strong increase in passivation current. As a consequence, spark plasma sintering can be considered as a promising tool for ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steel.

  9. Production of nano-crystalline zirconia powders and fabrication of high strength ultra-fine-grained ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrous zirconia containing 2 and 2.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 was prepared by a hydroxide co-precipitation method and portions were dispersed in ethanol before drying(P2), milled in ethanol after drying (P3) or after calcination at 550 deg C (P4) or milled in iso-propanal after calcination at 1000 deg C (P5). The crystallisation behaviour and sintering characteristics of the materials were investigated. The calcined as dried powder (P1) has strongly bonded hard aggregates and the material reached a density of only about 80% of theoretical after sintering at 1500 deg C. Powder characteristics and the sinterability of the alcohol treated materials depended on the conditions of processing and heat treatment. The sinter-activity of the powders decreased from P2 to P5. Powder P3 was composed of relatively weakly bonded crystallites and could be sintered at 1400 deg C, while the powders P4 and P5 contained hard agglomerates and required a sintering temperature of 1450 and 1550 deg C respectively to achieve similar density. Powder (P2) had zirconium alkoxide species on the particle surface which decomposed at about 300 deg C. The calcined powder had very weak agglomerates composed of fine, uniform zirconia crystals and/or aggregates and sintered to high density at 1150 deg C. The final ceramic had a very uniform microstructure with an average grain size of about 150nm and exhibited fracture strength as high as 1700 MPa. A detailed account of the formation of aggregates of strongly bonded crystallites during calcination of hydrous zirconia, influence of alcohol in producing soft agglomerates and the sintering characteristics of the powders is reported. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  10. Pulmonary delivery of an ultra-fine oxytocin dry powder formulation: potential for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prankerd, Richard J; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Ibrahim, Jibriil P; Bischof, Robert J; Nassta, Gemma C; Olerile, Livesey D; Russell, Adrian S; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C; Coleman, Harold A; Morton, David A V; McIntosh, Michelle P

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo) administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb). In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s) than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s). This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world.

  11. Pulmonary delivery of an ultra-fine oxytocin dry powder formulation: potential for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Prankerd

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm to facilitate aerosolised delivery via the lungs. A powder formulation of oxytocin, using mannitol, glycine and leucine as carriers, was prepared with a volume-based median particle diameter of 1.9 µm. Oxytocin content in the formulation was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was found to be unchanged after spray-drying. Ex vivo contractility studies utilising human and ovine uterine tissue indicated no difference in the bioactivity of oxytocin before and after spray-drying. Uterine electromyographic (EMG activity in postpartum ewes following pulmonary (in vivo administration of oxytocin closely mimicked that observed immediately postpartum (0-12 h following normal vaginal delivery of the lamb. In comparison to the intramuscular injection, pulmonary administration of an oxytocin dry powder formulation to postpartum ewes resulted in generally similar EMG responses, however a more rapid onset of uterine EMG activity was observed following pulmonary administration (129 ± 18 s than intramuscular injection (275 ± 22 s. This is the first study to demonstrate the potential for oxytocin to elicit uterine activity after systemic absorption as an aerosolised powder from the lungs. Aerosolised oxytocin has the potential to provide a stable and easy to administer delivery system for effective prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor settings in the developing world.

  12. [Ultra-Fine Pressed Powder Pellet Sample Preparation XRF Determination of Multi-Elements and Carbon Dioxide in Carbonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-li; An, Shu-qing; Xu, Tie-min; Liu, Yi-bo; Zhang, Li-juan; Zeng, Jiang-ping; Wang, Na

    2015-06-01

    The main analysis error of pressed powder pellet of carbonate comes from particle-size effect and mineral effect. So in the article in order to eliminate the particle-size effect, the ultrafine pressed powder pellet sample preparation is used to the determination of multi-elements and carbon-dioxide in carbonate. To prepare the ultrafine powder the FRITSCH planetary Micro Mill machine and tungsten carbide media is utilized. To conquer the conglomeration during the process of grinding, the wet grinding is preferred. The surface morphology of the pellet is more smooth and neat, the Compton scatter effect is reduced with the decrease in particle size. The intensity of the spectral line is varied with the change of the particle size, generally the intensity of the spectral line is increased with the decrease in the particle size. But when the particle size of more than one component of the material is decreased, the intensity of the spectral line may increase for S, Si, Mg, or decrease for Ca, Al, Ti, K, which depend on the respective mass absorption coefficient . The change of the composition of the phase with milling is also researched. The incident depth of respective element is given from theoretical calculation. When the sample is grounded to the particle size of less than the penetration depth of all the analyte, the effect of the particle size on the intensity of the spectral line is much reduced. In the experiment, when grounded the sample to less than 8 μm(d95), the particle-size effect is much eliminated, with the correction method of theoretical α coefficient and the empirical coefficient, 14 major, minor and trace element in the carbonate can be determined accurately. And the precision of the method is much improved with RSD element, the fluorescence yield is low and the interference is serious. With the manual multi-layer crystal PX4, coarse collimator, empirical correction, X-ray spectrometer can be used to determine the carbon dioxide in the carbonate

  13. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs

  14. Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot-Pressed Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Hutchinson, Adv. Appl . Mech. 29 (1992). [34] H. Ming-Yuan, J.W. Hutchinson, Int. J. Solids Struct. 25 (1989) 1053. [35] J. Salem , L. Ghosn, Int. J...Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot- Pressed Aluminum Nitride by Guangli Hu, C. Q. Chen, K. T. Ramesh, and J. W. McCauley ARL-RP-0487...Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-RP-0487 June 2014 Dynamic Multiaxial Response of a Hot- Pressed Aluminum Nitride

  15. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Morgan, Kenneth; Slack, Glen A; Rao, Shailaja P.; Gibb, Shawn Robert

    2017-09-26

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density.ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  16. Investigation of thermal conductivity and oxidation behaviour of reaction bonded aluminum nitride (RBAN) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahi, E; Moztarzadeh, F.; Margoosian, V.; Heinrich, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    AlN samples have been produced by reaction bonding process using AlN and aluminum powders as starting materials. Different aluminum nitride and aluminum powders ratios were mixed in ethanol media, dried, isostatically and nitrided in (N 2 )atmosphere. Results showed that conversion of to AlN depends strongly on the amount of aluminum starting powder and decreased with increasing after a maximum at 25 Al wt %. Changing the particle size and morphology of the aluminum starting powder leads to change in the conversion ratio and microstructure of RBAN ceramics. Typical scanning electron micrographs of RBAN sample indicating primary and secondary aluminum nitride morphology and pore structure. The oxidation behavior of RABN samples showed the weight gain depends on the average particle size, morphology and amount of Al in starting mixture and pore structure. Samples have been manufactured with equi-axed morphology of Al starting powder have thermal conductivity higher than the samples have been manufactured with flake-like morphology. These differences were directly related to the different microstructure of RBAN samples

  17. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  18. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  19. The Advanced Aluminum Nitride Synthesis Methods and Its Applications: Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Roman A; Elagin, Andrey A; Mayorova, Ekaterina S; Beketov, Askold R

    2016-01-01

    High purity nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis is a current issue for both industry and science. However, there is no up-to-date review considering the major issues and the technical solutions for different methods. This review aims to investigate the advanced methods of aluminum nitride synthesis and its development tendencies. Also the aluminum nitride application patents and prospects for development of the branch have been considered. The patent search on "aluminum nitride synthesis" has been carried out. The research activity has been analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the patenting geography and the leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis. Aluminum nitride synthesis methods have been divided into 6 main groups, the most studied approaches are carbothermal reduction (88 patents) and direct nitridation (107 patents). The current issues for each group have been analyzed; the main trends are purification of the final product and nanopowder synthesis. The leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis have represented 5 countries, namely: Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and USA. The main aluminum nitride application spheres are electronics (59,1 percent of applications) and new materials manufacturing (30,9 percent). The review deals with the state of the art data in nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis, the major issues and the technical solutions for different synthesis methods. It gives a full understanding of the development tendencies and of the current leaders in the sphere.

  20. Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40 nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

  1. An experimental study on the aluminum nitride flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon

    2004-06-01

    The result of a study on the 'development of a solid state flux monitor' performed as a part of the I-NERI project 'development of enhanced reactor operation through improved sensing and control at nuclear power pants' is described in this report. Dozens of aluminum nitride based flux sensors have been fabricated with different sizes 3mm x 3mm x 0.635mm and 3mm x 3mm x 0.381mm by ORNL and were packaged with MGO insulation by KAERI for a feasibility study to use them as the in-core flux monitor in the nuclear power plants. In chapter 1, we describe the basic properties of the aluminum nitride and the geometric shape of the fabricated detectors with the signal cables attached. In chapter 2, we describe the calculation results based on the EGS4 and MCNP4B code to determine the neutron sensitivity of the aluminum nitride and the optimal thickness for the gamma rejection for the case of the detectors being used in the pulse mode operation. In chapter 3, we describe the results of measurements for the insulation resistance and of the experiments to determine the optimum operating voltage of the sensors after the packaging with long cables attached. In chapter 4, we describe the results of experiments to measure the high gamma flux from the 187Ci Co60, 77,000Ci Co60, and the 200,000Ci Co60 at the high level irradiation facility at KAERI at various distances and compared the results with the EGS4 based calculation results. In chapter 5, we describe the results of pulse counts at the IR beam port of the Hanaro reactor, the low flux measurements in the current mode at the Pohang accelerator, and the high flux measurements in the current mode inside the cold neutron source hole of the Hanaro reacter. Finally, in chapter 6, we analyze the results of the above experiments and describe the necessary future work

  2. An experimental study on the aluminum nitride flux detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon

    2004-06-01

    The result of a study on the 'development of a solid state flux monitor' performed as a part of the I-NERI project 'development of enhanced reactor operation through improved sensing and control at nuclear power pants' is described in this report. Dozens of aluminum nitride based flux sensors have been fabricated with different sizes 3mm x 3mm x 0.635mm and 3mm x 3mm x 0.381mm by ORNL and were packaged with MGO insulation by KAERI for a feasibility study to use them as the in-core flux monitor in the nuclear power plants. In chapter 1, we describe the basic properties of the aluminum nitride and the geometric shape of the fabricated detectors with the signal cables attached. In chapter 2, we describe the calculation results based on the EGS4 and MCNP4B code to determine the neutron sensitivity of the aluminum nitride and the optimal thickness for the gamma rejection for the case of the detectors being used in the pulse mode operation. In chapter 3, we describe the results of measurements for the insulation resistance and of the experiments to determine the optimum operating voltage of the sensors after the packaging with long cables attached. In chapter 4, we describe the results of experiments to measure the high gamma flux from the 187Ci Co60, 77,000Ci Co60, and the 200,000Ci Co60 at the high level irradiation facility at KAERI at various distances and compared the results with the EGS4 based calculation results. In chapter 5, we describe the results of pulse counts at the IR beam port of the Hanaro reactor, the low flux measurements in the current mode at the Pohang accelerator, and the high flux measurements in the current mode inside the cold neutron source hole of the Hanaro reacter. Finally, in chapter 6, we analyze the results of the above experiments and describe the necessary future work.

  3. Preparation and characterization of morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites from filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Xue Tao; Jin Zhihao; Qiao Guanjun

    2008-01-01

    Morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites with cablelike structure were prepared from filter paper template through the surface sol-gel process and carbothermal nitridation reaction. The resulting materials have a hierarchical structure originating from the morphology of cellulose paper. The aluminum nitride/carbon composites have the core-shell microstructure, the core is graphitic carbon, and the shell is aluminum nitride nanocoating formed by carbothermal nitridation reduction of alumina with the interfacial carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the structural morphology and phase compositions of the final products

  4. Mechanisms of dynamic deformation and dynamic failure in aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guangli; Chen, C.Q.; Ramesh, K.T.; McCauley, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static, uniaxial dynamic and confined dynamic compression experiments have been performed to characterize the failure and deformation mechanisms of a sintered polycrystalline aluminum nitride using a servohydraulic machine and a modified Kolsky bar. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to identify the fracture and deformation mechanisms under high rate and high pressure loading conditions. These results show that the fracture mechanisms are strong functions of confining stress and strain rate, with transgranular fracture becoming more common at high strain rates. Dynamic fracture mechanics and micromechanical models are used to analyze the observed fracture mechanisms. TEM characterization of fragments from the confined dynamic experiments shows that at higher pressures dislocation motion becomes a common dominant deformation mechanism in AlN. Prismatic slip is dominant, and pronounced microcrack–dislocation interactions are observed, suggesting that the dislocation plasticity affects the macroscopic fracture behavior in this material under high confining stresses.

  5. The initial growth stage in PVT growth of aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.; Epelbaum, B.M.; Bickermann, M.; Winnacker, A. [Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nagata, S. [Functional Materials Development Center, Research Laboratories, JFE Mineral Company, Ltd., 1, Niihama-cho, Chuou-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-0826 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The main issue in homoepitaxial growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) on native seed substrates is the formation of an aluminum oxynitride (AlON) layer at temperatures between 1850-1950 C leading to polycrystalline growth. On the contrary, heteroepitaxial growth of AlN on silicon carbide (SiC) is relatively easy to achieve due to natural formation of a thin molten layer of (Al{sub 2}OC{sub x}) on the seed surface and consequent growth of AlN via the molten buffer layer. Optimization of the seeding process can be achieved by use of ultra-pure starting material. Another critical issue of AlN growth on SiC is cracking of the grown layer upon cooling as a result of different thermal expansion coefficients. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Fabrication of aluminum nitride crucibles for molten salt and plutonium compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to fabricate a calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride crucible and determine the compatibility of this crucible with molten chloride salts and plutonium metal in the DOR process. Calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride was preferred over yttrium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride because of (1) the presence of calcium chloride, calcium oxide, and calcium metal in the molten salts utilized in the DOR process, and (2) the higher volatility of the secondary phases formed compared with phases resulting from the addition of yttrium oxide during the aluminum nitride sintering process. The calcium oxide system may yield a higher purity crystal structure with fewer secondary phases present than in the yttrium oxide system. The secondary phases that are present in the grain boundaries may be unreactive with the calcium chloride salt due to the presence of calcium in the secondary phases

  7. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  8. Aluminum Nitride Ceramic as an Optically Stimulable Luminescence Dosimeter Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Okada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photostimulable storage phosphors have been used in a wide range of applications including radiation measurements in one- and two-dimensional spaces, called point dosimetry and radiography. In this work, we report that an aluminum nitride (AlN ceramic plate, which is practically used as a heat sink (SHAPAL®, Tokuyama Corp., Yamaguchi, Japan, shows good optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL properties with sufficiently large signal and capability for imaging applications, and we have characterized the AlN plate for OSL applications. Upon interaction with X-rays, the sample color turns yellowish, due to a radiation-induced photoabsorption band in the UV-blue range below ~500 nm. After irradiating the sample with X-rays, an intense OSL emission can be observed in the UV (360 nm spectral region during stimulation by red light. Although our measurement setup is not optimized, dose detection was confirmed as low as ~3 mGy to over 20 Gy. Furthermore, we have successfully demonstrated that the SHAPAL® AlN ceramic plate has great potential to be used as an imaging plate in radiography.

  9. A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).

  10. Influence of aluminum nitride interlayers on crystal orientation and piezoelectric property of aluminum nitride thin films prepared on titanium electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamohara, Toshihiro; Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    Highly c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films have been prepared on titanium (Ti) bottom electrodes by using AlN interlayers. The AlN interlayers were deposited between Ti electrodes and silicon (Si) substrates, such as AlN/Ti/AlN/Si. The crystallinity and crystal orientation of the AlN films and Ti electrodes strongly depended on the thickness of the AlN interlayers. Although the sputtering conditions were the same, the X-ray diffraction intensity of AlN (0002) and Ti (0002) planes drastically increased, and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curves decreased from 5.1 o to 2.6 o and from 3.3 o to 2.0 o , respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric constant d 33 of the AlN films was significantly improved from - 0.2 to - 4.5 pC/N

  11. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Institute for Materials Science, Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33,f}) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/V up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ε{sub r}) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e{sub 31,f}|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m{sup 2} was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.

  12. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  13. Reassembling Solid Materials by Femtosecond Laser Ablation: Case of Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuo, Yukari

    2013-06-01

    Through atomization and ionization, we could completely alter the composition of a nonconductive material, aluminum nitride, by femtosecond laser ablation. Preferential production of pure aluminum cluster cations Aln+ (n≤32) reflects not only their higher energetic stability compared with mixed clusters AlnNm+ but also completion of thermal relaxation in ablation plasma. Observation of metastable dissociation of Aln+ indicates that cluster cations have still enough internal energy for dissociation to occur, although the process is much slower than the cluster formation. Almost no cluster formation has been observed after nanosecond laser ablation of aluminum nitride, which highlights the distinct nature of ablation plasma produced by femtosecond laser ablation.

  14. Coplanar transitions based on aluminum nitride interposer substrate for terabit transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two types of coplanar transitions based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate for interposer designs of terabit transceivers. The designs of coupled coplanar waveguide (CCPW), coupled line, coplanar waveguide (CPW), and coplanar stripline (CPS) based on AlN substrate are explained...

  15. Characterization of the nitrogen split interstitial defect in wurtzite aluminum nitride using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szállás, A.; Szász, K.; Trinh, X. T.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.; Gali, A.

    2014-01-01

    We carried out Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional theory plane wave supercell calculations in wurtzite aluminum nitride in order to characterize the geometry, formation energies, transition levels, and hyperfine tensors of the nitrogen split interstitial defect. The calculated hyperfine tensors may provide useful fingerprint of this defect for electron paramagnetic resonance measurement.

  16. Characterization of the nitrogen split interstitial defect in wurtzite aluminum nitride using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szállás, A., E-mail: szallas.attila@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szász, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Trinh, X. T.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Gali, A., E-mail: gali.adam@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-09-21

    We carried out Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional theory plane wave supercell calculations in wurtzite aluminum nitride in order to characterize the geometry, formation energies, transition levels, and hyperfine tensors of the nitrogen split interstitial defect. The calculated hyperfine tensors may provide useful fingerprint of this defect for electron paramagnetic resonance measurement.

  17. Effect of contact metals on the piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, J.P.; Kabulski, A. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Pagan, V.R. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Famouri, K. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Kasarla, K.R.; Rodak, L.E. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Hensel, J.P.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-07-01

    The converse piezoelectric response of aluminum nitride evaluated using standard metal insulator semiconductor structures has been found to exhibit a linear dependence on the work function of the metal used as the top electrode. The apparent d33 of the 150–1100 nm films also depends on the dc bias applied to the samples.

  18. Effect of contact metals on the piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, J.; Kabulski, A.; Pagán, V. R.; Famouri, P.; Kasarla, K. R.; Rodak, L. E.; Peter Hensel, J.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The converse piezoelectric response of aluminum nitride evaluated using standard metal insulator semiconductor structures has been found to exhibit a linear dependence on the work function of the metal used as the top electrode. The apparent d33 of the 150–1100 nm films also depends on the dc bias applied to the samples.

  19. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of novel ultra-fine grained Cu–Nb composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primorac, Mladen-Mateo [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria); Abad, Manuel David; Hosemann, Peter [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Kreuzeder, Marius [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria); Maier, Verena [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria); Erich-Schmid Institute for Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Leoben (Austria); Kiener, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kiener@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben (Austria)

    2015-02-11

    Ultra-fine grained materials exhibit outstanding properties and are therefore favorable for prospective applications. One of these promising systems is the composite assembled by the body centered cubic niobium and the face centered cubic copper. Cu–Nb composites show a high hardness and good thermal stability, as well as a high radiation damage tolerance. These properties make the material interesting for use in nuclear reactors. The aim of this work was to create a polycrystalline ultra-fine grained composite for high temperature applications. The samples were manufactured via a powder metallurgical route using high pressure torsion, exhibiting a randomly distributed oriented grain size between 100 and 200 nm. The mechanical properties and the governing plastic deformation behavior as a function of temperature were determined by high temperature nanoindentation up to 500 °C. It was found that in the lower temperature regions up to 300 °C the plastic deformation is mainly governed by dislocation interactions, such as dislocation glide and the nucleation of kink pairs. For higher temperatures, thermally activated processes at grain boundaries are proposed to be the main mechanism governing plastic deformation. This mechanistic view is supported by temperature dependent changes in hardness, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume, and activation energy.

  20. Formation of ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels by ball-milling and their mechanical properties after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.J.; Yamasaki, T.; Fukami, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316L-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass% TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316L-TiC powder mixtures for 125 h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, and the bulk materials with grain sizes between 100 and 400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles to pin grain boundaries and thereby maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. In order to clarify the effects of the neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of the ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels, Vickers microhardness measurements were performed before and after the irradiation of 1.14 x 10 23 n/m 2 and 1.14 x 10 24 n/m 2 . The hardness increased with increasing the dose of the irradiation. However, these increasing rates of the ultra-fine grained steels were much smaller than those of the coarse-grained SUS316L steels having grain sizes between 13 and 50 μm. (orig.)

  1. Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres formed through a self-templating solid-gas interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jie; Song Xubo; Zhang Yaohua; Li Yan; Li Xingguo; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by simply heating aluminum nanoparticles in ammonia at 1000 deg. C. The as-synthesized sphere shells are polycrystalline with cavity diameters ranging from 15 to 100 nm and shell thickness from 5 to 15 nm. The formation mechanism can be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which results from the difference in diffusion rates between aluminum and nitrogen. The Al nanoparticles served as both reactant and templates for the hollow sphere formation. The effects of precursor particle size and temperature were also investigated in terms of product morphology. Room temperature cathode luminescence spectrum of the nanosized hollow spheres showed a broad emission band centered at 415 nm, which is originated from oxygen related luminescence centers. The hollow structure survived a 4-h heat treatment at 1200 deg. C, exhibiting excellent thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by nitridation of aluminum nanoparticles at 1000 deg. C using ammonia

  2. Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ARL-RP-0528 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum...originator. ARL-RP-0528 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal...Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  3. Aluminum nitride coatings using response surface methodology to optimize the thermal dissipated performance of light-emitting diode modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Ming-Der; Lei, Peng-Da; Kong, Ling-Hua; Liu, Cheng-Wu

    2018-05-01

    This study optimizes the thermal dissipation ability of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramics to increase the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED) modulus. AlN powders are deposited on heat sink as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The junction temperature of the heat sink is developed by response surface methodology based on Taguchi methods. In addition, the structure and properties of the AlN coating are examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the XPS analysis, the AlN sub-peaks are observed at 72.79 eV for Al2p and 398.88 eV for N1s, and an N1s sub-peak is assigned to N-O at 398.60eV and Al-N bonding at 395.95eV, which allows good thermal properties. The results have shown that the use of AlN ceramic material on a heat sink can enhance the thermal performance of LED modules. In addition, the percentage error between the predicted and experimental results compared the quadric model with between the linear and he interaction models was found to be within 7.89%, indicating that it was a good predictor. Accordingly, RSM can effectively enhance the thermal performance of an LED, and the beneficial heat dissipation effects for AlN are improved by electrostatic spraying.

  4. Synthesis and Mechanical Characterisation of an Ultra-Fine Grained Ti-Mg Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Alfreider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of lightweight materials such as titanium and magnesium in various technical applications, for example aerospace, medical implants and lightweight construction is well appreciated. The present study is an attempt to combine and improve the mechanical properties of these two materials by forming an ultra-fine grained composite. The material, with a composition of 75 vol% (88.4 wt% Ti and 25 vol% (11.4 wt% Mg , was synthesized by powder compression and subsequently deformed by high-pressure torsion. Using focused ion beam machining, miniaturised compression samples were prepared and tested in-situ in a scanning electron microscope to gain insights into local deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. Results show outstanding yield strength of around 1250 MPa, which is roughly 200 to 500 MPa higher than literature reports of similar materials. The failure mode of the samples is accounted for by cracking along the phase boundaries.

  5. Ultra fine grained Ti prepared by severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáč, F.; Čížek, J.; Knapp, J.; Procházka, I.; Zháňal, P.; Islamgaliev, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The positron annihilation spectroscopy was employed for characterisation of defects in pure Ti with ultra fine grained (UFG) structure. UFG Ti samples were prepared by two techniques based on severe plastic deformation (SPD): (i) high pressure torsion (HPT) and (ii) equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Although HPT is the most efficient technique for grain refinement, the size of HPT-deformed specimens is limited. On the other hand, ECAP is less efficient in grain refinement but enables to produce larger samples more suitable for industrial applications. Characterisation of defects by positron annihilation spectroscopy was accompanied by hardness testing in order to monitor the development of mechanical properties of UFG Ti.

  6. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Song, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 μm, 1 μm and 3 μm were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m 2 respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m 2 . Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 μm size at 0.33 GW/m 2 and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 μm size at 0.55 GW/m 2 . The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 μm size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m 2 . The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 μm size has the best performance. (authors)

  7. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C. [Lab. of Special Ceramic and P/M, University of Science and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G. [FZJ-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association Euratom-FZJ, Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1913, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Song, S.X. [Research Center on Fusion Materials (RCFM), University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 {mu}m, 1 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m{sup 2} respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2}. Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 {mu}m size at 0.33 GW/m{sup 2} and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 {mu}m size at 0.55 GW/m{sup 2}. The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 {mu}m size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m{sup 2}. The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 {mu}m size has

  8. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yongjia; Yamasaki, Tohru; Fukami, Takeshi; Mitamura, Tohru; Terasawa, Mititaka

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  9. Deposition of single-layer and graded aluminum nitride coatings on vanadium substrates using ion-beam assisted reactive evaporation (ITER task no. ETA-EC-BLR26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamarani, F.; Lang, R.; Owles, R.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the project has been to develop a reactive evaporation process for the fabrication of aluminum nitride coatings on pure vanadium substrates. The aluminum nitride coatings are to be used as electrical insulators on the surfaces of structural materials in contact with liquid metal coolants. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  10. An ultra-fine group slowing down benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Maldonado, G. I.; Williams, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a new solution to the neutron slowing down equation in terms of multi-energy panels. Our motivation is to establish a computational benchmark featuring an ultra-fine group calculation, where the number of groups could be on the order of 100,000. While the CENTRM code of the SCALE code package has been shown to adequately treat this many groups, there is always a need for additional verification. The multi panel solution principle is simply to consider the slowing down region as sub regions of panels, with each panel a manageable number of groups, say 100. In this way, we reduce the enormity of dealing with the entire spectrum all at once by considering many smaller problems. We demonstrate the solution in the unresolved U3o8 resonance region. (authors)

  11. Fabrication of ultra-fine nanostructures using edge transfer printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqi; Li, Fengwang; Cao, Tingbing

    2012-03-21

    The exploration of new methods and techniques for application in diverse fields, such as photonics, microfluidics, biotechnology and flexible electronics is of increasing scientific and technical interest for multiple uses over distance of 10-100 nm. This article discusses edge transfer printing--a series of unconventional methods derived from soft lithography for nanofabrication. It possesses the advantages of easy fabrication, low-cost and great serviceability. In this paper, we show how to produce exposed edges and use various materials for edge transfer printing, while nanoskiving, nanotransfer edge printing and tunable cracking for nanogaps are introduced. Besides this, different functional materials, such as metals, inorganic semiconductors and polymers, as well as localised heating and charge patterning, are described here as unconventional "inks" for printing. Edge transfer printing, which can effectively produce sub-100 nm scale ultra-fine structures, has broad applications, including metallic nanowires as nanoelectrodes, semiconductor nanowires for chemical sensors, heterostructures of organic semiconductors, plasmonic devices and so forth. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  12. Influence of high volumes of ultra-fine additions on self-compacting concrete[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, R. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Faculty of Engineering; Colangelo, F. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Technologies; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Materials and Production Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The addition of fine minerals can reduce water demand and increase the slump characteristics of concrete. This paper examined the influence of high volumes of ultra-fine fly ash, raw fly ash, silica fume and natural zeolites on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Three samples of SCC were prepared using various mineral additions to determine normal slump and J-ring slump flows of fresh concrete as well as the compressive strength and elastic modulus properties of hardened concrete. Cement and crushed limestone natural aggregates were used. The fly ash, silica fume and natural zeolites were subjected to wet high energy milling. The rotating speed, milling time, water-to-solid ratio, and size of milling media were optimized to obtain powders with varying qualities. Results of the study showed that values for the normal slump flow ranged between 604 and 785 mm, while the differences with the J-ring slump flow were less than 30 mm. The samples were then tested to evaluate the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete after 7 and 28 curing days. The modulus of elasticity and compressive strength showed improvements in the concretes containing the ultra-fine fly ash. No segregation phenomena were observed in the case of the cylindrical column specimens. It was concluded that all the specimens provided environmentally sustainable, high workability concretes which can be successfully prepared with the addition of high volumes of minerals. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Development of ultra-fine grained W-TiC and their mechanical properties for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)]. E-mail: kurishi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Amano, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arakawa, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Hiraoka, Y. [Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Takida, T. [A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Takebe, K. [A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Matsui, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructural evolution and radiation hardening were examined for fine-grained W-0.3 wt%TiC (grain size of 0.9 {mu}m) and commercially available pure W (20 {mu}m). Both materials were neutron irradiated at 563 K to 9 x 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Post-irradiation examinations showed that the microstructural changes and the degree of hardening due to irradiation were significantly reduced for fine-grained W-0.3TiC compared with pure W, demonstrating the significance of grain refinement to improve radiation resistance. In order to develop ultra-fine grained W-TiC compacts with nearly full densification, the fabrication process was modified, so that W-(0.3-0.7)%TiC with 0.06-0.2 {mu}m grain size and 99% of relative density was fabricated. The achievable grain refinement depended on TiC content and milling atmosphere. The three-point bending fracture strength at room temperature for ultra-fine grained W-TiC compacts of powder milled in H{sub 2} reached approximately 1.6-2 GPa for composition near 0.5%TiC.

  14. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Mishra, P.; Limaye, P. K.; Singh, K.

    2015-11-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias.

  15. Aluminum nitride integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet to visible spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Ju; Fanto, Michael; Choi, Hyeongrak; Thomas, Paul; Steidle, Jeffrey; Mouradian, Sara; Kong, Wei; Zhu, Di; Moon, Hyowon; Berggren, Karl; Kim, Jeehwan; Soltani, Mohammad; Preble, Stefan; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-30

    We demonstrate a wide-bandgap semiconductor photonics platform based on nanocrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire. This photonics platform guides light at low loss from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible spectrum. We measure ring resonators with intrinsic quality factor (Q) exceeding 170,000 at 638 nm and Q >20,000 down to 369.5 nm, which shows a promising path for low-loss integrated photonics in UV and visible spectrum. This platform opens up new possibilities in integrated quantum optics with trapped ions or atom-like color centers in solids, as well as classical applications including nonlinear optics and on-chip UV-spectroscopy.

  16. Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.; Anastasescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Fogarassy, Zs. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklos u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mihailescu, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Szekeres, A., E-mail: szekeres@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Bakalova, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures. • 800 °C seed film boosts the next growth of crystalline structures at lower temperature. • Two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibit randomly oriented wurtzite structures. • Band gap energy values increase with deposition temperature. • Correlation was observed between single- and multi-stage AlN films. - Abstract: We report on multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) on Si (1 0 0) wafers, at different temperatures. The first stage of deposition was carried out at 800 °C, the optimum temperature for AlN crystallization. In the second stage, the deposition was conducted at lower temperatures (room temperature, 350 °C or 450 °C), in ambient Nitrogen, at 0.1 Pa. The synthesized structures were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). GIXRD measurements indicated that the two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibited a randomly oriented wurtzite structure with nanosized crystallites. The peaks were shifted to larger angles, indicative for smaller inter-planar distances. Remarkably, TEM images demonstrated that the high-temperature AlN “seed” layers (800 °C) promoted the growth of poly-crystalline AlN structures at lower deposition temperatures. When increasing the deposition temperature, the surface roughness of the samples exhibited values in the range of 0.4–2.3 nm. SE analyses showed structures which yield band gap values within the range of 4.0–5.7 eV. A correlation between the results of single- and multi-stage AlN depositions was observed.

  17. Thermal insulator made of ultra fine particles of silica. Chobiryushi silica kei dannetsuzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T.

    1991-05-30

    An overview was presented of properties and applications of thermal insulator made of ultra fine powder of silica, MICROTHERM. The thermal conductivity of MICROTHERM is as low as (1/3) - (1/4) of that of conventional thermal insulator, because it is mainly composed of fumed silica or aero gel and formed into porous structure. In addition, metal oxide of special particle size is added to it in order to reject the radiative heat. The thermal insulation property and the mechanical strength of MICROTHERM is not affected by a sudden change in temperature and moisture. The standard type of MICROTHERM can be used at a temperature up to 950 {degree}C, while the high temperature type MICROTHERM can stand a high temperature up to 1025 {degree}C for long period of time. The thickness of insulator can be reduced markedly by using MICROTHERM as compared with the use of conventional insulating materials. Many new products in which MICROTHERM is used came into market. New type kilt, Semi-cylindrical block, Super high temperature MICROTHERM are just a few examples. Variety of application and energy saving effect are attracting public attention. 11 figs.

  18. Processing of Silver-Implanted Aluminum Nitride for Energy Harvesting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Fatima Sierre

    One of the more attractive sources of green energy has roots in the popular recycling theme of other green technologies, now known by the term "energy scavenging." In its most promising conformation, energy scavenging converts cyclic mechanical vibrations in the environment or random mechanical pressure pulses, caused by sources ranging from operating machinery to human footfalls, into electrical energy via piezoelectric transducers. While commercial piezoelectrics have evolved to favor lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for its combination of superior properties, the presence of lead in these ceramic compounds raises resistance to their application in anything "green" due to potential health implications during their manufacturing, recycling, or in-service application, if leaching occurs. Therefore in this study we have pursued the application of aluminum nitride (AlN) as a non-toxic alternative to PZT, seeking processing pathways to augment the modest piezoelectric performance of AlN and exploit its compatibility with complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing. Such piezoelectric transducers have been categorized as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which despite more than a decade of research in this field, is plagued by delamination at the electrode/piezoelectric interface. Consequently the electric field essential to generate and sustain the piezoelectric response of these devices is lost, resulting in device failure. Working on the hypothesis that buried conducting layers can both mitigate the delamination problem and generate sufficient electric field to engage the operation of resonator devices, we have undertaken a study of silver ion implantation to experimentally assess its feasibility. As with most ion implantation procedures employed in semiconductor fabrication, the implanted sample is subjected to a thermal treatment, encouraging diffusion-assisted precipitation of the implanted species at high enough concentrations. The objective

  19. Optical properties of aluminum nitride thin films grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering close to epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, A. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Abdallah, B. [Department of Materials Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Charrier, J. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l' informatiON (FOTON), UMR CNRS 6082, 6, rue de Kerampont CS 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Deresmes, D. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jouan, P.-Y.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel – IMN, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinère BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dogheche, E.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-05-01

    Low-temperature Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited by Direct-Current magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate. They present optical properties similar to those of epitaxially grown films. Different characterization methods such as X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to determine the structural properties of the films such as its roughness and crystallinity. Newton interferometer was used for stress measurement of the films. Non-destructive prism-coupling technique was used to determine refractive index and thickness homogeneity by a mapping on the whole sample area. Results show that AlN films grown on AlGaN layer have a high crystallinity close to epitaxial films, associated to a low intrinsic stress for low thickness. These results highlight that it is possible to grow thick sample with microstructure and optical properties close to epitaxy, even on a large surface. - Highlights: ► Aluminum Nitride sputtering technique with a low temperature growth process ► Epitaxial quality of two microns sputtered Aluminum Nitride film ► Optics as a non-destructive accurate tool for acoustic wave investigation.

  20. Bake hardening of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel produced by constrained groove pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alihosseini, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BH of UFG low carbon steel sheets was studied. ► Three passes of CGP are used for producing of UFG sheets. ► Maximum BH was achieved to the UFG specimen pre-strained 8% by baking at 250 °C. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. The ultra-fine grained sheets were produced by applying three passes of constrained groove pressing resulting the grains of 260–270 nm. The microstructure of ultra-fine grain specimens were characterized using electron back-scatter diffraction technique. Then, the bake hardenability of ultra-fine grain and coarse-grain samples were compared by pre-straining to 4, 6 and 8% followed by baking at 150 °C and 250 °C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 250 °C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 4%, 6% and 8% pre-strain, respectively. As for baking at 150 °C, these values were 170%, 168%, and 100%, respectively for 4%, 6% and 8% pre-strain. The maximum in bake hardenability (103 MPa) and final yield stress (563 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 8% followed by baking at 250 °C.

  1. Mechanical, Corrosion and Biological Properties of Room-Temperature Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Films with Dissimilar Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Besleaga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum Nitride (AlN has been long time being regarded as highly interesting material for developing sensing applications (including biosensors and implantable sensors. AlN, due to its appealing electronic properties, is envisaged lately to serve as a multi-functional biosensing platform. Although generally exploited for its intrinsic piezoelectricity, its surface morphology and mechanical performance (elastic modulus, hardness, wear, scratch and tensile resistance to delamination, adherence to the substrate, corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility are also essential features for high performance sustainable biosensor devices. However, information about AlN suitability for such applications is rather scarce or at best scattered and incomplete. Here, we aim to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the morpho-structural, compositional, mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtered AlN nanostructured thin films with various degrees of c-axis texturing, deposited at a low temperature (~50 °C on Si (100 substrates. The inter-conditionality elicited between the base pressure level attained in the reactor chamber and crystalline quality of AlN films is highlighted. The potential suitability of nanostructured AlN (in form of thin films for the realization of various type of sensors (with emphasis on bio-sensors is thoroughly probed, thus unveiling its advantages and limitations, as well as suggesting paths to safely exploit the remarkable prospects of this type of materials.

  2. Ultrafast third-harmonic generation from textured aluminum nitride-sapphire interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, D. S.; Keto, J. W.; Baek, J.; Wang, W.; Becker, M. F.; Kovar, D.

    2006-01-01

    We measured and modeled third-harmonic generation (THG) from an AlN thin film on sapphire using a time-domain approach appropriate for ultrafast lasers. Second-harmonic measurements indicated that polycrystalline AlN contains long-range crystal texture. An interface model for third-harmonic generation enabled an analytical representation of scanning THG (z-scan) experiments. Using it and accounting for Fresnel reflections, we measured the AlN-sapphire susceptibility ratio and estimated the susceptibility for aluminum nitride, χ xxxx (3) (3ω;ω,ω,ω)=1.52±0.25x10 -13 esu. The third-harmonic (TH) spectrum strongly depended on the laser focus position and sample thickness. The amplitude and phase of the frequency-domain interference were fit to the Fourier transform of the calculated time-domain field to improve the accuracy of several experimental parameters. We verified that the model works well for explaining TH signal amplitudes and spectral phase. Some anomalous features in the TH spectrum were observed, which we attributed to nonparaxial effects

  3. Wettability Investigations and Wet Transfer Enhancement of Large-Area CVD-Graphene on Aluminum Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Marius; Hoffmann, René; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver

    2017-08-18

    The two-dimensional and virtually massless character of graphene attracts great interest for radio frequency devices, such as surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators. Due to its good electric conductivity, graphene might be an alternative as a virtually massless electrode by improving resonator performance regarding mass-loading effects . We report on an optimization of the commonly used wet transfer technique for large-area graphene, grown via chemical vapor deposition, onto aluminum nitride (AlN), which is mainly used as an active, piezoelectric material for acoustic devices. Today, graphene wet transfer is well-engineered for silicon dioxide (SiO₂). Investigations on AlN substrates reveal highly different surface properties compared to SiO₂ regarding wettability, which strongly influences the quality of transferred graphene monolayers. Both physical and chemical effects of a plasma treatment of AlN surfaces change wettability and avoid large-scale cracks in the transferred graphene sheet during desiccation. Spatially-resolved Raman spectroscopy reveals a strong strain and doping dependence on AlN plasma pretreatments correlating with the electrical conductivity of graphene. In our work, we achieved transferred crack-free large-area (40 × 40 mm²) graphene monolayers with sheet resistances down to 350 Ω/sq. These achievements make graphene more powerful as an eco-friendly and cheaper replacement for conventional electrode materials used in radio frequency resonator devices.

  4. Piezoelectric actuated micro-resonators based on the growth of diamond on aluminum nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hees, J; Heidrich, N; Pletschen, W; Sah, R E; Wolfer, M; Lebedev, V; Nebel, C E; Ambacher, O; Williams, O A

    2013-01-01

    Unimorph heterostructures based on piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) and diamond thin films are highly desirable for applications in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we present a new approach to combine thin conductive boron-doped as well as insulating nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) with sputtered AlN films without the need for any buffer layers between AlN and NCD or polishing steps. The zeta potentials of differently treated nanodiamond (ND) particles in aqueous colloids are adjusted to the zeta potential of AlN in water. Thereby, the nucleation density for the initial growth of diamond on AlN can be varied from very low (10 8 cm −2 ), in the case of hydrogen-treated ND seeding particles, to very high values of 10 11 cm −2 for oxidized ND particles. Our approach yielding high nucleation densities allows the growth of very thin NCD films on AlN with thicknesses as low as 40 nm for applications such as microelectromechanical beam resonators. Fabricated piezo-actuated micro-resonators exhibit enhanced mechanical properties due to the incorporation of boron-doped NCD films. Highly boron-doped NCD thin films which replace the metal top electrode offer Young’s moduli of more than 1000 GPa. (paper)

  5. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, R.K.; Mishra, S.C.; Mishra, P.; Limaye, P.K.; Singh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias. - Highlights: • Crystalline AlN coatings obtained on stainless steel by reactive sputtering. • Wurtzite AlN formed at higher discharge power and higher substrate biasing. • Mixture of wurtzite and rock salt AlN formed at low power and low biasing. • Substrate negative biasing improved adhesion of AlN coatings. • Substrate negative biasing improved wear resistance and hardness of AlN coatings.

  6. Structural and chemical analysis of annealed plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition aluminum nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broas, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.broas@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sippola, Perttu; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University. P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-07-15

    Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition was utilized to grow aluminum nitride (AlN) films on Si from trimethylaluminum and N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} plasma at 200 °C. Thermal treatments were then applied on the films which caused changes in their chemical composition and nanostructure. These changes were observed to manifest in the refractive indices and densities of the films. The AlN films were identified to contain light element impurities, namely, H, C, and excess N due to nonideal precursor reactions. Oxygen contamination was also identified in the films. Many of the embedded impurities became volatile in the elevated annealing temperatures. Most notably, high amounts of H were observed to desorb from the AlN films. Furthermore, dinitrogen triple bonds were identified with infrared spectroscopy in the films. The triple bonds broke after annealing at 1000 °C for 1 h which likely caused enhanced hydrolysis of the films. The nanostructure of the films was identified to be amorphous in the as-deposited state and to become nanocrystalline after 1 h of annealing at 1000 °C.

  7. MEMS flexible artificial basilar membrane fabricated from piezoelectric aluminum nitride on an SU-8 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jongmoon; Choi, Hongsoo; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible artificial basilar membrane (FABM) that mimics the passive mechanical frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane. The FABM is composed of a cantilever array made of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) on an SU-8 substrate. We analyzed the orientations of the AlN crystals using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The AIN crystals are oriented in the c -axis (0 0 2) plane and effective piezoelectric coefficient was measured as 3.52 pm V −1 . To characterize the frequency selectivity of the FABM, mechanical displacements were measured using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. When electrical and acoustic stimuli were applied, the measured resonance frequencies were in the ranges of 663.0–2369 Hz and 659.4–2375 Hz, respectively. These results demonstrate that the mechanical frequency selectivity of this piezoelectric FABM is close to the human communication frequency range (300–3000 Hz), which is a vital feature of potential auditory prostheses. (paper)

  8. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, R.K., E-mail: crupeshbarc@gmail.com [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, S.C.; Mishra, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Limaye, P.K. [Refuelling Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, K. [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias. - Highlights: • Crystalline AlN coatings obtained on stainless steel by reactive sputtering. • Wurtzite AlN formed at higher discharge power and higher substrate biasing. • Mixture of wurtzite and rock salt AlN formed at low power and low biasing. • Substrate negative biasing improved adhesion of AlN coatings. • Substrate negative biasing improved wear resistance and hardness of AlN coatings.

  9. Mechanical, Corrosion and Biological Properties of Room-Temperature Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Films with Dissimilar Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besleaga, Cristina; Dumitru, Viorel; Trinca, Liliana Marinela; Popa, Adrian-Claudiu; Negrila, Constantin-Catalin; Kołodziejczyk, Łukasz; Luculescu, Catalin-Romeo; Ionescu, Gabriela-Cristina; Ripeanu, Razvan-George; Vladescu, Alina; Stan, George E

    2017-11-17

    Aluminum Nitride (AlN) has been long time being regarded as highly interesting material for developing sensing applications (including biosensors and implantable sensors). AlN, due to its appealing electronic properties, is envisaged lately to serve as a multi-functional biosensing platform. Although generally exploited for its intrinsic piezoelectricity, its surface morphology and mechanical performance (elastic modulus, hardness, wear, scratch and tensile resistance to delamination, adherence to the substrate), corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility are also essential features for high performance sustainable biosensor devices. However, information about AlN suitability for such applications is rather scarce or at best scattered and incomplete. Here, we aim to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the morpho-structural, compositional, mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtered AlN nanostructured thin films with various degrees of c -axis texturing, deposited at a low temperature (~50 °C) on Si (100) substrates. The inter-conditionality elicited between the base pressure level attained in the reactor chamber and crystalline quality of AlN films is highlighted. The potential suitability of nanostructured AlN (in form of thin films) for the realization of various type of sensors (with emphasis on bio-sensors) is thoroughly probed, thus unveiling its advantages and limitations, as well as suggesting paths to safely exploit the remarkable prospects of this type of materials.

  10. Laterally vibrating resonator based elasto-optic modulation in aluminum nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated strain-based optical modulator driven by a piezoelectric laterally vibrating resonator is demonstrated. The composite structure consists of an acoustic Lamb wave resonator, in which a photonic racetrack resonator is internally embedded to enable overlap of the guided optical mode with the induced strain field. Both types of resonators are defined in an aluminum nitride (AlN thin film, which rests upon a layer of silicon dioxide in order to simultaneously define optical waveguides, and the structure is released from a silicon substrate. Lateral vibrations produced by the acoustic resonator are transferred through a partially etched layer of AlN, producing a change in the effective index of the guided wave through the interaction of the strain components with the AlN elasto-optic (p coefficients. Optical modulation through the elasto-optic effect is demonstrated at electromechanically actuated frequencies of 173 MHz and 843 MHz. This device geometry further enables the development of MEMS-based optical modulators in addition to studying elasto-optic interactions in suspended piezoelectric thin films.

  11. Exploiting elastic anharmonicity in aluminum nitride matrix for phase-synchronous frequency reference generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mayur; Tabrizian, Roozbeh

    2018-03-01

    A matrix of aluminum-nitride (AlN) waveguides is acoustically engineered to realize electrically isolated phase-synchronous frequency references through nonlinear wave-mixing. AlN rectangular waveguides are cross-coupled through a periodically perforated plate that is engineered to have a wide acoustic bandgap around a desirable frequency ( f1≈509 MHz). While the coupling plate isolates the matrix from resonant vibrations of individual waveguide constituents at f1, it is transparent to the third-order harmonic waves (3f1) that are generated through nonlinear wave-mixing. Therefore, large-signal excitation of the f1 mode in a constituent waveguide generates acoustic waves at 3f1 with an efficiency defined by elastic anharmonicity of the AlN film. The phase-synchronous propagation of the third harmonic through the matrix is amplified by a high quality-factor resonance mode at f2≈1529 MHz, which is sufficiently close to 3f1 (f2 ≅ 3f1). Such an architecture enables realization of frequency-multiplied and phase-synchronous, yet electrically and spectrally isolated, references for multi-band/carrier and spread-spectrum wireless communication systems.

  12. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, R.; Pagan, V.R.; Kabulski, A.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Harman, J.; Kasarla, K.R.; Rodak, L.E.; Hensel, J.P.; Famouri, P.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE-grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  13. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Farrell; V. R. Pagan; A. Kabulski; Sridhar Kuchibhatl; J. Harman; K. R. Kasarla; L. E. Rodak; P. Famouri; J. Peter Hensel; D. Korakakis

    2008-05-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  14. Ultra fine particulates. Small particulates with large consequences?; Ultrafijn stof. Kleine deeltjes met grote gevolgen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensema, A.; Keuken, M.; Kooter, I.; Verbeek, R.; Van Vugt, M. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations of ultra fine particles (and elementary carbon) have increased significantly near traffic routes. The amount of ultra fine particles (and the chemical composition of particulate matter) are related to traffic emissions and are therefore relevant to the established health effects. Better insight in the effectiveness of particulate matter policy requires more attention for ultra fine particles than just maintaining the standards for PM2,5 and PM10. [mk]. [Dutch] De concentraties van ultrafijne deeltjes (en elementair koolstof) zijn fors verhoogd in de buurt van verkeerswegen. Het aantal ultrafijne deeltjes (en de chemische samenstelling van fijnstof) gerelateerd aan verkeersemissies lijkt daarom relevant voor de vastgestelde gezondheidseffecten. Voor een beter inzicht in de effectiviteit van het fijnstofbeleid is meer aandacht nodig voor ultrafijne deeltjes dan alleen handhaving van de normen voor PM2,5 en PM10.

  15. Origin and effective reduction of inversion domains in aluminum nitride grown by a sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetoh, Keisuke; Horibuchi, Kayo; Nakamura, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Owing to the large differences in the chemical properties between Al and N polarities in aluminum nitride (AlN), the choice of the polar direction for crystal growth strongly affects not only the quality but also the shape (facet formation) of the grown crystal. In particular, N-polar (0 0 0 -1) has been considered to be a more preferable direction than Al-polar (0 0 0 1) for sublimation growth because compared to Al-polar (0 0 0 1), N-polar (0 0 0 -1) exhibits better stability at high growth rate (high supersaturation) conditions and enables easier lateral enlargement of the crystal. However, some critical growth conditions induce polarity inversion and hinder stable N-polar growth. Furthermore, the origin of the polarity inversion in AlN growth by the sublimation method is still unclear. To ensure stable N-polar growth without polarity inversion, the formation mechanism of the inversion domain during AlN sublimation growth must be elucidated. Therefore, herein, we demonstrate homoepitaxial growth on an N-polar seed and carefully investigate the obtained crystal that shows polarity inversion. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that polarity is completely converted to the Al polarity via the formation of a 30 nm thick mixed polar layer (MPL) just above the seed. Moreover, three-dimensional atom probe tomography shows the segregation of the oxygen impurities in the MPL with a high concentration of about 3 atom%. Finally, by avoiding the incorporation of oxygen impurity into the crystal at the initial stage of the growth, we demonstrate an effective reduction (seven orders of magnitude) of the inversion domain boundary formation.

  16. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Nicolay, P. [CTR Carinthian Tech Research AG, Villach 9524 (Austria)

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  17. Aluminum Nitride Micro-Channels Grown via Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy for MEMs Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L.E.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Famouri, P.; Ting, L.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for a number of applications due to its temperature and chemical stability. Furthermore, AlN maintains its piezoelectric properties at higher temperatures than more commonly used materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) [1, 2], making AlN attractive for high temperature micro and nanoelectromechanical (MEMs and NEMs) applications including, but not limited to, high temperature sensors and actuators, micro-channels for fuel cell applications, and micromechanical resonators. This work presents a novel AlN micro-channel fabrication technique using Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). AlN easily nucleates on dielectric surfaces due to the large sticking coefficient and short diffusion length of the aluminum species resulting in a high quality polycrystalline growth on typical mask materials, such as silicon dioxide and silicon nitride [3,4]. The fabrication process introduced involves partially masking a substrate with a silicon dioxide striped pattern and then growing AlN via MOVPE simultaneously on the dielectric mask and exposed substrate. A buffered oxide etch is then used to remove the underlying silicon dioxide and leave a free standing AlN micro-channel. The width of the channel has been varied from 5 ìm to 110 ìm and the height of the air gap from 130 nm to 800 nm indicating the stability of the structure. Furthermore, this versatile process has been performed on (111) silicon, c-plane sapphire, and gallium nitride epilayers on sapphire substrates. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Raman measurements have been taken on channels grown on each substrate and indicate that the substrate is influencing the growth of the AlN micro-channels on the SiO2 sacrificial layer.

  18. New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kok Lung; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    that are important for preventing Fanconi anemia (FA) in man. As part of an analysis of the roles of these proteins in mitosis, we identified a novel class of anaphase bridge structure, called an ultra-fine anaphase bridge (UFB). These UFBs are also defined by the presence of a SNF2 family protein called PICH...

  19. Preparation of Ultra-fine Calcium Carbonate by a Solvent-free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate under solvent-free conditions with a supersonic airflow and at a low heating temperature leads to the synthesis of ultra-fine calcium carbonate. The reaction not only involves mild conditions, a simple operation, and high yields but also gives a high conversion rate.

  20. The thermal power of aluminum nitride at temperatures between 1350 and 1650 deg C in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Ph.D. Thesis - Rhine-Westphalia High School at Aachen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W. A.; Schuh, B.

    1978-01-01

    The test apparatus for measuring the thermal voltage of aluminum nitride for temperature differences of up to + or - 60 C between 1350 and 1650 C is described. The thermal power and its homogeneous proportion are determined and the heat transfer of the migration ions resulting from the homogeneous thermal power is calculated. The conduction mechanism in aluminum nitride is discussed.

  1. Observation of band gaps in the gigahertz range and deaf bands in a hypersonic aluminum nitride phononic crystal slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorisse, M.; Benchabane, S.; Teissier, G.; Billard, C.; Reinhardt, A.; Laude, V.; Defaÿ, E.; Aïd, M.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the observation of elastic waves propagating in a two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of air holes drilled in an aluminum nitride membrane. The theoretical band structure indicates the existence of an acoustic band gap centered around 800 MHz with a relative bandwidth of 6.5% that is confirmed by gigahertz optical images of the surface displacement. Further electrical measurements and computation of the transmission reveal a much wider attenuation band that is explained by the deaf character of certain bands resulting from the orthogonality of their polarization with that of the source.

  2. Optimization of operating variables for production of ultra-fine talc in a stirred mill. Specific surface area investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraman Oner Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its properties such as chemical inertness, softness, whiteness, high thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity and adsorption properties talc has wide industrial applications in paper, cosmetics, paints, polymer, ceramics, refractory materials and pharmaceutical. The demand for ultra-fine talc is emerging which drives the mineral industry to produce value added products. In this study, it was investigated how certain grinding parameters such as mill speed, ball filling ratio, powder filling ratio and grinding time of dry stirred mill affect grindability of talc ore (d97=127 μm. A series of laboratory experiments using a 24 full factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal operational parameters of a stirred mill in order to minimize the specific surface area. The main and interaction effects on the volume specific surface area (SV, m2.cm−3 of the ground product were evaluated using the Yates analysis. Under the optimal conditions at the stirrer speed of 600 rpm, grinding time of 20 min, sample mass of 5% and ball ratio of 70%, the resulting talc powder had larger volume specific surface area (i.e., 3.48 m2.cm−3 than the starting material (i.e., 1.84 m2.cm−3.

  3. Numerical study of self-heating effects of small-size MOSFETs fabricated on silicon-on-aluminum nitride substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanfang; Zhu Ziqiang; Zhu Ming; Lin Chenglu

    2006-01-01

    Compared with bulk-silicon technology, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology possesses many advantages but it is inevitable that the buried silicon dioxide layer also thermally insulates the metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) from the bulk due to the low thermal conductivity. One of the alternative insulator to replace the buried oxide layer is aluminum nitride (MN), which has a thermal conductivity that is about 200 times higher than that of SiO 2 (320 W·m -1 ·K -1 versus 1.4 W·m -1 ·K -l ). To investigate the self-heating effects of small-size MOSFETs fabricated on silicon-on-aluminum nitride (SOAN) substrate, a two-dimensional numerical analysis is performed by using a device simulator called MEDICI run on a Solaris workstation to simulate the electrical characteristics and temperature distribution by comparing with those of bulk and standard SOI MOSFETs. Our study suggests that AIN is a suitable alternative to silicon dioxide as a buried dielectric in SOI and expands the applications of SOI to high temperature conditions. (authors)

  4. Nanofiber Anisotropic Conductive Films (ACF) for Ultra-Fine-Pitch Chip-on-Glass (COG) Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Suk, Kyung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2015-11-01

    Nanofiber anisotropic conductive films (ACF) were invented, by adapting nanofiber technology to ACF materials, to overcome the limitations of ultra-fine-pitch interconnection packaging, i.e. shorts and open circuits as a result of the narrow space between bumps and electrodes. For nanofiber ACF, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) polymers were used as nanofiber polymer materials. For PVDF and PBS nanofiber ACF, conductive particles of diameter 3.5 μm were incorporated into nanofibers by electrospinning. In ultra-fine-pitch chip-on-glass assembly, insulation was significantly improved by using nanofiber ACF, because nanofibers inside the ACF suppressed the mobility of conductive particles, preventing them from flowing out during the bonding process. Capture of conductive particles was increased from 31% (conventional ACF) to 65%, and stable electrical properties and reliability were achieved by use of nanofiber ACF.

  5. Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuntong; Yang Hongye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from the contour of the workpiece after roughing in order to further process and recognize the image for determining the residual. This facilitates the on-machine error detection and compensation re-machining. The micro workpiece and electrode are not repositioned during machining. A fabrication for a micro probe of 30-μm diameter is rapidly machined and verified successfully. Based on the proposed technique, on-machine measurement with AOI has been realized satisfactorily.

  6. Effect of argon ion beam voltages on the microstructure of aluminum nitride films prepared at room temperature by a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Han Sheng; Cheng, C.-H.; Shih, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were successfully deposited at room temperature onto p-type (1 0 0) silicon wafers by manipulating argon ion beam voltages in a dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS). X-ray diffraction spectra showed that aluminum nitride films could be synthesized above 800 V. The (0 0 2) orientation was dominant at 800 V, above which the orientation was random. The atomic force microscope (AFM) images displayed a relatively smooth surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 2-3 nm, where this roughness decreased with argon ion beam voltage. The Al 2p 3/2 and N 1s spectra indicated that both the aluminum-aluminum bond and aluminum-nitrogen bond appeared at 600 V, above which only the aluminum-nitrogen bond was detected. Moreover, the atomic concentration in aluminum nitride films was concentrated in aluminum-rich phases in all cases. Nevertheless, the aluminum concentration markedly increased with argon ion beam voltages below 1000 V, above which the concentration decreased slightly. The correlation between the microstructure of aluminum nitride films and argon ion beam voltages is also discussed

  7. A practice of ultra-fine tailings disposal as filling material in a gold mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, D Q; Liu, L; Yao, Z L; Song, K I-I L; Lao, D Z

    2017-07-01

    A practice of cemented backfill technology with ultra-fine tailings in a gold mine was comprehensively presented, and a series of tests were conducted in accordance with the peculiar properties of ultra-fine tailings and the mining technology conditions. The test results show that, the tailings from Shuiyindong Gold Mine have a great grinding fineness, with the average particle diameter 22.03 μm, in which the ultra-fine particles with the diameter below 20 μm occupying 66.13%. The analysis results of chemical components of tailings indicate that the content of SiO 2 is relatively low, i.e., 33.08%, but the total content of CaO, MgO and Al 2 O 3 is relatively high i.e., 36.5%. After the settlement of 4-6 h, the tailing slurry with the initial concentration of 40% has the maximum settling concentration of 54.692%, and the corresponding maximum settling unit weight is 1.497 g/cm 3 . During the field application, the ultra-fine tailings and PC32.5 cement were mixed with the cement-tailings ratios of 1:3-1:8, and the slurry concentration of 50 wt% was prepared. Using the slurry pump, the prepared cemented backfill slurries flowed into the goaf, and then the strength of the cemented backfill body met the mining technique requirements in Shuiyindong Gold Mine, where the ore body has a smooth occurrence, with the average thickness of approximately 2 m and the inclination angle ranging from 5 to 10°. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current status of ultra-fine grained W-TiC development for use in irradiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, H [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Kobayashi, S [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama-shi 790-8577 (Japan); Nakai, K [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama-shi 790-8577 (Japan); Arakawa, H [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Matsuo, S [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1313 (Japan); Takida, T [ALMT. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Takebe, K [ALMT. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama 931-8371 (Japan); Kawai, M [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC with a high purity matrix of low dislocation density is expected to exhibit improve resistance to irradiation with neutrons and helium ions and the room temperature mechanical properties. Aiming at such UFG W-TiC with the desired microstructure, powders of W with 0.25-0.8 wt% TiC additions were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), where purified H{sub 2} and Ar were used as the MA atmosphere. Microstructural observations and room- and high-temperature mechanical tests were performed for UFG W-TiC before and after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 2x10{sup 24} n m{sup -2} at 873 K. It is shown that the MA atmosphere significantly affects grain refinement, room-temperature strength and high-temperature tensile plasticity of UFG W-TiC. W-0.5TiC with H{sub 2} in MA (W-0.5TiC-H{sub 2}) shows a larger strain rate sensitivity of flow stress, m, of 0.5{approx}0.6 at temperatures from 1673 to 1973 K, which is a feature of superplastic materials. Whereas W-0.5TiC-Ar shows a smaller m value of approximately 0.2. No radiation hardening is recognized in UFG W-0.5TiC-H{sub 2} and W-0.5TiC-Ar.

  9. Current status of ultra-fine grained W-TiC development for use in irradiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, H; Kobayashi, S; Nakai, K; Arakawa, H; Matsuo, S; Takida, T; Takebe, K; Kawai, M

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC with a high purity matrix of low dislocation density is expected to exhibit improve resistance to irradiation with neutrons and helium ions and the room temperature mechanical properties. Aiming at such UFG W-TiC with the desired microstructure, powders of W with 0.25-0.8 wt% TiC additions were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), where purified H 2 and Ar were used as the MA atmosphere. Microstructural observations and room- and high-temperature mechanical tests were performed for UFG W-TiC before and after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 2x10 24 n m -2 at 873 K. It is shown that the MA atmosphere significantly affects grain refinement, room-temperature strength and high-temperature tensile plasticity of UFG W-TiC. W-0.5TiC with H 2 in MA (W-0.5TiC-H 2 ) shows a larger strain rate sensitivity of flow stress, m, of 0.5∼0.6 at temperatures from 1673 to 1973 K, which is a feature of superplastic materials. Whereas W-0.5TiC-Ar shows a smaller m value of approximately 0.2. No radiation hardening is recognized in UFG W-0.5TiC-H 2 and W-0.5TiC-Ar

  10. Synthesis of Aluminum-Aluminum Nitride Nanocomposites by a Gas-Liquid Reaction II. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Cecilia; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2016-04-01

    In situ fabrication of the reinforcing particles in the metal matrix is an answer to many of the challenges encountered in manufacturing aluminum matrix nanocomposites. In this method, the nanoparticles are formed directly within the melt by means of a chemical reaction between a specially designed aluminum alloy and a gas. In this publication, we describe a process for synthesizing aluminum-aluminum nitride nanocomposites by reacting a nitrogen-containing gas with a molten aluminum-lithium alloy. We quantify the effect of the process parameters on the average particle size and particle distribution, as well as on the tendency of the particles to cluster in the alloy matrix, is quantified. Also in this publication, we present the measured room temperature and elevated temperature tensile properties of the nanocomposite material as well as its measured room temperature impact toughness.

  11. Stress and piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films deposited onto metal electrodes by pulsed direct current reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Marc-Alexandre; Muralt, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited onto platinum, aluminum, and titanium electrodes by reactive magnetron sputtering in the pulsed direct current mode. The films exhibited all a columnar microstructure and a c-axis texture. The built-in stress and the piezoelectric properties of these films were studied as a function of both the processing conditions and the electrode material. Stress was found to be very much dependent on the growth conditions, and values ranging from strong compression to high tension were observed. The piezoelectric d 33,f coefficient was shown to rely on substrate quality and ionic bombardment: The nucleation surface must be stable with regard to the nitrogen plasma and present a hexagonal symmetry and, on the other hand, enough energy must be delivered to the growing film through ionic bombardment. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Synthesis of aluminum nitride films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition using hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Liru; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is of interest in the industry because of its excellent electronic, optical, acoustic, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this work, aluminum nitride films are deposited on silicon wafers (100) by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) using a modified hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc plasma source and with no intentional heating to the substrate. The mixed metal and gaseous plasma is generated by feeding the gas into the arc discharge region. The deposition rate is found to mainly depend on the Al ion flux from the cathodic arc source and is only slightly affected by the N 2 flow rate. The AlN films fabricated by this method exhibit a cubic crystalline microstructure with stable and low internal stress. The surface of the AlN films is quite smooth with the surface roughness on the order of 1/2 nm as determined by atomic force microscopy, homogeneous, and continuous, and the dense granular microstructures give rise to good adhesion with the substrate. The N to Al ratio increases with the bias voltage applied to the substrates. A fairly large amount of O originating from the residual vacuum is found in the samples with low N:Al ratios, but a high bias reduces the oxygen concentration. The compositions, microstructures and crystal states of the deposited films are quite stable and remain unchanged after annealing at 800 deg. C for 1 h. Our hybrid gas-metal source cathodic arc source delivers better AlN thin films than conventional PIIID employing dual plasmas

  13. Development and manufacture of ultra-fine NbTi filament wires at ALSTHOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.K.; Laumond, Y.; Sabrie, J.L.; Dubots, P.

    1986-01-01

    Ultra-fine NbTi filament wires have been developed and manufactured by ALSTHOM. It is now possible to produce industrial copper -copper-nickel matrix wires with 0.6 mu m NbTi filaments for use in 50 / 60 Hz machines. Smaller filaments with diameters down to 0.08 mu m have been obtained with 254 100 filament wire samples. Studies are now being carried out on copper matrix conductors to reduce the filament diameter. The first results show that it is possible to obtain submicron filaments even in copper matrix wires

  14. Amenability of some Witbank bituminous ultra fine coals to binderless briquetting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mangena, SJ

    2004-10-15

    Full Text Available and briquetting Each of the Witbank ultra fine coals was air-dried and subsequently split into five homogeneous portions of 5 kg, respectively. Four portions from each sample were physically wetted to ca. 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% H2O, automatically mixed for 15 min... and long-distance haulage in uncovered trucks during the rainy season. In terms of compressive strength, the SJM1 coal studied was amenable to conventional binderless briquetting. 3.1.2. SJM2 coal The effect of moisture on the compressive strength...

  15. The Mechanical and Tribology Properties of Sputtered Titanium Aluminum Nitride Coating on the Tungsten Carbide Insert Tool in the Dry Turning of Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmar Budi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the sputtering parameters on the mechanical tribology properties of Titanium Aluminum Nitride coating on the tungsten cabide insert tool in the dry turning of tool steel has been investigated. The coating was deposited using a Direct Current magnetron sputtering system with various substrate biases (-79 to -221 V and nitrogen flow rates (30 to 72 sccm. The dry turning test was carried out on a Computer Numeric Code machine using an optimum cutting parameter setting. The results show that the lowest flank wear (~0.4 mm was achieved using a Titanium Aluminum Nitride-coated tool that was deposited at a high substrate bias (-200 V and a high nitrogen flow rate (70 sccm. The lowest flank wear was attributed to high coating hardness.

  16. Determination of permeability of ultra-fine cupric oxide aerosol through military filters and protective filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnerová, E.; Večeřa, Z.; Kellner, J.; Zeman, T.; Navrátil, J.

    2018-03-01

    The paper evaluates the filtration and sorption efficiency of selected types of military combined filters and protective filters. The testing was carried out with the use of ultra-fine aerosol containing cupric oxide nanoparticles ranging in size from 7.6 nm to 299.6 nm. The measurements of nanoparticles were carried out using a scanning mobility particle sizer before and after the passage through the filter and a developed sampling device at the level of particle number concentration approximately 750000 particles·cm-3. The basic parameters of permeability of ultra-fine aerosol passing through the tested material were evaluated, in particular particle size, efficiency of nanoparticle capture by filter, permeability coefficient and overall filtration efficiency. Results indicate that the military filter and particle filters exhibited the highest aerosol permeability especially in the nanoparticle size range between 100–200 nm, while the MOF filters had the highest permeability in the range of 200 to 300 nm. The Filter Nuclear and the Health and Safety filter had 100% nanoparticle capture efficiency and were therefore the most effective. The obtained measurement results have shown that the filtration efficiency over the entire measured range of nanoparticles was sufficient; however, it was different for particular particle sizes.

  17. Influence of laser pulse frequency on the microstructure of aluminum nitride thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, K., E-mail: krasa@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Duta, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Szekeres, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Anastasescu, M.; Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Study of pulsed laser deposited AlN films at different laser pulse frequencies. • Higher laser pulse frequency promotes nanocrystallites formation at temperature 450 °C. • AFM and GIXRD detect randomly oriented wurtzite AlN structures. • Characterization of the nanocrystallites’ orientation by FTIR reflectance spectra. • Berreman effect is registered in p-polarised radiation at large incidence angles. - Abstract: Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films were synthesized on Si (100) wafers at 450 °C by pulsed laser deposition. A polycrystalline AlN target was multipulsed irradiated in a nitrogen ambient, at different laser pulse repetition rate. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy analyses evidenced nanocrystallites with a hexagonal lattice in the amorphous AlN matrix. The thickness and optical constants of the layers were determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The optical properties were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared reflectance spectroscopy in polarised oblique incidence radiation. Berreman effect was observed around the longitudinal phonon modes of the crystalline AlN component. Angular dependence of the A{sub 1}LO mode frequency was analysed and connected to the orientation of the particles’ optical axis to the substrate surface normal. The role of the laser pulse frequency on the layers’ properties is discussed on this basis.

  18. Correlations between optical properties, microstructure, and processing conditions of Aluminum nitride thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jonghoon; Ma, James; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto sapphire (0001) substrates with varying processing conditions (temperature, pressure, and laser fluence). We have studied the dependence of optical properties, structural properties and their correlations for these AlN films. The optical transmission spectra of the produced films were measured, and a numerical procedure was applied to accurately determine the optical constants for films of non-uniform thickness. The microstructure and texture of the films were studied using various X-ray diffraction techniques. The real part of the refractive index was found to not vary significantly with processing parameters, but absorption was found to be strongly dependent on the deposition temperature and the nitrogen pressure in the deposition chamber. We report that low optical absorption, textured polycrystalline AlN films can be produced by PLD on sapphire substrates at both low and high laser fluence using a background nitrogen pressure of 6.0 x 10 -2 Pa (4.5 x 10 -4 Torr) of 99.9% purity

  19. Studies on Preparation and Characterization of Aluminum Nitride-Coated Carbon Fibers and Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Hye Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work; the effects of an aluminum nitride (AlN ceramic coating on the thermal conductivity of carbon fiber-reinforced composites were studied. AlN were synthesized by a wet-thermal treatment (WTT method in the presence of copper catalysts. The WTT method was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace at above 1500 °C under an ammonia (NH3 gas atmosphere balanced by a nitrogen using aluminum chloride as a precursor. Copper catalysts pre-doped enhance the interfacial bonding of the AlN with the carbon fiber surfaces. They also help to introduce AlN bonds by interrupting aluminum oxide (Al2O3 formation in combination with oxygen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM; and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the carbon fiber surfaces and structures at each step (copper-coating step and AlN formation step. In conclusion; we have demonstrated a synthesis route for preparing an AlN coating on the carbon fiber surfaces in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  20. Feasibility study of using thin aluminum nitride film as a buffer layer for dual metal gate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Cho, Byung Jin; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using an ultra thin aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer for dual metal gates CMOS process. Since the buffer layer should not affect the thickness of gate dielectric, it should be removed or consumed during subsequent process. In this work, it was shown that a thin AlN dielectric layer would be reacted with initial gate metals and would be consumed during subsequent annealing, resulting in no increase of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). The reaction of AlN layer with tantalum (Ta) and hafnium (Hf) during subsequent annealing, which was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, shifted the flat-band voltage of AlN buffered MOS capacitors. No contribution to equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was also an indication showing the full consumption of AIN, which was confirmed with TEM analysis. The work functions of gate metals were modulated through the reaction, suggesting that the consumption of AlN resulted in new thin metal alloys. Finally, it was found that the barrier heights of the new alloys were consistent with their work functions

  1. Formation of stacking faults and the screw dislocation-driven growth: a case study of aluminum nitride nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Estruga, Marc; Forticaux, Audrey; Morin, Stephen A; Wu, Qiang; Hu, Zheng; Jin, Song

    2013-12-23

    Stacking faults are an important class of crystal defects commonly observed in nanostructures of close packed crystal structures. They can bridge the transition between hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) and cubic zinc blende (ZB) phases, with the most known example represented by the "nanowire (NW) twinning superlattice". Understanding the formation mechanisms of stacking faults is crucial to better control them and thus enhance the capability of tailoring physical properties of nanomaterials through defect engineering. Here we provide a different perspective to the formation of stacking faults associated with the screw dislocation-driven growth mechanism of nanomaterials. With the use of NWs of WZ aluminum nitride (AlN) grown by a high-temperature nitridation method as the model system, dislocation-driven growth was first confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile numerous stacking faults and associated partial dislocations were also observed and identified to be the Type I stacking faults and the Frank partial dislocations, respectively, using high-resolution TEM. In contrast, AlN NWs obtained by rapid quenching after growth displayed no stacking faults or partial dislocations; instead many of them had voids that were associated with the dislocation-driven growth. On the basis of these observations, we suggest a formation mechanism of stacking faults that originate from dislocation voids during the cooling process in the syntheses. Similar stacking fault features were also observed in other NWs with WZ structure, such as cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc oxide (ZnO).

  2. The characteristics and residual stress of aluminum nitride films grown by two-stage sputtering of mid-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Cheng, H.-E.; Tang, S.-H.; Liu, W.-C.; Lee, Antony H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The [0 0 2] oriented aluminum nitride has a high surface acoustic wave speed and high mechanic-electron couple coefficient. It is a potential material for manufacturing piezoelectric devices in high frequency application. The AlN films deposited onto silicon substrates were fabricated by two-stage sputtering process with mid-frequency generator. The results showed that the film did not have well [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 1.0 and 1.5 kW, and exhibited a [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 2.0 kW. The adhesion was poor when the film had a high preferred orientation because the substrate was damaged by high energetic atoms bombardment. A two-stage growth method was investigated in order to get high [0 0 2] preferred orientation and good adhesion. A good performance was obtained at the first stage power of 1.5 kW and the second stage power of 2.0 kW. The film showed a tensile stress state when the film was deposited at 1.0 kW. In contrast, the stress state was changed to compressive when the films were grown at 2.0 kW. The two-stage growth could succeed not only to get a high [0 0 2] preferred orientation but also to develop a reducing global stress film

  3. Thermodynamics of inversion-domain boundaries in aluminum nitride: Interplay between interface energy and electric dipole potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Xie, Y. P.; Guo, H. B.; Chen, Y. G.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has a polar crystal structure that is susceptible to electric dipolar interactions. The inversion domains in AlN, similar to those in GaN and other wurtzite-structure materials, decrease the energy associated with the electric dipolar interactions at the expense of inversion-domain boundaries, whose interface energy has not been quantified. We study the atomic structures of six different inversion-domain boundaries in AlN, and compare their interface energies from density functional theory calculations. The low-energy interfaces have atomic structures with similar bonding geometry as those in the bulk phase, while the high-energy interfaces contain N-N wrong bonds. We calculate the formation energy of an inversion domain using the interface energy and dipoles' electric-field energy, and find that the distribution of the inversion domains is an important parameter for the microstructures of AlN films. Using this thermodynamic model, it is possible to control the polarity and microstructure of AlN films by tuning the distribution of an inversion-domain nucleus and by selecting the low-energy synthesis methods.

  4. Elastocaloric effects in ultra-fine grained NiTi microwires processed by cold-drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient elastocaloric cooling in shape memory alloys requires a stable superelastic behavior in which high yield strength is needed. Here Ni50.4Ti49.6 microwires with diameter 130 μm and ultra-fine grains ∼30 nm were prepared by multi-step cold-drawing and low-temperature annealing. Enhanced cyclic stability of the elastocaloric effects induced by the superelastic training was demonstrated. The pre-trained microwire showed a stable ΔSe 43 J/(kg K with a broad working temperature range ΔT ∼ 70 K. The superelastic trained microwire, with giant and stable ΔSe over a wide working temperature window, may act as a promising elastocaloric cooling material for minor-sized devices.

  5. AlN powder synthesis via nitriding reaction of aluminum sub-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, T.; Nishida, T.; Sugiura, M. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School); Fuwa, A. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    In order to obtain the pertinent properties of aluminium nitride in its sintered form, it is desirable to have powders of finer sizes with narrower size distribution and higher purity, thereby making the sintering processing easier and the final body denser. Instead of using sublimated aluminum tri-chloride vapor (AlCl3) as an aluminum source in the vapor phase nitriding reaction, the mixed aluminum chloride vapor consisted of aluminum tri-chloride, bi-chloride and mono-chloride are used in the reaction with ammonia at temperatures of 1000 and 1200K. The mixed chloride vapors are produced by reacting chlorine with molten aluminum at 1000 or 1200K under atmospheric pressure. The reaction of this mixed chloride vapor with ammonia is then experimentally investigated to study the aluminum nitride powder morphology. The aluminum nitride powders synthesized under various ammonia concentrations are characterized for size distribution, mean particle size and particle morphology. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Preparation of ultra-fine calcium carbonate by a solvent-free reaction using supersonic airflow and low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yan-Hua; Ma, Dong-Mei; Peng, Ru-Fang; Chu, Shi-Jin

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate under solvent-free conditions with a supersonic airflow and at a low heating temperature leads to the synthesis of ultra-fine calcium carbonate. The reaction not only involves mild conditions, a simple operation, and high yields but also gives a high conversion rate.

  7. NANODERM. Quality of skin as a barrier to ultra-fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.; Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Biro, T.; Czifra, G.; Toth, B.I.; Juhasz, I.; Kiss, B.; Hunyadi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The EU5 project carried out by a consortium of 12 European universities and research institutes under the leadership of the Faculty of Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig started in 2003 and ended with the publication of its final report in 2007. The main goal of the project was to get quantitative information on the penetration of ultra-fine particles in all strata of skin, on their penetration pathways as well as on their impact on human health. Details of the project can be found on the following website: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/"~nanoderm. The Hungarian team was lead by the Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, who provided human skin grafted on SCID (Severe Combined Immune Deficiency) mice as a suitable model for studying particle penetration. In the Institute of Physiology, University of Debrecen, the cellular effects of the nanoparticles were assessed. The ATOMKI group performed ion beam analytical investigations using proton induced x-ray emission and scanning transmission ion microscopy techniques to determine the particle distribution on porcine, SCID graft and human skin samples on which various nanoparticle (TiO 2 ) formulations including commercially available sunscreens were applied. Several pre-treatments of the skin were tested, too. The skin samples were cryofixed native specimens, reducing considerably the possibility of creating artefacts. Results Titanium was only detected in the stratum corneum for healthy skin. Penetration to layers consisting of living cells was not observed. No diffusion profile was present therefore we conclude that the penetration takes place through mechanical action. Deep penetration into hair follicles was also observed, but not into vital tissue. Clearance is expected via desquamation and sebum excretion respectively for corneocyte layers and hair follicles. In conclusion, the NANODERM group does not expect any harmful effects of sunscreens containing

  8. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  9. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N [Brownsboro, AL; Antony, Leo V. M. [Huntsville, AL; O'Dell, Scott [Arab, AL; Power, Chris [Guntersville, AL; Tabor, Terry [Huntsville, AL

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  10. 3D visualization of ultra-fine ICON climate simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Advances in high performance computing and model development allow the simulation of finer and more detailed climate experiments. The new ICON model is based on an unstructured triangular grid and can be used for a wide range of applications, ranging from global coupled climate simulations down to very detailed and high resolution regional experiments. It consists of an atmospheric and an oceanic component and scales very well for high numbers of cores. This allows us to conduct very detailed climate experiments with ultra-fine resolutions. ICON is jointly developed in partnership with DKRZ by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and the German Weather Service. This presentation discusses our current workflow for analyzing and visualizing this high resolution data. The ICON model has been used for eddy resolving (developed specific plugins for the free available visualization software ParaView and Vapor, which allows us to read and handle that much data. Within ParaView, we can additionally compare prognostic variables with performance data side by side to investigate the performance and scalability of the model. With the simulation running in parallel on several hundred nodes, an equal load balance is imperative. In our presentation we show visualizations of high-resolution ICON oceanographic and HDCP2 atmospheric simulations that were created using ParaView and Vapor. Furthermore we discuss our current efforts to improve our visualization capabilities, thereby exploring the potential of regular in-situ visualization, as well as of in-situ compression / post visualization.

  11. Synthesis of ultra-fine porous tin oxide fibres and its process characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Ramos, Idalia; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J

    2007-01-01

    Porous rutile-structured SnO 2 fibres, with their length of several millimetres, diameter from 100 nm to 40 μm and potentials for sensor applications, were synthesized from a precursor solution of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), chloroform (CHCl 3 ) and dimethyldineodecanoate tin (C 22 H 44 O 4 Sn) using electrospinning and metal-organic decomposition techniques. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the synthesized fibres so as to reveal the series of physical and chemical changes occurring from the starting chemicals to the final product of ultra-fine SnO 2 fibres: the solvent CHCl 3 evaporates during the electrospinning; the organic groups in PEO and C 22 H 44 O 4 Sn decompose, with Sn-C bond in C 22 H 44 O 4 Sn replaced by Sn-O between 220 and 300 deg. C, and the atomic arrangement transforms into the genesis of a rutile-type lattice between 300 and 380 deg. C; the incipient lattice finally develops into the rutile structure during heat treatment at higher temperatures up to 600 deg. C

  12. Size-dependent characteristics of ultra-fine oxygen-enriched nanoparticles in austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin, E-mail: ymiao@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Zhou, Zhangjian [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100082 (China); Liu, Xiang; Lan, Kuan-Che [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Guangming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100082 (China); Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Here, a coordinated investigation of the elemental composition and morphology of ultra-fine-scale nanoparticles as a function of size within a variety of austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels is reported. Atom probe tomography was utilized to evaluate the elemental composition of these nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the crystal structures and orientation relationships were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles with sufficient size (>4 nm) to maintain a Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2−x}O{sub 7−2x} stoichiometry were found to have a pyrochlore structure, whereas smaller Y{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} nanoparticles lacked a well-defined structure. The size-dependent characteristics of the nanoparticles in austenitic ODS steels differ from those in ferritic/martensitic ODS steels. - Highlights: • The structural and chemical characteristics of nanoparticles are revealed. • Nanoparticles' crystal structure and elemental composition are size-dependent. • Characteristics of austenitic ODS steels are compared to that of an F/M ODS steel. • Hypothesis about the formation mechanism of nanoparticles is proposed accordingly.

  13. NMR and NQR study of Si-doped (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube as n or P-semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baei, Mohammad T; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Tavakoli, Khadijeh; Babaheydari, Ali Kazemi; Moghimi, Masoumeh

    2012-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the electronic structure properties of pristine and Si-doped aluminum nitride nanotubes as n or P-semiconductors at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory in order to evaluate the influence of Si-doped in the (6,0) zigzag AlNNTs. We extended the DFT calculation to predict the electronic structure properties of Si-doped aluminum nitride nanotubes, which are very important for production of solid-state devices and other applications. To this aim, pristine and Si-doped AlNNT structures in two models (Si(N) and Si(Al)) were optimized, and then the electronic properties, the isotropic (CS(I)) and anisotropic (CS(A)) chemical shielding parameters for the sites of various (27)Al and (14)N atoms, NQR parameters for the sites of various of (27)Al and (14)N atoms, and quantum molecular descriptors were calculated in the optimized structures. The optimized structures, the electronic properties, NMR and NQR parameters, and quantum molecular descriptors for the Si(N) and Si(Al) models show that the Si(N) model is a more reactive material than the pristine or Si(Al) model.

  14. Impact of superplasticizer concentration and of ultra-fine particles on the rheological behaviour of dense mortar suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artelt, C.; Garcia, E.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at investigating the impact of the addition of superplasticizer and of ultra-fine particles, namely of silica fume and of precipitated titania, on the rheological behaviour of water-lean mortar pastes. The pastes are characterised in terms of their spread, their flowing behaviour and by means of performing a shear test, giving access to viscosity/shear gradient correlations. Adding superplasticizer is shown to shift the onset of shear thickening of the referring pastes to higher shear rates and to attenuate its otherwise rapid evolution, possibly by means of favouring steric particle-particle interactions. The workability of these mortars, which is characterised in terms of spread values and draining, is also improved. For the case of fly ash based mortars, adding ultra-fine particles is another way of (slightly) 'retarding' shear thickening and of attenuating its evolution, possibly because of resulting in - on the average - lower hydrodynamic forces and reduced attractive Van der Waals interactions between particles. However, at the same time these mortars are characterised by a worsening in workability which is attributed to the huge amount of surface area provided by the ultra-fines

  15. Administration of Oxygen Ultra-Fine Bubbles Improves Nerve Dysfunction in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hozo Matsuoka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1 control, (sham operation + saline; (2 SNC, (crush + saline; (3 SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline; (4 SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline. The effects of the OUBs on dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and Schwann cells (SCs were examined by serial dilution of OUB medium in vitro. Sciatic functional index, paw withdrawal thresholds, nerve conduction velocity, and myelinated axons were significantly decreased in the SNC group compared to the control group; these parameters were significantly improved in the SNC+OUB group, although NUB treatment did not affect these parameters. In vitro, OUBs significantly promoted neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by activating AKT signaling and SC proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and JNK/c-JUN signaling. OUBs may improve nerve dysfunction in SNC rats by promoting neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons and SC proliferation.

  16. Structural control of ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays via electrodeposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodarz, Siggi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Takashi; Ishio, Shunji [Department of Materials Science, Akita University, Akita City 010-8502 (Japan); Homma, Takayuki, E-mail: t.homma@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by combining electrodeposition and electron beam lithography (EBL) for the use of bit-patterned media (BPM). To achieve precise control of deposition uniformity and coercivity of the CoPt nanodot arrays, their crystal structure and magnetic properties were controlled by controlling the diffusion state of metal ions from the initial deposition stage with the application of bath agitation. Following bath agitation, the composition gradient of the CoPt alloy with thickness was mitigated to have a near-ideal alloy composition of Co:Pt =80:20, which induces epitaxial-like growth from Ru substrate, thus resulting in the improvement of the crystal orientation of the hcp (002) structure from its initial deposition stages. Furthermore, the cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of the nanodots deposited with bath agitation showed CoPt growth along its c-axis oriented in the perpendicular direction, having uniform lattice fringes on the hcp (002) plane from the Ru underlayer interface, which is a significant factor to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic characterization of the CoPt nanodot arrays showed increase in the perpendicular coercivity and squareness of the hysteresis loops from 2.0 kOe and 0.64 (without agitation) to 4.0 kOe and 0.87 with bath agitation. Based on the detailed characterization of nanodot arrays, the precise crystal structure control of the nanodot arrays with ultra-high recording density by electrochemical process was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • Ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by electrodeposition. • Crystallinity of hcp (002) was improved with uniform composition formation. • Uniform formation of hcp lattices leads to an increase in the coercivity.

  17. Development of Ultra-Fine-Grained Structure in AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamiyu, A. A.; Szpunar, J. A.; Odeshi, A. G.; Oguocha, I.; Eskandari, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ultra-fine-grained (UFG) structure was developed in AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) using cryogenic rolling followed by annealing treatments at 923 K, 973 K, 1023 K, and 1073 K (650 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C, and 800 °C) for different lengths of time. The α'-martensite to γ-austenite reversion behavior and the associated texture development were analyzed in the cryo-rolled specimens after annealing. The activation energy, Q, required for the reversion of α'-martensite to γ-austenite in the steel was estimated to be 80 kJ mol-1. TiC precipitates and unreversed triple junction α'-martensite played major roles in the development of UFG structure through the Zener pinning of grain boundaries. The optimum annealing temperature and time for the development of UFG structure in the cryo-rolled AISI 321 steel are (a) 923 K (650 °C) for approximately 28800 seconds and (b) 1023 K (750 °C) for 600 seconds, with average grain sizes of 0.22 and 0.31 µm, respectively. Annealing at 1023 K (750 °C) is considered a better alternative since the volume fraction of precipitated carbides in specimens annealed at 1023 K (750 °C) are less than those annealed at 923 K (650 °C). More so, the energy consumption during prolonged annealing time to achieve an UFG structure at 923 K (650 °C) is higher due to low phase reversion rate. The hardness of the UFG specimens is 195 pct greater than that of the as-received steel. The higher volume fraction of TiC precipitates in the UFG structure may be an additional source of hardening. Micro and macrotexture analysis indicated {110}〈uvw〉 as the major texture component of the austenite grains in the UFG structure. Its intensity is stronger in the specimen annealed at low temperatures.

  18. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  19. Enhanced c-axis orientation of aluminum nitride thin films by plasma-based pre-conditioning of sapphire substrates for SAW applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinger, M.; Shaposhnikov, K.; Knobloch, T.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Artner, W.; Hradil, K.; Schneider, M.; Kaltenbacher, M.; Schmid, U.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire has been investigated with two different pretreatments prior to sputter deposition of the AlN layer to improve the orientation and homogeneity of the thin film. An inverse sputter etching of the substrate in argon atmosphere results in an improvement of the uniformity of the alignment of the AlN grains and hence, in enhanced electro-mechanical AlN film properties. This effect is demonstrated in the raw measurements of SAW test devices. Additionally, the impulse response of several devices shows that a poor AlN thin film layer quality leads to a higher signal damping during the transduction of energy in the inter-digital transducers. As a result, the triple-transit signal cannot be detected at the receiver.

  20. Pulmonary Delivery of an Ultra-Fine Oxytocin Dry Powder Formulation: Potential for Treatment of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Prankerd, Richard J.; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Ibrahim, Jibriil P.; Bischof, Robert J.; Nassta, Gemma C.; Olerile, Livesey D.; Russell, Adrian S.; Meiser, Felix; Parkington, Helena C.; Coleman, Harold A.; Morton, David A. V.; McIntosh, Michelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the most effective uterotonic for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. The requirement for parenteral administration by trained healthcare providers and the need for the drug solution to be maintained under cold-chain storage limit the use of oxytocin in the developing world. In this study, a spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin was developed with an optimal particle size diameter (1-5 µm) to facilitate ae...

  1. Preparation of Ultra-Fine Nickel Manganite Powders and Ceramics by a Solid-State Coordination Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Dao-lai; Wang, Zhongbing; Wang, Zhichun; Yang, Pinghua; Liu, W.; Liu, Wei; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Chen, Chusheng

    2006-01-01

    A solid-state coordination reaction was adopted to prepare negative temperature coefficient ceramics. A mixed oxalate NiMn2(C2O4)3·6H2O, a coordination compound, was synthesized by milling a mixture of nickel acetate, manganese acetate, and oxalic acid for 5 h at room temperature. An ultrafine

  2. Ultra-Fine Friction Grinding of Sunflower Kernels – Thereof Tahini and Halva Production and Rheological Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil RACOLŢA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tahini is a paste obtained by milling the roasted sunflower kernel. Usually, a time and energy consuming two-steps process is involved, a three-roll refiner and a beating machine. The aim of this work was to identify and test a milling process for roasted sunflower kernels with lower time and energy consumption. Different particle size sunflower tahini and halva samples were produced by Ultra-Fine Friction Grinding machine Masuko Sangyo “Supermasscolloider” MKCA6-2 and compared to standard technology. The rheological properties of tahini and textural parameters of halva were assessed. Rheological analysis revealed that all tahini samples produced by “Supermasscolloider” showed a different viscosity profile, as compared to control, the sample milled with the gap set at 100µm being the most viscous and the one at 200µm being the most fluid. When testing the halva samples texture, the sample obtained from the tahini milled at 200µm was clearly highlighted as having the lowest hardness values, while the other samples showed similar texture profiles. The feasibility of using an Ultra-Fine Friction Grinding machine for obtaining sunflower tahini and thereof halva with improved textural properties, was assessed successfully.

  3. Effect of shot peening using ultra-fine particles on fatigue properties of 5056 aluminum alloy under rotating bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shoichi, E-mail: kikuchi@mech.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Yuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Toyota College, 2-1 Eisei-cho, Toyota-shi, Aichi 471-8525 (Japan); Nambu, Koichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka-shi, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Ando, Masafumi [Innovation Team, IKK SHOT Co. Ltd., 412-4, Nunowari, Minami-Shibata-machi, Tokai-shi, Aichi 476-0001 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Shot peening using particles 10 μm in diameter (ultra-fine particle peening: Ultra-FPP) was introduced to improve the fatigue properties of 5056 aluminum alloy. The surface microstructures of the Ultra-FPP treated specimens were characterized using a micro-Vickers hardness tester, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), non-contact scanning white light interferometry, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The Ultra-FPP treated specimen had higher hardness than the conventional FPP treated specimen with a short nozzle distance due to the high velocity of the ultra-fine particles. Furthermore, the surface hardness of the Ultra-FPP treated specimen tended to increase as the peening time decreased. Fatigue tests were performed in air at room temperature using a cantilever-type rotating bending fatigue testing machine. It was found that the fatigue life of the Ultra-FPP treated specimen tended to increase with decreasing peening time. Mainly, the Ultra-FPP improved the fatigue properties of 5056 aluminum alloy in the very high cycle regime of more than 10{sup 7} cycles compared with the un-peened specimens. This is because the release of the compressive residual stress is small during fatigue tests at low stress amplitudes.

  4. Development of a fine and ultra-fine group cell calculation code SLAROM-UF for fast reactor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Taira; Chiba, Go; Sugino, Kazuteru

    2006-01-01

    A cell calculation code SLAROM-UF has been developed for fast reactor analyses to produce effective cross sections with high accuracy in practical computing time, taking full advantage of fine and ultra-fine group calculation schemes. The fine group calculation covers the whole energy range in a maximum of 900-group structure. The structure is finer above 52.5 keV with a minimum lethargy width of 0.008. The ultra-fine group calculation solves the slowing down equation below 52.5 keV to treat resonance structures directly and precisely including resonance interference effects. Effective cross sections obtained in the two calculations are combined to produce effective cross sections over the entire energy range. Calculation accuracy and improvements from conventional 70-group cell calculation results were investigated through comparisons with reference values obtained with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that SLAROM-UF reduces the difference in k-infinity from 0.15 to 0.01% for a JOYO MK-I fuel subassembly lattice cell calculation, and from - 0.21% to less than a statistical uncertainty of the reference calculation of 0.03% for a ZPPR-10A core criticality calculation. (author)

  5. Performance assessment of river sand versus ceramic grinding media on the Fimiston Ultra-fine Grinding application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Guillaume; Clermont, Benoit; Gianatti, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-fine grinding increases the amenability of the refractory concentrate to direct cyanide leaching. Low cost media such as silica river sand gives very fine product grind sizes, however the sand media is quite angular and is often supplied with a broad size distribution. It is generally accepted that the use of a ceramic grinding media will result in a finer product size or allow an increase in the mill throughput. The capacity of a mill is known to increase with decreasing grinding media diameter, the mill wear can be decreased and efficiency of grinding increased. Magotteaux Keramax-MTX Ceramic grinding media was purchased for a plant trial, to assess its' performance.

  6. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  7. Effects of Nano-Aluminum Nitride on the Performance of an Ultrahigh-Temperature Inorganic Phosphate Adhesive Cured at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkun Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the optimal proportion of resin and curing agent, an ultrahigh-temperature inorganic phosphate adhesive was prepared with aluminum dihydric phosphate, aluminium oxide ( α -Al2O3, etc. and cured at room temperature (RT. Then, nano-aluminum nitride (nano-AlN, nano-Cupric oxide (nano-CuO, and nano-titanium oxide (nano-TiO2 were added into the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry was conducted using the inorganic phosphate adhesive to analyze the phosphate reactions during heat treatment, and it was found that 15 wt % nano-AlN could clearly decrease the curing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microphenomenon of the modified adhesive at ultrahigh-temperature. The differential thermal analysis of the inorganic phosphate adhesive showed that the weight loss was approximately 6.5 wt % when the mass ratio of resin to curing agent was 1:1.5. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the adhesive with 10% nano-AlN showed that the phase structure changed from AlPO4(11-0500 to the more stable AlPO4(10-0423 structure after heat treatment. The shear strength of the adhesive containing 10% nano-AlN reached 7.3 MPa at RT due to the addition of nano-AlN, which promoted the formation of phosphate and increased the Al3+.

  8. Effects of Nano-Aluminum Nitride on the Performance of an Ultrahigh-Temperature Inorganic Phosphate Adhesive Cured at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengkun; Chen, Hailong; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jifeng; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Limin

    2017-11-03

    Based on the optimal proportion of resin and curing agent, an ultrahigh-temperature inorganic phosphate adhesive was prepared with aluminum dihydric phosphate, aluminium oxide ( α -Al₂O₃), etc. and cured at room temperature (RT). Then, nano-aluminum nitride (nano-AlN), nano-Cupric oxide (nano-CuO), and nano-titanium oxide (nano-TiO₂) were added into the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry was conducted using the inorganic phosphate adhesive to analyze the phosphate reactions during heat treatment, and it was found that 15 wt % nano-AlN could clearly decrease the curing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microphenomenon of the modified adhesive at ultrahigh-temperature. The differential thermal analysis of the inorganic phosphate adhesive showed that the weight loss was approximately 6.5 wt % when the mass ratio of resin to curing agent was 1:1.5. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the adhesive with 10% nano-AlN showed that the phase structure changed from AlPO₄(11-0500) to the more stable AlPO₄(10-0423) structure after heat treatment. The shear strength of the adhesive containing 10% nano-AlN reached 7.3 MPa at RT due to the addition of nano-AlN, which promoted the formation of phosphate and increased the Al 3+ .

  9. Plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride studied with real time grazing angle small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter D.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Nath, Anindya; Kozen, Alexander C.; Qadri, Syed B.; DeMasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer K.; Ludwig, Karl F.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting nitrides have found wide-spread application as light emitting and laser diodes and are under investigation for further application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and efficient power switching technologies. Alloys of the binary semiconductors allow adjustments of the band gap, an important semiconductor material characteristic, which is 6.2 eV for aluminum nitride (AlN), 3.4 eV for gallium nitride, and 0.7 eV for (InN). Currently, the highest quality III-nitride films are deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Temperatures of 900 °C and higher are required to deposit high quality AlN. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) is ongoing because it is a fabrication friendly technique allowing lower growth temperatures. Because it is a relatively new technique, there is insufficient understanding of the ALEp growth mechanism which will be essential to development of the process. Here, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is employed to observe the evolving behavior of the surface morphology during growth of AlN by ALEp at temperatures from 360 to 480 °C. Increased temperatures of AlN resulted in lower impurities and relatively fewer features with short range correlations.

  10. Surface modification of aluminum nitride by polysilazane and its polymer-derived amorphous silicon oxycarbide ceramic for the enhancement of thermal conductivity in silicone rubber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien Tang; Sukachonmakul, Tanapon; Kuo, Ming Tai; Wang, Yu Hsiang; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn

    2014-02-01

    Polysilazane (PSZ) and its polymer-derived amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramic were coated on aluminum nitride (AlN) by using a dip-coating method to allow moisture-crosslinking of PSZ on AlN, followed by heat treatment at 700 °C in air to convert PSZ into SiOC on AlN. The results from FTIR, XPS and SEM indicated that the surface of AlN was successfully coated by PSZ and SiOC film. It was found that the introduction of PSZ and SiOC film help improve in the interfacial adhesion between the modified AlN (PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN) and silicone rubber lead to the increase in the thermal conductivity of the composites since the thermal boundary resistance at the filler-matrix interface was decreased. However, the introduction of SiOC as an intermediate layer between AlN and silicone rubber could help increase the thermal energy transport at the filler-matrix interface rather than using PSZ. This result was due to the decrease in the surface roughness and thickness of SiOC film after heat treatment at 700 °C in air. Thus, in the present work, a SiOC ceramic coating could provide a new surface modification for the improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the thermally conductive filler and the matrix in which can enhance the thermal conductivity of the composites.

  11. X-ray line broadening studies on aluminum nitride, titanium carbide and titanium diboride modified by high pressure shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosin, B.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Powders of AlN, TiC and TiB 2 have been subjected to controlled shock loading with peak pressures in the samples between 14 to 27 GPa and preserved for post-shock study. Broadened x-ray diffraction peak profiles are analyzed by a simplified method and show increases in residual lattice strain and small decreases in crystallite size. Strain values range from 10 -5 to 10 -4 for TiB 2 and to values larger than 10 -3 for TiC and AlN

  12. Process for the production of metal nitride sintered bodies and resultant silicon nitride and aluminum nitride sintered bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, S.; Omori, M.; Hayashi, J.; Kayano, H.; Hamano, M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the manufacture of metal nitride sintered bodies, in particular, a process in which a mixture of metal nitrite powders is shaped and heated together with a binding agent is described. Of the metal nitrides Si3N4 and AIN were used especially frequently because of their excellent properties at high temperatures. The goal is to produce a process for metal nitride sintered bodies with high strength, high corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal shock resistance, and avoidance of previously known faults.

  13. Effect of pyrolysis atmospheres on the morphology of polymer-derived silicon oxynitrocarbide ceramic films coated aluminum nitride surface and the thermal conductivity of silicone rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien T.; Sukachonmakul, Tanapon; Wang, Chen H.; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn; Kuo, Ming T.; Wang, Yu H.

    2014-02-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and silicon oxynitrocarbide (SiONC) ceramic films coated aluminum nitride (AlN) were prepared by using preceramic-polysilazane (PSZ) with dip-coating method, followed by pyrolysis at 700 °C in different (air, Ar, N2 and NH3) atmospheres to converted PSZ into SiOCair and SiONC(Ar,N2andNH3) ceramic. The existence of amorphous SiOCair and SiONC(Ar,N2andNH3) ceramic films on AlN surface was characterized by FTIR, XRD and XPS. The interfacial adhesion between silicone rubber and AlN was significantly improved after the introduction of amorphous SiOCair and SiONC(Ar,N2andNH3) ceramic films on AlN surface. It can be observed from AFM that the pyrolysis of PSZ at different atmosphere strongly affected to films morphology on AlN surface as SiOCair and SiONCNH3 ceramic films were more flat and smooth than SiONCN2 and SiONCAr ceramic films. Besides, the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of silicone rubber composites was found to be related to the decrease in the surface roughness of SiOCair and SiONC(Ar,N2andNH3) ceramic films on AlN surface. This present work provided an alternative surface modification of thermally conductive fillers to improve the thermal conductivity of silicon rubber composites by coating with amorphous SiOCair and SiONC(Ar,N2andNH3) ceramic films.

  14. Co-current Doping Effect of Nanoscale Carbon and Aluminum Nitride on Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning Properties of Bulk MgB2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nanoscale aluminum nitride (n-AlN) and carbon (n-C) co-doping on superconducting properties of polycrystalline bulk MgB2 superconductor has been investigated. Polycrystalline pellets of MgB2, MgB2 + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano), MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} and MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano) have been synthesized by a solid reaction process under inert atmosphere. The transition temperature (TC) estimated from resistivity measurement indicates only a small decrease for C (nano) and co-doped MgB2 samples. The magnetic field response of investigated samples has been measured at 4, 10, and 20 K in the field range ± 6 T. MgB2 pellets co-doped with 0.5 wt% n-AlN and 1 wt% n-C display appreciable enhancement in critical current density (J_C) of MgB2 in both low (≥ 3 times), as well as, high-field region (≥ 15 times). J_C versus H behavior of both pristine and doped MgB2 pellets is well explained in the light of the collective pinning model. Further, the normalized pinning force density f_p(= F_p/F_{pmax}) displays a fair correspondence with the scaling procedure proposed by Eisterer et al. Moreover, the scaled data of the pinning force density (i.e., f_p{-}h data) of the investigated pellets at different temperature are well interpreted by a modified Dew-Hughes expression reported by Sandu and Chee.

  15. Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol/aluminum nitride composite as form-stable phase change material prepared by in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Form-stable PMMA/PEG/AlN PCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. → AlN additive effectively enhanced the heat transfer property of composite PCMs. → The composites exhibited desirable thermal performance and electric insulativity. → The composites were available for the thermal management of electronic device. - Abstract: This work was focused on the preparation and characterization of a new type of form-stable phase change material (PCM) employed in thermal management. Using the method of in situ polymerization, polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the PCM and aluminum nitride (AlN) serving as the thermal conductivity promoter were uniformly encapsulated and embedded inside the three-dimensional network structure of PMMA matrix. When the mass fraction of PEG was below 70%, the prepared composite PCMs remained solid without leakage above the melting point of the PEG. XRD and FT-IR results indicated that the PEG was physically combined with PMMA matrix and AlN additive and did not participate in the polymerization. Thermal analysis results showed that the prepared composite PCMs possess available latent heat capacity and thermal stability, and the AlN additive was able to effectively enhance the heat transfer property of organic PCM. Moreover, the volume resistivity of composite achieved (5.92 ± 0.16) x 10 10 Ω cm when the mass ratio of AlN was 30%. To sum up, the prepared form-stable PCMs were competent for the thermal management of electronic device due to their acceptable thermal performance and electric insulativity.

  16. Ultra-fine Pt nanoparticles on graphene aerogel as a porous electrode with high stability for microfluidic methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Y. H.; Tsang, Alpha C. H.; Wang, Yifei; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2017-05-01

    Platinum-decorated graphene aerogel as a porous electrode for flow-through direct methanol microfluidic fuel cell is introduced. Ultra-fine platinum nanoparticles with size ranged from diameter 1.5 nm-3 nm are evenly anchored on the graphene nanosheets without agglomeration. The electrode is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Catalytic activity is confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. The electroactive surface area and catalytic activity of platinum on graphene oxide (Pt/GO) are much larger than commercial platinum on carbon black (Pt/C). A counterflow microfluidic fuel cell is designed for contrasting the cell performance between flow-over type and flow-through type electrodes using Pt/C on carbon paper and Pt/GO, respectively. The Pt/GO electrode shows 358% increment in specific power compared with Pt/C anode. Apart from catalytic activity, the effect of porous electrode conductivity to cell performance is also studied. The conductivity of the porous electrode should be further enhanced to achieve higher cell performance.

  17. Fatigue properties of ultra-fine grain Cu–Cr alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.J.; Du, Z.Z.; Luo, L.; Wang, W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The UFG Cu–Cr alloys processed by ECAP possess high strength and sufficient ductility. ► The ECAPed sample with UFG under strain controlled fatigue exhibited cyclic softening and lower fatigue limit compared to the unECAPed one. ► That cyclic softening of UFG Cu–Cr alloy is associated with some dislocation annihilation and the substructure recovery. ► Shear bands, microcracks and final fracture of UFG Cu–Cr fatigue samples occur predominantly along the shear plane corresponding to the last ECAP. - Abstract: A precipitation-hardening copper based alloy (Cu–0.6 wt.% Cr) was selected and the ultra-fine grain (UFG) microstructure was obtained by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The alloys tensile behaviors and fatigue properties were investigated experimentally, the results indicated that the Cu–Cr alloy processed by ECAP possessed high strength and sufficient ductility and the 12-passes ECAPed sample with UFG under strain controlled fatigue exhibited cyclic softening and lower fatigue limit compared to the unECAPed one. Moreover, the shear bands on the surface of cycled samples were also studied by scanning electron microscopy, the results showed that the oriented distribution of defects along the shear plane in the last ECAP processing was one of the major mechanisms of SBs formation.

  18. Characterization of SiC based composite materials by the infiltration of ultra-fine SiC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.; Lee, S.P.; Byun, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication route of SiC materials by the complex compound of ultra-fine SiC particles and oxide additive materials has been investigated. Especially, the effect of additive composition ratio on the characterization of SiC materials has been examined. The characterization of C/SiC composites reinforced with plain woven carbon fabrics was also investigated. The fiber preform for C/SiC composites was prepared by the infiltration of complex mixture into the carbon fabric structure. SiC based composite materials were fabricated by a pressure assisted liquid phase sintering process. SiC materials possessed a good density higher than about 3.0 Mg/m 3 , accompanying the creation of secondary phase by the chemical reaction of additive materials. C/SiC composites also represented a dense morphology in the intra-fiber bundle region, even if this material had a sintered density lower than that of monolithic SiC materials. The flexural strength of SiC materials was greatly affected by the composition ratio of additive materials.

  19. High temperature mechanical properties on multi stage blazed fin body with ultra fine off-set fin for compact heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Muto, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Three stage blazed plate fin body with ultra fine off-set fin (thickness x height x pitch x off-set pitch = 0.22 mm x 1.2 mm x 1.6 mm x 5 mm) for 600 MWt High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Gas Turbin (HTGR-GT) system was fabricated and tested on its high temperature mechanical properties and the following results were derived. (1) tested body shows almost the same strength an fatigue behavior of SUS 304 as main structural material at elevated temperatures up to 873 K, (2) static and fatigue fracture mainly occurred at ultra fine off-set and (3) high temperature strength and fatigue life are improved by blazing technique to double side walls of the fin by Ni blaze material. (author)

  20. The effect of native Al2O3 skin disruption on properties of fine Al powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, Martin; Poletti, Cecilia; Simancik, Frantisek; Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of various powder metallurgy compaction routes on the microstructures and properties of ultra-fine atomized Al powder compacts. → Applied compaction route affects the deformation and fracture of native Al 2 O 3 layer present on the surface of as-atomized powder. → Distribution, morphology and interconnectivity of in situ introduced Al 2 O 3 dispersoids distinctly determine the compacts properties. - Abstract: In the presented study we characterize how various powder metallurgical routes (extrusion, forging, and HIP/sintering) affect the fracture of native Al 2 O 3 layer present on the surface of ultra-fine atomized Al powders. It is shown that the different distribution, morphology and interconnectivity of in situ introduced Al 2 O 3 dispersoids strongly affect the thermal stability and mechanical and thermal properties of subsequent powder compacts.

  1. The role of the bimodal distribution of ultra-fine silicon phase and nano-scale V-phase (AlSi2Sc2) on spark plasma sintered hypereutectic Al–Si–Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys were spark plasma sintered from corresponding gas-atomized powders. The microstructures of the Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys possessed remarkably refined silicon particles in the size range of 0.38–3.5 µm and 0.35–1.16 µm respectively in contrast to the silicon particles of size greater than 100 µm typically found in conventionally cast alloys. All the sintered alloys exhibited significant ductility of as high as 85% compressive strain without failure even with the presence of relatively higher weight fraction of the brittle silicon phase. Moreover, the Al–Si–Sc alloys have shown appreciable improvement in the compressive strength over their binary counterparts due to the presence of intermetallic compound AlSi 2 Sc 2 of size 10–20 nm distributed uniformly in the matrix of those alloys. The dry sliding pin-on-disc wear tests showed improvement in the wear performance of the sintered alloys with increase in silicon content in the alloys. Further, the Al–Si–Sc ternary alloys with relatively lesser silicon content exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear resistance over their binary counterparts. The Al–Si–Sc alloys with bimodal distribution of the strengthening phases consisting of ultra-fine (sub-micron size) silicon particles and the nano-scale AlSi 2 Sc 2 improved the strength and wear properties of the alloys while retaining significant amount of ductility.

  2. Enhanced performance of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with aluminum nitride in its gel polymer electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh

    2011-08-01

    The effects of incorporation of aluminum nitride (AlN) in the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were studied in terms of performance of the cell. The electrolyte, consisting of lithium iodide (LiI), iodine (I2), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), was solidified with poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP). The 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt% of AlN were added to the electrolyte for this study. XRD analysis showed a reduction of crystallinity in the polymer PVDF-HFP for all the additions of AlN. The DSSC fabricated with a GPE containing 0.1 wt% AlN showed a short-circuit current density (JSC) and power-conversion efficiency (η) of 12.92±0.54 mA/cm2 and 5.27±0.23%, respectively, at 100 mW/cm2 illumination, in contrast to the corresponding values of 11.52±0.21 mA/cm2 and 4.75±0.08% for a cell without AlN. The increases both in JSC and in η of the promoted DSSC are attributed to the higher apparent diffusion coefficient of I- in its electrolyte (3.52×10-6 cm2/s), compared to that in the electrolyte without AlN of a DSSC (2.97×10-6 cm 2/s). At-rest stability of the quasi-solid-state DSSC with 0.1 wt% of AlN was found to decrease hardly by 5% and 7% at room temperature and at 40 °C, respectively, after 1000 h duration. The DSSC with a liquid electrolyte showed a decrease of about 40% at room temperature, while it virtually lost its performance in about 150 h at 40 °C. Explanations are further substantiated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by porosity measurements. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Microstructural evolution by heating at 1673-2373 K in ultra-fine grained W-(0.25-1.5)%TiC consolidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Kurishita, H.; Arakawa, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC consolidates with nearly full densification are expected to be very promising for their use as divertors and structural materials exposed to irradiation environments because they exhibit good resistance to irradiations with fast neutrons, helium-ions and hydrogen-ions. In view of exposure to high heat loading on divertors, it is necessary to examine microstructural evolution due to high temperature heating in UFG W-TiC consolidates, which is closely related to recrystallization embrittlement. The objective of this study is to clarify how the microstructures in UFG W-TiC consolidates change with annealing at 1673-2373 K, with emphasis on the effects of TiC additions and nano-sized Ar bubbles retained in UFG W-TiC consolidates fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) in an Ar atmosphere. UFG W-(0.25, 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, 1.5)%TiC (in wt%) consolidates were fabricated by powder metallurgical methods utilizing MA with 3MPDA (three mutually perpendicular directions agitation) bail mill in an atmosphere of purified H 2 (MA-H 2 ) or Ar (MA-Ar), followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1623 K. Thin foils for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were prepared from each of the as-HIPed consolidates and subjected to annealing in vacuum at temperatures from 1673 to 2373 K for 3.6 ks by radio-frequency induction heating. TEM examinations and EDX analyses were made using a JEM-2000FX and JEM-4000FX operating at 200 and 400 kV, respectively. It is shown that the as-HIPed specimens exhibit equiaxed grain sizes of 40 to 200 nm which decrease with increasing TiC addition, but the grain size tends to saturate around 1 wt% TiC addition. The nano-sized Ar bubbles in W-TiC with MA-Ar are observed in approximately half of the grains and provide a significant grain refinement effect: The grain size in W-TiC with MA-Ar is approximately half of that with MA-H 2 . Such Ar bubbles are retained even after heating at

  4. In situ TEM study of the effect of M/A films at grain boundaries on crack propagation in an ultra-fine acicular ferrite pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yong; Xiao Furen; Zhang Jingwu; Shan Yiyin; Wang Wei; Yang Ke

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural refinement of structural materials generally improves their tensile properties but deteriorates their fatigue properties. However, pipeline steels with ultra-fine acicular ferrite (UFAF) possess not only high strength and toughness, but also a low fatigue-crack-growth rate (FCGR) and long fatigue-propagation life. In this paper, the micro-fracture mechanisms of an UFAF pipeline steel are investigated by in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that a grain-boundary-film structure composed of martensite/austenite could significantly influence the crack propagating behavior in the UFAF steel, consequently lowering the FCGR by enhancing roughness-induced crack closure during cyclic loading

  5. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and x Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 μm) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location

  6. Nanometric onion-like hollow spheres in laser synthesized boron nitride ultrafine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, L; Willaime, F [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Cauchetier, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l` Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules

    1994-12-31

    TEM observations of ultra-fine B Cl{sub 3}-N H{sub 3} powders elaborated by an innovative method, laser pyrolysis, are presented. The resulting microstructures in the as received state and after thermal treatments show small nanometric scale configurations close to the ones met with carbon, such as an hollowed configuration of onions but at a much smaller scale than with carbon. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  7. MAGNOLOL ENTRAPPED ULTRA-FINE FIBROUS MATS ELECTROSPUN FROM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-b-POLY(L-LACTIDE) AND IN VITRO RELEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Hong-rui Song; Yong Cui; Ying-jie Deng; Xue-si Chen

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-fine fibrous mats with magnolol entrapped have been prepared by electrospinning biodegradable copolymer poly(ethylene glycol) blocked poly(L-lactide). Drug entrapment was perfect which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. According to in vitro drug release investigation by high performance liquid chromatography, it was found that fibers with 10%, 20% and 30% drug entrapped respect to polymer (mass ratio) presented dramatically different drug release behavior and degradation behavior under the effect of proteinase K. The reason may be that fibers with 10% drug entrapped was more easily affected by enzyme while, to some degree, magnolol in fibers with 20% and 30% entrapped prevented polymer from being degraded by enzyme.

  8. Identification of ultra-fine Ti-rich precipitates in V-Cr-Ti alloys irradiated below 300 deg. C by using positron CDB technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Matsui, Hideki; Ohkubo, Hideaki; Tang, Zheng; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation-induced Ti-rich precipitates in V-Ti and V-4Cr-4Ti alloys are studied by TEM and positron annihilation methods (positron lifetime, and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB)). The characteristics of small defect clusters formed in V alloys containing Ti at irradiation temperatures below 300 deg. C have not been identified by TEM techniques. Strong interaction between vacancy and Ti solute atoms for irradiated V alloys containing Ti at irradiation temperatures from 220 to 350 deg. C are observed by positron lifetime measurement. The vacancy-multi Ti solute complexes in V-alloys containing Ti are definitely identified by using CDB measurement. It is suggested that ultra-fine Ti-rich precipitates or Ti segregation at periphery of dislocation loops are formed in V alloys containing Ti at irradiation temperatures below 300 deg. C

  9. Influence of Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles on the thermal stability of ultra-fine grained copper prepared by high pressure torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Cizek, J; Kuzel, R; Islamgaliev, R K

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) Cu (grain size 80 nm) containing 0.5 wt.% Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles (size 20 nm) was prepared by high pressure torsion (HPT). Positron lifetime spectroscopy was employed to characterize the microstructure of this material, especially with respect to types and concentration of lattice defects. The evolution of microstructure with increasing temperature was studied by positron lifetime spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. The thermal stability of the Cu + 0.5 wt.% Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanocomposite was compared with that of pure UFG Cu prepared by the same technique. The processes taking place during thermal recovery of the initial nanoscale structure in both studied materials are described. (author)

  10. The effect of forming stresses on the sintering of ultra-fine Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Esposito, Vincenzo; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    2013-01-01

    good sinterability when there is a favourable particle packing. The effect of the applied stresses during forming (which produce different particle packing arrangements) was investigated by forging green bodies by different shaping techniques, including casting, and cold isostatic pressing. Samples...... formed with techniques that apply low levels of stress had a particle arrangement which significantly enhanced sintering at low temperature, compared to those prepared by high stress techniques. The sample geometry, heat treatment for organic removal and the initial density of the green body had...

  11. Electrochemical behavior of copper metal core/oxide shell ultra-fine particles on mercury electrodes in aqueous dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korshunov, A.; Heyrovský, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 629, 1-2 (2009), s. 23-29 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ultrafine copper powders * surface oxide layers * aqueous dispersions * voltammetry * Hg electrodes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  12. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  13. Effect of molybdenum content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine Ti(C, N) based cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Ning; Rong Chunlan

    2008-01-01

    Effect of molybdenum as a sintering aid on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti(C, N)-20WC-15Co-Mo-2.5C system cermets was studied in this work. Ti(C, N)-based cermets with variable Mo content were fabricated by conventional powder metallurgy techniques. The microstructure was investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy in combination with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Mechanical properties such as transverse rupture strength, fracture toughness and hardness were also measured, respectively. Results revealed that finer grains, as well as larger amount of bright core/grey shell structures could be obtained by increasing the molybdenum content. Transverse rupture strength and hardness were also improved. Fracture toughness, however, was decreased with the increase of Mo content. The optimized content of Mo was chosen as 15 wt.% for Ti(C, N)-20WC-15Co-Mo-2.5C system cermets

  14. Networks of ultra-fine Ag nanocrystals in a Teflon AF (registered) matrix by vapour phase e-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A; Bayer, I S; Marken, B; Pounds, T D; Norton, M G

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated nanocomposite thin films comprising silver (Ag) nanoparticles dispersed in a Teflon AF (registered) polymer matrix using electron-beam-assisted physical vapour deposition. Four different Ag nanoparticle volume fillings (20%, 35%, 70% and 75%) were achieved by varying the relative metal-polymer evaporation rates with the formation of highly crystalline Ag nanoparticles regardless of the filling ratio. The present fabrication technique allowed full control over dispersion uniformity of nanoparticles in the polymer network. At 20% and 35% metal volume fillings, the nanocomposite film morphology consists of a uniformly dispersed assembly of equiaxed isolated Ag nanoparticles. At higher metal volume fractions the nanocomposite structures displayed two different and unique Ag nanoparticle arrangements within the polymer matrix. In particular, at 70% metal filling, the formation of irregularly shaped clusters of individually assembled nanocrystals was observed. At a slightly higher volume filling (75%), larger irregularly shaped Ag nanocrystals that appeared to be the result of coalescence and grain growth were observed. Finally, a composite theory developed by Tandon and Weng was used to estimate various elastic properties of the nanocomposite films. At high metal filling, the reinforcing effect of the Ag nanoparticles was reflected as approximately a sixfold increase in the elastic modulus compared to the virgin polymer film. Possible applications of such ultra-fine metal nanoparticles networks are discussed

  15. Ultra-Fine Bubble Distributions in a Plant Factory Observed by Transmission Electron Microscope with a Freeze-Fracture Replica Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Uchida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water containing ultra-fine bubbles (UFB may promote plant growth. But, as UFBs are too small to distinguish from other impurities in a nutrient solution, it is not known if UFBs survive transport from the water source to the rhizosphere. Here we use the freeze-fracture replica method and a transmission electron microscope (TEM to observe UFBs in the nutrient solutions used in a crop-growing system known as a plant factory. In this factory, TEM images taken from various points in the supply line indicate that the concentration of UFBs in the nutrient solution is conserved, starting from their addition to the nutrient solution in the buffer tank, through the peat-moss layer, all the way to the rhizosphere. Measurements also show that a thin film formed on the surface of UFBs in the nutrient solution, with greater film thickness at the rhizosphere. This film is considered to be made from the accumulation of impurities coming from solute and the peat-moss layer.

  16. Ultra-fine CuO Nanoparticles Embedded in Three-dimensional Graphene Network Nano-structure for High-performance Flexible Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Qi; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Liu, Qipeng; Xu, Weina; Hu, Chenguo; Wei, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    High conductivity, large specific surface area and excellent performance redox materials are urgently desired for improving electrochemical energy storage. However, with single redox material it is hard to achieve these properties. Herein, we develop ultra-fine CuO nanoparticles embedded in three-dimensional graphene network grown on carbon cloth (CuO/3DGN/CC) to construct a novel electrode material with advantages of high conductivity, large specific area and excellent redox activity for supercapacitor application. The CuO/3DGN/CC with different CuO mass ratios are utilized to fabricate supercapacitors and the optimized mass loading achieves the high areal capacitance of 2787 mF cm"−"2 and specific capacitance of 1539.8 F g"−"1 at current density of 6 mA cm"−"2 with good stability. In addition, a high-flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor is also fabricated by using this CuO/3DGN/CC composite. The device shows excellent electrochemical performance even at various bending angles indicating a promising application for wearable electronic devices, and two devices with area 2 × 4 cm"2 in series can light nine light emitting diodes for more than 3 minutes.

  17. Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Z.H.; Weschler, Charles J.; Han, IK

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined the co-formation of hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides (collectively presented as H2O2*) as well as submicron particles, including ultra-fine particles (UFP), resulting from the reactions of ozone (O-3) with a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... higher than typical indoor levels. When O-3 was added to a 25-m(3) controlled environmental facility (CEF) containing the 23 VOC mixture, both H2O2* and submicron particles were formed. The 2-h average concentration of H2O2* was 1.89 +/- 0.30ppb, and the average total particle number concentration was 46...... to achieve saturated concentrations of the condensable organics. When the 2 terpenes were removed from the O-3/23 VOCs mixture, no H2O2* or particles were formed, indicating that the reactions of O-3 With the two terpenes were the key processes contributing to the formation of H2O2* and submicron particles...

  18. Fatigue behavior and damage characteristic of ultra-fine grain low-purity copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Changzheng; Wang Qingjuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Zheng Maosheng [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China)], E-mail: mszhengnw@sohu.com; Li Jindou; Huang Meiquan; Jia Qingming; Zhu Jiewu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Kunz, Ludvik; Buksa, Michal [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno 61662 (Czech Republic)

    2008-02-25

    The S-N and Coffin-Manson plot, cyclic stress-strain response, changes of microstructure, and the surface morphology of ultra-fine grain (UFG) low-purity copper processed by ECAP were tested and observed in present study. And the formation mechanism of shear bands was discussed in detail. The results show that the UFG Cu represents longer lifetime under stress-controlled fatigue, but lower fatigue resistance under strain-controlled fatigue when compared with the coarse grain counterpart. Cyclic stress-strain responses of UFG Cu under stress-controlled fatigue alter from cyclic softening to cyclic hardening as stress amplitude decreases. But the responses always show cyclic softening under strain-controlled fatigue in present testing. By electron back scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscope technique, the shear bands were discovered on the surface of all cycled samples and no grain coarsening was discovered near the shear bands, which indicated that there was no inevitable relationship between formation of SBs and cyclic softening/grain coarsening. The discovery should be related to impurities in copper. The oriented distribution of defects along the shear plane in the last ECAP processing is one of the major mechanisms of SBs formation.

  19. Fatigue behavior and damage characteristic of ultra-fine grain low-purity copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Changzheng; Wang Qingjuan; Zheng Maosheng; Li Jindou; Huang Meiquan; Jia Qingming; Zhu Jiewu; Kunz, Ludvik; Buksa, Michal

    2008-01-01

    The S-N and Coffin-Manson plot, cyclic stress-strain response, changes of microstructure, and the surface morphology of ultra-fine grain (UFG) low-purity copper processed by ECAP were tested and observed in present study. And the formation mechanism of shear bands was discussed in detail. The results show that the UFG Cu represents longer lifetime under stress-controlled fatigue, but lower fatigue resistance under strain-controlled fatigue when compared with the coarse grain counterpart. Cyclic stress-strain responses of UFG Cu under stress-controlled fatigue alter from cyclic softening to cyclic hardening as stress amplitude decreases. But the responses always show cyclic softening under strain-controlled fatigue in present testing. By electron back scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscope technique, the shear bands were discovered on the surface of all cycled samples and no grain coarsening was discovered near the shear bands, which indicated that there was no inevitable relationship between formation of SBs and cyclic softening/grain coarsening. The discovery should be related to impurities in copper. The oriented distribution of defects along the shear plane in the last ECAP processing is one of the major mechanisms of SBs formation

  20. Ultra-fine SnO2 nanoparticles doubly embedded in amorphous carbon and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for superior lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher Shah, Md. Selim Arif; Lee, Jooyoung; Park, A. Reum; Choi, Youngjin; Kim, Woo-Jae; Park, Juhyun; Chung, Chan-Hwa; Kim, Jaeyun; Lim, Byungkwon; Yoo, Pil J.

    2017-01-01

    SnO 2 is a well-studied anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, it undergoes severe capacity fading because of a large volume change (∼300%) during cycling. Composites of SnO 2 with electro-conductive graphene would deliver improved capacity and rate performance. Nevertheless, achieving the theoretical capacity of SnO 2 is still elusive, mainly because of disintegration of the active material from graphene and severe aggregation of SnO 2 , or Sn nanoparticles produced upon cycling. To surmount these limitations, in this work, nanocomposites containing ultra-fine sized SnO 2 nanoparticles (UFSN) with reduced graphene oxide and amorphous carbon were synthesized in a single step at low temperature and environmentally benign way, in which ascorbic acid was employed as the carbon source and reducing agent. UFSN could decrease the lithium ion diffusion path length. As a result of effective buffering effect afforded by the mesoporous structure against volume change and improved lithium ion diffusivity, the ternary nanocomposite achieves ultra-high capacity of 1245 mAh g −1 after 210 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and excellent cycling stability. Since the proposed approach is facile, straightforward, and highly reproducible, it is anticipated that this system would be a potential alternative to the conventional graphite anode for LIBs.

  1. High temperature tensile properties and their application to toughness enhancement in ultra-fine grained W-(0-1.5)wt% TiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)], E-mail: kurishi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Takida, T.; Takebe, K. [A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwase-koshi-machi, Toyama, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kawai, M. [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshida, N. [Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) W-TiC consolidates are very promising for use as divertors in fusion reactors, however, the assurance of room-temperature ductility of UFG W-TiC remains unsettled. The assurance requires a sufficient degree of plastic working for the consolidates and thus overcoming of poor plastic workability in UFG W-TiC by applying superplasticity. Therefore, the magnitudes of elongation to fracture and flow stress which are important measures for plastic working were examined for UFG W-(0-1.5)%TiC (in wt%) at 1673-1973 K where superplasticity occurs without appreciable grain growth. It is shown that the elongation and flow stress are strongly dependent on TiC addition and atmosphere (Ar, H{sub 2}) during mechanical alloying (MA). As the TiC addition increases, the elongation significantly increases without appreciable increase in the flow stress level. W-TiC fabricated with MA in H{sub 2} exhibits larger elongation and larger strain rate sensitivity of flow stress than W-TiC with MA in Ar. These results were applied to perform plastic working and the room-temperature bend test results for plastic worked W-1.0%TiC are shown.

  2. Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

    2008-07-18

    The overall objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of recovering a very fine fraction of fly ash, that is 5 microns in diameter or less and examining the characteristics of these materials in new or at least less traditional applications. These applications included as a polymer filler or as a 'super' pozzolanic concrete additive. As part of the effort the ash from 6 power plants was investigated and characterized. This work included collection from ESP Hoppers and ponds. The ash was thoroughly characterized chemically and physically. Froth flotation was used to reduce the carbon and testing showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) for most of the substrates tested. in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Hydraulic classification was used in the separation of the fine ash from the coarse ash. Hydraulic classification requires the ash to be dispersed to be effective and a range of dispersants were tested for adsorption as well as sedimentation rate. A wide range of dosages were required (0.3 to 10 g/kg). In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. A model was developed for hydraulic classification. A pilot-scale hydraulic classifier was also designed and operated for the project. Product yields of up to 21% of feed solids were achieved with recoveries of <5 {micro}m particles as high as 64%. Mean particle sizes (D{sub 50}) of the ultra fine ash (UFA) products varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. A patent was filed on the classifier design. A conceptual design of a Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) with a feed rate of 2 tons of raw ash feed per hour was also completed. Pozzolanic activity was determined for the UFA ashes in mortars. In general the overall strength index was excellent with values of 90% achieved in 3 days and {approx}100% in 7 days. Three types of thermoplastic polymers were evaluated with the UFA as a filler: high density polyethylene, thermoplastic elastomer and

  3. Ultra-fine structures of Pd-Ag-HAp nanoparticle deposition on protruded TiO2 barrier layer for dental implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Myung; Kim, Seung-Dai; Park, Tae-Eon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    The biocompatibility structure of an implant surface is of great importance to the formation of new bone tissue around the dental implant and also has a significant chemical reaction in the osseointegration process. Thus, ultra-fine Pd-Ag-HAp nanoparticles have been electrodeposited on protruded TiO2 barrier layer in mixed electrolyte solutions. Unusual protrusions patterns, which are assigned to Pd-Ag-HAp nanoparticles, can be clearly differentiated from a TiO2 nanotube oxide layer formed by an anodizing process. In the chemical bonding state, the surface characteristics of Pd/Ag/HAp compounds have been investigated by FE-SEM, EDS mapping analysis, and XPS analysis. The mapping dots of the elements including Ti, Ca, Pd, Ag, and P showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the entire surface when deposited onto the protruded TiO2 barrier layer. The XPS spectra of Ti-2p, O-1S, Pd-3d, and Ag-3d have been investigated, with the major XPS peak indicating Pd-3d. The Ag-3d level was clearly observed with further scanning of the Ca-2p region. Based on the results of the chemical states, the structural properties of the protrusion patterns were also examined after being deposited onto the barrier oxide film, resulting in the representative protrusion patterns being mainly composed of Pd-Ag-HAp compounds. The results of the soaking evaluation showed that the protrusion patterns and the protruded TiO2 barrier layer were all effective in regards to biocompatibility.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu matrix composites reinforced with AINp. processed by extrusion of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J. L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador, M. D.; Perz, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation on the structure and mechanical properties of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu P/M alloy reinforced with 5%, 10% and 15% aluminum nitride, produced by extrusion of cold compacted powders mixtures. Mechanical properties in as extruded and T6 conditions are compared. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Dilatometric analysis were conducted to gain further insight into the precipitation process of these materials. Low cost 6061 Al/AINp composites can be produced with rate and small porosity by extrusion of cold compacted shapes without canning. The mechanical properties of the MMCs obtained by this process have limitations for high particles fractions because of clustering effects. All materials are always harder than the matrix and shows a similar behavior during aging processes but kinetics is changed. Potential applications of dilatometric techniques in the aging investigations of aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites have been established. (Author) 23 refs

  5. Direct synthesis of nanocrystalline oxide powders by wet-chemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Srdić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In a recent period there is a great need for increasing the knowledge of tailoring the innovative procedures for the synthesis of electroceramic nanopowders and materials with improved quality for specific application. In order to produce electroceramics with desirable microstructure and properties, synthesis of stoichiometric, ultra-fine and agglomerate free powders with narrow size distributions is one of the most important steps. Within this scope, in the present paper we summarize our recent results on direct synthesis of some important perovskites and ferrites nanopowders by wet-chemical techniques.

  6. Seasonal variations of ultra-fine and submicron aerosols in Taipei, Taiwan: implications for particle formation processes in a subtropical urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Cheung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of atmospheric ultra-fine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm and submicron particles (PM1, d ≤ 1 µm in an east Asian urban area, which are hypothesized to be affected by the interchange of summer and winter monsoons. An observation experiment was conducted at TARO (Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory, an urban aerosol station in Taipei, Taiwan, from October 2012 to August 2013. The measurements included the mass concentration and chemical composition of UFPs and PM1, as well as the particle number concentration (PNC and the particle number size distribution (PSD with size range of 4–736 nm. The results indicated that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with a peak level of 18.5 µg m−3 in spring, whereas the highest concentration of UFPs was measured in summertime with a mean of 1.64 µg m−3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents of PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9  ×  103 cm−3 in autumn to 19.4  ×  103 cm−3 in spring. Median concentrations for respective size distribution modes peaked in different seasons. The nucleation-mode PNC (N4 − 25 peaked at 11.6  ×  103 cm−3 in winter, whereas the Aitken-mode (N25 − 100 and accumulation-mode (N100 − 736 PNC exhibited summer maxima at 6.0  ×  103 and 3.1  ×  103 cm−3, respectively. The change in PSD during summertime was attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributed to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, clear photochemical production of particles was observed, mostly in the summer season

  7. Radiation damage in heavy irradiated aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Honda, Makoto; Fukuoka, Noboru [Naruto Univ. of education, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo

    1996-04-01

    AlN, one of candidate for ceramic materials used in nuclear fusion reactor, was irradiated by fast and thermal neutrons. The high concentration of irradiated defects and the nuclear transformation elements were detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method. The exposure of fast neutron and thermal neutron were 1.2x10{sup 20}n/cm{sup 2} and 1.2x10{sup 21}n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The spreads of ESR spectra of ultra hyperfine structure depending on interaction between {sup 27}Al nuclear spin and electron trapped in tetrahedron consisted of Al atoms was found in the spectra of heavy irradiated AlN. F type defects was estimated 10{sup 19}n/cm{sup 3}. Photoelectrons from 2s and 2p in {sup 28}Si which produced in process of {beta}-decay of {sup 27}Al(n,{gamma}){sup 28}Al were observed in XPS spectra of irradiated samples. (S.Y.)

  8. Radiation damage in heavy irradiated aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Honda, Makoto; Fukuoka, Noboru; Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo.

    1996-01-01

    AlN, one of candidate for ceramic materials used in nuclear fusion reactor, was irradiated by fast and thermal neutrons. The high concentration of irradiated defects and the nuclear transformation elements were detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method. The exposure of fast neutron and thermal neutron were 1.2x10 20 n/cm 2 and 1.2x10 21 n/cm 2 , respectively. The spreads of ESR spectra of ultra hyperfine structure depending on interaction between 27 Al nuclear spin and electron trapped in tetrahedron consisted of Al atoms was found in the spectra of heavy irradiated AlN. F type defects was estimated 10 19 n/cm 3 . Photoelectrons from 2s and 2p in 28 Si which produced in process of β-decay of 27 Al(n,γ) 28 Al were observed in XPS spectra of irradiated samples. (S.Y.)

  9. Development of Dynamic Compaction Technology for Ultra High Strength Powder Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, M. K.; Uhm, Y. R.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Ivanov, V. V.; Hong, S. J.

    2007-04-01

    A synthesis of ultra fine powder and its compaction have been considered as a new generation and high value added technology in various industrial fields such as automobile, machine tool, electronic chip, sensor and catalyst because of its special characteristics of high toughness, strength and wear resistance which are not shown in conventional process. In this study, ultra hard and fine powders, such as Fe-Si, CuNi and Al 2 O 3 , have been fabricated by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method and mechanical alloying (MA) method. In addition, with ultra hard and fine powders, the magnetic core, diamond tool and water jet nozzle with high density were made by a uniaxial dynamic compaction for the purpose of the real industrial application

  10. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of mechanically milled protein fibre powders and their free volume aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, K; Rajkhowa, R; Tsuzuki, T; Lin, T; Wang, X; Sellaiyan, S; Smith, S V; Uedono, A

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the fabrication of ultra-fine powders from animal protein fibres such as cashmere guard hair, merino wool and eri silk along with their free volume aspects. The respectively mechanically cleaned, scoured and degummed cashmere guard hair, wool and silk fibres were converted into dry powders by a process sequence: Chopping, Attritor Milling, and Spray Drying. The fabricated protein fibre powders were characterised by scanning electron microscope, particle size distribution and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The PALS results indicated that the average free volume size in protein fibres increased on their wet mechanical milling with a decrease in the corresponding intensities leading to a resultant decrease in their fractional free volumes.

  11. Preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured powders by one-step activation and chemical reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Huang, Li-Mei; Luo, Guang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel wet chemical method was used to prepare TiC/W core–shell structure powders. • TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. • TiC phase was present in the interior of tungsten grains. - Abstract: In the present study, one-step activation and chemical reduction process as a novel wet-chemical route was performed for the preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured ultra-fine powders. The XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDS results demonstrated that the as-synthesized powders are of high purity and uniform with a diameter of approximately 500 nm. It is also found that the TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. Such a unique process suggests a new method for preparing X/W (X refers the water-insoluble nanoparticles) core–shell nanoparticles with different cores

  12. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  13. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  14. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  15. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  16. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  17. Mechanical wet-milling and subsequent consolidation of ultra-fine Al2O3-(ZrO2+3%Y2O3) bioceramics by using high-frequency induction heat sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalil Abdelrazek KHALIL; Sug Won KIM

    2007-01-01

    Alumina/zirconia composites were synthesized by wet-milling technique and rapid consolidation with high frequency induction heat sintering(HFIHS). The starting materials were a mixture of alumina micro-powder (80%, volume fraction) and 3YSZ nano-powders (20%). The mixtures were optimized for good sintering behaviors and mechanical properties. Nano-crystalline grains are obtained after 24 h milling. The nano-structured powder compacts are then processed to full density at different temperatures by HFIHS. Effects of temperature on the mechanical and microstructure properties were studied. Al2O3-3YSZ composites with higher mechanical properties and small grain size are successfully developed at relatively low temperatures through this technique.

  18. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  19. Microtribological Mechanisms of Tungsten and Aluminum Nitride Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongjian; Mu, Chunyan; Ye, Fuxing

    2016-04-01

    Microtribology experiments were carried out on the W1- x Al x N films, deposited by radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering on 304 stainless steel substrates and Si(100). Film wear mechanisms were investigated from the evolution of the friction coefficient and scanning electron microscopy observations. The results show that the WAlN films consist of a mixture of face-centered cubic W(Al)N and hexagonal wurtzite structure AlN phases and the preferred orientation changes from (111) to (200). The film damage after sliding test is mainly attributed to the composition and microstructure of the films. The amount of debris generated by friction is linked to the crack resistance. The better tribological properties for W1- x Al x N films ( x < 0.4) are mainly determined by the higher toughness.

  20. Nuclear Radiation Tolerance of Single Crystal Aluminum Nitride Ultrasonic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Brian; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Suprock, Andrew

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models, (Rempe et al., 2011; Kazys et al., 2005). These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The irradiation is also supported by a multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET ASI) program. The results from this irradiation, which started in February 2014, offer the potential to enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. Hence, results from this irradiation offer the potential to bridge the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers have continued to operate under irradiation. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015.

  1. Role of nitrogen vacancies in cerium doped aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Asghar, Farzana [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Rana, Usman Ali; Ud-Din Khan, Salah [Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Yoshiya, Masato [Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hussain, Fayyaz [Physics Department, Bahauddin Zakarya University, Multan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar [Department of Mathematics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    In this report, a systematic density functional theory based investigation to explain the character of nitrogen vacancies in structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ce doped wurtzite AlN is presented. The work demonstrates the modification in the properties of the material upon doping thereby addressing dopant concentration and inter-dopant distance. The presence of anionic vacancy reveals spin polarization and introduction of magnetic character in the structure. The doping produced the magnetic character in the material which was of ferromagnetic nature in most cases except the situation when dopants separated by largest distance of 5.873 Å. The calculated values of total energy and exchange energy suggested the configuration including Ce{sub Al}–V{sub N} complex is more favorable and exhibits ferromagnetic ordering. - Highlights: • Ce doped AlN with and without nitrogen vacancy. • Dopant at nearest neighbor site introduce ferromagnetism. • Ce{sub Al}–V{sub N} complex is favorable in Ce:AlN.

  2. Role of nitrogen vacancies in cerium doped aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Asghar, Farzana; Rana, Usman Ali; Ud-Din Khan, Salah; Yoshiya, Masato; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a systematic density functional theory based investigation to explain the character of nitrogen vacancies in structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ce doped wurtzite AlN is presented. The work demonstrates the modification in the properties of the material upon doping thereby addressing dopant concentration and inter-dopant distance. The presence of anionic vacancy reveals spin polarization and introduction of magnetic character in the structure. The doping produced the magnetic character in the material which was of ferromagnetic nature in most cases except the situation when dopants separated by largest distance of 5.873 Å. The calculated values of total energy and exchange energy suggested the configuration including Ce Al –V N complex is more favorable and exhibits ferromagnetic ordering. - Highlights: • Ce doped AlN with and without nitrogen vacancy. • Dopant at nearest neighbor site introduce ferromagnetism. • Ce Al –V N complex is favorable in Ce:AlN.

  3. Mechanisms of Dynamic Deformation and Dynamic Failure in Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...completing and reviewing the collection information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information...INTERNATIONAL RSRCH ASSOCIATES INC D ORPHAL CAGE 06EXO 5274 BLACKBIRD DR PLEASANTON CA 94566 1 BOB SKAGGS CONSULTANT S R

  4. Discrete microfluidics based on aluminum nitride surface acoustic wave devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, J.; Pang, H.F.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Iborra, E.; Clement, M.; De Miguel-Ramos, M.; Jin, H.; Luo, J.K.; Smith, S.; Dong, S.R.; Wang, D.M.; Fu, Y.Q.

    2015-01-01

    To date, most surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been made from bulk piezoelectric materials, such as quartz, lithium niobate or lithium tantalite. These bulk materials are brittle, less easily integrated with electronics for control and signal processing, and difficult to realize multiple wave modes or apply complex electrode designs. Using thin film SAWs makes it convenient to integrate microelectronics and multiple sensing or microfluidics techniques into a lab-on-a-chip with low cos...

  5. Study of aluminum nitride precipitation in Fe- 3%Si steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Alcântara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For good performance of electrical steels it is necessary a high magnetic induction and a low power loss when submitted to cyclic magnetization. A fine dispersion of precipitates is a key requirement in the manufacturing process of Fe- 3%Si grain oriented electrical steel. In the production of high permeability grain oriented steel precipitate particles of copper and manganese sulphides and aluminium nitride delay normal grain growth during primary recrystallization, causing preferential growth of grains with Goss orientation during secondary recrystallization. The sulphides precipitate during the hot rolling process. The aluminium nitride particles are formed during hot rolling and the hot band annealing process. In this work AlN precipitation during hot deformation of a high permeability grain oriented 3%Si steel is examined. In the study, transfer bar samples were submitted to controlled heating, compression and cooling treatments in order to simulate a reversible hot rolling finishing. The samples were analyzed using the transmission electron microscope (TEM in order to identify the precipitates and characterize size distribution. Precipitate extraction by dissolution method and analyses by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES were used to quantify the precipitation. The results allowed to describe the precipitation kinetics by a precipitation-time-temperature (PTT diagram for AlN formation during hot rolling.

  6. Role of powder preparation route on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-TiB2 composites fabricated by accumulative roll bonding (ARB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarpour, M.; Sadeghian, Z.; Reihanian, M.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was conducted up to seven cycles to fabricate Al-TiB 2 particulate metal matrix composites. The reinforcing particles were prepared and used in three different processing conditions: as-received TiB 2 , mixed TiB 2 -Al and in-situ synthesized TiB 2 -Al. The mixed TiB 2 -Al powder was produced by milling of TiB 2 with Al powder and in-situ synthesized TiB 2 -Al powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) through inducing TiB 2 particles in the Al with various composition of 10, 20 and 30 wt% Al. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure of the produced composites. The composite obtained from the in-situ TiB 2 -Al powder showed the most uniform distribution of particles and exhibited the highest tensile strength of about 177 MPa in comparison with the composites reinforced with the as-received TiB 2 (156 MPa) and mixed TiB 2 -Al powder (160 MPa). After seven ARB cycles, an ultra-fine grained structure with the average size of about 300 nm was obtained in the composite reinforced with in-situ TiB 2 -Al powder. The appearance of dimples in tensile fracture surfaces revealed a ductile-type fracture in the produced composites.

  7. Role of powder preparation route on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-TiB{sub 2} composites fabricated by accumulative roll bonding (ARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarpour, M.; Sadeghian, Z., E-mail: z.sadeghian@scu.ac.ir; Reihanian, M.

    2016-11-20

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was conducted up to seven cycles to fabricate Al-TiB{sub 2} particulate metal matrix composites. The reinforcing particles were prepared and used in three different processing conditions: as-received TiB{sub 2}, mixed TiB{sub 2}-Al and in-situ synthesized TiB{sub 2}-Al. The mixed TiB{sub 2}-Al powder was produced by milling of TiB{sub 2} with Al powder and in-situ synthesized TiB{sub 2}-Al powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) through inducing TiB{sub 2} particles in the Al with various composition of 10, 20 and 30 wt% Al. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure of the produced composites. The composite obtained from the in-situ TiB{sub 2}-Al powder showed the most uniform distribution of particles and exhibited the highest tensile strength of about 177 MPa in comparison with the composites reinforced with the as-received TiB{sub 2} (156 MPa) and mixed TiB{sub 2}-Al powder (160 MPa). After seven ARB cycles, an ultra-fine grained structure with the average size of about 300 nm was obtained in the composite reinforced with in-situ TiB{sub 2}-Al powder. The appearance of dimples in tensile fracture surfaces revealed a ductile-type fracture in the produced composites.

  8. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  9. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  10. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of ODS Ferritic Steels Using Commercial Alloy Powders for High Temperature Service Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) is one of the promising ways to improve the mechanical property at high temperatures. This is mainly attributed to uniformly distributed nano-oxide particle with a high density, which is extremely stable at the high temperature and acts as effective obstacles when the dislocations are moving. In this study, as a preliminary examination to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial alloy powders and their microstructural and mechanical properties were investigated. In this study, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial stainless steel 430L powder and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Morphology of micro-grains and oxide particles were significantly changed by the addition of minor alloying elements such as Ti, Zr, and Hf. The ODS ferritic steel with Zr and Hf additions showed ultra-fine grains with fine complex oxide particles. The oxide particles were uniformly located in grains and on the grain boundaries. This led to higher hardness than ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition.

  12. Production of a Powder Metallurgical Hot Work Tool Steel with Harmonic Structure by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmina, Faraz; Pellizzari, Massimo; Federici, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Commercial AISI-H13 gas atomized powders (AT) were mechanically milled (MM) to refine both the particle size and the microstructure. Different volume fractions of coarser grained (CG) AT powders were mixed with the ultra-fine grained (UFG) MM and consolidated by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulks showing a harmonic structure ( i.e. a 3D interconnected network of UFG areas surrounding the CG atomized particles). The low sintering temperature, 1373.15 K (1100 °C) and the short sintering time (30 minutes) made it possible to obtain near full density samples while preserving the refined microstructure induced by MM. A combination of high hardness and significantly improved fracture toughness is achieved by the samples containing 50 to 80 vol pct MM, essentially showing harmonic structure. The design allows to easily achieve specific application oriented properties by varying the MM volume fraction in the initial mixture. Hardness is governed by the fine-grained MM matrix and improved toughening is due to (1) deviatory effect of AT particles and (2) energy dissipation as a result of the decohesion in MM regions or AT and MM interface.

  13. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  14. Line profile analysis of ODS steels Fe20Cr5AlTiY milled powders at different Y2O3 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afandi, A.; Nisa, R.; Thosin, K. A. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical properties of material are largely dictated by constituent microstructure parameters such as dislocation density, lattice microstrain, crystallite size and its distribution. To develop ultra-fine grain alloys such as Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys, mechanical alloying is crucial step to introduce crystal defects, and refining the crystallite size. In this research the ODS sample powders were mechanically alloyed with different Y2O3 concentration respectively of 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 wt%. MA process was conducted with High Energy Milling (HEM) with the ball to powder ratio of 15:1. The vial and the ball were made of alumina, and the milling condition is set 200 r.p.m constant. The ODS powders were investigated by X-Ray Diffractions (XRD), Bragg-Brentano setup of SmartLab Rigaku with 40 KV, and 30 mA, step size using 0.02°, with scanning speed of 4°min-1. Line Profile Analysis (LPA) of classical Williamson-Hall was carried out, with the aim to investigate the different crystallite size, and microstrain due to the selection of the full wide at half maximum (FWHM) and integral breadth.

  15. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  16. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  17. Operation whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.

    1987-01-01

    The odyssey of the contaminated whey powder finally has come to an end, and the 5000 tonnes of whey now are designated for decontamination by means of an ion exchange technique. The article throws light upon the political and economic reasons that sent the whey powder off on a chaotic journey. It is worth mentioning in this context that the natural radioactivity of inorganic fertilizers is much higher than that of the whey powder in question. (HP) [de

  18. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  1. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  2. The origins and processing of ultra fine anaphase DNA bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Yao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    and BLM. UFBs become visible in the anaphase of mitosis, and can persist into telophase in rare cases. There are at least three different types of UFBs that can be distinguished according to the chromosomal loci from which they originate. However, it remains largely unknown how these UFBs are generated...

  3. Ultra-fine metal gate operated graphene optical intensity modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Rai; Hori, Yosuke; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Warabi, Kaori; Kobayashi, Yuzuki; Harada, Yuichi; Hibino, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hirochika; Yamada, Koji

    2016-12-01

    A graphene based top-gate optical modulator on a standard silicon photonic platform is proposed for the future optical telecommunication networks. On the basis of the device simulation, we proposed that an electro-absorption light modulation can be realized by an ultra-narrow metal top-gate electrode (width less than 400 nm) directly located on the top of a silicon wire waveguide. The designed structure also provides excellent features such as carrier doping and waveguide-planarization free fabrication processes. In terms of the fabrication, we established transferring of a CVD-grown mono-layer graphene sheet onto a CMOS compatible silicon photonic sample followed by a 25-nm thick ALD-grown Al2O3 deposition and Source-Gate-Drain electrodes formation. In addition, a pair of low-loss spot-size converter for the input and output area is integrated for the efficient light source coupling. The maximum modulation depth of over 30% (1.2 dB) is observed at a device length of 50 μm, and a metal width of 300 nm. The influence of the initial Fermi energy obtained by experiment on the modulation performance is discussed with simulation results.

  4. on the magnetic properties of ultra-fine zinc ferrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anantharaman, M.R.; Jagatheesan, S.; Malini, K.A.; Sindhu, S.; Narayanasamy, A.; Chinnasamy, C.N.; Jacobs, J.P.; Reijne, S.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Smits, R.H.H.; Smits, R.H.H.; Brongersma, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    Zinc ferrite belongs to the class of normal spinels where it is assumed to have a cation distribution of Zn2+(Fe3+)2(O2−)4, and it is purported to be showing zero net magnetisation. However, there have been recent reports suggesting that zinc ferrite exhibits anomaly in its magnetisation. Zinc

  5. Laser Enhanced System for Ultra-Fine Microstructure Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ray T

    2002-01-01

    .... High-speed polymer-based EO modulator arrays and polymer-based optical true-time delay modules have been built through the existing programs involving UT Austin (Chen), USC (Steier), UCLA (Fetterman) and Univ. of Washington (Dalton...

  6. Consolidation of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline Cu-Nb-ZrO{sub 2} powder by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymann, K., E-mail: Konrad.Eymann@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Riedl, T.; Bram, A.; Ruhnow, M.; Boucher, R.; Kirchner, A.; Kieback, B. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solution of Cu-Nb was achieved by mechanically alloying Cu, Nb and ZrO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In as-milled state the Cu-Nb-ZrO{sub 2} powders show an average Cu grain size of 16 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical and electrical properties are studied in dependence of thermal exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compaction at 1000 Degree-Sign C/1 min using SPS increases Cu grain size to 43 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk samples reach a maximum IACS of 16% and 98% relative density. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis of ultra fine grained high-strength Cu-Nb-ZrO{sub 2} bulk samples via mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Technologically relevant properties such as density, micro-hardness, and electrical conductivity were studied in terms of the compaction parameters, in particular the sintering temperature and holding time. An optimum process parameter combination has been found T = 950 Degree-Sign C, t = 1 min, and 65 MPa, which yield a micro-hardness of 325 HV, 97.5% relative density, and electrical conductivity of 10% IACS. The dependence of these properties on the compaction parameters is explained by analyzing the microstructure, i.e. grain size, presence and distribution of phases, and porosity, with X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy as well as with an Archimedes densitometer.

  7. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c

  8. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  9. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  10. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  11. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  12. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  13. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  14. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  15. Weighing fluidized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  16. Baking Powder Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Civitello, Linda

    2017-01-01

    How did a mid-nineteenth century American invention, baking powder, replace yeast as a leavening agent and create a culinary revolution as profound as the use of yeast thousands of years ago?The approach was two-pronged and gendered: business archives, U.S. government records and lawsuits revealed how baking powder was created, marketed, and regulated. Women’s diaries and cookbooks—personal, corporate, community, ethnic—from the eighteenth century to internet blogs showed the use women made o...

  17. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  18. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  19. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  20. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  1. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  2. Advancements in Ti Alloy Powder Production by Close-Coupled Gas Atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidloff, Andy; Rieken, Joel; Anderson, Iver; Byrd, David

    2011-04-01

    size cut has traditionally been 45 {mu}m, and in some instances a bottom cut at +5 {mu}m is made to remove ultra-fine particles and reduce oxygen content. Predictably, use of irregular shaped or larger particle feedstock powder can reduce part quality as sintering shrinkage and part detail suffer. Thus, widespread production and technological use of Ti-MIM is limited due in large part to Ti alloy feedstock cost and availability, not MIM processing capability. Lower cost feedstock of fine, spherical Ti alloy powder with sufficient purity must be available in order to fully utilize the advantages of the Ti-MIM processing route allowing expansion of the market to small complex Ti parts in many high volume applications.

  3. Method to blend separator powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  4. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  5. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  6. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  7. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  8. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Joel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-12-13

    different powder particle size ranges, illustrating microstructural control as a function of particle solidification rate. The consolidation of ultra-fine powders (dia. ≤ 5μm) resulted in a significant reduction in dispersoid size and spacing, consistent with initial scanning electron microscopy studies on as-atomized cross-sectioned particles that suggested that these powders solidified above the threshold velocity to effectively solute trap Y within the α-(Fe,Cr) matrix. Interestingly, when the solidification velocity as a function of particle size was extracted from the aforementioned theoretical particle cooling curves, it could be offered as supporting evidence for these microstructure observations. Thermal-mechanical treatments also were used to create and evaluate the stability of a dislocation substructure within these alloys, using microhardness and TEM analysis of the alloy sub-grain and grain structure. Moreover, elevated temperature tensile tests up to 800°C were used to assess the initial mechanical strength of the ODS microstructure.

  9. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  10. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  11. LARC powder prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  12. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  13. Superconductors by powder metallurgy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickus, M.R.; Wang, J.L.F.

    1976-05-01

    Fabrication methods for Nb 3 Sn type compounds are described. Information is included on the Bell Telephone process, the General Electric tape process, superconductor stability, the bronze process, powder metallurgy multifilamentary tapes and wires, and current assessment of powder metallurgy superconducting wire

  14. Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics

  15. Laterally Vibrating Resonator Based Elasto-Optic Modulation in Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    the adjoining test setup used to probe the devices. Following the design of a laterally vibrating piezoelectric contour...licenses/by/4.0/). [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4945356] The interaction of acoustic waves with light provides a useful resource to perform optical signal...recent years, several types of acousto-optic interactions have been demonstrated in a wide va- riety of devices, including the use of

  16. Characterization of aluminum/aluminum nitride coatings sputter deposited using the pulsed-gas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, R.W.; Hosford, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A dc triode magnetron has been used to produce freestanding Al/Al + AlN lamellar foils by sputter deposition. The 5-μm-thick foils produced on both flat substrates as well as curved substrates exhibited good specularity as well as excellent mechanical properties. The pulse spacing was varied from none to 100-nm spacing. The yield strength of the material was found to obey the Hall-Petch relation sigma/sub ys/ = 230 + .07/d/sup 1/2/, where sigma/sub ys/ is in MPa. Auger electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy indicate that the large flow stress of 230 MPa must be due to grain refinement of the extended source and not an impurity effect. The result is that limitations of masking found in uniaxial flux sources for curved surfaces can be removed allowing the high quality coating of more general shapes

  17. Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondokov, Robert T; Rao, Shailaja P; Gibb, Shawn Robert; Schowalter, Leo J

    2015-05-12

    In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.

  18. Elastic moduli of faceted aluminum nitride nanotubes measured by contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, G; Cook, R F; Ciobanu, C V; Thayer, T P; Wang, G T; Creighton, J R; Purushotham, K P; Bendersky, L A

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology for determining the radial elastic modulus of a one-dimensional nanostructure laid on a substrate has been developed. The methodology consists of the combination of contact resonance atomic force microscopy (AFM) with finite element analysis, and we illustrate it for the case of faceted AlN nanotubes with triangular cross-sections. By making precision measurements of the resonance frequencies of the AFM cantilever-probe first in air and then in contact with the AlN nanotubes, we determine the contact stiffness at different locations on the nanotubes, i.e. on edges, inner surfaces, and outer facets. From the contact stiffness we have extracted the indentation modulus and found that this modulus depends strongly on the apex angle of the nanotube, varying from 250 to 400 GPa for indentation on the edges of the nanotubes investigated.

  19. Density functional study of carbon monoxide adsorption on small cationic, neutral, and anionic aluminum nitride clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling

    CO adsorption on small cationic, neutral, and anionic (AlN)n (n = 1-6) clusters has been investigated using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation. Among various possible CO adsorption sites, an N on-top (onefold coordinated) site is found to be the most favorable one, irrespective of the charge state of the clusters. The adsorption energies of CO on the anionic (AlN)nCO (n = 2-4) clusters are greater than those on the neutral and cationic complexes. The adsorption energies on the cationic and neutral complexes reflect the odd-even oscillations, and the adsorption energies of CO on the cationic (AlN)nCO (n = 5, 6) clusters are greater than those on the neutral and anionic complexes. The adsorption energies for the different charge states decrease with increasing cluster size.

  20. Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Wu, Feng; Zollner, Christian; Alif, Muhammad Esmed; Saifaddin, Burhan; Almogbel, Abdullah; Iza, Michael; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2017-01-01

    temperature on the AlN crystal quality, defect density, and surface morphology. The crystal quality was characterized using omega rocking curve scans and the threading dislocation density was determined by plan view transmission electron microscopy. The growth

  1. Thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride ceramics. Waermeleitfaehigkeit von Aluminiumnitrid-Keramik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruessel, C.; Hofmann, T.; Limmer, G. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften 3)

    Aluminium nitride ceramics made by the authors, as well as others produced commercially, mostly using yttrium oxide as an additive, were characterized with respect to their phase and chemical composition, their microstructure, and their thermal conductivity. It was shown that conventional ideas, especially with regard to the correlations between thermal conductivity and the oxygen content and the microstructure, could not withstand a critical examination. Instead, a connection can be seen between the oxygen not bound up in yttrium-aluminum garnet and thermal conductivity. Relatively low thermal conductivities were always observed when yttrium-aluminum garnet was present as a grain-boundary phase; in contrast, high values of thermal conductivity were seen when the yttrium-aluminum garnet was present in the form of isolated grains. (orig.).

  2. Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Foronda, Humberto M.

    2017-11-23

    In this work, reduced threading dislocation density AlN on (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC was realized through the use of reduced temperature AlN interlayers in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth. We explored the dependence of the interlayer growth temperature on the AlN crystal quality, defect density, and surface morphology. The crystal quality was characterized using omega rocking curve scans and the threading dislocation density was determined by plan view transmission electron microscopy. The growth resulted in a threading dislocation density of 7 × 108 cm−2 indicating a significant reduction in the defect density of AlN in comparison to direct growth of AlN on SiC (∼1010 cm−2). Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated a clear step-terrace morphology that is consistent with step flow growth at high temperature. Reducing the interlayer growth temperature increased the TD inclination and thus enhanced TD-TD interactions. The TDD was decreased via fusion and annihilation reactions.

  3. Optical investigations on the wide bandgap semiconductors diamond and aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilov, Nikolai

    2007-07-01

    In the context of this thesis, new results about optical defects and intrinsic properties of diamond, AlN and AlGaN alloys have been obtained. The main experimental techniques used were low temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectroscopy. First, different aspects of intentional and background doping of diamond were discussed. Thus, the most commonly observed green luminescence emission from boron doped HPHT diamonds has been studied by means of temperature dependent CL in a wide temperature range from 10 K to 450 K. One further subject, addressing deep defect nitrogen related luminescence was a study of nitrogen addition in combustion flame grown CVD diamond layers. Two further topics concern intrinsic excitations in diamond, free excitons and electron-hole drops. Several important parameters like the critical density, the critical temperature, and the low-temperature density inside the drops were evaluated. The ground state density of the electron-hole condensate in diamond is about {approx} 42 times larger than that in Si, and the critical temperature takes very high values in the range of 165K.. 173K. Cathodoluminescence investigations on epitaxial wurtzite AlN layers grown on sapphire, SiC, and Si substrates, have shown that although the material is generally of good optical quality, deep level luminescence are still dominating the spectra. Relatively sharp near-band-edge transitions have been observed in all three samples that exhibit significantly reduced line widths for the AlN/sapphire and the AlN/SiC samples. Much broader emission lines in the near band-gap region have been observed for the first time from the AlN sample grown on Si (111) substrate. Temperature dependent CL measurements and numerical line decompositions reveal complicated substructures in the excitonic lines. The temperature dependence of the energy positions and broadening parameters of the transition have been studied and compared with the other materials. Epitaxial AlGaN/AlN heterostructures grown on sapphire, and SiC substrates were investigated by low temperature CL at 10 K. (orig.)

  4. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  5. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  6. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  7. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  8. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  9. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  10. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  11. Powder metallurgy - some economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a forming process powder metallurgy offers reductions in material and energy consumption. The engineering prerequisites and economics are discussed in relation to several industrial applications including automobile parts. 14 refs.

  12. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)

  13. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  14. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  15. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  16. Shock diffraction in alumina powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to produce complex shaped components by dynamic compaction of ceramic powders detailed knowledge of their response under shock loading conditions is required. This work attempts to provide data on release effects and shock attenuation in 1 μm and 5 μm α-alumina powders which were compacted to between 85 % and 95 % of the solid phase density by the impact of high velocity steel projectiles. As in previous work, the powder was loaded into large cylindrical dies with horizontal marker layers of a contrasting coloured powder to provide a record of powder displacement in the recovered specimens. After recovery and infiltration with a thermosetting resin the specimens were sectioned and polished to reveal the structure formed by the passage of the projectile and shock wave. Results indicate that the shock pressures generated were of the order of 0.5 to 1.4 GPa and higher, with shock velocities and sound speeds in the ranges 650 to 800 m/s and 350 to 400 m/s respectively

  17. Method of solidifying powderous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Akira; Miyake, Takashi; Sato, Shuichi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the properties of solidification products, in the case of solidifying powderous wastes with thermosetting resins. Method. A solvent for the solution of the thermosetting resin is admixed with the powderous wastes into a paste-like form prior to adding the resin to the wastes, which are then mixed with the resin solution. As the result, those solidification products having the specific gravity and the compression strength more excellent than those of the conventional ones, and much higher than the reference values can be obtained. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  19. Metallography of powder metallurgy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F.

    2003-01-01

    The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly

  20. Electro/powder separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented to introduce the ELECTRO/POWDER process to the P/M Industry. The process effectively uses electrostatic forces to convey, sort, meter, and blend fine powders. The major advantages of this separating process consist of the processing of primary particles, low particle energy due to particle velocity control and the pattern of particle movement over the sieve (vertical oscillation of particles above the sieve aperture). The report briefly describes the forces involved in both mechanical and sieving devices, with major emphasis on the operating principles of this process. Sieve separation of particulates is basically the result of two physical separating processes which occur simultaneously or independently; separation (dispersion) of particulates from each other and the size separation by passage through fixed apertures. In order to accomplish this goal, mechanical sieving devices utilize various motions to induce shear forces between the sieve surface and the particulates, and between the particulates themselves. It is noted that the ELECTRO/POWDER process is making steady progress in becoming an industrial tool for sieving and feeding of fine particles. Its potential extends into both the blending and admixing of powders, either by incorporating two opposing feeders, one being charged with the opposite polarity or by modifying the ELECTRO/SIEVE to incorporate more than one input and a solid electrode to replace the sieve electrode

  1. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  2. Investigation of pressing of molybdenum powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mymrin, S.A.; Kuznetsov, V.Eh.; Yampol'skij, M.L.; Leonov, S.A.; Mikhridinov, R.M.; Korzukhin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into pressing of compacts of MCh type molybdenum powders using the industrial equipment are presented. To measure the density of powder molybdenum billets a radioisotopic density meter with cesium-137 is used as radioactive gamma radiation source. The dependence of the produced billet density on the specific compacting pressure at different values of the powder bulk density is ascertained

  3. MECHANICS OF DYNAMIC POWDER COMPACTION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurettin YAVUZ

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, interest in dynamic compaction methods of metal powders has increased due to the need to improve compaction properties and to increase production rates of compacts. In this paper, review of dynamic and explosive compaction of metal powders are given. An attempt is made to get a better understanding of the compaction process with the mechanicis of powder compaction.

  4. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  7. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of

  8. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  9. Separation of UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al 3 O 3 and UO 2 . it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO 2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  10. Manufacture of uranium dioxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium dioxide powder is prepared by the AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) method. Supplementing the known process steps, the AUC, after separation from the mother liquor, is washed with an ammonium hydrogen carbonate or an NH 4 OH solution and is subsequently post-treated with a liquid which reduces the surface tension of the residual water in an AUC. Such a liquid is, for instance, alcohol

  11. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  12. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Termo-Reaktif Difüzyon Tekniği ile Cr-Al-N Kaplanmış AISI D2 Çeliğinin Aşınma Davranışı

    OpenAIRE

    KILINÇ, Bülent; ÇEĞİL, Özkan; ŞEN, Uğur; ŞEN, Şaduman

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the wear test of uncoated, nitrided, chromium aluminum nitride coated AISI D2 cold work tool steel against silicon nitride ball realized at 0.1 m/s sliding speeds and under the loads of 2.5N, 5N and 10N.Steel samples were nitrided at 575 °C for 8 h in the first step of the coating process, and then chromium aluminum nitride coating was performed thermo-reactive deposition technique (TRD) in a powder mixture consisting of ferro-chromium, aluminum, ammonium chloride, alumina and n...

  14. PIXE analysis of powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallak, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator-based study, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was performed on four full-cream and four half-cream brands of powdered milk commonly consumed in Jordan. The elements detected in the samples are S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. The significance of some of these elements is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition and also their effect on milk processing and dairy technology. The standard reference milk sample, A-11, which is distributed by IAEA was also examined, and the results for trace elements detected are compared with the values certified by IAEA. (author)

  15. Atomization process for metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutkin, Stanislav; Achelis, Lydia; Sheikhaliev, Sheikhali; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Srivastava, Vikas

    2004-01-01

    A new atomization process has been developed, which combines pressure and gas atomization. The melt leaves the pressure nozzle as a hollow thin film cone. After the pre-filming step, the melt is atomized by a gas stream delivered by a ring nozzle. The objectives of this investigation are to achieve a narrow size distribution and low specific gas consumption compared to conventional gas atomization techniques. Both lead to a higher efficiency and low costs. Tin and some alloys have been atomized successfully with this technique. The mass median diameters from different experiments are between 20 and 100 μm. Sieving analysis of the tin powder shows close particle size distributions

  16. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, T.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of applications, but this study solely focuses on the application for powder -based three-dimensional printing (e.g. SLS, 3DP). This research is primarily interested in powder compaction for creating membrane...

  17. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Ståhl, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction patterns of lysozyme and insulin were recorded on a standard in-house powder diffractometer. The experimental powder diffraction patterns were compared with patterns calculated from Protein Data Bank coordinate data. Good agreement was obtained by including straightforward...... to include calculated H-atom positions did not improve the overall fit and was abandoned. The method devised was shown to be a quick and convenient tool for distinguishing precipitates and polymorphs of proteins....

  18. Cryomilling of Thermoplastic Powder for Prepreg Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Cryomilling of Thermoplastic Powder for Prepreg Applications by Brian Parquette, Anit Giri, Daniel J. O’Brien, Sarah Brennan, Kyu Cho, and...MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-6591 September 2013 Cryomilling of Thermoplastic Powder for Prepreg Applications Brian Parquette and Sarah Brennan...COVERED (From - To) 1 March 2012–30 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cryomilling of Thermoplastic Powder for Prepreg Applications 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Method of producing radioactive carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon powder, placed in a hermetically closed apparatus under vacuum together with radium ore, adsorbs radon gas emanating from the radium ore thus producing a radioactive carbonaceous material, the radioactivity of which is due to the presence of adsorbed radon. The radioactive carbon powder thus obtained has excellent therapeutical efficacy and is suitable for a variety of applications because of the mild radioactivity of radon. Radium ore permits substantially limitlessly repeated production of the radioactive carbon powder

  20. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs

  1. Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity

  2. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  3. Effect of surface energy on powder compactibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Frauke; Mahlin, Denny; Welch, Ken; Gaisford, Simon; Alderborn, Göran

    2008-12-01

    The influence of surface energy on the compactibility of lactose particles has been investigated. Three powders were prepared by spray drying lactose solutions without or with low proportions of the surfactant polysorbate 80. Various powder and tablet characterisation procedures were applied. The surface energy of the powders was characterized by Inverse Gas Chromatography and the compressibility of the powders was described by the relationship between tablet porosity and compression pressure. The compactibility of the powders was analyzed by studying the evolution of tablet tensile strength with increasing compaction pressure and porosity. All powders were amorphous and similar in particle size, shape, and surface area. The compressibility of the powders and the microstructure of the formed tablets were equal. However, the compactibility and dispersive surface energy was dependent of the composition of the powders. The decrease in tablet strength correlated to the decrease in powder surface energy at constant tablet porosities. This supports the idea that tablet strength is controlled by formation of intermolecular forces over the areas of contact between the particles and that the strength of these bonding forces is controlled by surface energy which, in turn, can be altered by the presence of surfactants.

  4. Effect of powder geometry on densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasskij, M.R.; Spasskaya, I.A.; Shatalova, I.G.; Shchukin, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of particle shape and size composition on the processes of powder vibratory compacting is considered. Using microstress measurements in compacted structures of conglomerated and disintegrated tungsten powders as well as powder strength testing the existence of a zone of transition from a structural deformation to a plastic one has been shown. The formation of phase interparticle contacts of practically stable strength (approximately 5-6 dyn) is a characteristic feature of the zone. The width of the transition zone greatly depends upon geometrical powder properties; 55-65 % for conglomerated tungsten, 63-66 % for integrated tungsten

  5. Safety consideration when handling metal powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available to some form of irritation or allergic reaction (e.g. dermatitis). In the case of nano-powders, the particles can penetrate the skin and become absorbed into cells in various parts of the body, including the brain � Eye contact, resulting in a... powders, and thus data is often limited to various ailments that have been reported for people working with that particular powder (amongs other things). There are three ways that powders can interact with the body: � Skin contact, which may lead...

  6. New detectors for powders diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, P.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years, all the classical neutron diffractometers for powders have used one or maybe a few counters. So, it takes a long time to obtain a diagram which causes many disadvantages: 1) very long experiments: one or two days (or flux on the sample about 10 6 n/cm 2 /a); 2) necessity of big samples: many cm 3 ; 3) necessity of having the whole diagram before changing anything in the experiment: magnetic field, temperature, quality of the sample; 4) necessity of having collimators of a few times ten minutes to obtain correct statistics in the diagram. Because of these disadvantages, several attempts have been made to speed up the experimental procedure such as using more counters, the detection of neutrons on a resistive wire, etc. In Grenoble, new position-sensitive detectors have been constructed using a digital technique

  7. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  8. Advances in powder diffraction crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magneli, A.

    1986-01-01

    This is the first conference to be arranged within the framework of an agreement on scientific exchange and co-operation between l Academie des Sciences de l Institut de France and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The responsibility for the scientific program of the conference has been shared between members of the two Academies. The contributions include glimpses of the historical background and broad reviews of the present status of development and of recent work in powder crystallography. Reports are given on a number of studies, basic as well as applied in character, currently conducted in the two countries in a large variety of fields. Prospects of further developments in the area are also presented

  9. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  10. Modeling of microwave heating of metallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchelnikov, V.D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.; Anzulevich, A.P.; Bychkov, I.V.; Yoshikawa, N.; Sato, M.; Inoue, A.

    2008-01-01

    As it is known from the experiment that bulk metallic samples reflect microwaves while powdered samples can absorb such a radiation and be heated efficiently. In the present paper we investigate theoretically the mechanisms of penetration of a layer of metallic powder by microwave radiation and microwave heating of such a system

  11. Production and properties of boride powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinskaya, N.A.; Koroleva, E.B.; Petrunichev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of plasma metallization of boride powders 40-80 μ diam. are presented. Peculiarities of changes of granulometric powder composition and of metallic cover on refractory cores were investigated. There are shown size- and compositional cores effects on metallization level of poders and on cover structure

  12. CLAY SOIL STABILISATION USING POWDERED GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. OLUFOWOBI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the stabilizing effect of powdered glass on clay soil. Broken waste glass was collected and ground into powder form suitable for addition to the clay soil in varying proportions namely 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% along with 15% cement (base by weight of the soil sample throughout. Consequently, the moisture content, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests were carried out to classify the soil using the ASSHTO classification system. Based on the results, the soil sample obtained corresponded to Group A-6 soils identified as ‘fair to poor’ soil type in terms of use as drainage and subgrade material. This justified stabilisation of the soil. Thereafter, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR and direct shear tests were carried out on the soil with and without the addition of the powdered glass. The results showed improvement in the maximum dry density values on addition of the powdered glass and with corresponding gradual increase up to 5% glass powder content after which it started to decrease at 10% and 15% powdered glass content. The highest CBR values of 14.90% and 112.91% were obtained at 5% glass powder content and 5mm penetration for both the unsoaked and soaked treated samples respectively. The maximum cohesion and angle of internal friction values of 17.0 and 15.0 respectively were obtained at 10% glass powder content.

  13. Solving Crystal Structures from Powder Diffraction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. Nørlund; Lehmann, M. S.; Nielsen, Mogens

    1985-01-01

    High resolution powder data from both neutron and X-ray (synchrotron) sources have been used to estimate the possibility of direct structure determination from powder data. Two known structures were resolved by direct methods with neutron and X-ray data. With synchrotron X-ray data, the measured ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flame; (ii) Within any building in which a fuel-fired or exposed-element electric heater is operating...; and (4) Opened only when the powder is being transferred to a blasthole or another container and only in locations not listed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet of any magazine or open flame; (ii) Within any building in which a fuel-fired or exposed-element electric heater is operating; or (iii) In an area where electrical or incandescent-particle sparks could result in powder ignition; and (4) Opened only when the powder is being transferred to a blasthole or...

  16. Sysnthesis of powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The freeze-drying method of synthesizing powders of the superconducting oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ is described. This process produces homogeneous, submicron powders of high purity. The effects of salt selection, solution concentration and pH on the process are described. Some evaluation of the sintering behavior and the effects on critical current density are included

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine oxide powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Inorganic powders are among the most important factors in many fields of materials such as ceramics, catalysts, medicines, food, etc. There are many papers and books related to powders preparation by many authors (Veale. 1972; Kato and Yamaguchi 1983; Vincenzini 1983;. Brinker et al 1984; Johnson Jr. 1987; Messing ...

  18. Whey powder sterilization by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Salatic, Z.; Markov, S.

    1988-01-01

    Whey powder was sterilized by gamma waves application. As a source of irridiation isotope 60Co was used in Institute of Nuclear sciences B oris Kidrich , Vincha-Belgrade (Yugoslavia). The applied doses were: a, b, c, d, and e Kgy. The dose d was radappertization. After whey powder irradiation no adverse changes of organoleptic properties were noticed

  19. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent. Maximum particle size 45µ (95 percent minimum). Aluminum, zinc, tin, and copper content shall be based on the weight of the dried powder after being thoroughly washed with ether. (c) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in color externally applied drugs, including those intended for...

  20. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  1. Process for fabricating mixed-oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmaleh, D.; Giraudel, A.

    1975-01-01

    A physical-chemical process for fabricating homogeneous powders suitable for sintering is described. It can be applied to the synthesis of all mixed oxides having mutually compatible and water soluble salts. As a specific example, the fabrication of lead titanate-zirconate powders used to make hot pressed ceramics is described. These ceramics show improved piezoelectric properties [fr

  2. Evaluating the Johanson theory for titanium powder

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available . In this study, the Johanson theory was used to determine the rolling parameters of titanium powder. Preliminary results of the nip angle, nip pressures and maximum horizontal pressures of the mill for the powder rolled on a 55mm diameter roll with roll gap sizes...

  3. Slow stress relaxation behavior of cohesive powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Paulick, Maria; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Morgenmeyer, Martin; Ramaioli, Marco; Chavez Montes, Bruno E.; Kwade, Arno; Luding, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present uniaxial (oedometric) compression tests on two cohesive industrially relevant granular materials (cocoa and limestone powder). A comprehensive set of experiments is performed using two devices – the FT4 Powder Rheometer and the custom made lambdameter – in order to investigate the

  4. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and calculating the effective moisture diffusivity of the samples. Powder containing oil exhibited the shortest drying time, highest drying rate (≈ 5.0 kg kg-1 min-1 and highest effective diffusivity (6.49 × 10-12 m2 s-1. All mathematical models assessed were a suitable representation of the drying kinetics of powders with and without oil, with R2 above 0.99 and root mean square error values lower than 1.0.

  5. Densification behavior of aluminum alloy powder mixed with zirconia powder inclusion under cold compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Ki Tae

    2002-01-01

    Densification behavior of composite powders was investigated during cold compaction. Experimental data were obtained for aluminum alloy powder mixed with zirconia powder inclusion under triaxial compression. The cap model with constraint factors was implemented into a finite element program(ABAQUS) to simulate compaction responses of composite powders during cold compaction. Finite element results were compared with experimental data for densification behavior of composite powders under cold isostatic pressing and die compaction. The agreements between experimental data and finite element calculations from the cap model with constraint factors were good

  6. Al based ultra-fine eutectic with high room temperature plasticity and elevated temperature strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwary, C.S., E-mail: cst311@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Kashyap, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Kim, D.H. [Center for Non-Crystalline Materials, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chattopadhyay, K. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2015-07-15

    Developments of aluminum alloys that can retain strength at and above 250 °C present a significant challenge. In this paper we report an ultrafine scale Al–Fe–Ni eutectic alloy with less than 3.5 at% transition metals that exhibits room temperature ultimate tensile strength of ~400 MPa with a tensile ductility of 6–8%. The yield stress under compression at 300 °C was found to be 150 MPa. We attribute it to the refinement of the microstructure that is achieved by suction casting in copper mold. The characterization using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) reveals an unique composite structure that contains the Al–Al{sub 3}Ni rod eutectic with spacing of ~90 nm enveloped by a lamellar eutectic of Al–Al{sub 9}FeNi (~140 nm). Observation of subsurface deformation under Vickers indentation using bonded interface technique reveals the presence of extensive shear banding during deformation that is responsible for the origin of ductility. The dislocation configuration in Al–Al{sub 3}Ni eutectic colony indicates accommodation of plasticity in α-Al with dislocation accumulation at the α-Al/Al{sub 3}Ni interface boundaries. In contrast the dislocation activities in the intermetallic lamellae are limited and contain set of planner dislocations across the plates. We present a detailed analysis of the fracture surface to rationalize the origin of the high strength and ductility in this class of potentially promising cast alloy.

  7. STM study on surface relief, ultra-fine structure and transformation mechanism of bainite in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.S.; Yang, Z.G.; Wang, J.J.; Zheng, Y.K.

    1995-01-01

    The surface reliefs accompanying lower bainite transformation in steels have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). With the exclusive vertical resolution of STM, we observed that the surface relief associated with bainite is a group of surface reliefs related to subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. From the bainite plate to the sub-subunit in it, the reliefs are in a tent shape, not of invariant plane strain (IPS) type. The fine structure of bainite in a steel has also been shown by STM and TEM that bainite plate is composed of subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. On the basis of the fine structure inside a bainitic ferrite plate observed under STM, sympathetic-ledgewise mechanism of bainite formation is proposed. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of an ultra-fine, slightly dispersed silver iodide aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poc, Marie-Martine

    1973-01-01

    A silver iodide aerosol was prepared under clean conditions. The method was to react iodine vapor with a silver aerosol in an inert dry atmosphere and in darkness. Great care was taken to avoid contamination from atmosphere air. The ice nucleating properties of the ultrafine AgI aerosol obtained were studied in a cloud mixing chamber: the aerosol was found to be strangely inactive. (author) [fr

  9. Biological evaluation of ultra-fine titanium with improved mechanical strength for dental implant engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostrovská, L.; Vištejnová, L.; Dzugan, J.; Slama, P.; Kubina, T.; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kubies, Dana; Králíčková, M.; Hubálek Kalbáčová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2016), s. 3097-3110 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MZd(CZ) NT13297 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : mesenchymal stem-cells * thermal-stability Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  10. Kinetic study of static recrystallization in an Fe–Al–O ultra-fine-grained nanocomposite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártková, Denisa; Šmíd, Miroslav; Mašek, B.; Svoboda, Jiří; Šiška, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 10 (2017), s. 379-385 ISSN 0950-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21292Y; GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : recrystallization * dislocation structures * nanoscale precipitates * microstructure * abrupt grain coarsening Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2016

  11. Fatigue and creep–fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Carroll, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep–fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 °C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of −1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep–fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep–fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  12. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.C., E-mail: Mark.Carroll@INL.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States); Carroll, L.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States)

    2012-10-30

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep-fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 Degree-Sign C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep-fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  13. Possible Gems and Ultra-Fine Grained Polyphase Units in Comet Wild 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsforth, Z.; Butterworth, A. L.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Westphal, A. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D.; Ogliore, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bechtel, H. A.; Ebel, D. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    GEMS and ultrafine grained polyphase units (UFG-PU) in anhydrous IDPs are probably some of the most primitive materials in the solar system. UFG-PUs contain nanocrystalline silicates, oxides, metals and sulfides. GEMS are rounded approximately 100 nm across amorphous silicates containing embedded iron-nickel metal grains and sulfides. GEMS are one of the most abundant constituents in some anhydrous CPIDPs, often accounting for half the material or more. When NASA's Stardust mission returned with samples from comet Wild 2 in 2006, it was thought that UFG-PUs and GEMS would be among the most abundant materials found. However, possibly because of heating during the capture process in aerogel, neither GEMS nor UFG-PUs have been clearly found.

  14. Ultra-fine structural characterization and bioactivity evaluation of TiO2 nanotube layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, JaeMyung; Kwon, TaeYub; Kim, KyoHan

    2008-10-01

    For an application as biomedical materials of high performance with a good biocompatibility, the TiO2 nanotube-type oxide film on Ti substrate has been fabricated by electrochemical method, and the effects of surface characteristics of TiO2 naotube layer have been investigated. The surface morphology of TiO2 nanotube layer depends on factors such as anodizing time, current density, and electrolyte temperature. Moreover, the cell and pore size gradually were increased with the passage of anodizing time. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the TiO2 nanotube layer formed in acidic electrolytes was mainly composed of anatase structure containing rutile. From the analysis of chemical states of TiO2 nanotube layer using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ti2p, P2p and O1s were observed in the nanotubes layer, which were penetrated from the electrolyte into the oxide layer during anodic process. The incorporated phosphate species were found mostly in the forms of HPO4-, PO4-, and PO3-. From the result of biological evaluation in simulated body fluid (SBF) the TiO2 nanotube layer was effective for bioactive property.

  15. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  16. Seasonal variation and volatility of ultra-fine particles in coastal Antarctic troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Size distribution and volatility of ultrafine aerosol particles were measured at Syowa Station during the 46-47 Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions. During the summer, most of the ultrafine particles were volatile particles, which were composed of H_2SO_4, CH_3SO_3H and sulfates bi-sulfates. The abundance of non-volatile particles was ~ 20% during the summer, increasing to>90% in winter-spring. Non-volatile particles in winter were dominantly sea-salt particles. Some ultrafine sea-salt particles might be released from sea-ice. When air mass was transported from the free troposphere over the Antarctic continent, the abundance of non-volatile particles dropped to<30% even in winter.

  17. Mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained structure formed in Al-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk-Cieslak, B.; Lewandowska, M.; Mizera, J.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical properties (microhardness, yield stress) of two model Al-Li alloys by the Equal-Channel-Angular-Extrusion (ECAE) process. The applied ECAE process reduced the grain size from an initial value of ∼300 μm to a value of ∼0.7 μm leading to profound increase of plastic flow resistance. Such an increase is related to the grain size refinement and strengthening due to Li atoms in solid solution. Microhardness data confirm the Hall - Petch relation for grain sizes not available so far in Al-Li alloys. (author)

  18. Characterization of ultra-fine grained aluminum produced by accumulative back extrusion (ABE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alihosseini, H.; Faraji, G.; Dizaji, A.F.; Dehghani, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructural evolutions and microhardness of AA1050 subjected to one, two and three passes of accumulative back extrusion (ABE) were investigated. The microstructural evolutions were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that applying three passes of accumulative back extrusion led to significant grain refinement. The initial grain size of 47 μm was refined to the grains of 500 nm after three passes of ABE. Increasing the number of passes resulted in more decrease in grain size, better microstructure homogeneity and increase in the microhardness. The cross-section of ABEed specimen consisted of two different zones: (i) shear deformation zone, and (ii) normal deformation zone. The microhardness measurements indicated that the hardness increased from the initial value of 31 Hv to 67 Hv, verifying the significant microstructural refinement via accumulative back extrusion. - Highlights: ► A significant grain refinement can be achieved in AA1050, Al alloy by applying ABE. ► Microstructural homogeneity of ABEed samples increased by increasing the number of ABE cycles. ► A substantial increase in the hardness, from 31 Hv to 67 Hv, was recorded.

  19. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  20. An optimized ultra-fine energy group structure for neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, Harish; Ouisloumen, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an optimized energy group structure that was developed for neutron transport calculations in lattices using the Westinghouse lattice physics code PARAGON. The currently used 70-energy group structure results in significant discrepancies when the predictions are compared with those from the continuous energy Monte Carlo methods. The main source of the differences is the approximations employed in the resonance self-shielding methodology. This, in turn, leads to ambiguous adjustments in the resonance range cross-sections. The main goal of developing this group structure was to bypass the self-shielding methodology altogether thereby reducing the neutronic calculation errors. The proposed optimized energy mesh has 6064 points with 5877 points spanning the resonance range. The group boundaries in the resonance range were selected so that the micro group cross-sections matched reasonably well with those derived from reaction tallies of MCNP for a number of resonance absorbers of interest in reactor lattices. At the same time, however, the fast and thermal energy range boundaries were also adjusted to match the MCNP reaction rates in the relevant ranges. The resulting multi-group library was used to obtain eigenvalues for a wide variety of reactor lattice numerical benchmarks and also the Doppler reactivity defect benchmarks to establish its adequacy. (authors)

  1. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  2. Corrosion-resistant powder-metallurgy stainless steel powders and compacts therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klar, E.; Ro, D.H.; Whitman, C.I.

    1980-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for improving the corrosion resistance of a stainless steel powder or compact thereof wherein the powder is produced by atomizing a melt of metals in an oxidizing environment whereby the resulting stainless steel powder is surface-enriched in silicon oxides. The process comprises adding an effective proportion of modifier metal to the melt prior to the atomization, the modifier metal selected from the group consisting of tin, aluminum, lead, zinc, magnesium, rare earth metals and like metals capable of enrichment about the surface of the resulting atomized stainless steel powder and effective under reductive sintering conditions in the depletion of the silicon oxides about the surface; and sintering the resulting atomized powder or a compact thereof under reducing conditions, the sintered powder or compact thereof being depleted in the silicon oxides and the corrosion resistance of the powder or compact thereof being improved thereby

  3. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  4. Powder metallurgy development at SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing a powder metallurgy (P/M) process for manufacturing reactor-grade fuel tubes containing high wt % U 3 O 8 -Al cores clad with 8001 aluminum. The P/M cores are made by isostatic compaction. They are assembled in billets, outgassed, and hot-extruded using conventional coextrusion techniques. Cores have been compacted with up to 100% U3O 8 and tubes extruded with 80 wt % oxide cores. Irradiation tests have been made using P/M core tubes in the Savannah River reactors. These tubes contained U 3 O 8 concentrations up to 59 wt % and no significant swelling or blistering occurred. The tubes were irradiated to ∼ 40% burnup or 1.6x10 21 fissions/cc of core. This report discusses both small-scale and production tests for high-density P/M fuel development. The purpose of the P/M development program at SRL is to: determine the maximum U 3 O 8 content that can be fabricated into thin wall tubes, irradiate high-density tubes to high burnup and assess irradiation and dimensional stability, continue metal forming studies for extrusion and drawing, and evaluate hydrostatic extrusion and hydrostatically assisted drawing of P/M core tubes. Experimental results of testing the fuel assemblies performance so far indicate that: cores containing fine (-325 mesh) U 3 O 8 and aluminum powders can be made practically free of high-density areas using the outlined P/M pre blending and sieving techniques. U 3 O 8 -Al cores can be isostatically compacted with up to 100 wt U 3 O 8 and tubes successfully extruded with up to 80 wt oxide; fission gas blistering of U 3 O 8 -Al P/M tubes as indicated by the blister tests is a function of fissions/cc of U 3 O 8 in the core; Decreasing the fission density of oxide increases the threshold temperature for blister formation; U 3 O 8 -Al P/M fuel tubes with up to 59 wt U 3 O 8 have been successfully irradiated in SRP reactor to 1.6 x 10 21 fissions/cc of core or 7 x 10 20 fissions/cc of U 3 O 8 small

  5. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  6. Crushing method for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    A crushing medium is contained in mill pots disposed at the circumferential periphery of a main axis. The diameter of each mill pot is determined such that powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders and ground and mixed powders do not reach criticality. A plurality of mill pots are revolved in the direction of the main axis while each pots rotating on its axis. Powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are conveyed to a supply portion of the moll pot, and an inert gas is supplied to the supply portion. The powdery nuclear fuels are supplied from the supply portion to the inside of the mill pots, and the powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are crushed by centrifugal force caused by the rotation and the revolving of the mill pots by means of the crushing medium. UO 2 powder in uranium oxide fuels can be crushed continuously. PuO 2 powder and UO 2 powder in MOX fuels can be crushed and mixed continuously. (I.N.)

  7. Producing tantalum or columbium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerat, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the production of tantalum or columbium powder with a high yield within a desired range of particle sizes. A molten salt bath of a double salt comprising either an alkali metal tantalum fluoride or an alkali metal columbium fluoride and a relatively large amount of alkali metal halide diluent salt to act as a heat sink is initially maintained at a temperature a little above the liquidus temperature of the salt mixture. A liquid alkali metal at a comparatively low temperature is added to the continuously stirred bath at a high mass flow rate, and reduces the double salt, producing tantalum or columbium. The reaction is exothermic and causes the temperature to rise rapidly to a desired final reaction temperature within the range 760 to 1000 0 . The liquid alkali metal is thereafter fed at a high mass flow rate to complete the reaction quickly at the final reaction temperature. Forced cooling at a heat extraction rate not less than 42 kilojoules/min./kg. of double salt is used during at least a portion of the reaction cycle at a rate sufficient to maintain the final reaction temperature within a desired range. (author)

  8. Powder metallurgy development at SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel for Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactors consists of extruded tubes with aluminum--uranium alloy cores clad with 8001 aluminum. The 235 U in the fuel is periodically recovered and recycled in new fuel assemblies. The buildup of 236 U in the enriched uranium requires increased total uranium contents to maintain reactivity in existing assembly designs. High level waste production from these tubes is proportional to the aluminum content; therefore, appreciable radioactive waste reductions result from lower aluminum--uranium ratios and thinner clad tubes. The casting process now used for fuel cores is limited to below 40 wt % U because of the reduced fabricability of high uranium alloys. To increase tube loading and reduce aluminum, the U 3 O 8 -Al powder metallurgy (P/M) process for fuel tubes is under development. Several fabricaion and irradiaion tests have been made using production conditions. Both small scale and production tests carried out at SRL for high-density P/M fuel development are discussed

  9. Powder metallurgy development at SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing a powder metallury (P/M) process for manufacturing reactor-grade fuel tubes containing high wt % U 3 O 8 -Al cores clad with 8001 aluminum. The P/M cores are made by isostatic compaction. They are assembled in billets, outgassed, and hot-extruded using conventional coextrusion techniques. Cores have been compacted with up to 100% U 3 O 8 and tubes extruded with 80 wt % oxide cores. Irradiation tests have been made using P/M core tubes in the Savannah River reactors. These tubes contained U 3 O 8 concentrations up to 59 wt % and no significant swelling or blistering occurred. The tubes were irradiated to ∼40% burnup or 1.6x10 21 fissions/cc of core. This report discusses both small-scale and production tests for high- density P/M fuel development. The purpose of the P/M development program at SRL is to: (1) determine the maximum U 3 O 8 content that can be fabricated into thin wall tubes, (2) irradiate high-density tubes to high burnup and assess irradiation and dimensional stability, (3) continue metal forming studies for extrusion and drawing, and (4) evaluate hydrostatic extrusion and hydrostatically assisted drawing of P/M core tubes

  10. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties in steel surfaces by using titanium-aluminum/titanium-aluminum nitride multilayered system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipaz, L., E-mail: leoipazc@gmail.com [Thin Films Group, Physics departament, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 100-00, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C. [Thin Films Group, Physics departament, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 100-00, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Esteve, J. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Espinoza-Beltran, F.J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Zambrano, G. [Thin Films Group, Physics departament, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 100-00, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2012-02-01

    Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties on AISI D3 steel surfaces coated with [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]{sub n} multilayer systems deposited in various bilayer periods ({Lambda}) via magnetron co-sputtering pulsed d.c. method, from a metallic binary target; has been studied in this work exhaustively. The multilayer coatings were characterized in terms of structural, chemical, morphological, mechanical and tribological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, pin-on-disc and scratch tests, respectively. The failure mode mechanisms were studied by optical microscopy. Results from X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal structure of TiAl/TiAlN multilayer coatings has a tetragonal and FCC NaCl-type lattice structures for Ti-Al and Ti-Al-N, respectively, i.e., it was found to be non-isostructural multilayers. An enhancement of both hardness and elastic modulus up to 29 GPa and 260 GPa, respectively, was observed as the bilayer periods ({Lambda}) in the coatings were decreased. The sample with a bilayer period ({Lambda}) of 25 nm and bilayer number n = 100 showed the lowest friction coefficient ({approx}0.28) and the highest critical load (45 N), corresponding to 2.7 and 1.5 times better than those values for the coating deposited with n = 1, respectively. These results indicate an enhancement of mechanical, tribological and adhesion properties, comparing to the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]{sub n} multilayer systems with 1 bilayer at 26%, 63% and 33%, respectively. This enhancement in hardness and toughness for multilayer coatings could be attributed to the different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness such as the novel Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N effect and the number of interfaces that act as obstacles for the crack deflection and dissipation of crack energy.

  11. GaN-Ready Aluminum Nitride Substrates for Cost-Effective, Very Low Dislocation Density III-Nitride LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schujman, Sandra; Schowalter, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and then demonstrate the efficacy of a cost effective approach for a low defect density substrate on which AlInGaN LEDs can be fabricated. The efficacy of this 'GaN-ready' substrate would then be tested by growing high efficiency, long lifetime InxGa1-xN blue LEDs. The approach used to meet the project objectives was to start with low dislocation density AlN single-crystal substrates and grow graded Al x Ga 1-x N layers on top. Pseudomorphic Al x Ga 1-x N epitaxial layers grown on bulk AlN substrates were used to fabricate light emitting diodes and demonstrate better device performance as a result of the low defect density in these layers when benched marked against state-of-the-art LEDs fabricated on sapphire substrates. The pseudomorphic LEDs showed excellent output powers compared to similar wavelength devices grown on sapphire substrates, with lifetimes exceeding 10,000 hours (which was the longest time that could reliably be estimated). In addition, high internal quantum efficiencies were demonstrated at high driving current densities even though the external quantum efficiencies were low due to poor photon extraction. Unfortunately, these pseudomorphic LEDs require high Al content so they emit in the ultraviolet. Sapphire based LEDs typically have threading dislocation densities (TDD) > 10 8 cm -2 while the pseudomorphic LEDs have TDD (le) 10 5 cm -2 . The resulting TDD, when grading the Al x Ga 1-x N layer all the way to pure GaN to produce a 'GaN-ready' substrate, has varied between the mid 10 8 down to the 10 6 cm -2 . These inconsistencies are not well understood. Finally, an approach to improve the LED structures on AlN substrates for light extraction efficiency was developed by thinning and roughening the substrate.

  12. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  13. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Jorge, M.; Alvarez Gil, M.; Prieto Miranda, E.; Morales Valladares, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected [es

  14. Preparation of potassium-reduced tantalum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosov, V.N.; Miroshnichenko, M.N.; Orlov, V.M.; Prokhorova, T.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of tantalum powders prepared by reduction of molten potassium heptafluorotantalate with liquid potassium are studied in a temperature range of 750 - 850 deg C using potassium chloride as a flux at a ratio of K 2 TaF 7 : KCl = 1, 2, and 3. The use of potassium as a reducing agent facilitates washing of tantalum powders for impurity salt removal, reduces sodium content and leakage currents in the anodes. As compared to sodium process, the potassium reduction results in a high yield of sponge material, a decrease in the specific surface area and yield of tantalum powder suitable for manufacture of capacitor anodes [ru

  15. Powder metallurgy techniques in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear application of conventional powder metallurgy routes is centred on the fabrication of ceramic fuels. The stringent demands in terms of product performance required by the nuclear industry militate against the use of conventional powder metallurgy to produce metallic components such as the fuel cladding. However, the techniques developed in powder metallurgy find widespread application throughout nuclear technology. Illustrations of the use of these techniques are given in the fields of absorber materials, ceramic cladding materials, oxide fuels, cermet fuels, and the disposal of highly active waste. (author)

  16. Tungsten and tungsten alloys by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadjhamida, A.; German, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten has a historical link with powder metallurgy and there is continued progress in expanding the available compositions and processing options. This paper starts with an introduction to the history of tungsten powder metallurgy and use this as a basis for analyzing some of the current trends. The literature base in tungsten processing is expanding and includes new alloys, microstructures, and processing routes. A few examples will be emphasize here to produce a frame work for this program, including description of sintering mechanisms for tungsten, liquid phase sintering advances, hot consolidation fundamentals, and options for complex shaping using powder injection modeling. For this base, subsequent presentations will expand on these fundamental advances

  17. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  18. Powder densification maps in Selective Laser Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourell, D.; Wohlert, M.; Harlan, N.; Beaman, J.; Das, S.

    2002-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a manufacturing process in which a part is produced without the need for part-specific tooling. It competes effectively with other manufacturing processes when part geometry is complex and the production run is not large. Traditionally, this was limited to prototype production, although tooling applications are now appearing. This paper describes several applications of powder densification maps to advance solutions in direct SLS of metallic and ceramic powders. Time-dependent plasticity issues arise in pre-processing of powder to make it suitable for SLS and in post-processing of SLS parts to obtain desired density. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Plasma metallization of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroleva, E.B.; Klinskaya, N.A.; Rybalko, O.F.; Ugol'nikova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of treatment conditions in plasma on properties of produced metallized powders of titanium, tungsten and chromium carbides with the main particle size of 40-80 μm is considered. It is shown that plasma treatment permits to produce metallized powders of carbide materials with the 40-80 μm particle size. The degree of metallization, spheroidization, chemical and phase composition of metallized carbide powders are controlled by dispersivity of the treated material, concentration of a metal component in the treated mixtures, rate of plasma flow and preliminary spheroidization procedure

  20. Synthesis and characterization of superconducting YBCO powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, B.; Karki, T.; Krishnamoorthi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Superconducting yttrium barium copper oxide power has been synthesized through solid state sintering method - milling and sintering - using Y 2 O 3 , BaCo 3 and CuO powders. XRD result of the milled and sintered powder reveals that the powder that has formed contains YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 superconducting phase. Results obtained by SEM/EDAX show the distribution of the different elements. Experiments carried out by intermediate firing and final annealing in oxygen controlled atmosphere show the diffusion of oxygen in preformed YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 and their results are discussed

  1. Preparation procedure for spherical titanium powders by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Jin Yuping; Ye Gaoying

    2011-01-01

    The paper uses the single-factor method for the study of spherical titanium powder preparation process. Titanium powders with excellent sphericity can be prepared through controlling and regulating the radio frequency plasma anode working current and voltage, central gas flow rate, sheath gas flow rate, powder-carrying gas flow rate, negative ventilation pressure and powder feed rate, etc. Spheroidization of titanium powders with a size of (17.0±2.0) μm is performed by radio frequency plasma technology. With the increase of negative ventilation pressure, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders increases firstly and then decreases rapidly at the turning point around 1800 Pa. With the rate of powder feed increasing, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders increases firstly. When the powder feed rate is greater than 90.0 g/min, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders reduces rapidly as the powder feed rate increases. (authors)

  2. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  3. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder obtained through wire ... Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology. Madras, Chennai 600 .... pressure developed due to current flow (z-Pinch). Figure 2.

  5. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Large scale practical use of bulk amorphous alloys requires the capability of molding the material to a desired design, for instance by compaction of an amorphous powder. This is a difficult task because the sintering temperature is limited by the crystallization temperature of the alloy.1 Here we......, should facilitate a compaction. The passivation layer, however, impedes a compaction. Isostatic pressing at 540 K at a pressure of 200 MPa clearly illustrated this; pellets pressed from passivated powder were much more brittle than pellets pressed from unpassivated powder. The density of the pellets...... was very low ([approximately-equal-to]25% of the density of bulk FeB). We have designed a die for uniaxial pressing in which the compaction can be performed without exposing the powder to air and have obtained densities larger than 60% of that of bulk FeB. We have reported studies of the dependence...

  6. Strain-enhanced sintering of iron powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, D.R.; Torralba, J.M. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    Sintering of ball-milled and un-milled Fe powders has been investigated using dilatometry, X-ray, density, and positron annihilation techniques. A considerable sintering enhancement is found in milled powders showing apparent activation energies that range between 0.44 and 0.80 eV/at. The positron annihilation results, combined with the evolution of the shrinkage rate with sintering temperature, indicate generation of lattice defects during the sintering process of milled and un-milled powders. The sintering enhancement is attributed to pipe diffusion along the core of moving dislocations in the presence of the vacancy excess produced by plastic deformation. Positron annihilation results do not reveal the presence of sintering-induced defects in un-milled powders sintered above 1200 K, the apparent activation energy being in good agreement with that for grain-boundary diffusion in {gamma}-Fe. (orig.)

  7. Metal powder production by gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

  8. Shock-induced modification of inorganic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Beauchamp, E.K.; Hammetter, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of studies performed to quantify the characteristics of TiO2, ZrO2 and Si3N4 powders exposed to explosive loading and post-shock analysis are reported. The shocks were produced with plane wave generators and explosive pads impinging on steel disks, a copper recovery fixture, and then the samples. Peak pressures of 13 and 17 GPa were attained, along with 40 GPz at the center of the powder cavity. Data are provided on the changes occurring during the explosive densification and X-ray and paramagnetic studies of the products. Only fractured disks were obtained in the trials. The shock-treated materials were more free flowing than the original powders, which were fluffy. Post-shock annealing was a significant feature of the treated powders

  9. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  10. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter

  11. RF induction plasma spheroidization of tungsten powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhogntao; Ye Gaoying; Liu Chuandong; Tong Honghui

    2009-01-01

    Irregularly-shaped tungsten powders (average granular sizes of 512 μm) have been spheroidized by radio frequency (RF)induction plasma. The effects of feed rate, mode of material dispersion, particle size on spheroidization efficiency are investigated. Experimental results show that the spheroidization efficiency decreases rapidly when the feed rate increases to more than 95 g/min. Only 30% spheroidization efficiency is gained at the feed rate of 135.75 g/min. The spheroidization efficiency is also affected by the flow rate of carrier gas. When the flow rate of carrier gas is 0.12 m 3 /h, the dispersion effect is the best, and the spheroidization efficiency is almost 100%. The apparent density of tungsten powders increases a bit with the increase of spheroidization efficiency. And the particle size uniformity of spheroidized tungsten powders is in accordance with that of original powders. (authors)

  12. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  13. An application of powder metallurgy to dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Y; Ueno, S; Kudoh, Y

    1995-11-01

    Generally, the dental casting method is used to fabricate dental prostheses made with metal. The method of fabricating dental prostheses from sintered titanium alloy has certain advantages: the elimination of casting defects, a sintering temperature that is lower than the melting point, and a shorter processing time. By examining (1) the properties of green, sintered compacts of titanium powder, (2) the effects of adding aluminum powder on the properties of green, sintered compacts of Ti-Al compound, and (3) the effects of adding copper powder on the properties of green, sintered compacts of Ti-Al-Cu compound, the authors developed a sintered titanium alloy on a trial basis. Because the properties satisfied the requirements of dental restorations, a powder metallurgical method of making dental restorations from this sintered titanium alloy was devised. Applications of such sintered titanium alloys for the metal coping of metal-ceramic crowns and denture base plates were discussed.

  14. Role of forgings in powder metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A.F.; DeRidder, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Forging of powder metallurgy materials is discussed. Information and data are included on forging powder metallurgy W, Mo, In 100, Rene 95, Astroloy, Be, and Ti. It is noted that the combination of powder metallurgy and forging work provides the best product from standpoints of reproducibility, freedom from segregation, low scrap rate, and uniform mechanical properties. Experience is being used to develop contour forging from hot isostatic pressed billets or preforms. The quality of this product is under evaluation. Results show steady improvement and it is anticipated that continued effort will soon produce a reliable, less costly product. Forging can continue to be relied upon to correct subtle defects present in powder metallurgy material

  15. Surface chemistry and microscopy of food powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, Jennifer; Petit, Jeremy; Scher, Joël; Rasch, Ron; Bhandari, Bhesh; Gaiani, Claire

    2017-12-01

    Despite high industrial and scientific interest, a comprehensive review of the surface science of food powders is still lacking. There is a real gap between scientific concerns of the field and accessible reviews on the subject. The global description of the surface of food powders by multi-scale microscopy approaches seems to be essential in order to investigate their complexity and take advantage of their high innovation potential. Links between these techniques and the interest to develop a multi-analytical approach to investigate scientific questions dealing with powder functionality are discussed in the second part of the review. Finally, some techniques used in others fields and showing promising possibilities in the food powder domain will be highlighted.

  16. Acid-base properties of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleier, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter addresses the fundamental aspects of potentiometric titration, electrokinetics, and conductometric titration in evaluating surface and interfacial thermodynamic behavior. Emphasizes the characterization of aqueous systems which are pertinent to the processing of ceramic powders. Attempts to clarify the role of novel analytical techniques that will increasingly contribute to the advanced characterization of ceramic powders. Evaluates recently developed acid-base and complexation concepts and their applications to the processing of oxide ceramics

  17. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  18. Plasma spheroidization and cladding of powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunichev, V.A.; Averin, V.V.; Sorokin, L.M.; Koroleva, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    With reference to experimental results for nickel and chromium alloys, it is shown that complex alloy powders can be spheroidized in plasma discharges using an argon plasma with hydrogen. The spheroidizing process is accompanied by the reduction of surface oxides, with uniform element distribution within the particles; the granulometric composition of the particles is preserved. It is also shown that plasma technology can be used for producing metal-clad oxide and carbide powders, which improve the performance of cermets and coatings.

  19. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  20. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  1. Powder metallurgy in aerospace research: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    The various techniques by which powders can be produced, as pure metals or as alloys, are discussed; the methods by which these powders can be formed into the final parts are explained as well as further processing that may be necessary to meet specific requirements. The NASA developments are detailed, and references are provided for those who wish to obtain further information characteristic of any methodology.

  2. Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, D.D.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Sharma, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Positron lifetime spectra have been studied for ThO 2 powders, calcined at different temperatures and having different particle sizes. Three lifetime components could be resolved, the longest component being of low intensity. An observed strong dependence on the particle size of the annihilation process and the variation of positronium diffusion constant is explained on the basis of defect density variations in these powders. (author)

  3. New automated pellet/powder assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses an automated, high precision, pellet/ powder assay system. The system is an active assay system using a small isotopic neutron source and a coincidence detection system. The handling of the pellet powder samples has been automated and a programmable calculator has been integrated into the system to provide control and data analysis. The versatile system can assay uranium or plutonium in either active or passive modes

  4. Molybdenum plasma spray powder, process for producing said powder, and coating made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, W.D.; Cheney, R.F.; Pierce, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma spray powders of molybdenum particles containing 0.5 to 15 weight percent oxygen and obtained by reacting molybdenum particles with oxygen or oxides in a plasma, form plasma spray coatings exhibiting hardness comparable to flame sprayed coatings formed from molybdenum wire and plasma coatings of molybdenum powders. Such oxygen rich molybdenum powders may be used to form wear resistant coatings, such as for piston rings. (author)

  5. [Use of powder metallurgy for development of implants of Co-Cr-Mo alloy powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, J R

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the application of powder metallurgy for the development of porous implantation materials. Powders obtained from Co-Cr-Mo alloy with different carbon content by water spraying and grinding, have been investigated. Cold pressing and rotary re-pressing methods were used for compressing the powder. It was found that the sintered materials obtained from water spraying have the most advantageous properties.

  6. Hydrothermal treatment of coprecipitated YSZ powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo; Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia stabilized with 8.5 mol% yttria (YSZ) were synthesized by coprecipitation and resulting gels were hydrothermally treated at 200°C and 220 PSI for 4, 8 and 16 hours. Products were oven dried at 70°C for 24 hours, uniaxially pressed as pellets and sintered at 1500 °C for 1 hour. Powders were characterized for surface area with N 2 gas adsorption, X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction granulometric analysis and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Density of ceramics was measured by an immersion method based on the Archimedes principle. Results showed that powders dried at 70°C are amorphous and after treatment has tetragonal/cubic symmetry. Surface area of powders presented a significant reduction after hydrothermal treatment. Ceramics prepared from hydrothermally treated powders have higher green density but sintered pellets are less dense when compared to that made with powders calcined at 800°C for 1 hour due to the agglomerate state of powders. Solvothermal treatment is a promising procedure to enhance density. (author)

  7. Optimization of Premix Powders for Tableting Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Hiroaki; Sato, Kazuki; Takayama, Kozo; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2018-05-08

    Direct compression is a popular choice as it provides the simplest way to prepare the tablet. It can be easily adopted when the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is unstable in water or to thermal drying. An optimal formulation of preliminary mixed powders (premix powders) is beneficial if prepared in advance for tableting use. The aim of this study was to find the optimal formulation of the premix powders composed of lactose (LAC), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by using statistical techniques. Based on the "Quality by Design" concept, a (3,3)-simplex lattice design consisting of three components, LAC, CS, and MCC was employed to prepare the model premix powders. Response surface method incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) was applied for estimation of the optimum premix powders for tableting use. The effect of tablet shape identified by the surface curvature on the optimization was investigated. The optimum premix powder was effective when the premix was applied to a small quantity of API, although the function of premix was limited in the case of the formulation of large amount of API. Statistical techniques are valuable to exploit new functions of well-known materials such as LAC, CS, and MCC.

  8. Tantalum powder consolidation, modeling and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingert, S.R.; Vargas, V.D.; Sheinberg, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic approach was taken to investigate the consolidation of tantalum powders. The effects of sinter time, temperature and ramp rate; hot isostatic pressing (HIP) temperature and time; and powder oxygen content on consolidation density, kinetics, microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties have been evaluated. In general, higher temperatures and longer hold times resulted in higher density compacts with larger grain sizes for both sintering and HIP'ing. HIP'ed compacts were consistently higher in density than sintered products. The higher oxygen content powders resulted in finer grained, higher density HIP'ed products than the low oxygen powders. Texture analysis showed that the isostatically processed powder products demonstrated a near random texture. This resulted in isotropic properties in the final product. Mechanical testing results showed that the HIP'ed powder products had consistently higher flow stresses than conventionally produced plates, and the sintered compacts were comparable to the plate material. A micromechanics model (Ashby HIP model) has been employed to predict the mechanisms active in the consolidation processes of cold isostatic pressing (CIP), HIP and sintering. This model also predicts the density of the end product and whether grain growth should be expected under the applied processing conditions

  9. Electrical conductivity of metal powders under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, J. M.; Cuevas, F. G.; Cintas, J.; Urban, P.

    2011-12-01

    A model for calculating the electrical conductivity of a compressed powder mass consisting of oxide-coated metal particles has been derived. A theoretical tool previously developed by the authors, the so-called `equivalent simple cubic system', was used in the model deduction. This tool is based on relating the actual powder system to an equivalent one consisting of deforming spheres packed in a simple cubic lattice, which is much easier to examine. The proposed model relates the effective electrical conductivity of the powder mass under compression to its level of porosity. Other physically measurable parameters in the model are the conductivities of the metal and oxide constituting the powder particles, their radii, the mean thickness of the oxide layer and the tap porosity of the powder. Two additional parameters controlling the effect of the descaling of the particle oxide layer were empirically introduced. The proposed model was experimentally verified by measurements of the electrical conductivity of aluminium, bronze, iron, nickel and titanium powders under pressure. The consistency between theoretical predictions and experimental results was reasonably good in all cases.

  10. Preparation of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum thin films by sputtering deposition using powder and pressed powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Tanaka, Rei; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) thin films, for use in organic electroluminescence displays, were prepared by a sputtering deposition method using powder and pressed powder targets. Experimental results suggest that Alq3 thin films can be prepared using powder and pressed powder targets, although the films were amorphous. The surface color of the target after deposition became dark brown, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum changed when using a pressed powder target. The deposition rate of the film using a powder target was higher than that using a pressed powder target. That may be because the electron and ion densities of the plasma generated using the powder target are higher than those when using pressed powder targets under the same deposition conditions. The properties of a thin film prepared using a powder target were almost the same as those of a film prepared using a pressed powder target.

  11. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D [Livermore, CA; Soules, Thomas F [Livermore, CA; Landingham, Richard Lee [Livermore, CA; Hollingsworth, Joel P [Oakland, CA

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  12. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektnyj Inst. Alyuminievoj, magnievoj i ehlektrodnoj promyshlennosti (USSR))

    1984-12-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short.

  13. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short

  14. Impact strength of sintered astaloy CrM powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazior, J.; Ploszczak, J.; Nykiel, M.; Pieczonka, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of a series of impact tests on sintered Astaloy CrM powders alloys modified by boron are presented and discussed. Boron in different forms, i.e. as elemental boron powder, boron carbide B 4 C powder or mixture of boron and carbon elemental powders, was used in different weight percentage to activate sintering of Astaloy CrM powder and to increase hardenability, with aim of increasing impact strength in view of structural applications. (author)

  15. PRODUCTION OF POROUS POWDER MATERIALS OF SPHERICAL POWDERS OF CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevskij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of porous powder materials from spherical powders of corrosion-resistant steel 12Х18н10Т with formation at low pressures 120–140 mpa in the mold with the subsequent activated sintering became possible due to increase of duration of process of spattering and formation of condensate particles (Si–C or (Mo–Si on surface.

  16. Internal Friction Angle of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zegzulka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal powders are components with multidisciplinary usage as their application is very broad. Their consistent characterization across all disciplines is important for ensuring repeatable and trouble-free processes. Ten metal powders were tested in the study. In all cases, the particle size distribution and morphology (scanning electron microscope—SEM photos were determined. The aim of this work was to inspect the flow behavior of metal powders through another measured characteristic, namely the angle of internal friction. The measured values of the effective internal friction angle in the range 28.6–32.9°, together with the spherical particle shape and the particle size distribution, revealed the likely dominant mode of the metal particle transfer mechanism for stainless steel 316L, zinc and aluminum powder. This third piston flow mechanism is described and illustrated in detail. The angle of internal friction is mentioned as another suitable parameter for the characterization of metal powders, not only for the relative simplicity of the determination but also for gaining insight into the method of the movement of individual particles during the flow.

  17. Development and applications of ultrafine aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or so, a variety of new technologies has been developed to produce sub-micron powders. Among the products attracting interest is nanoaluminium which is being evaluated in specialist propulsion and exothermic end-uses. This paper examines the advances made in 'nanopowder' production in the context of the existing aluminium powder industry where finest commercial grades have a median size of ∼6 μm (one or two orders of magnitude coarser than nanopowders) and which today supplies the markets being targeted by nanopowders with coarser, but effective products. Are there genuine market opportunities for nanoaluminium and if so, how will they be produced? One the one hand there are the novel nanopowder production methods which are high yielding but generally slow and costly, while on the other, there is the very fine fraction from conventional atomising routes which generate a very low yield of sub-micron powder but which nevertheless can translate into a meaningful rate as part of the bulk production. Can conventional routes ever hope to make sufficient volumes of nanopowders cost effectively and which will be the favoured routes in future? Moreover, what of the 'ultrafine' size range (∼0.5-5 μm) which is of more immediate potential interest to today's powder users. This paper seeks to identify the near term opportunities for application of low volume/high value ultrafine and nano powders

  18. Plasma deposition by discharge in powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gamal, H.A.; El-Tayeb, H.A.; Abd El-Moniem, M.; Masoud, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Different types of material powders have been fed to the breach of a coaxial discharge. The coaxial discharge is powered from a 46.26 mu F, 24 KV capacitor bank. When the discharge takes place at the breach, the powder is heated and ionized to form a sheath of its material. The plasma sheath is ejected from the discharge zone with high velocity. The plasma sheath material is deposited on a glass substrate. It has been found from scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis that the deposited material is almost homogenous for ceramic and graphite powders. The grain size is estimated to be the order of few microns. To measure the deposited material thickness the microdensitometer and a suitable arrangement of a laser interferometer and an optical microscope are used. It has also been found that deposited material thickness depends on the discharge number of shots and the capacitor bank energy

  19. Synthesis of yttria powders by electrospray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulison, A.J.; Flagan, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electrospray atomization of high-concentration (∼400 g/L) chemical precursor solutions was applied to the synthesis of yttria powders. Conditions were found which led to high-quality powders, composed of dense, spheroidal, submicrometer, and nanocrystalline oxide particles. The precursor solutions were hydrated yttrium nitrates dissolved in n-propyl alcohol at concentrations ranging from 44.1 to 455 g/L. Electrospray atomization produced submicrometer precursor droplets which were dispersed in air and carried through an electric furnace for thermal decomposition at 500 C for several seconds residence time. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicated the expected cubic phase. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the particle structure varied with solution composition, ranging from hollow, inflated spheres for 6-hydrated nitrates to dense spheroids for 5-hydrated nitrates. The use of 6-hydrated nitrates in the solutions appeared to form particle surfaces which were impermeable to alcohol vapor evolved during thermal decomposition, leading to hollow, inflated spheres

  20. Red man syndrome caused by vancomycin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; VanBeek, Marta J; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2018-04-01

    Red man syndrome (RMS) is a well-known hypersensitivity reaction caused by intravenous administration of vancomycin, with symptoms ranging from flushing, erythematous rash, pruritus, mild to profound hypotension, and even cardiac arrest. RMS has not previously been described from local application of vancomycin powder in a surgical wound, a technique increasingly utilized for infection prophylaxis in many surgical disciplines including neurosurgery. We describe the first reported case of RMS as a result of local intra-wound application of vancomycin powder for infection prophylaxis. A 73-year-old male with a history of Parkinson's disease underwent 2-stage deep brain stimulation implantation surgeries. Vancomycin powder was applied locally in the surgical wounds for infection prophylaxis during both of the surgeries. The patient developed a well-demarcated, geometric erythematous pruritic rash following the second surgery that was clinically diagnosed as RMS and resolved without sequelae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Hot pressing of metal powders is used in production of parts with similar properties to wrought materials. During hot pressing processes, particle rearrangement, plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion are of the most effective powder densification mechanisms. Applying ultrasonic vibration is thought to result in great rates of densification and therefore higher efficiency of the process is expected. This paper deals with the effects of power ultrasonic on the densification of AA1100 aluminum powder under constant applied stress. The effects of particle size and process temperature on the densification behavior are discussed. The results show that applying ultrasonic vibration leads to an improved homogeneity and a higher relative density. Also, it is found that the effect of ultrasonic vibration is greater for finer particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  3. Proportioning of U3O8 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, V.; Markvart, M.; Novy, P.; Vanka, M.

    1989-01-01

    The tests are briefly described or proportioning U 3 O 8 powder of a granulometric grain size range of 0-160 μm using a vertical screw, a horizontal dual screw and a vibration dispenser with a view to proportioning very fine U 3 O 8 powder fractions produced in the oxidation of UO 2 fuel pellets. In the tests, the evenness of proportioning was assessed by the percentage value of the proportioning rate spread measured at one-minute intervals at a proportioning rate of 1-3 kg/h. In feeding the U 3 O 3 in a flame fluorator, it is advantageous to monitor the continuity of the powder column being proportioned and to assess it radiometrically by the value of the proportioning rate spread at very short intervals (0.1 s). (author). 10 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  4. Induction investigations powder ittrium-barium cuprite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, O.V.; Savchenko, O.Ya.

    1993-01-01

    Behavior of magnetic moment of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 powder has been studied in the pulsed and alternating magnetic field with the amplitude from 40 A/m to 4 kA/m at the temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling. The complex behavior of the magnetic moment is ascribed to the presence in the powder of two current carrying phases with the limit current densities differing by more than an order of magnitude. The magnetic field after-effect of several tens of kA/m on the powder results in the limit current density of the phase with reduced current density diminishes still further almost by an order of magnitude after the power exposure in the magnetic field. The direct magnetic field of several tens of kA/m practically completely suppresses the current in the phase with the reduced current density and noticeably reduces the fraction of the other phase

  5. Transport device for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    The transport device for nuclear fuel powder, which does not disintegrate during transport, has a transport pipe which starts with its entry end from the floor or a closed container and opens with its outlet end at the top into a closed separation container connect via a powder filter to a suction pump. By alternate regular opening and closing of a first control valve for transport gas fitted to a transport pipe to a supply duct and a second control valve for transport gas fitted to the container to an additional supply duct, alternating plugs of nuclear fuel powder and transport gas cushions are formed and are transported to the outlet end of the transport pipe. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Study on Quality Aggregate Construction Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Ko; Kyaw Naing; Thazin Lwin; Khin Mar Tun

    2008-03-01

    This research work deals with a view to promote cement replacement materials i-e aggregate construction powder, also known as building powder or construction powder . It has been used as lime substituent in construction work in Myanmar since 1990's. It is mixed with other construction materials such as cement, sand, etc. and used in plastering, tiling, arranging bricks and smoothing the face of the buildings.This work also deals with some aspects in physical properties of four different aggregate construction powder samples such as Moe Hein, Man Thiri, Shwe Taung and Kyauk Sue. In addition, these four different samples were characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as ED-XRF, AAS, FT-IR and XRD. In support of the finding by the analytical assays of Moe Hein aggregate construction powder, it indicated the percent composition of the presence of SiO2 12.13%, Al2O3 7.40%, Fe2O3 0.94%, CaO 41.00%,MgO 1.50% total sulphur 1.15%, chloride 1.49%, carbonate 43.63% and sulphate 3.44%. The analytical assays of Sin Min cement, Kyant cement, brick powder and pozzolan were also carried out in this research work. The mixing between various ratios of Moe Hein and Kyant cement as well as Sin Min II cement were done and their mechanical strengths such as setting time, tensile strength and compressive strength of each sample were studied. The quality of mixing ratio 50:50 of Moe Hein and Kyant cement was found to be comparable to the ASTM standard type II Protland cement which is for general use.

  7. Morphology study of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrda, J.; Blazhikova, Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Refractory carbides were investigated using JSM-U3 electron microscope of Joelco company at 27 KV accelerating voltage. Some photographs of each powder were taken with different enlargements to characterise the sample upon the whole. It was shown that morphological and especially topographic study of powders enables to learn their past history (way of fabrication and treatment). The presence of steps of compact particle fractures and cracks is accompanied by occurence of fine dispersion of carbides subjected to machining after facrication. On the contrary, the character of crystallographic surfaces and features of surface growth testify to the way of crystallization

  8. Menu Proposal to Use Powdered Agar

    OpenAIRE

    土屋, ひろ子; 嶋村, 桃子; 小松, 沙霧

    2015-01-01

    The author was involved in the development of the menu items that might be sold at “Taisho Village”, a theme park. Requirements in the menu development were that cooking should be simple as it starts cooking after receiving orders and it should have attractive appearances. Powdered agar has advantages over rod-shaped or string-shaped agar, with easiness of handling such as its ready solubility in water and no need to wash, rehydrate or strain. Because powdered agar is easy to use in cooking,...

  9. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Harris, Pernille; Ståhl, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    . For safe identification of the crystal form the experimental patterns have to be compared with patterns calculated from known crystal structures. Very good agreement with Protein Data Bank data was obtained after including corrections for background, unit cell parameters, disordered bulk......Collecting protein powder diffraction data on standard in-house powder diffractometers requires careful handling of the samples. Specially designed sample holders combined with optimized collimation were found to be the key factors in improving the data quality and reducing the data collection time......-solvent, and geometric factors. The data collection and correction procedures were demonstrated by the identification of three different crystal forms of insulin....

  10. Peculiarities of powder brittle media compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'nam, V.E.; Aristarkhov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with theoretical and practical aspects of the compaction process for powders of almost unstrained materials. Consideration from the standpoint of compressible body strain mechanics shows that such porous media may have a certain ''threshold'' density. Ductile characteristics of the porous material compacted up to this extent are identical with properties of compacrat bodies, i.e. there is a theoretically substantiated ban on a possibility of their further compaction without changing the state of the powder particle material. Theoretical conclusions are confirmed by results of experimental studies in compaction of titanium- containing ceramics [ru

  11. Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh M. Moosa, Mamun Ur Rashid, A.Z.S. Asadi, Nazma Ara, M. Mojib Uddin and A. Ferdaus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenugraecum Linn on serum lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Administration of fenugreek seed powder of 25 gm orally twice daily for 3 weeks and 6 weeks produces significant (P<0.001 reduction of serum total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group but the change of serum HDL-cholesterol was not significant. On other hand, changes of lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients without fenugreek were not significant (P<0.001. The present study suggests that fenugreek seed powder would be considered as effective agent for lipid lowering purposes.

  12. Extinguisher powder for liquid metal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzenhauer, P; Ochs, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1978-11-01

    The extinguisher introduced here based on graphite exhibited considerably improved extinguishing properties compared to other extinguishing powders. It has no aggressive properties, is, as for as could be tested in the short time available, non-hygroscopic and thus very easy to remove after extinguishing and cooling of the fire. The amount of extinguisher necessary is only a fraction of the amounts needed of other common powders. Storage is no problem and nerely a small storage amount is required. This extinguisher is excellently suitable for fighting sodium surface fires.

  13. Extinguisher powder for liquid metal fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.; Ochs, G.

    1978-01-01

    The extinguisher introduced here based on graphite exhibited considerably improved extinguishing properties compared to other extinguishing powders. It has no aggressive properties, is, as for as could be tested in the short time available, non-hygroscopic and thus very easy to remove after extinguishing and cooling of the fire. The amount of extinguisher necessary is only a fraction of the amounts needed of other common powders. Storage is no problem and nerely a small storage amount is required. This extinguisher is excellently suitable for fighting sodium surface fires. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  15. determination of mercury content in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovchev, M.; Grigorov, T.; Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of humanized full cream cow milk powder of Bulgarian origin for new-born, sucklings, small children and soured milk powder were activated for 18-24 h in a neutron flux of 5.10 12 , resp. 2.10 13 n/cm 2 .sec in quartz ampules. The samples were activated without preliminary lyophilization, thus avoiding possible mistakes from mercury losses. Ag-110m, being eliminated in the amalgam, was not an obstacle to the mercury determination. The results obtained for the mercury content are in the same order as in other investigations and many times lower than the admissible norm for foodstuffs - 50 ppb

  16. The irradiation preservation technology for chili powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qixun; Xu Peishu; Wang Xiuying; Liu Shupei

    1988-01-01

    The chili is harvested in hot season, thus it may be large in number of bacterium contamination and liable to be molded in storage; and difficult to be kept in powder form. However, by irradiating the chili powder with Co-γray to 5 dGy within a proper package, total number of bacteria will drop by a factor of 10 4 and colour bacillus less than 30. Its colour, fragrance, taste and appearance are not affected for one year after irradiation if the package is good

  17. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steelman, Ryan; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  18. Spheroidization of glass powders for glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Kumar, R

    2004-08-01

    Commercial angular glass powders were spheroidized using both the flame spraying and inductively coupled radio frequency plasma spraying techniques. Spherical powders with different particle size distributions were obtained after spheroidization. The effects of spherical glass powders on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of the glass powders had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of GICs. Powders with a bimodal particle size distribution ensured a high packing density of glass ionomer cements, giving relatively high mechanical properties of GICs. GICs prepared by flame-spheroidized powders showed low strength values due to the loss of fine particles during flame spraying, leading to a low packing density and few metal ions reacting with polyacrylic acid to form cross-linking. GICs prepared by the nano-sized powders showed low strength because of the low bulk density of the nano-sized powders and hence low powder/liquid ratio of GICs.

  19. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  20. Mechanical alloying of Hf and Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, L.; Crespo, E.; Creus, M.; Damonte, L.C.; Sanchez, F.H.; Punte, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pure crystalline Hf and Fe powders were mixed and milled under an argon atmosphere. The evolution of the system with milling time was followed with Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that in the first stages an amorphous Fe-rich alloy was gradually formed together with a solid solution of Hf in Fe beyond the solubility limit. (orig.)

  1. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  2. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  3. Evaluating the Johanson theory for titanium powder

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct powder rolling (DPR)/roll compaction has been labelled a complex and sample sensitive process. As such the design of the instrument and the determination of the optimal processing conditions for a given feed are very challenging...

  4. Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The pulmonary route is an interesting route for drug administration, both for effective local therapy (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis) and for the systemic administration of drugs (e.g., peptides and proteins). Well-designed dry powder inhalers are highly efficient

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF Acorus calamus POWDER AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of the powder of a natural plant product (Acorus calamus L.) and two synthetic insecticides (i.e. Pirimiphos methyl and Rotenone) was compared in the laboratory for the control Sitophilus oryzea (L), Rhizopertha dominica (F) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in stored wheat grains. Seven concentrations of the ...

  6. Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Aluminoborosilicate Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Leiser, Daniel; Selvaduray, Guna

    1992-01-01

    Application of sol-gel process to synthesis of aluminoborosilicate powders shows potential for control of microstructures of materials. Development of materials having enhanced processing characteristics prove advantageous in extending high-temperature endurance of fibrous refractory composite insulation made from ceramic fibers.

  7. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. German

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  8. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  9. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  10. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  11. Laser Processing Technology using Metal Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Hoon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to review the state of laser processing technology using metal powders. In recent years, a series of research and development efforts have been undertaken worldwide to develop laser processing technologies to fabricate metal-based parts. Layered manufacturing by the laser melting process is gaining ground for use in manufacturing rapid prototypes (RP), tools (RT) and functional end products. Selective laser sintering / melting (SLS/SLM) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid prototyping techniques. This is mainly due to the processes's suitability for almost any materials, including polymers, metals, ceramics and many types of composites. The interaction between the laser beam and the powder material used in the laser melting process is one of the dominant phenomena defining feasibility and quality. In the case of SLS, the powder is not fully melted during laser scanning, therefore the SLS-processed parts are not fully dense and have relatively low strength. To overcome this disadvantage, SLM and laser cladding (LC) processes have been used to enable full melting of the powder. Further studies on the laser processing technology will be continued due to the many potential applications that the technology offers.

  12. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  13. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  14. (11) EFFECT OF POWDERED CASTOR BEAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    A study was carried out at the Toxicology laboratory of the Department of Crop and Environmental protection,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, to determine the effects of powdered castor oil seed. (Ricinus communis L.Euphorbiaceae) on kidney, liver, spleen of albino rats. The rats were in five groups, ...

  15. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-01

    For He-cooled Divertors as integral components of future fusion power plants, about 300000 complex shaped tungsten components are to be fabricated. Tungsten is the favoured material because of its excellent properties (high melting point, high hardness, high sputtering resistance, high thermal conductivity). However, the material's properties cause major problems for large scale production of complex shaped components. Due to the resistance of tungsten to mechanical machining, new fabrication technologies have to be developed. Powder injection moulding as a well established shaping technology for a large scale production of complex or even micro structured parts might be a suitable method to produce tungsten components for fusion applications but is not yet commercially available. The present thesis is dealing with the development of a powder injection moulding process for micro structured tungsten components. To develop a suitable feedstock, the powder particle properties, the binder formulation and the solid load were optimised. To meet the requirements for a replication of micro patterned cavities, a special target was to define the smallest powder particle size applicable for micro-powder injection moulding. To investigate the injection moulding performance of the developed feedstocks, experiments were successfully carried out applying diverse cavities with structural details in micro dimension. For debinding of the green bodies, a combination of solvent debinding and thermal debinding has been adopted for injection moulded tungsten components. To develop a suitable debinding strategy, a variation of the solvent debinding time, the heating rate and the binder formulation was performed. For investigating the thermal consolidation behaviour of tungsten components, sinter experiments were carried out applying tungsten powders suitable for micro-powder injection moulding. First mechanical tests of the sintered samples showed promising material properties such as a

  16. Powder metallurgy of turbine disc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingesten, N.G. (Dep. of Engineering Metals)

    1981-03-01

    The first part embraced a study of carbide precipitated in IN 100 and astrology powders. The powder was heat treated at temperatures between 950/sup 0/C and 1150/sup 0/C. After aging at 950-1100/sup 0/C the MC-carbides formed during atomization were replaced by M/sub 23/C/sub 6/-carbides. After 1150/sup 0/C treatments the MC carbides were present again. Precipitation comparable with that obtained in HIP:ed specimens was not observed at free particle surfaces. However, powder particles which had agglomerated during atomization often exhibited considerable precipitation at contiguous surfaces. Obviously, contact between the particles must occur if coarse precipitation at particle surfaces is to develop. Reduced PPB-precipitation was obtained by pre-heat- treatment of powder before compaction. It is suggested that the carbon otherwise available for PPB-precipitation forms carbides in the interior of the powder particles. The aim of the second part was to ..gamma..-strengthen a Co-based super-alloy (Co-15Cr-3Mo-5Ti). Here the Ti-addition gives a coherent and ordered ..gamma..-phase Co/sub 3/Ti. However, upon ageing the alloy is unstable in order to increase the stability modifications of the alloy were prepared by: leaving out the Mo-content, adding 10 % Ni and by decreasing the Ti-content to 4.2 %. In addition, the effect of enhanced grain size and of deformation was investigated. Significant reduction of the transformation rate was only obtained by decresing the Ti-content while deformation of the alloy greatly increased the transformation rate.(author).

  17. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B.

  19. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  20. Development of granular powder manufacturing technology by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yoshiyuki; Kawase, Keiichi; Takahashi, Yoshiharu; Todokoro, Akio

    1996-01-01

    For shortening of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel manufacturing process and improvement in treatment of MOX-powder, we have been developing the granular powder production technology. Since the granular powders have excellent fluidity owing to the spherical shape, there is the possibility of modifying scattering and adcering of the powder in the process equipment. In this paper, spray pyrolysis process in adopted as the process of manufacturing the granular powders and the basic feasibility study has been carried out. The experimental results show that the manufactured granular powders have excellent fluidity and the diameter of the powders is controllable. Furthermore, high density pellets are formed by sintering the powders. Thus, it is clarified that this process is promising for the actual MOX fuel fabrication. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanoboron powders prepared with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanochemical reaction between B2O3 and Mg powders ... Malek—Ashtar University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tehran, P.O. Box .... powders and chemical reaction takes place at the interface of.

  2. Research on Durability of Recycled Ceramic Powder Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. C.; Fang, W.; Xu, K. C.; Xie, L.

    2017-06-01

    Ceramic was ground into powder with 325 mesh and used to prepare for concrete. Basic mechanical properties, carbonation and chloride ion penetration of the concrete tests were conducted. In addition, 6-hour electric fluxes of recycled ceramic powder concrete were measured under loading. The results showed that the age strength of ceramics powder concrete is higher than that of the ordinary concrete and the fly ash concrete. The ceramic powder used as admixture would reduce the strength of concrete under no consideration of its impact factor; under consideration of the impact factor for ceramic powder as admixture, the carbonation resistance of ceramic powder concrete was significantly improved, and the 28 day carbonation depth of the ceramic powder concrete was only 31.5% of ordinary concrete. The anti-chloride-permeability of recycled ceramic powder concrete was excellent.

  3. Safe-geometry pneumatic nuclear fuel powder blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this invention is to provide a nuclear fuel powder mixing tank in which the powder can be rapidly and safely mixed and in which accumulation of critical amounts of fuel is prevented. (UK)

  4. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  5. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Zishanshan; Memon, Shazim Ali; Zhang, Qiwu; Wang, Yaocheng; Liu, Bing; Xu, Weiting; Xing, Feng

    2015-09-17

    In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength) with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO₂. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO₂ powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  6. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO2. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  7. Study of Velocity and Materials on Tribocharging of Polymer Powders for Powder Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biris, Alex S.; Trigwell, Steve; Sims, Robert A.; Mazumder, Malay K.

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic powder deposition is widely used in a plethora of industrial-applications ranging from the pharmaceutical and food.industries, to farm equipment and automotive applications. The disadvantages of this technique are possible back corona (pin-like formations) onset and the Faraday penetration limitation (when the powder does not penetrate in some recessed areas). A possible solution to overcome these problems is to use tribochargers to electrostatically charge the powder. Tribocharging, or contact charging while two materials are in contact, is related to the work function difference between the contacting materials and generates bipolarly charged particles. The generation of an ion-free powder cloud by tribocharging with high bipolar charge and an overall charge density of almost zero, provides a better coverage of the recessed areas. In this study, acrylic and epoxy powders were fluidized and charged by passing through stainless steel, copper, aluminum, and polycarbonate static mixers, respectively. The particle velocity was varied to determine its effect on the net charge-to-mass ratio (QIM) acquired by the powders. In general, the Q/M increases rapidly when the velocity was increased from 1.5 to 2.5 m/s, remaining almost constant for higher velocities. Charge separation experiments showed bipolar charging for all chargers.

  8. High density UO2 powder preparation for HWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S. T.; Chang, I. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Cho, B. R.; Kwon, S. W.; Kim, B. H.; Moon, B. H.; Kim, S. D.; Phyu, K. M.; Lee, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the preparation of method high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Accordingly, it is necessary to character ize the AUC processed UO 2 powder and to search method for the preparation of high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can effect the producing of AUC processed UO 2 powder having sinterability. (Author)

  9. Comparative toxicity of four local botanical powders to Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize grains were admixed with the powders at the rates0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg for the assessment of mortality over a 14-d or 30-d period, as well as for population increase and damage. Within 14-d exposure, P. glandulosus powder caused the highest weevil mortality followed by A. indica. A. indica powder was by far ...

  10. Free radical interactions between raw materials in dry soup powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-12-01

    Interactions at the free radical level were observed between dry ingredients in cauliflower soup powder, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, which may be of importance for quality deterioration of such dry food products. The free radical concentrations of cauliflower soup powder, obtained by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, rapidly become smaller during storage (40°C and relative humidity of 75%) than the calculated concentrations of free radicals based on the free radical concentrations of the powder ingredients used to make the soup powder and stored separately under similar conditions. Similarly, free radical concentrations decreased faster when any combination of two powder ingredients (of the three major ingredients of the soup powder) were mixed together and stored at 50°C for 1week than when each powder component was stored separately. Furthermore, yeast extract powder was found to play a key role when free radical interactions between powder ingredients occurred. The incubation of rapeseed oil with powder ingredients at 45°C for 24h, indicated the ability of cauliflower powder to increase the concentration of hydroperoxides in rapeseed oil, while yeast extract powder was found to prevent this hydroperoxide formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant dried powders as biocatalysts: Hydrolysis of 1- phenylpropanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrolytic ability of plant dried powders, lyophilized or acetone dried, was tested on the hydrolysis of racemic 1-phenylpropanol acetate. Most of the twenty powders tested showed hydrolytic activity, however the best values of conversion and enantioselectivity were reached with the lyophilized powder of nopal (27% ...

  12. Study of nuclear fuel powders forming by axial compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcade, J.

    2002-12-01

    Nuclear fuel powders forming, although perfectly dominated, fail to make compacts without density gradients. Density heterogeneities induce diametric deformations during firing which force manufacturers to adjust shape with a high cost machining stage. Manufacturing process improvement is a major project to obtain perfectly shaped pellets and reduce their cost. One way of investigation of this project is the study of powders compaction mechanisms to understand and improve their behaviour. The goal of this study is to identify the main mechanisms linked with powder properties that act on pressing. An empirical model is developed to predict pellet deformations from a single compaction test. This model has to link powder properties with their compaction behaviour. Then, compaction tests identify the main mechanisms whereas a contact dynamic program is used to explain them. These works, done to improve the understanding in powders behaviour, focus on powders agglomeration state and macroscopic particles arrangement during the die filling stage. Actually, for granulated powders, granules cohesion act on the powder bed behaviour under pressure. The first particles arrangement is responsible for the first transfer directions into the powder and so for its transfer homogeneity and isotropy. As a consequence, the knowledge of all the macroscopic powder properties is essential to understand and improve the manufacturing process. Moreover, tests on UO 2 powders have shown that it is better to use granulated powders with spherical granules, short size distribution and granules cohesion according with compaction pressure to improve compact homogeneity of densification. (author)

  13. Preparation of superconducting powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Rowcliffe, D.J.; Geballe, T.H.; Sun, J.Z.

    1987-01-01

    A method of preparing superconducting powders by freeze-drying is described. Powders produced by this method are homogeneous, have high purities, and are very reactive. Materials sintered from these powders have densities up to 89% of the theoretical density, and exhibit very sharp resistivity drops and large Meissner effects. The microstructure of the materials is very sensitive to the sintering temperature

  14. Determination of Dispersion of Zucchini and Cabbage Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Pogozhyh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle size of cabbage and zucchini powders was determined by microscopy. It is shown that under the identical conditions of drying, grinding and other stages of the process, the cabbage powder has a higher content of fine fraction. Promising application of cabbage and zucchini powders in restaurant industry is indicated. Case diagram of the received production use is developed.

  15. Peculiarities of powder metallurgy of vanadium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomysel'skij, I.D.; Solntsev, V.P.; Evtushenko, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    Literature data on preparation of vanadium powder and powder materials on the vanadium base are generalized. Application of powder metallurgy engineering, allowing simulaneously to introduce practically any strengthening and solid-lubricating components as well as to alloy vanadium, permits undoubtedly to develop composite materials on the vanadium base

  16. 21 CFR 176.350 - Tamarind seed kernel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tamarind seed kernel powder. 176.350 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.350 Tamarind seed kernel powder. Tamarind seed kernel powder may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing...

  17. Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shankland, Kenneth; Meshi, Louisa; Avilov, Anatoly; David, William

    2012-01-01

    The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination.  This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of discipl...

  18. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  20. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  1. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  2. Utilization of pumpkin powder in bakery products

    OpenAIRE

    Thirawat Thepjaikat; Siriporn Kawngdang; Tippawan Manon; Angkana Naulbunrang; Jirapa Pongjanta

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce pumpkin powder and use it as an ingredient in bakery products. Pumpkin powder was produced from mature pumpkin (Cucurbita moschat Duch. ex. Poir.). It contained 6.01% moisture, 3.74% protein, 1.34 % fat, 7.24% ash, 2.9% fiber, 78.77% carbohydrate, 56.04% alcohol insoluble solids, 7.29 mg/100g sample of β-carotene, had color values of L*57.81, a*8.31, and b*34.39, and 0.24 water activity. It gelatinized at 90ºC. It was used as a source of β-carotene a...

  3. Time-resolved Neutron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannetier, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a high-flux neutron source together with a large position sensitive detector (PSD) allows a powder diffraction pattern to be recorded at a time-scale of a few minutes so that crystalline systems under non-equilibrium conditions may now conveniently be investigated. This introduces a new dimension into powder diffraction (the time and transient phenomena like heterogeneous chemical reactions can now be easily studied. The instrumental parameters relevant for the design of such time-dependent experiments are briefly surveyed and the current limits of the method are discussed. The applications are illustrated by two kinds of experiment in the field of inorganic solid state chemistry: true kinetic studies of heterogeneous chemical reactions and thermodiffractometry experiments

  4. Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

  5. Adsorption Studies of Radish Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish leaves (Raphanus sativus powder fractions was subjected to moisture adsorption isotherms at different isothermal temperature conditions from 15-45°C with an equal interval of 10°C. The sorption data obtained in gravimetric static method under 0.11–0.90 water activity conditions were subjected for sorption isotherms and found to be typical sigmoid trend. Experimental data were assessed for the applicability in the prediction through sorption models fitting and found that Polynomial and GAB equations performed well over all fitted models in describing equilibrium moisture content – equilibrium relative humidity (EMC–ERH relationships for shelf stable dehydrated radish leaf powder, over the entire range of temperatures condition under study. The net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy and free energy were determined at different temperatures and their dependence was seen with respect to equilibrium moisture content.

  6. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  7. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red'kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  8. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, P E; Timchenko, E V; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Red’kin, N A; Frolov, O O

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm -1 ((PO 4 ) 3- (ν 1 ) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm -1 ((CO 3 ) 2- (ν 1 ) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy. (paper)

  9. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.......e. non-lactose components) affect the caking tendency of the final powder. The results from a combination of different methods, including dynamic vapor sorption, characterization of the physicochemical composition and assessment of caking with a ring shear tester, suggested humidity caking. Larger...... amounts of impurities in the lactose powder resulted in enhanced moisture sorption and greater caking tendency. These findings emphasize the importance of controlling the washing and purification steps throughout the production process in order to limit caking in the final product...

  10. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  11. Condi : from spices to powder desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Sofia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Condi is an established Portuguese brand in the powder dessert category, with a twenty-year history. It offers a portfolio comprising many product categories and overall the company produces and imports around 500 different product references. Condi has been focusing on differentiating the flavours and creating a product portfolio that best fits the needs of retailers and consumers. This case study presents an overview of the company as well as an analysis of the consumer trends a...

  12. Rietveld analysis, powder diffraction and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Phase quantification of cement is essential in its industrial use, however many methods are inaccurate and/or time consuming. Powder diffraction is one of the more accurate techniques used for quantitative phase analysis of cement. There has been an increase in the use of Rietveld refinement and powder diffraction for the analysis and phase quantification of cement and its components in recent years. The complex nature of cement components, existence of solid solutions, polymorphic variation of phases and overlapping phase peaks in diffraction patterns makes phase quantification of cements by powder diffraction difficult. The main phase in cement is alite, a solid solution of tricalcium silicate. Tricalcium silicate has been found to exist in seven modifications in three crystal systems, including triclinic, monoclinic, and rhombohedral structures. Hence, phase quantification of cements using Rietveld methods usually involves the simultaneous modelling of several tricalcium silicate structures to fit the complex alite phase. An industry ordinary Portland cement, industry and standard clinker, and a synthetic tricalcium silicate were characterised using neutron, laboratory x-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction. Diffraction patterns were analysed using full-profile Rietveld refinement. This enabled comparison of x-ray, neutron and synchrotron data for phase quantification of the cement and examination of the tricalcium silicate. Excellent Rietveld fits were achieved, however the results showed that the quantitative phase analysis results differed for some phases in the same clinker sample between various data sources. This presentation will give a short introduction about cement components including polymorphism, followed by the presentation of some problems in phase quantification of cements and the role of Rietveld refinement in solving these problems. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. Powder Neutron Diffraction and Magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, F.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of the magnetic structures of materials (ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, helimagnetic, .) can be achieved only by neutron diffraction. A general survey of the powder technique is given: 2-axis spectrometer and analysis of the magnetic data. For the REBe/sb13/ intermetallic compounds (RE = Rare Earth), commensurate and/or incommensurate magnetic structures are observed and discussed as a function of RE (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er)

  14. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  15. INAA of RM IAEA-155 whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lixin; Tian Weizhi

    1993-01-01

    An IAEA biological RM IAEA-155 whey powder was analysed for phosphorus, as well as other 24 elements by INAA. The Bremsstrahlung photons produced by 32 P is measured by a HpGe spectrometer. The interferences involved in P determination were comprehensively studied and this method was also applied to the determinations of P in several established biological NBS SRMs and proved to be reliable for a wide range of P contents in biological samples

  16. Utilization of pumpkin powder in bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirawat Thepjaikat

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce pumpkin powder and use it as an ingredient in bakery products. Pumpkin powder was produced from mature pumpkin (Cucurbita moschat Duch. ex. Poir.. It contained 6.01% moisture, 3.74% protein, 1.34 % fat, 7.24% ash, 2.9% fiber, 78.77% carbohydrate, 56.04% alcohol insoluble solids, 7.29 mg/100g sample of β-carotene, had color values of L*57.81, a*8.31, and b*34.39, and 0.24 water activity. It gelatinized at 90ºC. It was used as a source of β-carotene and yellow color supplement in bakery products. Wheat flour was substituted by 5 levels of pumpkin powder (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in sandwich bread, sweet bread, butter cake, chiffon cake and cookies. The products were consumertested and their physicochemical and sensory properties analyzed. Results showed that 20% substitution was optimum for butter cake, and chiffon cake, while only 10% substitution was acceptable for sandwich bread, sweet bread and cookies. The acceptance by the consumer group was at the level of "like moderately" to "like very much". Between 90-100% of the consumers who accepted the products would buy them. Chiffon cake substituted with pumpkin powder was the most preferred, followed by butter cake, sandwich bread, cookies, and sweet bread. The pumpkin-substituted products contained 15.00-103.30 µg RE of vitamin A (3.13-12.92% of Thai RDI for vitamin A intake per day.

  17. Oxidation of nano-sized aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, A.B.; Lerner, M.; Rodkevich, N.; Nie, H.; Abraham, A.; Schoenitz, M.; Dreizin, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Weight gain measured in TG oxidation experiments was split between particles of different sizes. • Reaction kinetics obtained by isoconversion explicitly accounting for the effect of size distribution. • Activation energy is obtained as a function of oxide thickness for growth of amorphous alumina. • Oxidation mechanism for nanopowders remains the same as for coarser aluminum powders. - Abstract: Oxidation of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electro-exploded wires is studied. Particle size distributions are obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiments are complemented by TEM and XRD studies of partially oxidized particles. Qualitatively, oxidation follows the mechanism developed for coarser aluminum powder and resulting in formation of hollow oxide shells. Sintering of particles is also observed. The TG results are processed to account explicitly for the particle size distribution and spherical shapes, so that oxidation of particles of different sizes is characterized. The apparent activation energy is obtained as a function of the reaction progress using model-free isoconversion processing of experimental data. A complete phenomenological oxidation model is then proposed assuming a spherically symmetric geometry. The oxidation kinetics of aluminum powder is shown to be unaffected by particle sizes reduced down to tens of nm. The apparent activation energy describing growth of amorphous alumina is increasing at the very early stages of oxidation. The higher activation energy is likely associated with an increasing homogeneity in the growing amorphous oxide layer, initially containing multiple defects and imperfections. The trends describing changes in both activation energy and pre-exponent of the growing amorphous oxide are useful for predicting ignition delays of aluminum particles. The kinetic trends describing activation energies and pre-exponents in a broader range of the oxide

  18. Modeling of Powder Bed Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, H.-W.; Desmaison, O.; Megahed, M.; Peralta, A.; Neumann, J.

    2018-01-01

    Powder bed additive manufacturing offers unmatched capabilities. The deposition resolution achieved is extremely high enabling the production of innovative functional products and materials. Achieving the desired final quality is, however, hampered by many potential defects that have to be managed in due course of the manufacturing process. Defects observed in products manufactured via powder bed fusion have been studied experimentally. In this effort we have relied on experiments reported in the literature and—when experimental data were not sufficient—we have performed additional experiments providing an extended foundation for defect analysis. There is large interest in reducing the effort and cost of additive manufacturing process qualification and certification using integrated computational material engineering. A prerequisite is, however, that numerical methods can indeed capture defects. A multiscale multiphysics platform is developed and applied to predict and explain the origin of several defects that have been observed experimentally during laser-based powder bed fusion processes. The models utilized are briefly introduced. The ability of the models to capture the observed defects is verified. The root cause of the defects is explained by analyzing the numerical results thus confirming the ability of numerical methods to provide a foundation for rapid process qualification.

  19. Chemical Reduction Synthesis of Iron Aluminum Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Méndez, N. N.; la Torre, G. Carbajal-De; Ballesteros-Almanza, L.; Villagómez-Galindo, M.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Espinosa-Medina, M. A.

    In this study, a chemical reduction synthesis method of iron aluminum (FeAl) nano-dimensional intermetallic powders is described. The process has two stages: a salt reduction and solvent evaporation by a heat treatment at 1100°C. The precursors of the synthesis are ferric chloride, aluminum foil chips, a mix of Toluene/THF in a 75/25 volume relationship, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as initiator of the reaction. The reaction time was 20 days, the product obtained was dried at 60 °C for 2 h and calcined at 400, 800, and 1100 °C for 4 h each. To characterize and confirm the obtained synthesis products, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results of morphology and chemical characterization of nano-dimensional powders obtained showed a formation of agglomerated particles of a size range of approximately 150 nm to 1.0 μm. Composition of powders was identified as corundum (Al2O3), iron aluminide (FeAl3), and iron-aluminum oxides (Fe0. 53Al0. 47)2O3 phases. The oxide phases formation were associated with the reaction of atmospheric concentration-free oxygen during synthesis and sintering steps, reducing the concentration of the iron aluminum phase.

  20. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  1. Processing equipment for grinding of building powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Ibragimov, R. A.; Lesovik, V. S.; Pak, A. A.; Krylov, V. V.; Poleschuk, M. M.; Stoyushko, N. Y.; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article questions of mechanical grinding up to nanosize of building powder materials are considered. In the process of mechanoactivation of the composite binder, active molecules of cement minerals arise when molecular packets are destroyed in the areas of defects and loosening of the metastable phase during decompensation of intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening Portland cement. Mechanical processes in the grinding of mineral materials cause, together with an increase in their surface energy, the growth of the isobaric potential of the powders and, accordingly, their chemical activity, which also contributes to high adhesion strength when they come into contact with binders. Thus, a set of measures for mechanical activation allows more fully use the mass of components of the filled cement systems and regulate their properties. At relatively low costs, it is possible to provide an impressive and, importantly, easily repeatable in production conditions result. It is revealed that the use of a vario-planetary mill allows to achieve the best results on grinding the powder building materials.

  2. Thermally induced phase transformation of pearl powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Yili; Ao, Ju; Yang, Jing; Lv, Guanglie; Shih, Kaimin

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphic phase transformation of thermally treated pearl powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical techniques. The phase transformation was based on quantification of the calcite content at various temperatures using Rietveld refinement analysis. The results show that the phase transformation of pearl aragonite occurred within a temperature range of 360–410 °C, which is 50–100 °C lower than the range for non-biomineralized aragonite. These thermoanalytical results suggest that the phase transformation of pearl aragonite may occur immediately after the thermal decomposition of the organic matrix in the pearl powder. An important finding is that decomposition of the organic matrix may greatly facilitate such transformation by releasing additional space for an easier structural reconstruction during the phase transformation process. - Highlights: ► Providing a new method to describe the polymorphic transition of pearl powder ► The phase transition sketch was exhibited by XRD phase quantitative analysis. ► There are dozens of degrees in advance comparing to natural aragonite. ► The phase transition occurs following the thermal decomposition of organism

  3. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  4. Shewanella strain isolated from black powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia T.S.; Contador, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C.; Galvao, Mariana M. [National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Black powder is a term frequently used to refer to residues formed by various types of iron sulfides mixed with contaminants eventually present in the natural gas flow. According to some researchers, the occurrence of black powder in gas pipelines, besides its chemical corrosion origin, can be directly related to the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) metabolism in this environment. A black powder sample was inoculated in a Post gate E medium modified with the addition of thioglycolate. The resulting positive culture was kept in the laboratory for four years until its use. A dilution technique was then performed aiming to isolate an SRB strain. The bacterial strain isolated and identified through DNA sequencing was not an SRB but rather a Shewanella sp. Compared to the sulfate-reducing bacteria group-traditionally considered the foremost responsible for microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) - Shewanella is a facultative anaerobe and has a versatile metabolism. Shewanella is able to reduce ferric iron and sulfite, oxidize hydrogen gas, and produce hydrogen sulfide; therefore, these bacteria can be responsible for MIC and pit formation. The isolated Shewanella was used in a corrosion experiment, and the corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, identifying iron sulfides, iron oxides, and sulfur. Our results indicate that the strain isolated, S. putrefaciens, plays a key role in corrosion problems in gas pipelines. (author)

  5. The quantitative characterization of sintering of urania powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Kulkarni, U.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a unified approach towards characterization of the sintering behaviour of UO 2 powders in terms of their extrinsic properties. Empirical equations connecting the sintering index with various powder parameters have been set up. The influence of various powder parameters, either individually or as dimensionless/dimensional groups, on the sintering behaviour has been studied. The relative importance of these factors has also been analysed. A good polynomial fit has been obtained for variation of sintering index with some of the powder parameters and dimensionless/dimensional groups. The equations are expected to provide a good basis for assessing the sinterability of UO 2 powders. (Auth.)

  6. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  7. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.K.; Abid, H.

    2008-01-01

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  8. Vacuum hot pressing of titanium-alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Full or nearly full dense products of wrought-metal properties have been obtained by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) of several prealloyed Ti--6Al--4V powders including hydride, hydride/dehydride, and rotating electrode process (REP) spherical powder. The properties of billets VHP from Ti--6Al--4V hydride powder and from hydride/dehydride powders have been shown to be equivalent. The REP spherical powder billets processed by VHP or by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) resulted in equivalent tensile properties. The potential of VHP for fabrication of near net aircraft parts such as complex fittings and engine disks offers considerable cost savings due to reduced material and machining requirements

  9. Characterization and Sintering of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Nash, Philip; Mangabhai, Damien

    2017-04-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have a high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance but also need longer time and have a higher cost on machining. Powder metallurgy offers a viable approach to produce near net-shape complex components with little or no machining. The Armstrong titanium powders are produced by direct reduction of TiCl4 vapor with liquid sodium, a process which has a relatively low cost. This paper presents a systematic research on powder characterization, mechanical properties, and sintering behavior and of Armstrong process powder metallurgy, and also discusses the sodium issue, and the advantages and disadvantages of Armstrong process powders.

  10. Determination of the functional properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjamsiah; Nazaruddin Ramli; Rusli Daik; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii powder prepared by spray drying (SD), freeze drying (FD) and sun drying(SND) were determined their functional properties such as swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), viscosity and gel strength. The study showed that the Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder obtained by FD and SND have the ability to swell to 25 mL/ g and 50 mL/ g respectively, while the SD powder formed a homogeneous solution and it exhibited highly viscous solution (SWC 100 mL/ g). The WHC of SND powder (30.67 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (21.33 g/ g) and SD (4.67 g/ g) powders. The OHC of FD powder (19.81 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the SD (5.11 g/ g) and SND (4.67 g/ g) powders. While the viscosity of the FD, SND and SD powders were 0.22, 0.17 and 0.06 Pa.s respectively. Meanwhile, the gel strength of the SD powder (82.77 gf) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (57.1 gf) and SND (35.01 gf) powders. These results on determination of functional properties shows that the SD powder had the most potential to be applied as a viscosity modifier in the manufacturing of beverages.(author)

  11. Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteyaka, Mustafa Ozgür; Unal, Hasan Hüseyin; Bilici, Namık; Taşçı, Eda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. Two sizes of powder were prepared by different grinding methods; Powder A (coarse, d50=68.5 µm) and Powder B (fine, d50=19.1 µm). Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The powder was mainly composed of aragonite (CaCO3) and calcite (CaCO3). The XRD pattern of Powder A and B matched standard aragonite and calcite patterns. In addition, the calcium oxide (CaO) phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of 43.6% and 47.3% in Powders A and B, respectively. The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase.

  12. Spheroidization of molybdenum powder by radio frequency thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ping; Wang, Kuai-she; Hu, Ping; Chen, Qiang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2015-11-01

    To control the morphology and particle size of dense spherical molybdenum powder prepared by radio frequency (RF) plasma from irregular molybdenum powder as a precursor, plasma process parameters were optimized in this paper. The effects of the carrier gas flow rate and molybdenum powder feeding rate on the shape and size of the final products were studied. The molybdenum powder morphology was examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The powder phases were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The tap density and apparent density of the molybdenum powder were investigated using a Hall flow meter and a Scott volumeter. The optimal process parameters for the spherical molybdenum powder preparation are 50 g/min powder feeding rate and 0.6 m3/h carrier gas rate. In addition, pure spherical molybdenum powder can be obtained from irregular powder, and the tap density is enhanced after plasma processing. The average size is reduced from 72 to 62 µm, and the tap density is increased from 2.7 to 6.2 g/cm3. Therefore, RF plasma is a promising method for the preparation of high-density and high-purity spherical powders.

  13. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  14. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  15. HYDRATION PROCESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT PASTE WITH RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER AND SILICA SAND POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete powder (RCP mostly consisting of cement paste could be reused as partial cement replacement. The aim of this paper is to compare hydration and mechanical properties of RCP and two types of silica sand powder (SSP. Comparison of those materials combined with cement can highlight the binder properties of recycled concrete powder. Using of two types of SSP also show an influence of their fines on hydration process and mechanical properties. Particle size analysis and calorimetric measurement were carried out and mechanical properties such as bulk density, dynamic Young’s modulus and compression strength were examine. Calorimetric measurement proves the presence of exposed non-hydrated particles in RCP that can react again. However lower density of old cement paste in RCP overweight the mentioned potential of RCP and mechanical properties are decreasing compared with reference cement paste and cement paste SSP.

  16. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  17. Developing Characterization Procedures for Qualifying both Novel Selective Laser Sintering Polymer Powders and Recycled Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive technique which is showing great promise over conventional manufacturing techniques. SLS requires certain key material properties for a polymer powder to be successfully processed into an end-use part, and therefore limited selection of materials are available. Furthermore, there has been evidence of a powder’s quality deteriorating following each SLS processing cycle. The current investigation serves to build a path forward in identifying new SLS powder materials by developing characterization procedures for identifying key material properties as well as for detecting changes in a powder’s quality. Thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and bulk density measurements were investigated.

  18. Properties of powder metallurgy steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, A.; Anderson, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of processing variables on the mechanical properties of heat-treated powder metallurgy (P/M) steel forgings were determined. Prealloyed 4600 steel powder blended with graphite to yield 4640 was compacted into preforms and hot forged in a warm, closed die. Variables studied were preform density, method of lubrication, preform sintering (time, temperature and atmosphere), forging pressure (20 and 40 tsi) and temperature (1850 0 F, 2000 0 F and 2200 0 F), and forging ratio (0.75 and 0.95). Relationships between interconnected porosity and total porosity for the various preform densities were determined. High density compacts required higher sintering temperatures due to the restricted mobility of the reducing gases in the pores. Die wall lubrication was comparable to admixed lubrication, and it simplified powder mixing and preform sintering operations. Forgings with densities from 99 to 99.8 percent of theoretical density were attained with a forging pressure of 20 to 40 tsi and preform temperatures of 2000 0 F and above. At forging conditions which resulted in forgings with acceptable mechanical properties, complete die fill was accomplished at a forging ratio of 0.95, whereas incomplete die fill resulted at a forging ratio of 0.75. The response of P/M forgings to heat treatment was comparable to that for wrought materials, and the resultant tensile and yield strengths were equivalent to the strength values described for wrought 4640 steel in AMS specification 6317B. In addition, ductility and impact properties of P/M forgings with near theoretical density (99.5+ percent) were comparable to bar stock forgings

  19. Ceria powders by homogeneous precipitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Roy, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Formation of precursors for ceria by two homogeneous precipitation reactions - (cerium chloride + urea at 95 degC - called reaction A and cerium chloride + hexamethylenetetramine at 85 degC - called reaction B) - has been studied. The variation of size of the colloidal particles formed and the zeta potential of the suspensions with progress of reactions exhibited similar trends for both the precipitation processes. Particle size increased from 100 to 300 nm with increasing temperature and extent of reaction. The zeta potential was found to decrease with increasing extent of precipitation in the pH range of 5 to 7. Filtration and drying led to agglomeration of the fine particles in case of the precursor from reaction B. The as-formed precursors were crystalline - a basic carbonate in case of reaction A and hydrous oxide in case of reaction B. It was found that nano-crystalline ceria powders (average crystallite size -10 nm) formed above 400 degC from both these precursors. The agglomerate size (D50) of the precursors and ceria powders formed after calcination at 600 degC varied from 0.7 to 3 μm. Increasing calcination temperature up to 800 degC, increased the crystallite size (50 nm). The zeta potential variation with pH and concentration of an anionic dispersant (Calgon) for the ceria powders formed was studied to determine the ideal conditions for suspension stability. It was found to be maximum (i.e., the suspensions stable) in the pH range of 3 to 4 or Calgon concentration of 0.01 to 0.1 weight percent. (author)

  20. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  1. Borax as a lubricant in powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Geovanny Ariza-Suarez

    2014-12-01

    were compacted at 700 MPa in a uniaxial press of 15 tons. DSC-TGA analysis of the mixture with borax was realized. The specimens were sintered in a plasma reactor at 1000 for 30 minutes, with a combined atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Microhardness and density of the sintered samples was haracterized. XRD analysis was realized to detect possible compounds formation by interaction of borax. This paper shows that borax can be used as a lubricant in powder metallurgy.

  2. Simulation of the metallic powders compaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J.M.; Riera, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The simulation by means of finite elements of the forming processes of mechanical components is a very useful tool for their design and validation. In this work, the simulation of the compaction of a metal powder is presented. The finite element software ABAQUS is used together with the modified CAM-clay plasticity model in order to represent the elastoplastic behaviour of the material. Density distributions are obtained and therefore the motion of the compaction punches which improve this distribution can be found. Stress distribution in the different parts of the mould can also be determined. (Author) 9 refs

  3. Electrostatic dry powder prepregging of carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throne, James L.; Sohn, Min-Seok

    1990-01-01

    Ultrafine, 5-10 micron polymer-matrix resin powders are directly applied to carbon fiber tows by passing then in an air or nitrogen stream through an electrostatic potential; the particles thus charged will strongly adhere to grounded carbon fibers, and can be subsequently fused to the fiber in a continuously-fed radiant oven. This electrostatic technique derived significant end-use mechanical property advantages from the obviation of solvents, binders, and other adulterants. Additional matrix resins used to produce prepregs to date have been PMR-15, Torlon 40000, and LaRC TPI.

  4. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  5. Accurate Charge Densities from Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Becker, Jacob

    Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has in recent years advanced to a level, where it has become realistic to probe extremely subtle electronic features. Compared to single-crystal diffraction, it may be superior for simple, high-symmetry crystals owing to negligible extinction effects and minimal...... peak overlap. Additionally, it offers the opportunity for collecting data on a single scale. For charge densities studies, the critical task is to recover accurate and bias-free structure factors from the diffraction pattern. This is the focal point of the present study, scrutinizing the performance...

  6. Pulsed Laser Cladding of Ni Based Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, A.; Stanciu, E. M.; Croitoru, C.; Roata, I. C.; Tierean, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize the operational parameters and quality of one step Metco Inconel 718 atomized powder laser cladded tracks, deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate by means of a 1064 nm high power pulsed laser, together with a Precitec cladding head manipulated by a CLOOS 7 axes robot. The optimization of parameters and cladding quality has been assessed through Taguchi interaction matrix and graphical output. The study demonstrates that very good cladded layers with low dilution and increased mechanical proprieties could be fabricated using low laser energy density by involving a pulsed laser.

  7. Powder neutron diffractometers HRPT and DMCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P; Doenni, A; Staub, U; Zolliker, M [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Basic properties and applications of SINQ powder neutron diffractometers are described. For optimum use of the continuous neutron beams these instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, and both high-intensity and high-resolution modes of operation are possible. HRPT attaining resolutions {delta}d/d{<=}10{sup -3}, d=lattice spacing, at a thermal neutron channel of the target station and DMCG at a cold neutron guide coated with m=2 supermirrors, are complementary concerning the applications: the former will be mainly used for structural studies and the latter to investigate magnetic ordering phenomena. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. Paramagnetic defects in hydrogenated amorphous carbon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeble, D J; Robb, K M; Smith, G M; Mkami, H El; Rodil, S E; Robertson, J

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon materials typically contain high concentrations of paramagnetic defects, the density of which can be quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In this work EPR measurements near 9.5, 94, and 189 GHz have been performed on polymeric and diamond-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) powder samples. A similar single resonance line was observed at all frequencies for the two forms of a-C:H studied. No contributions to the spectrum from centres with resolved anisotropic g-values as reported earlier were detected. An increase in linewidth with microwave frequency was observed. Possible contributions to this frequency dependence are discussed

  9. Release of powdered material from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Peiffer, F.; Seehars, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Possible incidents in the operational phase of the planned German repository KONRAD for radioactive waste with negligible heat production were investigated to assess the radiological consequences. For these investigations release fractions of the radioactive materials are required. This paper deals with the determination of the release of powdered material from waste packages under mechanical stress. These determinations were based on experiments. The experimental procedure and the process parameters chosen in accordance with the conditions in the planned repository will be described. The significance of the experimental results is discussed with respect to incidents in the planned repository. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  11. Thermal plasma spheroidization and spray deposition of barium titanate powder and characterization of the plasma sprayable powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakseresht, A.H., E-mail: amirh_pak@yahoo.com [Department of Ceramics, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimipour, M.R. [Department of Ceramics, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, M.R. [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box 84156-83111, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, atmospheric plasma spray method was used to produce dense plasma sprayable powder and thick barium titanate film. In this regard, the commercially feedstock powders were granulated and spheroidized by the organic binder and the thermal spray process, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the produced powders and the final deposits. X-ray diffraction was also implemented to characterize phase of the sprayed powder. The results indicated that spheroidized powder had suitable flowability as well as high density. The micro-hardness of the film produced by the sprayed powders was higher than that of the film deposited by the irregular granules. Additionally, relative permittivity of the films was increased by decreasing the defects from 160 to 293 for film deposited using spheroidized powder. The reduction in the relative permittivity of deposits, in comparison with the bulk material, was due to the existence of common defects in the thermal spray process. - Highlights: • We prepare sprayable BaTiO{sub 3} powder with no or less inside voids for plasma spray application for first time. • The sprayable powder has good flow characteristics and high density. • Powder spheroidization via plasma spray improves the hardness and dielectric properties of the deposited film.

  12. Thermal plasma spheroidization and spray deposition of barium titanate powder and characterization of the plasma sprayable powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakseresht, A.H.; Rahimipour, M.R.; Vaezi, M.R.; Salehi, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, atmospheric plasma spray method was used to produce dense plasma sprayable powder and thick barium titanate film. In this regard, the commercially feedstock powders were granulated and spheroidized by the organic binder and the thermal spray process, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of the produced powders and the final deposits. X-ray diffraction was also implemented to characterize phase of the sprayed powder. The results indicated that spheroidized powder had suitable flowability as well as high density. The micro-hardness of the film produced by the sprayed powders was higher than that of the film deposited by the irregular granules. Additionally, relative permittivity of the films was increased by decreasing the defects from 160 to 293 for film deposited using spheroidized powder. The reduction in the relative permittivity of deposits, in comparison with the bulk material, was due to the existence of common defects in the thermal spray process. - Highlights: • We prepare sprayable BaTiO_3 powder with no or less inside voids for plasma spray application for first time. • The sprayable powder has good flow characteristics and high density. • Powder spheroidization via plasma spray improves the hardness and dielectric properties of the deposited film.

  13. Numerical analysis of air effect on the powder flow dynamics in the FT4 Powder Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The FT4 powder rheometer of Freeman Technology is widely used nowadays in industry for characterisation of particle flow under dynamic conditions of shear strain rate. It measures the work (termed flow energy required to penetrate a rotating impeller into a powder bed. However, little is known about its underlying powder mechanics, i.e. the relationship between the flow energy and the prevailing local shear stress. This has recently been studied, but only for very simple and ideal systems amenable to analysis by DEM. We analyse the effect of gas flow through the powder bed on the flow behaviour of cohesionless particles in FT4 by DEM-CFD simulation. The results show that the relative particle velocities induced by the mean shear speed, is of the same order as that produced by the root of granular temperature. The shear stress in both cases with and without gas flow could be quantified by the inertial number. The flow energy correlates well with the shear stress in front of the blade, and both increase with the inertial number and could be significantly reduced by the upward gas flow.

  14. POWDER INJECTION MOLDING OF SIC FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmikanathan Onbattuvelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC exhibits many functional properties that are relevant to applications in electronics, aerospace, defense and automotive industries. However, the successful translation of these properties into final applications lies in the net-shaping of ceramics into fully dense microstructures. Increasing the packing density of the starting powders is one effective route to achieve high sintered density and dimensional precision. The present paper presents an in-depth study on the effects of nanoparticle addition on the powder injection molding process (PIM of SiC powder-polymer mixtures. In particular, bimodal mixtures of nanoscale and sub-micrometer particles are found to have significantly increased powder packing characteristics (solids loading in the powder-polymer mixtures. The influence of nanoparticle addition on the multi-step PIM process is examined. The above results provide new perspectives which could impact a wide range of materials, powder processing techniques and applications.

  15. Dust generation in powders: Effect of particle size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Somik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between the bulk and grain-scale properties of powders and dust generation. A vortex shaker dustiness tester was used to evaluate 8 calcium carbonate test powders with median particle sizes ranging from 2μm to 136μm. Respirable aerosols released from the powder samples were characterised by their particle number and mass concentrations. All the powder samples were found to release respirable fractions of dust particles which end up decreasing with time. The variation of powder dustiness as a function of the particle size distribution was analysed for the powders, which were classified into three groups based on the fraction of particles within the respirable range. The trends we observe might be due to the interplay of several mechanisms like de-agglomeration and attrition and their relative importance.

  16. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POWDER MILK WITH NUTRIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. This product has incomposition powder apple, powder carrots, rice flour and corn flour, vitamins, minerals.One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer self life than liquid milk and does notneed to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy oftransportation. Milk powders contain all twenty standards amino acids and are high insoluble vitamins and minerals.The typical average amounts of major nutrients in the un reconstituted in 100 g milk are (by weight 12,7g protein,68,2g carbohydrates (predominantly lactose, calcium 427g , potassium g, vitamins11g, Inappropriate storageconditions (high relative humidity and high ambient temperature can significantly degrade the nutritive value ofmilk powder.

  17. Uranium Dioxide Powder Flow ability Improvement Using Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanda, D.; Sambodo Daru, G.

    1998-01-01

    The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 90 0 C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 800 0 C, and sintered at the temperature of 1700 0 C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder

  18. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Powder processing and spheroidizing with thermal inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutsch, G.; Linke, P.; Zakharian, S.; Dzur, B.; Weiss, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    Processing of advanced powder materials for the spraying industry is one of the most promising applications of the thermal RF inductively coupled plasma. By selecting the feedstock carefully and adjusting the RF plasma parameters, unique materials with high quality can be achieved. Powders injected in the hot plasma core emerge with modified shapes, morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. Ceramic oxide powders such as Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 are spheroidized with a high spheroidization rate. By using the RF induction plasma spheroidizing process tungsten melt carbide powders are obtained with a high spheroidization rate at high feeding rates by densification of agglomerated powders consisting of di-tungsten carbide and monocarbide with a definite composition. This kind of ball-like powders is particularly suited for wear resistant applications. (author)

  20. Powder Metallurgy characteristics and application: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Powder metallurgy process (P/M) is a near-net or net-shape manufacturing process that combines the features of shape making technology of powder compaction with the development of final material and design properties (physical and mechanical) during subsequent densification or consolidation processes, e.g. sintering. It utilizes the metal powder or powders of metal alloys. In this paper, the major historical developments in P/M are reviewed and discussed. The main parameters involved in the process and their effects on the product characteristics are presented and discussed, which include: powders and methods of their production, particle size and shape, compressibility and additives, sintering temperature and time and finishing processes. The advantages and limitations of powder metallurgy are also presented and discussed. Finally, applications and future developments of the process are outlined and discussed. (author)